WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpolar narcotic chemicals

  1. Chronic toxicity and body residues of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachrlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Hermens, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of internal concentrations as a dose parameter for baseline toxicity requires an understanding of the relationship between accumulation level and toxic effects, not only for acute but also for chronic exposure. In this study of chronic toxicity of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachloroben

  2. Chronic toxicity and body residues of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachrlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Hermens, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of internal concentrations as a dose parameter for baseline toxicity requires an understanding of the relationship between accumulation level and toxic effects, not only for acute but also for chronic exposure. In this study of chronic toxicity of the nonpolar narcotic

  3. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those...

  4. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M;

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shor...... is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.......We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths...... and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations...

  5. Chemical etching behaviors of semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) gallium nitride films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Mastro, Michael A; Hite, Jennifer K; Eddy, Charles R; Kim, Jihyun

    2014-08-14

    Wet chemical etching using hot KOH and H3PO4 solutions was performed on semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. An alternating KOH/H3PO4/KOH etch process was developed to control the orientation of the facets on the thin-film surface. The initial etch step in KOH produced c- and m-plane facets on the surface of both semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) GaN thin-films. A second etch step in H3PO4 solution additionally exposed a (̄1̄12̄2) plane, which is chemically stable in H3PO4 solution. By repeating the chemical etch with KOH solution, the m-plane facets as seen in the original KOH etch step were recovered. The etching methods developed in our work can be used to control the surface morphologies of nonpolar and semipolar GaN-based optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  6. A silicone column for GC analysis of polar and nonpolar chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1991-10-01

    The investigation of the Saturnian System is being proposed jointly by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The mission is scheduled for a launch in 1996. The mission provides an opportunity for close observation and exploration of Saturn's atmosphere, the complex Saturnian System of satellites and rings, Titan (Saturn's planet-sized moon), and Saturn's magnetosphere. The mission gives special attention to Titan which is blanketed by a thick, opaque atmosphere. An atmospheric probe will be deposited into the Titan Atmosphere for in situ measurement during a slow, three hour descent to the surface. The results from this analysis may provide the information which is important to the research of chemical evolution, and the origin of life. An analytical system was developed as a part of the Titan Aerosol Gas Experiment (TAGEX), a proposed experiment for the Cassini Mission. This system will use two highly sensitive detectors, the Metastable Ionization Detector (MID) and the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). Unfortunately, when commercial columns are utilized with these highly sensitive detectors, volatile components continuously bleed from the column and interfere with the detector. In addition, light columns must be able to separate polar and nonpolar organic chemicals within 10-15 minutes under isothermal conditions for the Titan Mission. Therefore, a highly crosslinked silicone polymeric packed column was developed which is able to efficiently separate amines, alcohols, and hydrocarbons with retention times less that 15 minutes at 100 C isothermal condition.

  7. Predicting Partitioning and Diffusion Properties of Nonpolar Chemicals in Biotic Media and Passive Sampler Phases by GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Deedar; Arey, J Samuel

    2017-02-14

    The chemical parameters needed to explain and predict bioavailability, biodynamics, and baseline toxicity are not readily available for most nonpolar chemicals detected in the environment. Here, we demonstrate that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) retention times can be used to predict 26 relevant properties for nonpolar chemicals, specifically: partition coefficients for diverse biotic media and passive sampler phases; aquatic baseline toxicity; and relevant diffusion coefficients. The considered biotic and passive sampler phases include membrane and storage lipids, serum and muscle proteins, carbohydrates, algae, mussels, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene, polyacrylate, polyurethane, and semipermeable membrane devices. GC × GC-based chemical property predictions are validated with a compilation of 1038 experimental property data collected from the literature. As an example application, we overlay a map of baseline toxicity to fathead minnows onto the separated analyte signal of a polychlorinated alkanes (chlorinated paraffins) technical mixture that contains 7820 congeners. In a second application, GC × GC-estimated properties are used to parametrize multiphase partitioning models for mammalian tissues and organs. In a third example, we estimate chemical depuration kinetics for mussels. Finally, we illustrate an approach to screen the GC × GC chromatogram for nonpolar chemicals of potentially high concern, defined based on their GC × GC-estimated biopartitioning properties, diffusion properties, and baseline toxicity.

  8. Improving oil recovery in the CO2 flooding process by utilizing nonpolar chemical modifiers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Xiangliang Li; Ping Guo; Yayun Zhuo; Yong Sha

    2016-01-01

    By means of experiments of CO2 miscibility with crude oil, four nonpolar chemicals were evaluated in order to enhance the miscibility of CO2 with crude oil. Through pre-slug injection and joint injection of toluene in CO2, crude oil displacement experiments in the slim-tube were conducted to investigate effects of the toluene-enhanced CO2 flooding under simulated subterranean reservoir conditions. Experimental results showed that toluene can enhance extraction of oil into CO2 and dissolution of CO2 into oil with the increment of 251%and 64%respectively. Addition of toluene can obviously improve the oil recovery in either pre-slug injection or joint injection, and the crude oil recovery increased with the increase of the toluene concentration. The oil recov-ery can increase by 22.5%in pre-slug injection with the high toluene concentration. Pre-slug injection was recom-mended because it can consume less toluene than joint injection. This work could be useful to development and application of the CO2 flooding in the oil recovery as wel as CO2 emission reduction.

  9. Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgess, R.M.; Mayer, P.; Roberts, C.A.; Ahrens, L.; Allan, I.J.; Brant, J.; Jones, L.; Kraus, U.R.; Larsen, M.M.; Lepom, P.; Petersen, J.; Pröfrock, D.; Roose, P.; Schäfer, S.; Smedes, F.; Tixier, C.; Vorkamp, K.; Whitehouse, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the EuropeanUnion, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of themarine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met bypassive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths andshortcoming

  10. Characterization of nonpolar lipids and steroids by using laser-induced acoustic desorption/chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z; Daiya, S; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5α-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and β-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H{sub 2}O) upon reaction with the ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H{sub 2}O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H{sub 2}O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusively the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H{sub 2}O){sup +} chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids.

  11. Chemically assisted ion beam etching of laser diode facets on nonpolar and semipolar orientations of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzky, L. Y.; Becerra, D. L.; Saud Abbas, A.; Nedy, J.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Cohen, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a vertical (beam etching (CAIBE) in Cl2 chemistry that is suitable for forming laser diode (LD) facets on nonpolar and semipolar oriented III-nitride devices. The etch profiles were achieved with photoresist masks and optimized CAIBE chamber conditions including the platen tilt angle and Cl2 flow rate. Co-loaded studies showed similar etch rates of ˜60 nm min-1 for (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}),(20\\bar{2}1), and m-plane orientations. The etched surfaces of LD facets on these orientations are chemically dissimilar (Ga-rich versus N-rich), but were visually indistinguishable, thus confirming the negligible orientation dependence of the etch. Continuous-wave blue LDs were fabricated on the semipolar (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) plane to compare CAIBE and reactive ion etch (RIE) facet processes. The CAIBE process resulted in LDs with lower threshold current densities due to reduced parasitic mirror loss compared with the RIE process. The LER, degree of verticality, and model of the 1D vertical laser mode were used to calculate a maximum uncoated facet reflection of 17% (94% of the nominal) for the CAIBE facet. The results demonstrate the suitability of CAIBE for forming high quality facets for high performance nonpolar and semipolar III-N LDs.

  12. Sorptive capacities of lipids determined by passive dosing of non-polar organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Bolinius, Damien

    VMS), chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls via a common headspace over an olive oil donor phase to transfer the same chemical activity into the samples; iii) sampling of EOM and olive oil controls at different time points; iv) purge-and-trap extraction of the model chemicals onto ENV+ SPE cartridges, elution...... and GC/MS analysis; v) characterization of the lipid composition in all samples via NMR. Our experiments demonstrate that the sorptive capacities of the EOM samples do not differ significantly from the olive oil controls if the EOM consists of neutral lipids only. However, the EOM samples show small...

  13. Pain medications - narcotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can make the pain difficult to control. Taking narcotics to control the pain of cancer or other medical problems does not itself lead to dependence. Store narcotics safely and securely ... When taking a narcotic, do not drink alcohol, drive, or ...

  14. Specifics of Chemical Toxilogical Analyses in the Russian Federation for the Purpose of Identification of Narcotics in Biological Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.

  15. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization studies of non-polar isomeric hydrocarbons using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different ionization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorf, H.; Nazarov, E. G.; Eiceman, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The ionization pathways were determined for sets of isomeric non-polar hydrocarbons (structural isomers, cis/trans isomers) using ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry with different techniques of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to assess the influence of structural features on ion formation. Depending on the structural features, different ions were observed using mass spectrometry. Unsaturated hydrocarbons formed mostly [M - 1]+ and [(M - 1)2H]+ ions while mainly [M - 3]+ and [(M - 3)H2O]+ ions were found for saturated cis/trans isomers using photoionization and 63Ni ionization. These ionization methods and corona discharge ionization were used for ion mobility measurements of these compounds. Different ions were detected for compounds with different structural features. 63Ni ionization and photoionization provide comparable ions for every set of isomers. The product ions formed can be clearly attributed to the structures identified. However, differences in relative abundance of product ions were found. Although corona discharge ionization permits the most sensitive detection of non-polar hydrocarbons, the spectra detected are complex and differ from those obtained with 63Ni ionization and photoionization. c. 2002 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.

  16. General baseline toxicity QSAR for nonpolar, polar and ionisable chemicals and their mixtures in the bioluminescence inhibition assay with Aliivibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Baumer, Andreas; Bittermann, Kai; Henneberger, Luise; König, Maria; Kühnert, Christin; Klüver, Nils

    2017-03-22

    The Microtox assay, a bioluminescence inhibition assay with the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, is one of the most popular bioassays for assessing the cytotoxicity of organic chemicals, mixtures and environmental samples. Most environmental chemicals act as baseline toxicants in this short-term screening assay, which is typically run with only 30 min of exposure duration. Numerous Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) exist for the Microtox assay for nonpolar and polar narcosis. However, typical water pollutants, which have highly diverse structures covering a wide range of hydrophobicity and speciation from neutral to anionic and cationic, are often outside the applicability domain of these QSARs. To include all types of environmentally relevant organic pollutants we developed a general baseline toxicity QSAR using liposome-water distribution ratios as descriptors. Previous limitations in availability of experimental liposome-water partition constants were overcome by reliable prediction models based on polyparameter linear free energy relationships for neutral chemicals and the COSMOmic model for charged chemicals. With this QSAR and targeted mixture experiments we could demonstrate that ionisable chemicals fall in the applicability domain. Most investigated water pollutants acted as baseline toxicants in this bioassay, with the few outliers identified as uncouplers or reactive toxicants. The main limitation of the Microtox assay is that chemicals with a high melting point and/or high hydrophobicity were outside of the applicability domain because of their low water solubility. We quantitatively derived a solubility cut-off but also demonstrated with mixture experiments that chemicals inactive on their own can contribute to mixture toxicity, which is highly relevant for complex environmental mixtures, where these chemicals may be present at concentrations below the solubility cut-off.

  17. Structural and optical investigation of nonpolar a-plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on r-plane sapphire by neutron irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sheng-Rui; Zhang Jin-Feng; Gu Wen-Ping; Hao Yue; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Zhou Xiao-Wei; Lin Zhi-Yu; Mao Wei

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar (11(2)0) a-plane GaN films are grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on r-plane (1(1)02) sapphire.The samples are irradiated with neutrons under a dose of 1 × 1015 cm-2.The surface morphology,the crystal defects and the optical properties of the samples before and after irradiation are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM),high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and photoluminescence (PL).The AFM result shows deteriorated sample surface after the irradiation.Careful fitting of the XRD rocking curve is carried out to obtain the Lorentzian weight fraction.Broadening due to Lorentzian type is more obvious in the as-grown sample compared with that of the irradiated sample,indicating that more point defects appear in the irradiated sample.The variations of line width and intensity of the PL band edge emission peak are consistent with the XRD results.The activation energy decreases from 82.5 meV to 29.9 meV after irradiation by neutron.

  18. Simultaneous detection of polar and nonpolar compounds by ambient mass spectrometry with a dual electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Huang, Min-Zong; Shiea, Jentaie

    2015-02-03

    A dual ionization source combining electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed to simultaneously ionize both polar and nonpolar compounds. The source was constructed by inserting a fused silica capillary into a stainless steel column enclosed in a glass tube. A high dc voltage was applied to a methanol solution flowing in the fused silica capillary to generate an ESI plume at the capillary tip. A high ac voltage was applied to a ring electrode attached to the glass tube to generate plasma from the nitrogen gas flowing between the glass tube and the stainless steel column. The concentric arrangement of the ESI plume and the APCI plasma in the source ensured that analytes entering the ionization region interacted with both ESI and APCI primary ion species generated in the source. Because the high voltages required for ESI and APCI were independently applied and controlled, the dual ion source could be operated in ESI-only, APCI-only, or ESI+APCI modes. Analytes were introduced into the ESI and/or APCI plumes by irradiating sample surfaces with a continuous-wavelength laser or a pulsed laser beam. Analyte ions could also be produced by directing the dual ESI+APCI source toward sample surfaces for desorption and ionization. The ionization mechanisms involved in the dual ion source include Penning ionization, ion molecule reactions, and fused-droplet electrospray ionization. Standards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, angiotensin I, lidocaine, ferrocene, diesel, and rosemary oils were used for testing. Protonated analyte ions were detected in ESI-only mode, radical cations were detected in APCI-only mode, and both types of ions were detected in ESI+APCI mode.

  19. Narcotic Drug and Marihuana Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald E.

    As a background paper for the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference held in November, 1966, this paper focuses first on narcotic control in general, and second, on the reasons for insisting on marijuana control. Brief descriptions are given of the currently existing narcotics acts at federal and state…

  20. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sundar Panja

    Full Text Available Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications.Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins.Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, p<0.001 and Gly (χ2 = 73.35, p<0.001 are highly and Val moderately (χ2 = 144.43, p<0.001 occurring in the 85% of thermophilic proteins. Phospho-regulated Tyr and redox-sensitive Cys are also moderately distributed (χ2~20.0, p<0.01 in a larger number of thermophilic proteins. A consistent lower distribution of thermophilicity and discretely higher distribution of hydrophobicity is noticed in a large number of thermophilic versus their mesophilic protein homolog. The mean differences of isoelectric points and charges are found to be significantly less (7.11 vs. 6.39, p<0.05 and 1 vs. -0.6, p<0.01, respectively in thermophilic proteins compared to their mesophilic counterpart. The possible sites for Tyr phosphorylation are noticed to be 25% higher (p<0.05 in thermophilic proteins. The 60% thermophiles are found with higher number of salt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0

  1. Thermomolecular Orientation of Nonpolar Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, F.; Bresme, F.; Muscatello, J.; Bedeaux, D.; Rubi, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the response of molecular fluids to temperature gradients. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations we show that nonpolar diatomic fluids adopt a preferred orientation as a response to a temperature gradient. We find that the magnitude of this thermomolecular orien

  2. Correlation between the Inhibition of Positronium Formation by Scavenger Molecules, and Chemical Reaction Rate of Electrons with these Molecules in Nonpolar Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levay, B.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    a correlation between the inhibition coefficient and the chemical rate constant of electrons with scavenger molecules. We found that the dependence of the inhibition coefficient on the work function (VOo)f electrons in different liquids shows a very unusual behavior, similar to that recently found...... for the chemical rate constants of quasifree electrons with the same scavenger molecules. The inhibition coefficient as a function of Vo had a maximum for C2HsBr, while it increased monotonously with decreasing V, for CC14. The inhibition coefficient for C2H5Br in a 1:l molar tetramethylsilane......-n-tetradecane mixture was found to be greater than in both of the pure components. The clear correlation found between electron scavenging rate constants and positronium inhibition constitutes the severest test to date of the spur reaction model of positronium formation. The importance of the positron annihilation...

  3. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  4. Correlation between the inhibition of positronium formation by scavenger molecules, and chemical reaction rate of electrons with these molecules in nonpolar liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, B.; Mogensen, O.E.

    1977-03-10

    o-Ps yields were determined in various liquid hydrocarbons, tetramethylsilane, and mixtures thereof as a function of C/sub 2/H/sub 5/Br and CCl/sub 4/ concentration. These molecules are known to be good electron scavengers and positronium inhibitors as well. The spur reaction model of Ps formation predicts a correlation between the inhibition coefficient and the chemical rate constant of electrons with scavenger molecules. We found that the dependence of the inhibition coefficient on the work function (V/sub 0/) of electrons in different liquids shows a very unusual behavior, similar to that recently found for the chemical rate constants of quasifree electrons with the same scavenger molecules. The inhibition coefficient as a function of V/sub 0/ had a maximum for C/sub 2/H/sub 5/Br, while it increased monotonously with decreasing V/sub 0/ for CCl/sub 4/. The inhibition coefficient for C/sub 2/H/sub 5/Br in a 1 : 1 molar tetramethylsilane-n-tetradecane mixture was found to be greater than in both of the pure components. The clear correlation found between electron scavenging rate constants and positronium inhibition constitutes the severest test to date of the spur reaction model of positronium formation. The importance of the positron annihilation method from the point of view of radiation chemistry is also emphasized.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of polarized photoluminescence caused by anisotropic strain relaxation in nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-En; Feng, Shih-Wei, E-mail: swfeng@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Kou, Kuang-Yang [Department of Traffic Science, Central Police University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Hsun [Green Energy and Environment Research Labs, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China); Tu, Li-Wei [Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-13

    Anisotropic strain relaxation and the resulting degree of polarization of photoluminescence (PL) in nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO are experimentally and theoretically studied. A thicker nonpolar a-plane textured ZnO film enhances the anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation, resulting in a larger degree of polarization of PL and better sample quality. Anisotropic in-plane strains, sample quality, and degree of polarization of PL in nonpolar a-plane ZnO are consequences of the degree of anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation. By the k·p perturbation approach, simulation results of the variation of the degree of polarization for the electronic transition upon anisotropic in-plane strain relaxation agree with experimental results.

  6. Thermomolecular orientation of nonpolar fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Frank; Bresme, Fernando; Muscatello, Jordan; Bedeaux, Dick; Rubí, J Miguel

    2012-03-09

    We investigate the response of molecular fluids to temperature gradients. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations we show that nonpolar diatomic fluids adopt a preferred orientation as a response to a temperature gradient. We find that the magnitude of this thermomolecular orientation effect is proportional to the strength of the temperature gradient and the degree of molecular anisotropy, as defined by the different size or mass of the molecular atomic sites. We show that the preferred orientation of the molecules follows the same trends observed in the Soret effect of binary mixtures. We argue this is a general effect that should be observed in a wide range of length scales.

  7. Colloidosomes formed by nonpolar/polar/nonpolar nanoball amphiphiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Hung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-07

    Fullerene-based amphiphiles are able to form bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. In this study, the self-assembly behavior of polymer-tethered nanoballs (NBs) with nonpolar/polar/nonpolar (n-p-n{sup ′}) motif in a selective solvent is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. A model NB bears two hydrophobic polymeric arms (n{sup ′}-part) tethered on an extremely hydrophobic NB (n-part) with hydrophilic patch (p-part) patterned on its surface. Dependent on the hydrophobicity and length of tethered arms, three types of aggregates are exhibited, including NB vesicle, core-shell micelle, and segmented-worm. NB vesicles are developed for a wide range of hydrophobic arm lengths. The presence of tethered arms perturbs the bilayer structure formed by NBs. The structural properties including the order parameter, membrane thickness, and area density of the inner leaflet decrease with increasing the arm length. These results indicate that for NBs with longer arms, the extent of interdigitation in the membrane rises so that the overcrowded arms in the inner corona are relaxed. The transport and mechanical properties are evaluated as well. As the arm length grows, the permeability increases significantly because the steric bulk of tethered arms loosens the packing of NBs. By contrast, the membrane tension decreases owing to the reduction of NB/solvent contacts by the polymer corona. Although fusion can reduce membrane tension, NB vesicles show strong resistance to fusion. Moreover, the size-dependent behavior observed in small liposomes is not significant for NB vesicles due to isotropic geometry of NB. Our simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings.

  8. Colloidosomes formed by nonpolar/polar/nonpolar nanoball amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Tu, Sheng-Hung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-08-01

    Fullerene-based amphiphiles are able to form bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. In this study, the self-assembly behavior of polymer-tethered nanoballs (NBs) with nonpolar/polar/nonpolar (n-p-n') motif in a selective solvent is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. A model NB bears two hydrophobic polymeric arms (n'-part) tethered on an extremely hydrophobic NB (n-part) with hydrophilic patch (p-part) patterned on its surface. Dependent on the hydrophobicity and length of tethered arms, three types of aggregates are exhibited, including NB vesicle, core-shell micelle, and segmented-worm. NB vesicles are developed for a wide range of hydrophobic arm lengths. The presence of tethered arms perturbs the bilayer structure formed by NBs. The structural properties including the order parameter, membrane thickness, and area density of the inner leaflet decrease with increasing the arm length. These results indicate that for NBs with longer arms, the extent of interdigitation in the membrane rises so that the overcrowded arms in the inner corona are relaxed. The transport and mechanical properties are evaluated as well. As the arm length grows, the permeability increases significantly because the steric bulk of tethered arms loosens the packing of NBs. By contrast, the membrane tension decreases owing to the reduction of NB/solvent contacts by the polymer corona. Although fusion can reduce membrane tension, NB vesicles show strong resistance to fusion. Moreover, the size-dependent behavior observed in small liposomes is not significant for NB vesicles due to isotropic geometry of NB. Our simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings.

  9. Nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with an in-situ SiNx interlayer on r-plane sapphire grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hao; Long Hao; Sang Li-Wen; Qi Sheng-Li; Xiong Chang; Yu Tong-Jun; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We report on the growth and fabrication of nonpolar a-plane light emitting diodes with an in-situ SiNx interlayer grown between the undoped a-plane GaN buffer and Si-doped GaN layer. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystalline quality of the GaN buffer layer is greatly improved with the introduction of the SiNx interlayer. The electrical properties are also improved. For example, electron mobility and sheet resistance are reduced from high resistance to 31.6 cm2/(V·s) and 460 Ω/□ respectively. Owing to the significant effect of the SiNx interlayer, a-plane LEDs are realized. Electroluminescence of a nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 488nm is demonstrated.The emission peak remains constant when the injection current increases to over 20 mA.

  10. Using molecular docking between organic chemicals and lipid membrane to revise the well known octanol-water partition coefficient of the mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhou, Xianghong; Wang, Dali; Yin, Daqiang; Lin, Zhifen

    2012-07-01

    The octanol-water partition coefficient of a mixture has been widely used to predict the baseline toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemical mixtures, since toxic effects are usually generated by multiple mixtures. However, it remains unclear whether the validity of log Kowmix can be demonstrated, because experimental methods cannot be used to determine this parameter. The invalidity and the further revision of log Kowmix were therefore studied by using molecular docking between non-polar narcotic chemicals and lipid membrane (E(binding)). The results show E(binding) is a feasible substitute parameter for log Kow because their relationship is linear. Based on a molecular docking and QSAR model, a new calculated method of log Kowmix was proposed as follows: log(Kowmix)=∑x(i)log Kowi. Comparison of this new method with the established methods demonstrates the invalidity of the latter, and therefore the former is suggested to be used to calculate the log Kowmix of organic chemical mixtures.

  11. Students’ attitude toward narcotic substances: the inhibitive role of legal and family forbiddances, inaccessibly to narcotics and trust to self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Rezaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The researches showed that the modification of peoples’ attitude toward narcotic substances from positive to negative could be effective on inhibition of tendency and suffering of narcotics. The aim of present research was the study of students’ attitudes toward narcotics and determination of the role of legal and family forbiddances, inaccessibly to narcotics and trust to self. Method: The research method was sectional survey study. In order to access to the aims the interest toward narcotics scale was administered among 400 students of Dezfol city that selected by clustering random sampling. Findings: factor analysis showed one factor in the scale. Reliability for total, boys, and girls students were 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 respectively. The results of prevalence rate indicated that 18.3% of students sometimes thinking about narcotics, 12.5% of students interested to use narcotics even onetime, 11.8% of students considered the use of narcotics dreamy, 4.5% of students believed that the use of narcotics even onetime is worth the trouble, and 1.5% of students believed that the use of narcotics is appropriate for entertainment and funny. 10.5% of students indicated that they interested to use cigarettes. Also, the results showed if there was not legal and family forbiddances 9.3%, and 6.5% of students respectively used narcotics probably. Conclusion: In prediction of narcotics use legal and family forbiddances, inaccessibly of narcotics are important.

  12. Thermodiffusion in binary and ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon + alcohol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2012-12-01

    Thermodiffusion in complex mixtures, such as associating, molten metal, and polymer mixtures is difficult to model usually owing to the occurrence of a sign change in the thermodiffusion coefficient when the mixture concentration and temperature change. A mixture comprised of a nonpolar hydrocarbon and an alcohol is a complex and highly non-ideal mixture. In this paper an existing binary non-equilibrium thermodynamics model (Eslamian and Saghir, Physical Review E 80, 061201, 2009) developed for aqueous mixtures of alcohols is examined against the experimental data of binary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. For ternary mixtures, non-equilibrium thermodynamic expressions developed by the authors for aqueous mixtures of alcohols (Eslamian and Saghir, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, DOI 10.1002/cjce.20581) is used to predict thermodiffusion coefficients of ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. The rationale behind the sign change is elucidated and attributed to an anomalous change in the molecular structure and therefore viscosity of such mixtures. Model predictions of thermodiffusion coefficients of binary mixtures predict a sign change consistent with the experimental data although the model is still too primitive to capture all structural complexities. For instance, in the methanol-benzene mixture where the model predictions are poorest, the viscosity data show that when concentration varies, the mixture's molecular structure experiences a severe change twice, the first major change leading to a maximum in the thermodiffusion coefficient, whereas the second change causes a sign change.

  13. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  14. 15 CFR 265.37 - Narcotics and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Narcotics and other drugs. 265.37... other drugs. The possession, sale, consumption, or use on the site of narcotic or other drugs illegal... with respect to the possession, sale, consumption, or use of narcotic or other drugs....

  15. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  16. Prescription of the High Risk Narcotics and Trading or Illicit Purchasing of High Risk Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.

  17. Birefringent non-polarizing thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongji; HONG Ruijin; HE Hongbo; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 2×2 characteristic matrices of uniaxially anisotropic thin film for extraordinary and ordinary wave are deduced at oblique incidence. Furthermore, the reflectance and transmittance of thin films are calculated separately for two polarizations, which provide a new concept for designing non-polarizing thin films at oblique incidence. Besides, using the multilayer birefringent thin films, non-polarizing designs, such as beam splitter thin film at single wavelength, edge filter and antireflection thin film over visible spectral region are obtained at oblique incidence.

  18. New Challenges in the Narcotics World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of narcotics is one of the problems the international world is confronted withnowadays; its direct or indirect effects lead to the conclusion that it represents a worrying phenomenon meantto be taken into account by the international programs of co-operation. In contrast with the mature population,the younger population is much more receptive to the new, much more attracted by new experiments and,consequently, by risks. The narcotics flagellum is one of the most complex, profound and dramaticphenomena met with in the contemporary world. Narcotization is the morbid habit of repeatedly taking andusing ever higher doses of more or less toxic substances able to generate a psychological and physicaladdiction to them. Unhappily due to the lack of information, people think that the illegal substances only –heroine, marijuana, cocaine, etc. – are considered drugs. Not long ago there appeared the so-called “mixes ofethno-botanical plants” that are perfectly legal, and many consumers have replaced narcotics - as marijuana,for example - with plant mixes. According to explanations given by the Ethno-botanical ExplanatoryDictionary, ethno-biology is a branch that studies the mutual relationship between man and plant. InRomania, ethno-botanical plants are sold under the generic names of “aroma therapeutic” or “ethnobotanical”plants. The numerous researches meant to decode the molecular and biochemical structure of theseherbs, the researchers found that consumers are described as facing hallucinogenic effects caused by somesynthetic substances - cannabinoids - added by manufacturers.

  19. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  20. Medication dispenser for narcotic rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vien Q; Gale, Timothy J; Stack, Clive R

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a medication dispenser developed for narcotic rehabilitation programs. The dispenser holds up to four doses of medication and operates under remote supervision. A direct-into-mouth dispensing mechanism is a feature of the device. The mechanical dispenser mechanism includes a rotating barrel, medication tubes and dispensing slider unit. The electronic design involves a microprocessor PIC18F4550, stepper-motors, sensing devices a LabVIEW-based computer interface for remote supervisory control and monitoring. The dispenser stores medication and successfully delivers it directly into the mouth under remote supervision.

  1. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the penalties...

  2. Surface chemistry and electronic structure of nonpolar and polar GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, T.C. Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry and electronic structure of polar and nonpolar GaN is reported. • Influence of polarization on electron affinity of p & np GaN films is investigated. • Correlation between surface morphology and polarity has been deduced. - Abstract: Photoemission and microscopic analysis of nonpolar (a-GaN/r-Sapphire) and polar (c-GaN/c-Sapphire) epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films grown via RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy is reported. The effect of polarization on surface properties like surface states, electronic structure, chemical bonding and morphology has been investigated and correlated. It was observed that polarization lead to shifts in core level (CL) as well as valence band (VB) spectra. Angle dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis revealed higher surface oxide in polar GaN film compared to nonpolar GaN film. On varying the take off angle (TOA) from 0° to 60°, the Ga−O/Ga−N ratio varied from 0.11–0.23 for nonpolar and 0.17–0.36 for polar GaN film. The nonpolar film exhibited N-face polarity while Ga-face polarity was perceived in polar GaN film due to the inherent polarization effect. Polarization charge compensated surface states were observed on the polar GaN film and resulted in downward band bending. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements revealed electron affinity and ionization energy of 3.4 ± 0.1 eV and 6.8 ± 0.1 eV for nonpolar GaN film and 3.8 ± 0.1 eV and 7.2 ± 0.1 eV for polar GaN film respectively. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements divulged smooth morphology with pits on polar GaN film. The nonpolar film on the other hand showed pyramidal structures having facets all over the surface.

  3. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the history of group-III-nitride materials and devices, scientific breakthroughs and technological advances have gone hand-in-hand. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the discovery of the nucleation of smooth (0001) GaN films on c-plane sapphire and the activation of p-dopants in GaN led very quickly to the realization of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, followed by the first demonstration of GaN-based violet laser diodes in the mid 1990s. Today, blue InGaN LEDs boast record external quantum efficiencies exceeding 80% and the emission wavelength of the InGaN-based laser diode has been pushed into the green spectral range. Although these tremenduous advances have already spurred multi-billion dollar industries, there are still a number of scientific questions and technological issues that are unanswered. One key challenge is related to the polar nature of the III-nitride wurtzite crystal. Until a decade ago all research activities had almost exclusively concentrated on (0001)-oriented polar GaN layers and heterostructures. Although the device characteristics seem excellent, the strong polarization fields at GaN heterointerfaces can lead to a significant deterioration of the device performance. Triggered by the first demonstration non-polar GaN quantum wells grown on LiAlO2 by Waltereit and colleagues in 2000, impressive advances in the area of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors and devices have been achieved. Today, a large variety of heterostructures free of polarization fields and exhibiting exceptional electronic and optical properties have been demonstrated, and the fundamental understanding of polar, semipolar and non-polar nitrides has made significant leaps forward. The contributions in this Semiconductor Science and Technology special issue on non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors provide an impressive and up-to-date cross-section of all areas of research and device physics in this field. The articles cover a wide range of

  4. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  5. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  6. Electric Charge Accumulation in Polar and Non-Polar Polymers under Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Kenichiro; Honjoh, Masato; Takada, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    The electric charge accumulation under an electron beam irradiation (40 keV and 60 keV) was measured by using the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method in the dielectric insulation materials, such as polar polymeric films (polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET)) and non-polar polymeric films (polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). The PE and PTFE (non-polar polymers) showed the properties of large amount of electric charge accumulation over 50 C/m3 and long saturation time over 80 minutes. The PP and PS (non-polar polymer) showed the properties of middle amount of charge accumulation about 20 C/m3 and middle saturation time about 1 to 20 minutes. The PC, PEN, PI and PET (polar polymers) showed the properties of small amount of charge accumulation about 5 to 20 C/m3 and within short saturation time about 1.0 minutes. This paper summarizes the relationship between the properties of charge accumulation and chemical structural formula, and compares between the electro static potential distribution with negative charged polymer and its chemical structural formula.

  7. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  8. Enhanced sensing of nonpolar volatile organic compounds by silicon nanowire field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paska, Yair; Stelzner, Thomas; Christiansen, Silke; Haick, Hossam

    2011-07-26

    Silicon nanowire field effect transistors (Si NW FETs) are emerging as powerful sensors for direct detection of biological and chemical species. However, the low sensitivity of the Si NW FET sensors toward nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is problematic for many applications. In this study, we show that modifying Si NW FETs with a silane monolayer having a low fraction of Si-O-Si bonds between the adjacent molecules greatly enhances the sensitivity toward nonpolar VOCs. This can be explained in terms of an indirect sensor-VOC interaction, whereby the nonpolar VOC molecules induce conformational changes in the organic monolayer, affecting (i) the dielectric constant and/or effective dipole moment of the organic monolayer and/or (ii) the density of charged surface states at the SiO(2)/monolayer interface. In contrast, polar VOCs are sensed directly via VOC-induced changes in the Si NW charge carriers, most probably due to electrostatic interaction between the Si NW and polar VOCs. A semiempirical model for the VOC-induced conductivity changes in the Si NW FETs is presented and discussed.

  9. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Kurnia, Kiki A; Sousa, Filipa L; Silva, Nuno J O; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-12-21

    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation-anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation-anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application.

  10. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation–anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation–anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application. PMID:26554705

  11. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within the...

  12. 19 CFR 162.65 - Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or marihuana. 162.65 Section 162.65 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.65 Penalties for failure to manifest narcotic drugs or marihuana. (a) Cargo or baggage containing unmanifested narcotic drugs or marihuana. When a package of regular...

  13. 76 FR 65353 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such... With Respect To Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered In Colombia #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Emergency With Respect To Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered In Colombia On October 21, 1995,...

  14. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  15. Narcotics Misuse Victims: Is Physical Exercise for Their Fitness Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, B.

    2017-03-01

    This research is purposed to find out whether physical exercise needed to improve physical fitness of narcotics misuse victims in Social Rehabilitation Center Pamardi Putera West Java Province. Survey method and field test were applied in this research. Population is all members of rehabilitation in BRSPP and the sampling technique used in this research was purposive sampling. Indonesia Physical Fitness Test (TKJI) was used as the instrument. The result of the research showed that level of narcotics misuse victims’ physical fitness is in ‘low’ category so that regular and measurable physical activity is needed in developing their physical fitness.

  16. Pain management in occupational health: a guide for non-narcotic pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolo, Angela E; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2012-12-01

    Narcotic pain management is currently a topic of concern in the United States; the latest concerns are both legal and ethical. Narcotics are frequently prescribed medications that, when improperly used or supervised, can cause death. Legal concerns include prescribing narcotics without performing detailed health-related evaluations, not recognizing those seeking drugs for personal recreational use, and clients diverting drugs to others for financial gain. Injured workers need to have pain controlled and be mentally safe to perform their job duties. This article identifies types of pain, comorbidities, and alternative methods of pain management beyond narcotic therapy, as well as discusses guidelines used to initiate narcotic therapy when needed.

  17. 75 FR 24773 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Secretary of the Treasury consults with the Attorney General, the Director of the Central Intelligence... Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Homeland Security when... role in international narcotics trafficking. On April 27, 2010, the Director of OFAC designated four...

  18. 77 FR 29755 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the Secretary of the..., the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Homeland Security may designate..., a person designated pursuant to the Kingpin Act; or (3) playing a significant role in international...

  19. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Secretary of the Treasury consults with the Attorney General, the Director of the Central Intelligence... Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Homeland Security when... role in international narcotics trafficking. On October 19, 2010, the Director of OFAC designated one...

  20. 77 FR 14859 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Secretary of the Treasury in consultation with the Attorney General, the Director of the Central... Enforcement Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Homeland... significant role in international narcotics trafficking. On March 7, 2012, the Director of OFAC designated an...

  1. 75 FR 44311 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The list of designees is as follows: Entities: 1. ARTE Y DISENO DE CULIACAN S.A. DE C.V., Calle Rio Santa Maria, No. 1252, Colonia Los Pinos, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; R.F.C. ADC- 000927-SY9 (Mexico); (ENTITY) 2. AUTOTRANSPORTES JYM S.A. DE C.V., Calle Primera S/N 820,...

  2. 31 CFR 598.314 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.314 Specially designated narcotics trafficker. The term specially... Central Intelligence, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Administrator of the Drug... persons determined to fall within this definition who have been designated pursuant to this part....

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be... Section 57.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  4. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be... Section 56.20001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. [Characterization of drug, narcotic and psychotropic drug chirality by statistical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszál, B; Schiller, Z

    1999-04-01

    The percentage of chiral entities among drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic compounds is steadily increasing. Receptors of the human body recognize the enantiomeric forms of constitutionally identical compounds as entirely different chemical agents. Based upon these facts, this paper reports the percentage of chiral compounds in the various pharmacological classes, and related data. Pertinent terms, such as eutomer, distomer, eudismic index, eudismic affinity quotient are defined. Differences in biological activity between eutomers and distomers are exemplified. The pharmacological classes and subclasses of highest chirality, and the "most chiral" active principles are shown. Some puzzling observations on pharmacological behaviour of stereoisomers are highlighted. The necessity of "racemate switch" in the pharmaceutical industry, and the significance of stereo-specific interactions between the drug, narcotic drug and psychotropic ligands, and complementary, "pocket" moieties of the human body are emphasized. Some features of enantiopharmacology, a fledgling science in the interface of stereochemistry and traditional pharmacology are introduced. The statistical treatment of asymmetric compounds in pharmacological classes and subclasses shows that presently, the percentage of chirality in drug categories is more characteristic of the origin of the compound than its target molecule.

  6. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  7. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino (GpM has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (cPARP. Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant.

  8. Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering. Fo...

  9. The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren

    2013-01-01

    Understanding hydrophobic interactions requires a molecular-level picture of how water molecules adjust to the introduction of a nonpolar solute. New insights into the latter process are derived from the observation that the Gibbs energies of solvation of the noble gases and linear alkanes by a wide

  10. Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Johan Juvik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa, N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata, E. spectabile, and B. laciniosa. Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR plant metabolomics.

  11. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  12. An integrated QCM-based narcotics sensing microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Thomas; Sandström, Niklas; Eng, Lars; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Månsson, Per; Stemme, Göran

    2008-10-01

    We present the design, fabrication and successful testing of a 14x14x4 mm3 integrated electronic narcotics sensing system which consists of only four parts. The microsystem absorbs airborne narcotics molecules and performs a liquid assay using an integrated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A vertically conductive double-sided adhesive foil (VCAF) was used and studied as a novel material for LOC and MEMS applications and provides easy assembly, electrical contacting and liquid containment. The system was tested for measuring cocaine and ecstasy, with successful detection of amounts as small as 100 ng and 200 ng, respectively. These levels are of interest in security activities in customs, prisons and by the police.

  13. Effect of narcotic premedication of scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefczek, D.M.; Sharma, P.; Isaacs, G.H.; Brodmerkel, G.J. Jr.; Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Nichols, K.

    1985-01-01

    A case of gallbladder perforation is presented in which a small bile leak was demonstrated by cholescintigraphy while the patient was receiving meperidine, but not after meperidine was discontinued. The scintigrams obtained during meperidine therapy also showed a pattern of bile-duct obstruction. It is suggested that increased biliary pressure secondary to meperidine admininstration permitted visualization of the leak. Use of narcotic drugs may be a useful pharmocologic intervention in cases of peritonitis due to small obscure bile leaks.

  14. The Efficacy of Foreign Assistance in Counter Narcotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    by ADAM, 30,910 hectares were converted from coca to coffee57. Figure 3. Coffee Prices Versus the Amount of Cultivated Coca Oil palm has also... cultivation has grown to 452435 hectares.58 Requiring approximately one worker per eight hectares, the palm oil industry employs...for cocaine. In a 2006 study, Stella M. Rouse and Moises Arce analyzed the effects of U.S. counter narcotic policy on coca cultivation in Peru

  15. Narcotics and National Security: Refining the Military Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    1989. (Global Terrorism: 1989) 66Lee, R. W. III, "Cocaine Dilemma," p. 60. 47 themselves into the Asociacion Nacional de Productores de Coca...A DEA report in 1989 concluded that the Peruvian Guardia Civil , including its anti- narcotics police, lacked proper weapons, military skills, and...inflicted wounds by Guardia Civil Personnel. 74 Therefore, the U.S. has placed its hope that the Peruvian military institutions would enter the drug war

  16. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-01-01

    Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...

  17. An Analytic Equation of State Based on SAFT-CP for Binary Non-Polar Alkane Mixtures Across the Critical Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文来; 密建国; 贺刚; 于燕梅; 陈健

    2003-01-01

    The description using an analytic equation of state of thermodynamic properties near the critical points of fluids and their mixtures remains a challenging problem in the area of chemical engineering. Based on the statistical associating fluid theory across the critical point (SAFT-CP), an analytic equation of state is established in this work for non-polar mixtures. With two binary parameters, this equation of state can be used to calculate not only vapor-liquid equilibria but also critical properties of binary non-polar alkane mixtures with acceptable deviations.

  18. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a motor..., hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines is also prohibited. These prohibitions shall not apply...

  19. Structural stability of scandium on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Hernández, Rafael, E-mail: rhernandezj@uninorte.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Martínez, Gustavo; López-Perez, William [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Rodriguez, Jairo Arbey [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density-functional theory have been implemented to study the scandium (Sc) adsorption and incorporation on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces. It is found that Sc adatom prefers to reside at bridge positions, between the hollow and top sites, on both GaN nonpolar surfaces. In addition, calculating the relative surface energy of several Sc configurations, we constructed a phase diagram showing the energetically most stable surfaces as a function of the Ga chemical potentials. Based on these results, we have found that incorporation of Sc adatoms in the Ga-substitutional site is energetically more favorable compared with the adsorption on the top layers. This effect leads to the formation of ScN interlayers on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces, which reduces the dislocation densities between GaN and ScN.

  20. Stable nonpolar solvent droplet generation using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel coated with poly-p-xylylene for a nanoparticle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heejin; Moon, SangJun

    2015-08-01

    Applications of microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) have been limited to water-based analysis rather than nonpolar solvent based chemistry due to a PDMS swelling problem that occurs by the absorption of the solvents. The absorption and swelling causes PDMS channel deformation in shape, and changes the cross sectional area making it difficult to control the flow rate and concentrations of solution in PDMS microfluidic channels. We propose that poly-p-xylylene polymers (parylenes) are chemical vapors deposited on the surfaces of PDMS channels that alleviate the effect of solvents on the absorption and swelling. The parylene coated surface sustains 3 h with a small volumetric change (less than 22 % of PDMS swelling ratio). By generating an air-nonpolar solvent interface based on droplets in PDMS channel, we confirmed poly-p-xylylene coated PDMS microfluidic channels have the potential to be applicable to nanocrystal growth using nonpolar solvents.

  1. Electroluminescence from nonpolar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diode on r-sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Cheng; Long, Hanling; Liang, Renli; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Changqing; Tang, Zhiwu; Cheng, Hailing; He, Yunbin; Li, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Nonpolar a-plane n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared on r-sapphire substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and a pulsed laser deposition method. The dominant electroluminescence emission at 390 nm from the interband transition in n-ZnO layer under a forward bias was observed. Interestingly, electroluminescence with emission at 385 nm based on an avalanche mechanism was also achieved under reverse bias. The mechanisms of both the electroluminescence and I–V characteristics are discussed in detail by considering the avalanche effect. It is demonstrated that the crystalline quality of n-ZnO, not the p-AlGaN, is what affects the performance of the nonpolar ZnO based avalanche LED.

  2. Fluctuation capture in non-polar gases and liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, D G

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model to identify natural fluctuations in fluids, allowing us to describe localization phenomena in the transport of electrons, positrons and positronium through non-polar fluids. The theory contains no free parameters and allows for the calculation of capture cross sections $\\sigma_{cap}(\\epsilon)$ of light-particles in any non-polar fluid, required for non-equilibrium transport simulations. We postulate that localization occurs through large shallow traps before stable bound states are formed. Our results allow us to explain most of the experimental observations of changes in mobility and annihilation rates in the noble gases and liquids as well as make predictions for future experiments. Quantities which are currently inaccessible to experiment, such as positron mobilities, can be obtained from our theory. Unlike other theoretical approaches to localization, the outputs of our theory can be applied in non-equilibrium transport simulations and an extension to the determination of waiting ti...

  3. Nanoencapsulation of Fullerenes in Organic Structures with Nonpolar Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C. N.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of supramolecular structures, assemblies, and arrays held together by weak intermolecular interactions and non-covalent binding mimicking natural processes has been used in applications being anticipated in nanotechnology, biotechnology and the emerging field of nanomedicine. Encapsulation of C60 fullerene by cyclic molecules like cyclodextrins and calixarenes has potential for a number of applications. Similarly, biomolecules like lysozyme also have been shown to encapsulate C60 fullerene. This poster article reports the recent trends and the results obtained in the nanoencapsulation of fullerenes by biomolecules containing nonpolar cavities. Lysozyme was chosen as the model biomolecule and it was observed that there is no covalent bond formed between the bimolecule and the C60 fullerene. This was confirmed from fluorescence energy transfer studies. UV Vis studies further supported this observation that it is possible to selectively remove the C60 fullerene from the nonpolar cavity. This behavior has potential in biomedical applications

  4. Nanoencapsulation of Fullerenes in Organic Structures with Nonpolar Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, C. N. [M.S. University of Baroda, Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering (India)

    2005-01-15

    The formation of supramolecular structures, assemblies, and arrays held together by weak intermolecular interactions and non-covalent binding mimicking natural processes has been used in applications being anticipated in nanotechnology, biotechnology and the emerging field of nanomedicine. Encapsulation of C{sub 60} fullerene by cyclic molecules like cyclodextrins and calixarenes has potential for a number of applications. Similarly, biomolecules like lysozyme also have been shown to encapsulate C{sub 60} fullerene. This poster article reports the recent trends and the results obtained in the nanoencapsulation of fullerenes by biomolecules containing nonpolar cavities. Lysozyme was chosen as the model biomolecule and it was observed that there is no covalent bond formed between the bimolecule and the C{sub 60} fullerene. This was confirmed from fluorescence energy transfer studies. UV-Vis studies further supported this observation that it is possible to selectively remove the C{sub 60} fullerene from the nonpolar cavity. This behavior has potential in biomedical applications

  5. Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatographic retention data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Foreman, W.T.; Tuschall, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vapor pressures for nonpolar and moderately polar organochlorine, pyrethroid, and organophosphate insecticides, phthalate esters, and organophosphate flame retardants were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with known liquid-phase vapor pressures (P??L) (standard compounds) were chromatographed along with two reference compounds n-C20 (elcosane) and p,p???-DDT on a 1.0-m-long poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonded-phase (BP-1) column to determine their vapor pressures by GC (P??GC). A plot of log P??L vs log P??GC for standard compounds was made to establish a correlation between measured and literature values, and this correlation was then used to compute P??L of test compounds from their measured P??GC. P??L of seven major components of technical chlordane, endosulfan and its metabolites, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, and two components of technical toxaphene were determined by GC. This method provides vapor pressures within a factor of 2 of average literature values for nonpolar compounds, similar to reported interlaboratory precisions of vapor pressure determinations. GC tends to overestimate vapor pressures of moderately polar compounds. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  6. 77 FR 64221 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such... Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by... centered in Colombia continue to threaten the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Colombia, and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the...

  8. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...

  9. Early intravenous ibuprofen decreases narcotic requirement and length of stay after traumatic rib fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, Lilly; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P; Birrer, Kara L; Promes, John T

    2013-11-01

    Pain control after traumatic rib fracture is essential to avoid respiratory complications and prolonged hospitalization. Narcotics are commonly used, but adjunctive medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial. Twenty-one patients with traumatic rib fractures treated with both narcotics and intravenous ibuprofen (IVIb) (Treatment) were retrospectively compared with 21 age- and rib fracture-matched patients who received narcotics alone (Control). Pain medication requirements over the first 7 hospital days were evaluated. Mean daily IVIb dose was 2070 ± 880 mg. Daily intravenous morphine-equivalent requirement was 19 ± 16 vs 32 ± 24 mg (P pain scores were lower in the Treatment group (P rib fractures significantly decreases narcotic requirement and results in clinically significant decreases in hospital length of stay. IVIb therapy should be initiated in patients with traumatic rib fractures to improve patient comfort and reduce narcotic requirement.

  10. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  11. On the rotational energy distributions of reactive, non-polar species in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Glinski, Robert J; Downum, Clark R

    2013-01-01

    A basic model for the formation of non-equilibrium rotational energy distributions is described for reactive, homo-polar diatomic molecules and ions in the interstellar medium. Kinetic models were constructed to calculate the rotational populations of C2+ under the conditions it would experience in the diffuse interstellar medium. As the non-polar ion reacts with molecular hydrogen, but not atomic hydrogen, the thermalization of a hot nascent rotational population will be arrested by chemical reaction when the H2 density begins to be significant. Populations that deviate strongly from the local thermodynamic equilibrium are predicted for C2+ in environments where it may be detectable. Consequences of this are discussed and a new optical spectrum is calculated.

  12. Solvent density mode instability in non-polar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Kar; Ranjit Biswas; J Chakrabarti

    2008-08-01

    We analyse the origin of the multiple long time scales associated with the long time decay observed in non-polar solvation dynamics by linear stability analysis of solvent density modes where the effects of compressibility and solvent structure are systematically incorporated. The coupling of the solute–solvent interactions at both ground and excited states of the solute with the compressibility and solvent structure is found to have important effects on the time scales. The present theory suggests that the relatively longer time constant is controlled by the solvent compressibility, while the solvent structure at the nearest-neighbour length scale dominates the shorter time constant.

  13. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-Ying; SHI Jin-Hui; YUAN Li-Bo

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter(PBS)and a non-polarizing beam splitter(NPBS)based on a photonic crystal(PC)directional coupler are demonstrated.The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap.The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion(PWE)method.The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain(FDTD)method.

  14. Electrophoretic Retardation of Colloidal Particles in Nonpolar Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Strubbe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the electrophoretic mobility of single, optically trapped colloidal particles, while gradually depleting the co-ions and counterions in the liquid around the particle by applying a dc voltage. This is achieved in a nonpolar liquid, where charged reverse micelles act as co-ions and counterions. By increasing the dc voltage, the mobility first increases when the concentrations of co-ions and counterions near the particle start to decrease. At sufficiently high dc voltage (around 2 V, the mobility reaches a saturation value when the co-ions and counterions are fully separated. The increase in mobility is larger when the equilibrium ionic strength is higher. The dependence of the experimental data on the equilibrium ionic strength and on the applied voltage is in good agreement with the standard theory of electrophoretic retardation, assuming that the bare particle charge remains constant. This method is useful for studying the electrophoretic retardation effect and charging mechanisms for nonpolar colloids, and it sheds light on previously unexplained particle acceleration in electronic ink devices.

  15. Observation of water dangling OH bonds around dissolved nonpolar groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P N; Fega, K R; Lawrence, C; Sundstrom, E J; Tomlinson-Phillips, J; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2009-07-28

    We report the experimental observation of water dangling OH bonds in the hydration shells around dissolved nonpolar (hydrocarbon) groups. The results are obtained by combining vibrational (Raman) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), to reveal a high-frequency OH stretch peak arising from the hydration shell around nonpolar (hydrocarbon) solute groups. The frequency and width of the observed peak is similar to that of dangling OH bonds previously detected at macroscopic air-water and oil-water interfaces. The area of the observed peak is used to quantify the number of water dangling bonds around hydrocarbon chains of different length. Molecular dynamics simulation of the vibrational spectra of water molecules in the hydration shell around neopentane and benzene reveals high-frequency OH features that closely resemble the experimentally observed dangling OH vibrational bands around neopentyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol. The red-shift of approximately 50 cm(-1) induced by aromatic solutes is similar to that previously observed upon formation of a pi-H bond (in low-temperature benzene-water clusters).

  16. Effect of narcotics on membrane-bound mitochondrial processes in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Michiels, Ellen

    observed decreasing growth, heart rate and motility with increasing exposure concentration of all narcotics, consistent with the general assumption of reduced cardiorespiratory function. At the cellular level, the cell membrane is expected to be the first target of narcotics. Since the mitochondrial...... and endoplasmic reticulum membrane are known to closely interact with the cell membrane, we hypothesize that narcotics can be further partitioned into these organelle membranes where they can disrupt essential membrane-bound processes. The electron transport chain (ETC) is an example of a crucial mitochondrial...

  17. Coherent Control of Vibrational State Population in a Nonpolar Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Picón, A; Jaron-Becker, A; Becker, A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.023412

    2011-01-01

    A coherent control scheme for the population distribution in the vibrational states of nonpolar molecules is proposed. Our theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations for the interaction of the hydrogen molecular ion in its electronic ground state with an infrared laser pulse reveal a selective two-photon transition between the vibrational states via a coupling with the first excited dissociative state. We demonstrate that for a given temporal intensity profile the population transfer between vibrational states, or a superposition of vibrational states, can be made complete for a single chirped pulse or a train of chirped pulses, which accounts for the accumulated phase difference due to the AC Stark effect. Effects of a spatial intensity (or, focal) averaging are discussed.

  18. Polarity inversion in polar-nonpolar-polar heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S; Youn, S J; Kim, Y; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Freeman, A J; Ketterson, J B

    2001-09-17

    We have observed an epilayer-thickness-dependent polarity inversion for the growth of CdTe on Sb(Bi)/CdTe(111)B. For films with Sb(Bi) thicknesses of less than 40 A (15 A), the CdTe layer shows a B (Te-terminated) face, but it switches to an A (Cd-terminated) face for thicker layers. On the other hand, a CdTe layer grown on Bi(Sb)/CdTe(111)A always shows the A face regardless of Sb or Bi layer thicknesses. In order to address the observations we have performed ab initio calculations, which suggest that the polarity of a polar material on a nonpolar one results from the binding energy difference between the two possible surface configurations.

  19. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... meets both of the following conditions: (1) The practitioner is separately registered with DEA as a narcotic treatment program. (2) The practitioner is in compliance with DEA regulations regarding treatment...

  20. Legal and Judicial Politics for Narcotic Smuggling in Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Alaeiaovin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a special judgment ethic about narcotic smuggling in Iran’s law. Most of laws that relate to judgment ethic of narcotic smuggling crimes are different from other crimes judgment ethics. These differences can be considered in revolution court jurisdiction, special precept in supply contract, precepts that relate to review wanting, precept that relate to admin manner of lawyer. Jurisdiction abandon for investigation of narcotics smuggling crimes revolution court as a special court is due to lawmakers’ attempt to emphasize over the sensitivity of these crimes and special investigation needed for them. Issuance necessity of temporary arrestment in most of these crimes is an evidence for legislature rigor in this case. Researchers investigate investigation manner, jurisdiction and other judgment ethic laws of narcotic smuggling crimes.

  1. A review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous programs for teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The investigation of the applicability of Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous (AA/NA) for teens has only been a subject of empirical research investigation since the early 1990s. In the present review, the author describes teen involvement in AA/NA programming, provides an exhaustive review of the outcomes of 19 studies that used an AA/NA model as part of their formal teen substance abuse treatment programs, and provides data on the effects of AA/NA attendance on abstinence at follow-up, on which youth tend to become involved in AA/NA, and on mediation of the benefits of AA/NA participation. In addition, the author suggests the reasons for somewhat limited participation by teens in more informal, community-based 12-step meetings, and makes suggestions for maximizing participation at meetings in the community. The author concludes that AA/ NA participation is a valuable modality of substance abuse treatment for teens and that much can be done to increase teen participation, though more research is needed.

  2. Opposing effects of narcotic gases and pressure on the striatal dopamine release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Norbert; Kriem, Badreddine; Dousset, Erick; Weiss, Michel; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2002-08-30

    Nitrogen-oxygen breathing mixtures, for pressures higher than 0.5 MPa, decrease the release of dopamine in the rat striatum, due to the narcotic potency of nitrogen. In contrast, high pressures of helium-oxygen breathing mixtures of more than 1-2 MPa induce an increase of the striatal dopamine release and an enhancement of motor activity, referred to as the high pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS), and attributed to the effect of pressure per se. It has been demonstrated that the effect of pressure could be antagonized by narcotic gas in a ternary mixture, but most of the narcotic gas studies measuring DA release were executed below the threshold for pressure effect. To examine the effect of narcotic gases at pressure on the rat striatal dopamine release, we have used two gases, with different narcotic potency, at sublethargic pressure, nitrogen at 3 MPa and argon at 2 MPa. In addition, to dissociate the effect of the pressure, we have used nitrous oxide at 0.1 MPa to induce narcosis at very low pressure, and helium at 8 MPa to study the effect of pressure per se. In all the narcotic conditions we have recorded a decrease of the striatal dopamine release. In contrast, helium pressure induced an increase of DA release. For the pressures used, the results suggest that the decrease of dopamine release was independent of such an effect of the pressure. However, for the same narcotic gas, the measurements of the extracellular DA performed in the striatum seem to reflect an opposing effect of pressure, since the decrease in DA release is lower with increasing pressure.

  3. Metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. Narcotic analgesics and other antianginal drugs. The MIAMI Trial Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    The effect of metoprolol on chest pain has been assessed in terms of the duration and the use of narcotic analgesics, nitrates and calcium-channel blockers. Fewer metoprolol-treated patients in the MIAMI trial were given narcotic analgesics (49% of the placebo patients vs 44% of the metoprolol patients, p less than 0.001), nitrates (55% vs 53%, p = 0.10) and calcium-channel blockers (12% vs 9%, p less than 0.001). A total number of 6,697 dose equivalents of narcotic analgesics were given to the placebo group compared with 5,493 dose equivalents to the metoprolol group, a difference of 18% (p less than 0.001). Mean dose equivalents were 2.3 and 1.9, respectively. The analysis of the total use of the 3 types of treatment for ischemic chest pain showed a significantly less frequent use of treatment for chest pain in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The relative difference in the incidence of drug treatment tended to be more striking for patients with maximal therapy, i.e., receiving high doses of narcotic analgesics, nitrates and calcium-channel blockers. There were 22% fewer patients receiving 4 or more doses of narcotic analgesics in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group. A multivariate analysis disclosed that site of suspected infarction, delay time, entry systolic blood pressure and metoprolol treatment all had a significant effect on the use of narcotic analgesics. There was a nonsignificant tendency for heart rate to be of importance. In the placebo group the use of narcotic analgesics increased with decreasing delay time and increasing systolic blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Observation of mid-infrared intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Teruhisa, E-mail: kotani.teruhisa@sharp.co.jp [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Life and Environment Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 (Japan); Arita, Munetaka [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-12-29

    Mid-infrared (4.20–4.84 μm) intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/GaN multiple-quantum wells is observed at room temperature. 10 period Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/GaN multiple-quantum wells were grown on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the high-quality structural and optical properties are revealed by x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence studies. Through this we have demonstrated that MOCVD grown non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN quantum wells are a promising material for mid-infrared intersubband devices.

  5. Density and Phase State of a Confined Nonpolar Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Daniel F.; Kuhl, Tonya L.

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of the mean refractive index of a spherelike nonpolar fluid, octamethytetracylclosiloxane (OMCTS), confined between mica sheets, demonstrate direct and conclusive experimental evidence of the absence of a first-order liquid-to-solid phase transition in the fluid when confined, which has been suggested to occur from previous experimental and simulation results. The results also show that the density remains constant throughout confinement, and that the fluid is incompressible. This, along with the observation of very large increases (many orders of magnitude) in viscosity during confinement from the literature, demonstrate that the molecular motion is limited by the confining wall and not the molecular packing. In addition, the recently developed refractive index profile correction method, which enables the structural perturbation inherent at a solid-liquid interface and that of a liquid in confinement to be determined independently, was used to show that there was no measurable excess or depleted mass of OMCTS near the mica surface in bulk films or confined films of only two molecular layers.

  6. Design of non-polarizing thin film edge filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-fu; ZHENG Zhen-rong

    2006-01-01

    The separation between s- and p-polarization components invariably affects thin film edge filters used for tilted incidence and is a difficult problem for many applications, especially for optical communication. This paper presents a novel design method to obtain edge filters with non-polarization at incidence angle of 45°. The polarization separation at 50% transmittance for a long-wave-pass filter and a short-wave-pass filter is 0.3 nm and 0.1 nm respectively. The design method is based on a broadband Fabry-Perot thin-film interference filter in which the higher or lower interference band at both sides of the main transmittance peak can be used for initial design of long-wave-pass filter or short-wave-pass filter and then can be refined to reduce the transmittance ripples. The spacer 2H2L2H or 2L2H2L of the filter is usually taken. Moreover, the method for expanding the bandwidth of rejection and transmission is explained. The bandwidth of 200 nm for both rejection region and transmission band is obtained at wavelength 1550 nm. In this way, the long-wave-pass and short-wave-pass edge filters with zero separation between two polarization components can easily be fabricated.

  7. Mechanism and energetics of O and O2 adsorption on polar and non-polar ZnO surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.; Ertekin, Elif

    2016-05-01

    Polar surfaces of semiconducting metal oxides can exhibit structures and chemical reactivities that are distinct from their non-polar surfaces. Using first-principles calculations, we examine O adatom and O2 molecule adsorption on 8 different known ZnO reconstructions including Zn-terminated (Zn-ZnO) and O-terminated (O-ZnO) polar surfaces, and non-polar surfaces. We find that adsorption tendencies are largely governed by the thermodynamic environment, but exhibit variations due to the different surface chemistries of various reconstructions. The Zn-ZnO surface reconstructions which appear under O-rich and H-poor environments are found to be most amenable to O and O2 adsorption. We attribute this to the fact that on Zn-ZnO, the O-rich environments that promote O adsorption also simultaneously favor reconstructions that involve adsorbed O species. On these Zn-ZnO surfaces, O2 dissociatively adsorbs to form O adatoms. By contrast, on O-ZnO surfaces, the O-rich conditions required for O or O2 adsorption tend to promote reconstructions involving adsorbed H species, making further O species adsorption more difficult. These insights about O2 adsorption on ZnO surfaces suggest possible design rules to understand the adsorption properties of semiconductor polar surfaces.

  8. Composition of the non-polar extracts and antimicrobial activity of Chorisia insignis HBK. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed Mahmoud El Sawi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the petroleum ether extract and the ether fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of Chorisia insignis HBK. leaves, as well as screen its antimicrobial activity. Methods: Different chromatographic methods were applied to investigate the non-polar extracts and the diffusion assay method was applied to study the antimicrobial activity. Results: A total of 50 compounds from the unsaponifiable matter and 20 fatty acid methyl esters were identified from the petroleum ether extract by GC/MS analysis. n-Hentriacontane, n-tritriacontane, stigmastanol, 3-methoxy-5, 6-dihydrostigmasterol, 7,8-dihydroergosterol, 4-methylcholesterol, cholestanol, multiflorenol, cholest-5-en-3-one, cholest-6-one, 5,6- dihydroergosterol, stigmasterol, dihydroalbigenin and 11-methyl-Δ5,7,9,15,17,23-triacont-hex-ene were isolated from the petroleum ether extract. Methyl heptacosanoate and quinic acid ester of rhamnose were isolated from the ether fraction of the 70% ethanol extract. Antimicrobial activity of the total alcohol extract and the successive fractions showed that the ether and the ethyl acetate fractions have potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The ether and the ethyl acetate fractions could be used in pharmaceutical formulations as antibacterial agents against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, and further clinical trials should be performed in order to support the above investigations.

  9. Prospective Comparison of Nonnarcotic versus Narcotic Outpatient Oral Analgesic Use after Laparoscopic Appendectomy and Early Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Alkhoury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare narcotic versus nonnarcotic outpatient oral pain management after pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods. In a prospective study from July 1, 2010, to March 30, 2011, children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy on a rapid discharge protocol were treated with either nonnarcotic or narcotic postoperative oral analgesia. Two surgeons in a four-person faculty group employed the nonnarcotic regimen, while the other two used narcotics. Days of medication use, time needed for return to normal activity, and satisfaction rate with the pain control method were collected. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. A total of 207 consecutive children underwent appendectomy for acute, nonperforated appendicitis or planned interval appendectomy. The age and time to discharge were equivalent between the nonnarcotic (n=104 and narcotic (n=103 groups. Both had an equivalent number of medication days and similar times of return to normal activity. Ninety-seven percent of the parents of children in the nonnarcotic group stated that the pain was controlled by the prescribed medication, compared to 90 percent in the narcotic group (P=0.049. Conclusion. This study indicates that after non-complicated pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy, nonnarcotic is equivalent to narcoticbased therapy for outpatient oral analgesia, with higher parental satisfaction.

  10. Metabolic Activation of Nonpolar Sediment Extracts Results in enhanced Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Potency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Weiss, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional sediment risk assessment predominantly considers the hazard derived from legacy contaminants that are present in nonpolar sediment extracts, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although in vivo experiments with these

  11. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J H; Sinnige, Theo L.; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and 1,3-dichlorobenz

  12. Acousto-optic modulation and deflection of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in nonpolar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. A.; Voloshinov, V. B.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of a series of experiments on controlled deflection of electromagnetic radiation of a free-electron laser upon diffraction by an acoustic wave in nonpolar liquids are presented. Acoustic and optical properties of liquids that are transparent in the terahertz range are discussed. It is demonstrated that nonpolar liquids may turn out to be a more efficient acousto-optic interaction medium than dielectric crystals or semiconductors.

  13. Critical concentration of ion-pairs formation in nonpolar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhin, Andrei

    2014-07-01

    It is known that nonpolar liquids can be ionized by adding surfactants, either ionic or nonionic. Surfactant molecules serve as solvating agents, building inverse micelles around ions, and preventing their association back into neutral molecules. According to the Bjerrum-Onsager-Fuoss theory, these inverse micelle ions should form "ion pairs." This, in turn, leads to nonlinear dependence of the conductivity on the concentration. Surprisingly, ionic surfactants exhibit linear conductivity dependence, which implies that these inverse micelle ions do not form ion pairs. Theory predicts the existence of two ionic strength ranges, which are separated by a certain critical ion concentration. Ionic strength above the critical one is proportional to the square root of the ion concentration, whereas it becomes linear below the critical concentration. Critical ion concentration lies within the range of 10(-11) -10(-7) mol/L when ion size ranges from 1 to 3 nm. Critical ion concentration is related, but not equal, to a certain surfactant concentration (critical concentration of ion-pairs formation (CIPC)) because only a fraction of the surfactant molecules is incorporated into the micelles ions. The linear conductivity dependence for ionic surfactants indicates that the corresponding CIPC is above the range of studied concentrations, perhaps, due to rather large ion size. The same linearity is a sign that charged inverse micelles structure and fraction are concentration independent due to strong charge-dipole interaction in the charge micelle core. This also proves that CIPC is independent of critical concentration of micelle formation. Nonionic surfactants, on the other hand, exhibit nonlinear conductivity dependence apparently due to smaller ion sizes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The influence of non-polar lipids on tear film dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, M.

    2014-04-04

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. In this paper we examine the effect that physiological non-polar lipids, residing on the surface of an aqueous tear film, have on the film evolution. In our model we track the evolution of the thickness of the non-polar lipid layer, the thickness of the aqueous layer and the concentration of polar lipids which reside at the interface between the two. We also utilise a force balance in the non-polar lipid layer in order to determine its velocity. We show how to obtain previous models in the literature from our model by making particular choices of the parameters. We see the formation of boundary layers in some of these submodels, across which the concentration of polar lipid and the non-polar lipid velocity and film thickness vary. We solve our model numerically for physically realistic parameter values, and we find that the evolution of the aqueous layer and the polar lipid layer are similar to that described by previous authors. However, there are interesting dynamics for the non-polar lipid layer. The effects of altering the key parameters are highlighted and discussed. In particular, we see that the Marangoni number plays a key role in determining how far over the eye the non-polar lipid spreads.

  15. Mechanism of Nonpolar Model Substances to Inhibit Primary Gushing Induced by Hydrophobin HFBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokribousjein, Zahra; Riveros Galan, David; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Wagner, Patrick; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Arghir, Iulia; Golreihan, Asefeh; Verachtert, Hubert; Aydın, Ahmet Alper; De Maeyer, Marc; Titze, Jean; Ilberg, Vladimír; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2015-05-13

    In this work, the interactions of a well-studied hydrophobin with different types of nonpolar model substances and their impact on primary gushing is evaluated. The nature, length, and degree of saturation of nonpolar molecules are key parameters defining the gushing ability or inhibition. When mixed with hydrophobins, the nonpolar molecule-hydrophobin assembly acts as a less gushing or no gushing system. This effect can be explained in the framework of a competition effect between non-polar systems and CO2 to interact with the hydrophobic patch of the hydrophobin. Interactions of these molecules with hydrophobins are promoted as a result of the similar size of the nonpolar molecules with the hydrophobic patch of the protein, at the expense of the formation of nanobubbles with CO2. In order to prove the presence of interactions and to unravel the mechanisms behind them, a complete set of experimental techniques was used. Surface sensitive techniques clearly show the presence of the interactions, whose nature is not covalent nor hydrogen bonding according to infrared spectroscopy results. Interactions were also reflected by particle size analysis in which mixtures of particles displayed larger size than their pure component counterparts. Upon mixing with nonpolar molecules, the gushing ability of the protein is significantly disrupted.

  16. ACUTE NARCOTIC DRUG INTOXICATIONS: ETIOLOGY, SEX/AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Poisoning with drugs is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Retrospective analysis of acute poisoning with narcotic drugs had been performed in Varna region for 25 years (1991-2015. Material and Methods: The number of patients received hospital treatment after poisonings with narcotic substances was 677, which represented 3.9% of all acute exogenous intoxications. Results: Narcotic poisonings were more common in men – 546 (80.6%, than in women – 131 (19.4 %. The ratio male/ female was 4.17:1. The largest number of intoxications were in the age group up to 24 years – 1123 (66%, and only 2.65% of patients were over 45 years. Death was registered in 6 (0.9% patients.

  17. The Relationship between Commitment to School, Attitude toward Narcotics, and Drug Abuse among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Golpayegani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of current research was the study of relationship between commitment to school, attitude toward narcotics, and drug abuse among high school third grade students. Method: The research method was correlational design. 200 males and females students in grade three of high school were selected randomly by use of cluster sampling method in the educational year of 1389-90. Three questionnaires namely: hazardous behaviors, attitude toward narcotics, and commitment to school were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that positive attitudes toward narcotics and lack of commitment to school were correlated to students’ drug abuse positively. Conclusion: Designing student-centered programs in order to change in students' knowledge and attitudes must be taken into account by program-designers for preventing of drug abuse.

  18. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...

  19. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate...

  20. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...

  1. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...

  2. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400...

  4. Non-polar lipids characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection and non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Beccaria, Marco; Salivo, Simona; Tranchida, Peter; Tripodo, Giusy; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    A chemical characterization of major lipid components, namely, triacylglycerols, fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction, in a Quinoa seed lipids sample is reported. To tackle such a task, non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the analysis of triacylglycerols. The main triacylglycerols (>10%) were represented by OLP, OOL and OLL (P = palmitoyl, O = oleoyl, L = linoleoyl); the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (18.1%). Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters were evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. 89% of the total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 48 and 28%, respectively. An extensive characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction of Quinoa seed lipids was performed for the first time, by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. Overall, 66 compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were tentatively identified, many constituents of which (particularly sterols) were confirmed by using gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  5. Development of a portable preconcentrator/ion mobility spectrometer system for the trace detection of narcotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Custer, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project was supported by LDRD funding for the development and preliminary testing of a portable narcotics detection system. The system developed combines a commercial trace detector known as an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator originally designed by Department 5848 for the collection of explosives molecules. The detector and preconcentrator were combined along with all necessary accessories onto a push cart, thus yielding a fully portable detection unit. Preliminary testing with both explosives and narcotics molecules shown that the system is operational, and that it can successfully detect drugs as marijuana, methamphetamine (speed), and cocaine based on their characteristics IMS signatures.

  6. Deviations from sorption linearity on soils of polar and nonpolar organic compounds at low relative concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A series of single-solute and binary-solute sorption data have been obtained on representative samples of polar compounds (substituted ureas and phenolic compounds) and of nonpolar compounds (e.g., EDB and TCE) on a peat soil and a mineral (Woodburn) soil; the data extend to low relative solute concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). At relatively low C(e)/S(w), both the nonpolar and the polar solutes exhibit nonlinear sorption. The sorption nonlinearity approaches apparent saturation at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.010-0.015 for the nonpolar solutes and at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.10-0.13 for the polar solutes; above these C(e)/S(w) regions, the isotherms are practically linear. The nonlinear sorption capacities are greater for polar solutes than for nonpolar solutes and the peat soil shows a greater effect than the Woodburn soil. The small nonlinear sorption capacity for a nonpolar solute is suppressed indiscriminately by either a nonpolar or a polar cosolute at relatively low C(e)/S(w) of the cosolute. By contrast, the abilities of different cosolutes to suppress the nonlinear capacity of a nominal polar solute differ drastically. For polar solutes, a nonpolar cosolute exhibits a limited suppression even at high cosolute C(e)/S(w); effective suppression occurs when the cosolute is relatively polar and at various C(e)/S(w). These differences suggest that more than a single mechanism is required to account for the nonlinear sorption of both nonpolar and polar compounds at low C(e)/S(w). Mechanistic processes consistent with these observations and with soil surface areas are discussed along with other suggested models. Some important consequences of the nonlinear competitive sorption to the behavior of contaminants in natural systems are discussed.A number of conceptual models was postulated to account for the nonlinear solute sorption on soils of significant soil organic matter. A series of single-solute and binary-route sorption data was obtained representing samples of polar compounds of

  7. Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2014-06-10

    A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. Interaction of Polar and Nonpolar Organic Pollutants with Soil Organic Matter: Sorption Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Elroby, Shaaban A; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Leinweber, Peter; Kühn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is influenced by several factors including the type and strength of their interactions with soil components especially SOM. However, a molecular level answer to the question How organic pollutants interact with SOM? is lacking. In order to explore mechanisms of this interaction, we have developed a new SOM model followed by carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in parallel with sorption experiments. The new SOM model comprises free SOM functional groups (carboxylic acid and naphthalene) as well as SOM cavities (with two different sizes), representing the soil voids, containing the same SOM functional groups. To examine the effect of the hydrophobicity on the interaction, the organic pollutants hexachlorobenzene (HCB, non-polar) and sulfanilamide (SAA, polar) were considered. The experimental and the theoretical outcomes explored four major points regarding sorption of SAA and HCB on soil. 1. The interaction depends on the SOM chemical composition mo...

  10. Simulation of Nonpolar p-GaN/i-N/n-GaN Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that nitride-based devices suffer the polarization effects. A promising way to overcome the polarization effects is growth in a direction perpendicular to the c-axis (nonpolar direction. Nonpolar devices do not suffer polarization charge, and then they have a chance to achieve the high solar efficiency. The understanding of the solar performance of non-polar InGaN-based solar cells will be interesting. For a pin non-polar solar cell with GaN p- and n-cladding layers, the conduction band offset (or barrier height, between an intrinsic layer and n-GaN layer is an important issue correlating to the efficiency and fill factor. The efficiency and fill factor will be seriously degraded due to sufficiently high barrier height. To reduce a high barrier height, some graded layers with an energy bandgap between the energy bandgap of n-GaN and InxGa1−xN intrinsic layer can be inserted to the interface of n-GaN and InxGa1-xN layers. From simulation, it indicates that the insertion of graded layer is an effective method to lower energy barrier when there exists a high energy band offset in non-polar nitride devices.

  11. 75 FR 42487 - Supplementary Identifying Information of Previously-Designated Individual, Foreign Narcotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    .... In addition, the Secretary of the Treasury consults with the Attorney General, the Director of the... Drug Enforcement Administration, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of... significant role in international narcotics trafficking. On July 15, 2010 the Director of OFAC published...

  12. Editing and Scaling of Instrument Packets for the Clinical Evaluation of Narcotic Antagonists. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Robert F.; Gitomer, Nancy L.

    Efforts of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) as a contractor to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) include: (1) assessment of the usefulness of naltrexone, a narcotic antagonist, in the rehabilitation of several types of opiate-dependent individuals; (2) assessment of any drawbacks to the use of naltrexone; and (3) appraisal of…

  13. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  14. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ratio is greater than about 0.01. The Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projection angles and modest (2 cm) resolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and these reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte-Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA techniques are presented.

  15. Dispositional, Ecological and Biological Influences on Adolescent Tranquilizer, Ritalin, and Narcotics Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which two of the three sources of risk-taking--dispositional and ecological--in adolescence and demographic variables were related to Ritalin, tranquilizer and narcotics misuse. The secondary aim of this study was to distinguish subgroups of Ritalin, tranquilizer, and narcotics…

  16. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  17. Risk Factors of Narcotic and Psychoactive Drugs Use among University and High School Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Today use of different banned substances such as narcotic, psychoactive and energetic drugs are social problem that has created worry in different levels of human societies. The aim of present study was examined the prevalence of use of narcotic and psychoactive drugs among high school and university students also identifying of risk factors associated with the use of this materials. Method: The population of this descriptive survey study was all students of high school and university of Khodabandeh city. By cluster random sampling 580 students of high school and university selected and questionnaires distributed among them. After eliminating incomplete questionnaires 480 students remained as research sample. Results: In consideration of selected sample the most important reasons of using of narcotics are: enjoying and curiosity, exposed to bad environment like addicted friends and families, joblessness, economic problems, lack of information and loss of affection. Conclusion: The analysis of the results indicated the high prevalence of narcotic and drugs use and necessity of codification of preventive programs for these people.

  18. 75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law... determine and certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia...

  19. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context.

  20. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE SCOPE'S CONFERENCE FOR EDUCATORS ON NARCOTICS AND SMOKING. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, JULIUS T.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS USAGE IS PRESENTED. THE TERM DRUG DEPENDENCE IS BEING SUBSTITUTED FOR DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG HABITUATION. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS ANTIDOTES FOR OPIATES ARE DESCRIBED. THE EFFECTS OF LSD AND MARIJUANA ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PROCESSES ARE DESCRIBED. THE USE OF LSD FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES IS DISCUSSED.…

  1. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid, Glossary of Spanish and Portuguese Narcotics Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-04

    alucinantes alucineta amanita amapola amarilla amarillas amor; en amor anda down andar botando andar chueco andar derecho andar enfermo andar hypo...cristalina frajo frula fuente fumadero person not to be trusted (Ar) cocaine 50-kg unit of weight drug, narcotic; barbiturate (Pe) addiction, habit a

  2. Narcotic Use and Postoperative Doctor Shopping by Patients with Nephrolithiasis Requiring Operative Intervention: Implications for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappa, Stephen F; Green, Elizabeth A; Miller, Nicole L; Herrell, Stanley D; Mitchell, Christopher R; Mir, Hassan R; Resnick, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine perioperative patterns of narcotic use and the prevalence of postoperative doctor shopping among patients with nephrolithiasis requiring operative management. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients residing in Tennessee who required ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis at a single institution from January to December 2013. Using the Tennessee CSMD (Controlled Substances Medication Database) patients were categorized by the number of postoperative narcotic providers. Doctor shopping behavior was identified as any patient seeking more than 1 narcotic provider within 3 months of surgery. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with doctor shopping behavior were identified. During the study period 200 eligible patients underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis, of whom 48 (24%) were prescribed narcotics by more than 1 provider after surgery. Compared to those receiving narcotics from a single provider, patients with multiple narcotic providers were younger (48.1 vs 54.2 years, p shopping is common among patients with nephrolithiasis who require operative management. Urologists should be aware of available registry data to decrease the likelihood of redundant narcotic prescribing. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Large organized surface domains self-assembled from nonpolar amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2012-04-17

    unambiguously demonstrated the presence of surface micelles in monolayers of diblocks prior to LB transfer for atomic force microscopy imaging. We characterized an almost perfect two-dimensional crystal, with 12 assignable diffraction peaks, which established that self-assembly and regular nanopatterning were not caused by transfer or induced by the solid support. These experiments also provide the first direct identification of surface micelles on water, and the first identification of such large-size domains using GISAXS. Revisiting Langmuir film compression behavior after we realized that it actually was a compression of nanometric objects led to further unanticipated observations. These films could be compressed far beyond the documented film "collapse", eventually leading to the buildup of two superimposed, less-organized bilayers of diblocks on top of the initially formed monolayer of hemimicelles. Remarkably, the latter withstood the final, irreversible collapse of the composite films. "Gemini" tetrablocks, di(FnHm), with two Fn-chains and two Hm-chains, provided two superposed layers of discrete micelles, apparently the first example of thin films made of stacked discrete self-assembled nanoobjects. Decoration of solid surfaces with domains of predetermined size of these small "nonpolar" molecules is straightforward. Initial examples of applications include deposition of metal dots and catalytic oxidation of CO, and nanopatterning of SiO(2) films.

  4. Nitrobenzene anti-parallel dimer formation in non-polar solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Shikata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dielectric and depolarized Rayleigh scattering behaviors of nitrobenzene (NO2-Bz, which is a benzene mono-substituted with a planar molecular frame bearing the large electric dipole moment 4.0 D, in non-polar solvents solutions, such as tetrachloromethane and benzene, at up to 3 THz for the dielectric measurements and 8 THz for the scattering experiments at 20 °C. The dielectric relaxation strength of the system was substantially smaller than the proportionality to the concentration in a concentrated regime and showed a Kirkwood correlation factor markedly lower than unity; gK ∼ 0.65. This observation revealed that NO2-Bz has a tendency to form dimers, (NO2-Bz2, in anti-parallel configurations for the dipole moment with increasing concentration of the two solvents. Both the dielectric and scattering data exhibited fast and slow Debye-type relaxation modes with the characteristic time constants ∼7 and ∼50 ps in a concentrated regime (∼15 and ∼30 ps in a dilute regime, respectively. The fast mode was simply attributed to the rotational motion of the (monomeric NO2-Bz. However, the magnitude of the slow mode was proportional to the square of the concentration in the dilute regime; thus, the mode was assigned to the anti-parallel dimer, (NO2-Bz2, dissociation process, and the slow relaxation time was attributed to the anti-parallel dimer lifetime. The concentration dependencies of both the dielectric and scattering data show that the NO2-Bz molecular processes are controlled through a chemical equilibrium between monomers and anti-parallel dimers, 2NO2-Bz ↔ (NO2-Bz2, due to a strong dipole-dipole interaction between nitro groups.

  5. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the p...

  6. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria and Interfacial Properties for Non-polar Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付东; 赵毅

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the phase behavior and interfacial properties of non-polar fluids. For the bulk phases, the theory was reduced to the statistical associating fluid theory(SAFF) that provides accurate descriptions of vapor-liquid phase diagrams below the critical region. The phase diagrams in the critical region were corrected by the renormalization group theory (RGT). The density profile in the surface was obtained by minimizing the grand potential. With the same set of molecular parameters, both the phase equilibria and the interfacial properties of non-polar fluids were investigated satisfactorily.

  7. Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-04-01

    This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

  8. Long-term usage of narcotic analgesics by chronic intractable noncancer pain patients in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: To decrease malaise and addiction in patients with CINCP, Taiwan's physicians need more education on narcotic analgesics, and greater professional cooperation to develop therapeutic guidelines that will improve pain care for patients with CINCP.

  9. Analysis of the statistical data of illegal trade with narcotic substances in Macedonia in the Period 2005-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qebir Avziu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a negative phenomenon, drug addiction appears already a big problem in modern world. Narcotic substances have affected the Republic of Macedonia and just like in other countries, every day users have increased. Today in the world of narcotics abuse has taken a big trend that has initiated a whole chain of criminality, which on one side has increased the number of drug addicts in the search for new amounts of narcotics, and in turn the desire of suppliers to realize the greater profits. Drugs are not the invention of modern man, it is certain that prehistoric people knew them too. The Republic of Macedonia is not a country distinct in the production of drugs, but it is a regional focal point for illegal trade of drugs known as the Balkan route. In this sense, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of statistical data of illegal trade with narcotic substances in Macedonia during 2005-2012.

  10. Determinatin of the Dipole Moment of Polar Compounds in Nonpolar Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janini, George M.; Katrib, Ali H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a simple experiment based on the procedure of Guggenheim and Smith for the determinatin of the dipole moments of two isomeric compounds in nonpolar solvents. Provides background information, laboratory procedures, sample data, results of least squares analysis and discussion of results. (JM)

  11. Survey of the Effective Methods of Decreasing Demands of Narcotic Substances from the Viewpoint of Hamadan People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Addiction is a complex problem with different psychological, social and familial aspects, which strongly threaten the health of million people, and collapse the social and personal life. The aim of this study was to determine the effective methods of narcotic substances and decreasing demands from the viewpoint of Hamadan peopleMaterials & Methods: This research was a sectional-descriptive study. The participants consisted of 1456 individuals that were selected by stratified sampling. The data collected through a questionnaire consists of 3 parts; I. the demographic characteristics II. the questions about decreasing the demands and III. the questions related to the methods of narcotic substances campaign.Results: Outcome showed that 60.78% of the participants believe the best method to decrease demands to narcotic substances is the mass media and 51.92% believe to promote the religious believes and 44.5% to change people’s viewpoint about the narcotic substances. 78.85% agreed with using punishments on narcotics devisers and 40.1% agreed with punishment on users.Conclusion: From the viewpoint of Hamedan people mass media and religious believes effect in attitude of people about narcotic substances abuse and also they believed that punishment of users and opinion devisers were being useful.

  12. The IHO as Actor The case of cannabis and the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Mills

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War the United Nations (UN assumed the role of the League of Nations in formulating and operating the international regulatory framework for narcotic drugs. It gathered masses of information from across countries and continents while acting as both a forum and an agent for the emergence of agreed approaches to a heterodox array of substances. This article will examine the story of the inclusion of cannabis in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It will argue that in the years after 1945, it was officials at the UN and the WHO that played crucial roles in shaping opinions of the drug and in securing its place in the Convention.

  13. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counter-Narcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.14 However, Australia and France currently produce about...Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers ,” The Senlis Council Drug Policy Advisory Forum, available from http://www.senliscouncil.net/documents...Counter-Narcotics, v. 75 “Rising to the Opium Production Challenge in Afghanistan: A License to Meet the World Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers

  14. Regime change: re-visiting the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley-Taylor, David; Jelsma, Martin

    2012-01-01

    March 2011 marked the 50th anniversary of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. This legal instrument, the bedrock of the current United Nations based global drug control regime, is often viewed as merely a consolidating treaty bringing together the multilateral drug control agreements that preceded it; an erroneous position that does little to provide historical context for contemporary discussions surrounding revision of the international treaty system. This article applies both historical and international relations perspectives to revisit the development of the Convention. Framing discussion within the context of regime theory, a critique of the foundational pre-1961 treaties is followed by detailed content analysis of the official records of the United Nations conference for the adoption of a Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and, mindful of later treaties, an examination of the treaty's status as a 'single' convention. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs represents a significant break with the regulative focus of the preceding multilateral treaties; a shift towards a more prohibitive outlook that within international relations terms can be regarded as a change of regime rather than the straightforward codification of earlier instruments. In this respect, the article highlights the abolition of drug use that for centuries had been embedded in the social, cultural and religious traditions of many non-Western states. Further, although often-overlooked, the Convention has failed in its aim of being the 'single' instrument within international drug control. The supplementing treaties developed in later years and under different socio-economic and political circumstances have resulted in significant inconsistencies within the control regime. Having established that a shift in normative focus has taken place in the past, the article concludes that it is timely for the international community to revisit the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs with a view to

  15. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    OpenAIRE

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...

  16. Comprehensive screening method for the qualitative detection of narcotics and stimulants using single step derivatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuyne, W; Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T

    2007-10-01

    A selective and sensitive screening method for the detection of prohibited narcotic and stimulating agents in doping control is described and validated. This method is suitable for the detection of all narcotic agents mentioned on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) doping list in addition to numerous stimulants. The analytes are extracted from urine by a combined extraction procedure using CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH (9/1, v/v) and t-butylmethyl ether as extraction solvents at pH 9.5 and 14, respectively. Prior to GC-MS analysis the obtained residues are combined and derivatised with MSTFA. The mass spectrometer is operated in the full scan mode in the range between m/z 40 and 550. The obtained limits of detection (LOD) for all components included in this extensive screening method are in the range 20-500 ng/ml, which is in compliance with the requirements set by WADA. Besides narcotic and stimulating agents, this method is also capable of detecting several agents with anti-estrogenic activity and some beta-agonists. As an example, a positive identification of hydroxyl-methoxy-tamoxyfen is shown.

  17. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage.

  18. Post-marketing management of the use of non-narcotic analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O S

    1986-01-01

    While the use of non-narcotic analgesics is of considerable health benefit to people everywhere, they also represent a health problem. This problem has to do more with the risks associated with individual courses of treatment than with the commonality of those treatments. The public health challenge in post-marketing management of non-narcotic analgesic use, is to promote a pattern of use such that the risks are justifiable by the benefits and are the lowest that can be attained. To achieve such goals it is essential to have scientific knowledge about the benefits and risks and to be able to determine the quality of use in the population as to how proper it is. Current post-marketing management programmes focus largely on regulation, overlooking other equally important basic methods of public health intervention, namely education and service. If it is accepted that mass education is the key element in the proper management of non-narcotic analgesic use, the present emphasis on regulation needs amendment. Such changes will take time, but it is conceivable that ultimately the management goal can be achieved with minimal regulatory intervention.

  19. Insulin adsorption on crystalline SiO2: Comparison between polar and nonpolar surfaces using accelerated molecular-dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Marjan A.; Mücksch, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2017-02-01

    Adsorption of insulin on polar and nonpolar surfaces of crystalline SiO2 (cristobalite and α -quartz) is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Acceleration techniques are used in order to sample adsorption phase space efficiently and to identify realistic adsorption conformations. We find major differences between the polar and nonpolar surfaces. Electrostatic interactions govern the adsorption on polar surfaces and can be described by the alignment of the protein dipole with the surface dipole; hence spreading of the protein on the surface is irrelevant. On nonpolar surfaces, on the other hand, van-der-Waals interaction dominates, inducing surface spreading of the protein.

  20. Quantum theory of interfacial tension quantitatively predicts spontaneous charging of nonpolar aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Ariel, E-mail: ariel@afinnovation.com [Argentine Institute of Mathematics (I. A. M.), National Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1083 (Argentina); Collegium Basilea – Institute for Advanced Study, Basel CH4053 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-16

    The spontaneous negative charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces has eluded quantitative first-principle prediction, possibly because it steadfastly challenges the classical Debye dielectric picture. In this work we show that quantitative prediction requires a substantive revision of Debye's linear dielectric ansatz to incorporate an anomalous polarization component yielding electrostatic energy stored as interfacial tension and detailed enough to account for the differences in electronic structure between water and its ionized states. The minimization of this interfacial tension is due to a quantum effect resulting in the reduction in hydrogen-bond frustration that takes place upon hydroxide ion adsorption. The quantitative predictions are validated vis-à-vis measurements of the free energy change associated with hydroxide adsorption obtained using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Spontaneous charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces challenges Debye dielectrics. • A quantum non-Debye theory of interfacial tension is developed. • The minimization of the interfacial tension promotes hydroxide ion adsorption.

  1. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  2. Influence of oxygen in architecting large scale nonpolar GaN nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Patsha, Avinash; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, S

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of surface architecture of semiconducting nanowires with a control in surface polarity is one of the important objectives for nanowire based electronic and optoelectronic devices for commercialization. We report the growth of exceptionally high structural and optical quality nonpolar GaN nanowires with controlled and uniform surface morphology and size distribution, for large scale production. The role of O contamination (~1-10^5 ppm) in the surface architecture of these nanowires is investigated with the possible mechanism involved. Nonpolar GaN nanowires grown in O rich condition show the inhomogeneous surface morphologies and sizes (50 - 150 nm) while nanowires are having precise sizes of 40(5) nm and uniform surface morphology, for the samples grown in O reduced condition. Relative O contents are estimated using electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. Size-selective growth of uniform nanowires is also demonstrated, in the O reduced condition, using different catalyst sizes. Photoluminescen...

  3. Vertical nonpolar growth templates for light emitting diodes formed with GaN nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Wei; Lin, Yen-Ting; Ahn, Byungmin; Stewart, Lawrence S.; Daniel Dapkus, P.; Nutt, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be generated on uniform GaN nanosheet arrays grown vertically from the (0001)-GaN bulk material. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on the facets of these nanosheets are demonstrated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Owing to the high aspect ratio of the GaN nanosheet structure, the MQWs predominantly grow on nonpolar GaN planes. The results suggest that GaN nanosheets provide a conduction path for device fabrication and also a growth template to reduce the piezoelectric field inside the active region of InGaN-based light emitting diodes.

  4. Electrokinetics of Polar Liquids in Contact with Non-Polar Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2014-01-01

    Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three non-polar surfaces using closed-cell electro-osmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the non-polar surfaces with these observations: the electrokinetic effect on the fluorocarbon-coated surface is the strongest; and on a PDMS grafted surface, the effect is the weakest. Even though these hygroscopic liquids contain small amounts of water, the current models of charging based on the adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface or the dissociation of preexisting functionalities (e.g., silanol groups) appear to be insufficient to account for the various facets of the experimental observations. The results illustrate how ubiquitous the phenomenon of electro-kinetics ...

  5. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and

  6. Broadband non-polarizing terahertz beam splitters with variable split ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Minggui

    2017-08-15

    Seeking effective terahertz functional devices has always aroused extensive attention. Of particular interest is the terahertz beam splitter. Here, we have proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested a broadband non-polarizing terahertz beam splitter with a variable split ratio based on an all-dielectric metasurface. The metasurface was created by patterning a dielectric surface of the N-step phase gradient and etching to a few hundred micrometers. The conversion efficiency as high as 81% under the normal incidence at 0.7 THz was achieved. Meanwhile, such a splitter works well over a broad frequency range. The split ratio of the proposed design can be continuously tuned by simply shifting the metasurface, and the angle of emergences can also be easily adjusted by choosing the step of phase gradients. The proposed design is non-polarizing, and its performance is kept under different polarizations.

  7. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  8. Current mapping of nonpolar a-plane and polar c-plane GaN films by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengrui; Jiang, Teng; Lin, Zhiyu; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Linan; Zhang, Jincheng; Li, Peixian; Hao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN and polar (0001) c-plane GaN films have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane (1-102) and c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates, respectively. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to investigate the local conductivity of the films. C-AFM shows enhanced current conduction within the etch pits of c-plane GaN and triangular pits of a-plane GaN. The results indicate that the off-axis planes are more electrically active than c-plane and a-plane. Surprisingly, the C-AFM values in triangular pit of the a-plane GaN are much smaller than that in etch pits of the c-plane GaN. The dislocations type related current leakage mechanism is revealed for polar c-plane and nonpolar a-plane GaN films.

  9. Isolating the non-polar contributions to the intermolecular potential for water-alkane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Venkataraman, Pradeep; Fouad, Wael A; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2014-08-14

    Intermolecular potential models for water and alkanes describe pure component properties fairly well, but fail to reproduce properties of water-alkane mixtures. Understanding interactions between water and non-polar molecules like alkanes is important not only for the hydrocarbon industry but has implications to biological processes as well. Although non-polar solutes in water have been widely studied, much less work has focused on water in non-polar solvents. In this study we calculate the solubility of water in different alkanes (methane to dodecane) at ambient conditions where the water content in alkanes is very low so that the non-polar water-alkane interactions determine solubility. Only the alkane-rich phase is simulated since the fugacity of water in the water rich phase is calculated from an accurate equation of state. Using the SPC/E model for water and TraPPE model for alkanes along with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for the cross parameters produces a water solubility that is an order of magnitude lower than the experimental value. It is found that an effective water Lennard-Jones energy ε(W)/k = 220 K is required to match the experimental water solubility in TraPPE alkanes. This number is much higher than used in most simulation water models (SPC/E-ε(W)/k = 78.2 K). It is surprising that the interaction energy obtained here is also higher than the water-alkane interaction energy predicted by studies on solubility of alkanes in water. The reason for this high water-alkane interaction energy is not completely understood. Some factors that might contribute to the large interaction energy, such as polarizability of alkanes, octupole moment of methane, and clustering of water at low concentrations in alkanes, are examined. It is found that, though important, these factors do not completely explain the anomalously strong attraction between alkanes and water observed experimentally.

  10. A comparative DFT study of the structural and electronic properties of nonpolar GaN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Hernández, Rafael, E-mail: rhernandezj@uninorte.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); González-García, Alvaro [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Barragán-Yani, Daniel [Fachgebiet Material modellierung, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); López-Pérez, William [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out. • Surface energies are too low for LDA, but lower still for GGA and MGGA functionals, except for PBEsol. • PBEsol exhibits good lattice parameters and surface energies. • Surface intra-gap states reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surfaces. • Slight changes in the dispersion of surface states were observed for the LDA, GGA, and MGGA functionals. - Abstract: A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out using density-functional theory (DFT) with different approximations for the exchange-correlation energy (LDA, PBE, PBEsol, RPBE, TPSS, revTPSS, and HSE). The obtained data show that the GaN(101{sup ¯}0) (m-plane) is more energetically stable than the GaN(112{sup ¯}0) (a-plane) surface. However, these surfaces have similar surface relaxation geometry, with a Ga-N surface bond-length contraction of around 6–7% and a Ga-N surface rotational angle in the range of 6–9°. Our results show that the use of different exchange-correlation functionals does not significantly change the surface energy and surface geometry. In addition, we found the presence of surface intra-gap states that reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surface with respect to the bulk value, in agreement with recent photoelectron and surface optical spectroscopy experiments.

  11. Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only...... components and to only one parameter for mixtures consisting of non-polar components. A possibility of complete prediction of the parameters is discussed....

  12. Hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes of tungsten oxide: coupled exfoliation and fracture in a nonpolar organic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masashi; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-21

    Coupled exfoliation and fracture induced formation of hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes in a nonpolar organic medium. The hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes 5-20 nm in lateral size consisted of a tungstate layer with surface modification by stearylammonium ions (C18H37NH3)0.397 H0.603Cs3W11O35·xH2O (x < 0.625).

  13. Narcotic drug use among patients with lower back pain in employer health plans: a retrospective analysis of risk factors and health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, YongJoo; Taitel, Michael S; Walker, David R; Lau, Denys T

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the risk factors of narcotic drug use, medical and pharmacy claim costs, and health services use among lower back pain (LBP) patients who use narcotic medications. This retrospective study used administrative claims data between September 2002 and March 2004 from 3 employer health plans that collectively contained records of 165,569 employees 18 to 64 years of age. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine risk factors and health care services use consequences of narcotic drug use in patients with LBP. The study sample included 13,760 patients with LBP due to mechanical causes. Nearly 60% were female and the average age was 47 years. Almost half of the patients with LBP (45%) used narcotic drugs. Narcotic-using patients with LBP had significantly higher rates of comorbid conditions than patients with LBP not using narcotic drugs; hypertension (23% vs 13%), arthritis (14% vs 4%), depression (10% vs 5%), anxiety (6% vs 3%), and cancer (2% vs 1%) (Pchiropractic services for LBP were less likely to take narcotic drugs within 7 days after services compared to those without chiropractic services (P<0.001). Furthermore, controlling for health conditions, patients with LBP who took narcotic medications were significantly more likely than patients not taking narcotics to have an emergency room visit within 30 days after the initial narcotic drug prescription dates (P<0.001). Narcotic-using patients with LBP accounted for 62% of health care costs among all patients with LBP. The average monthly health care cost for a narcotic-using LBP patient was $1222, compared to $430 for a LBP patient not using narcotic drugs (P<0.001). The subjects with LBP who used narcotic medications were more likely to have additional coexisting health conditions and used more health care services than nonusing patients with LBP (P<0.001). Unadjusted health care services costs, including pharmacy claims costs, were significantly higher in patients with LBP using

  14. Enhanced UV detection by non-polar epitaxial GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore (India); Shetty, Arjun [Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2015-12-15

    Nonpolar a-GaN (11-20) epilayers were grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution x-ray diffractometer confirmed the orientation of the grown film. Effect of the Ga/N ratio on the morphology and strain of a-GaN epilayers was compared and the best condition was obtained for the nitrogen flow of 1 sccm. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology while the strain in the film was quantitatively measured using Raman spectroscopy and qualitatively analyzed by reciprocal space mapping technique. UV photo response of a-GaN film was measured after fabricating a metal-semiconductor-metal structure over the film with gold metal. The external quantum efficiency of the photodetectors fabricated in the (0002) polar and (11-20) nonpolar growth directions were compared in terms of responsivity and nonpolar GaN showed the best sensitivity at the cost of comparatively slow response time.

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Polar and Nonpolar Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Ahmadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of gases is an important issue in the industries. Carbon Dioxide Through gas transmission line exists as sour gas therefore it is eliminated by solvent in industry. Carbone Dioxide is nonpolar molecule that has lower solubility in liquid solvent. In this study the solubility of carbon dioxide in some polar and nonpolar solvents (include Acetone, Acetic Acid, Benzene, Carbon Tetra Chloride, Chlorobenzene, Chloroform, Cyclo-hexane, Di-Methyl Formamid, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Methanol, NButanol, N-Heptane, N-Hexane at atmospheric pressure and temperatures range from 5-35ºC was determined. A laboratory unit was made for this experience and the solubility of CO2 was reported. The solubility of carbon dioxide in these solvent was low due to unreactivity and nonpolarity nature of these material. The solubility of CO2 in Ethyl Acetate and Methanol was highest and lowest respectively. This investigation showed that the solvent with carbonyl group have higher activity than other.

  16. Atomistic simulation studies on the dynamics and thermodynamics of nonpolar molecules within the zeolite imidazolate framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantatosaki, Evangelia; Pazzona, Federico G; Megariotis, Gregory; Papadopoulos, George K

    2010-02-25

    Statistical-mechanics-based simulation studies at the atomistic level of argon (Ar), methane (CH(4)), and hydrogen (H(2)) sorbed in the zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) are reported. ZIF-8 is a product of a special kind of chemical process, recently termed as reticular synthesis, which has generated a class of materials of critical importance as molecular binders. In this work, we explore the mechanisms that govern the sorption thermodynamics and kinetics of nonpolar sorbates possessing different sizes and strength of interactions with the metal-organic framework to understand the outstanding properties of this novel class of sorbents, as revealed by experiments published elsewhere. For this purpose, we have developed an in-house modeling procedure involving calculations of sorption isotherms, partial internal energies, various probability density functions, and molecular dynamics for the simulation of the sorbed phase over a wide range of occupancies and temperatures within a digitally reconstructed unit cell of ZIF-8. The results showed that sorbates perceive a marked energetic inhomogeneity within the atomic framework of the metal-organic material under study, resulting in free energy barriers that give rise to inflections in the sorption isotherms and guide the dynamics of guest molecules.

  17. ADSORPTION-PARTITIONING UPTAKE OF NINE LOW-POLARITY ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON A NATURAL SORBENT. (R825406)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption of comparatively nonpolar organic chemicals by natural solids not only can be predominated by partitioning with organic matter but also can reflect a substantial contribution from adsorption at low relative concentration. Sorption of nine polycyclic aromat...

  18. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the

  19. Solid-state and solution /sup 13/C NMR in the conformational analysis of methadone-hydrochloride and related narcotic analgesics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, S.C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid state and solution /sup 13/C NMR have been used to study the conformations of the racemic mixtures and single enantiomers of methadone hydrochloride, alpha and beta methadol hydrochloride, and alpha and beta acetylmethadol hydrochloride. The NMR spectra acquired for the compounds as solids, and in polar and nonpolar solvents are compared, in order to determine the conformation of the molecules in solution. To determine the reliability of assigning solution conformations by comparing solution and solid state chemical shift data, three bond coupling constants measured in solution are compared with those calculated from X-ray data. The conformations of the racemic mixture and plus enantiomer of methadone hydrochloride have been shown to be very similar in the solid state, where minor differences in conformation can be seen by comparing NMR spectra obtained for the solids. Also shown is that the molecules of methadone hydrochloride have conformations in polar and in nonpolar solvents which are very similar to the conformation of the molecules in the solid state.

  20. Evaluation of various techniques for separation of non-polar modifier concentrates from petroleum waxy by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi S. Soliman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two petroleum waxy by-products (light and middle slack wax crudes were evaluated for separation of non-polar modifiers by using different techniques. The results showed that, the light slack wax is selected as a suitable wax for separation of n-alkanes with even number of carbon atoms ranging from C20 to C26 for their high n-paraffin contents and can be used as non-polar structural modifiers. Different separation techniques; multistage fractional crystallization and liquid–solid chromatography; followed by the urea adduction technique have been used to separate non-polar modifier concentrates from the light slack wax crude. The light slack wax, its saturate components, the hard wax fractions isolated from light slack wax by the multistage fractional crystallization technique and their adducts were analyzed by GC to characterize and compare the produced components. The resulting data reveal that, the adducts of light slack wax and its saturate components; can be used as non-polar modifier concentrates of low carbon atoms (C20 + C22. From an economic point of view, the light slack wax adduct is selected as a non-polar modifier concentrate whereas, the separation step can be neglected to save energy. Meanwhile, the adduct of the hard wax isolated at 30 °C can be used as the preferable non-polar modifier concentrate of the high carbon number atoms (C24 + C26.

  1. Terminal Evaluation Report: Fast-track Capacity Building for a Functioning Counter-Narcotics Criminal Justice System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    credibility for implementation of its counter narcotics policy, at the same time, fostering respect for the rule of law and increasing the perceived risks associated with engaging in illicit drug related activities.” To this end the project supported the initial creation of a dedicated Counter Narcotics...... to enable the government to implement its counter narcotics policy and establish credibility of its commitment to the rule of law. To this end it should visibly investigate, charge, and sentence serious drug offenders and thereby visibly raise the perceived risk of engaging in illicit drug...... to be a useful tool and holds considerable promise as a model for channelling international assistance in Afghanistan and beyond. During the formative period of the task force, UNODC provided crucial support in the selection and training of staff, the establishment of effective operating procedures...

  2. A sensitive, selective, and portable detector for contraband: The compact integrated narcotics detection instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemer, T.O.; Doan, L.; Su, C.W.; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    2000-07-01

    A Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R and D, Inc., in cooperation with the US Coast Guard. This detector utilizes neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf. Neutrons emitted from the front face of CINDI penetrate dense compartment barrier materials with little change in energy but are backscattered by hydrogen-rich materials such as drugs. The backscattered neutrons are detected, and the rate is displayed by a microprocessor-controller integrated into CINDI. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and receives immediate feedback from the state-of-the-art electronics. For user safety, the device incorporates a highly sensitive detection scheme to permit the use of a very weak radioactive source, without compromising detectability. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls, or small sealed containers. Figure 2 shows three views of the CINDI instrument. CINDI responds strongly to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics. It has been tested at NOVA, the US Coast Guard, and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotics. CINDI has led to a new technology that shows promise for identifying the concealed contraband. The new technique uses a fusion of two independent but complementary signals for detecting and possibly identifying concealed drugs in a variety of carriers such as vehicles, marine vessels, airplanes, containers, cargo, and luggage. The carriers will be scanned using both neutron and gamma-ray sources. The signal from both the neutron and gamma-ray backscattering and/or transmission can be used simultaneously to detect and possibly identify the contrabands it has been trained for. A system that can produce three-dimensional images for both signals may also be developed

  3. Standing Up a Narcotic Confirmation Laboratory for the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LukyanenkoMD, Victor [Russian Federation Ministry of Defense; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL; Coates, Cameron W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.

  4. SERDP and ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Research and Development Needs for Understanding and Assessing the Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    metabolism of different chemicals and the target organs affected. For example, one model that has been used for PAH bioavailability (Weyand et al...type I narcotics and PAHs . The target lipid -water partition coefficient is estimated using a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (LFER). The...polar and nonpolar narcotic chemicals and PAH criteria. III. A polyparameter model for target lipid partitioning. Environmental Toxicology and

  5. Literary investigation on the origin of poppy and other narcotics Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung San

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics like opioids. Methods : Literary investigation on the origin of poppy (Papaver somniferum L and other narcotics was conducted to examine the potential of developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics. Opium is a gum-like mass derived from air-dried white fluid of immature fruit of the poppy. Opium contains approximately 20 types of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and others. Natural opioids and synthetic alkaloid derivatives are the constituents of opioid analgesics and their effects and side-effects depend on the peculiarities of receptors. An extreme caution is required in the selection of proper dosage, proper analgesic types, and indications for successful pain management. Results and Discussion : With the enactment of "Narcotic control protocol", herbs such as cannibis and poppy are no longer available for use by Korean medicine doctors, and these doctors are faced with difficulty in managing severe pain in the clinical environment. A systematic consideration is inevitable for overcoming the limitation on these analgesics.

  6. Nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well solar cells with improved carrier collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuanqi; Fu, Houqiang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lu, Zhijian; Montes, Jossue; Iza, Michael; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) solar cells grown on the nonpolar m-plane and semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ) plane bulk GaN substrates. The optical properties and photovoltaic performance of the nonpolar and semipolar InGaN solar cells were systematically studied, and the results were compared to the conventional polar c-plane devices. The absorption spectra, current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) were measured for nonpolar m-plane, semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ) plane, and polar c-plane InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells. Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells showed the best performance across all devices, with a high open-circuit voltage of 2.32 V, a low bandgap-voltage offset of 0.59 V, and the highest EQE and IQE. In contrast, the polar c-plane device showed the lowest EQE despite the highest absorption spectra. This huge difference is attributed to the better carrier transport and collection on nonpolar m-plane devices due to the reduced polarization effects, which were further confirmed by bias-dependent EQE measurements and energy band diagram simulations. This study demonstrates the high potential of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN solar cells and can serve as guidance for the future design and fabrication of high efficiency III-nitride solar cells.

  7. Study on Surface Properties for Non-polar Fluids with Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 陆九芳; 付东; 刘金晨; 李以圭

    2004-01-01

    The density functional theory, simplified by the local density approximation and mean-field approximation, is applied to study the surface properties of pure non-polar fluids. A reasonable long rang correction is adopted to avoid the truncation of the potential. The perturbation theory is applied to establish the equation for the phase equilibrium, in which the hard-core chain fluid is as the reference fluid and the Yukawa potential is used as the perturbation term. Three parameters, elk, d and ms, are regressed from the vapor-liquid equilibria, and the surface properties, including density profile, surface tension and local surface tension profile are predicted with these parameters.

  8. A semiempirical model for estimating the hydration free energy of neutral nonpolar compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkova, E. L.

    2012-10-01

    An improved semiempirical model for determining the hydration free energy of neutral nonpolar compounds is presented. The model is based on a combination of the RISM approach of the integral equation theory and empirical correlations. It is demonstrated that the developed model has high predictive ability for alkanes, alkenes, and dienes (present only in the test set of compounds). It is concluded that this semiempirical model can be applied in estimating the hydration free energy of more complicated structures based on saturated and nonsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  9. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...

  10. Acute effects of ethanol on hepatic uptake and distribution of narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreek, M.J.; Rothschild, M.A.; Oratz, M.; Mongelli, J.; Handley, A.C.

    This study was performed as an initial step in systematically defining the hepatic interactions between ethanol and opioids using a controlled in vitro system. The acute effects of ethanol on the initial uptake and distribution of long- and short-acting narcotics were studied using isolated rabbit liver perfused with rabbit blood without or with ethanol. A pulse injection of 1.5 mg of 14C-labeled narcotic (methadone, 1-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), morphine, or meperidine) was made into the portal vein cannula followed by perfusion for 2 min. Radioactivity was determined in liver homogenates and subcellular fractions; methadone and its metabolites were measured by thin-layer chromatography with zonal scanning in each fraction. Ethanol preperfusion and concomitant ethanol perfusion did not effect hepatic uptake of methadone, LAAM, morphine, or meperidine. Although subcellular localization of morphine and meperidine differed from that of methadone and LAAM, perfusion with ethanol did not alter the acute hepatic uptake and distribution of any of the narcotics. These findings suggest that acute exposure to ethanol does not alter the acute hepatic disposition of narcotics.

  11. Storage lipids of yeasts: a survey of nonpolar lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Daum, Günther

    2014-09-01

    Biosynthesis and storage of nonpolar lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TG) and steryl esters (SE), have gained much interest during the last decades because defects in these processes are related to severe human diseases. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a valuable tool to study eukaryotic lipid metabolism because this single-cell microorganism harbors many enzymes and pathways with counterparts in mammalian cells. In this article, we will review aspects of TG and SE metabolism and turnover in the yeast that have been known for a long time and combine them with new perceptions of nonpolar lipid research. We will provide a detailed insight into the mechanisms of nonpolar lipid synthesis, storage, mobilization, and degradation in the yeast S. cerevisiae. The central role of lipid droplets (LD) in these processes will be addressed with emphasis on the prevailing view that this compartment is more than only a depot for TG and SE. Dynamic and interactive aspects of LD with other organelles will be discussed. Results obtained with S. cerevisiae will be complemented by recent investigations of nonpolar lipid research with Yarrowia lipolytica and Pichia pastoris. Altogether, this review article provides a comprehensive view of nonpolar lipid research in yeast.

  12. A polarity-induced defect mechanism for conductivity and magnetism at polar-nonpolar oxide interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Zunger, Alex

    2014-10-13

    The discovery of conductivity and magnetism at the polar-nonpolar interfaces of insulating nonmagnetic oxides such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has raised prospects for attaining interfacial functionalities absent in the component materials. Yet, the microscopic origin of such emergent phenomena remains unclear, posing obstacles to design of improved functionalities. Here we present first principles calculations of electronic and defect properties of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces and reveal a unifying mechanism for the origins of both conductivity and magnetism. We demonstrate that the polar discontinuity across the interface triggers thermodynamically the spontaneous formation of certain defects that in turn cancel the polar field induced by the polar discontinuity. The ionization of the spontaneously formed surface oxygen vacancy defects leads to interface conductivity, whereas the unionized Ti-on-Al antisite defects lead to interface magnetism. The proposed mechanism suggests practical design principles for inducing and controlling both conductivity and magnetism at general polar-nonpolar interfaces.

  13. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  14. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3 nm quantum well width, 1 nm barriers, a 5 nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406 nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (˜16 kA/cm2), a peak output power of ˜12 μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  15. Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Huang, Xuanqi; Fu, Houqiang; Lu, Zhijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Montes, Jossue A.; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-05-01

    We report the basic nonlinear optical properties, namely, two-photon absorption coefficient ( β ), three-photon absorption coefficient ( γ ), and Kerr nonlinear refractive index ( n kerr), of GaN crystals in polar c-plane, nonpolar m-plane, and semipolar ( 20 21 ¯ ) plane orientations. A typical Z-scan technique was used for the measurement with a femtosecond Ti:S laser from wavelengths of 724 nm to 840 nm. For the two-photon absorption coefficient ( β ), similar values were obtained for polar, nonpolar, and semipolar samples, which are characterized to be ˜0.90 cm/GW at 724 nm and ˜0.65 cm/GW at 730 nm for all the three samples. For the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ( n kerr), self-focusing features were observed in this work, which is different from previous reports where self-defocusing features were observed on GaN in the visible and near-UV spectral regions. At 724 nm, n kerr was measured to be ˜2.5 0 × 10 - 14 cm 2 / W for all three samples. Three-photon absorption coefficients ( γ ) were also determined, which were found to be consistent with previous reports. This study provides valuable information on the basic nonlinear optical properties of III-nitride semiconductors, which are vital for a wide range of applications such as integrated photonics and quantum photonics.

  16. Dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinomas: differences in appearance under non-polarized and polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Tracey N; Jaimes-Lopez, Natalia; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Wang, Steven Q; Dusza, Stephen W; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2012-03-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be diagnosed using different dermoscopic modalities. To evaluate dermoscopic features of BCCs using nonpolarized and polarized dermoscopy to highlight similarities and differences between dermoscopic modalities. Retrospective study of 149 BCCs under nonpolarized dermoscopy (NPD), polarized contact dermoscopy (PCD), and polarized noncontact dermoscopy (PNCD). Images were evaluated for a range of dermoscopic colors, structures, and vessels. Features were compared according to histopathologic subtype. The most common dermoscopic structures in BCCs across all modalities included globules (50.3-51.0%), dots (49.7-50.3%), white structureless areas (63.1-74.5%), structureless gray-brown areas (24.2-24.8%), and ulcerations (28.2%). The most frequently observed vasculature included arborizing vessels (18.8-38.3%), short fine telangiectasias (SFTs) (73.8-82.6%), and vascular blush (41.6-83.2%). Structures with higher levels of agreement across modalities included pigmented structures and ulcerations. Lower levels of agreement existed between contact and noncontact modalities for certain vascular features. White shiny structures, which include shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) (0-69.1%), shiny white areas (0-25.5%), and rosettes (0-11.4%), exhibited no agreement between NPD and polarized modalities. This study highlights differences in dermoscopic features of BCCs under three dermoscopic modalities. Shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) and shiny white areas may be used as additional criteria to diagnose BCCs. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Relative effectiveness of pretreatments on performance of Rhizomucor miehei lipase in nonpolar reaction media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael A; Riley, Mark R

    2005-02-01

    Enzymes can be used in nonpolar reaction media to modify water-insoluble substrates. A variety of pretreatments, applied to the enzyme prior to introduction to the nonpolar media, can improve enzyme activity. However, the various pretreatments have not been studied using directly comparable conditions, nor have they been applied simultaneously to test for interactive effects. This work evaluates pretreatment of lipase with various classes of additives. The pretreated lipase is used to catalyze esterification between citronellol and acetic acid in a medium of n-hexane. The effectiveness of a particular pretreatment is presented in terms of relative performance (RP), which is equal to the number of times faster the pretreated lipase catalyzes the reaction relative to untreated lipase. The individual and interactive effects of the pretreatment factors were studied and compared. Buffer salts had a much stronger performance-enhancing effect than nonbuffer salts; pretreatment with 90% (w/w) sodium phosphate yielded lipase with an RP of approx 64. A strong interaction was found between the treatments with sodium phosphate and pH adjustment. These treatments may mitigate the inhibitory effect of acetic acid. Activating effects of phase interfaces and active-site protectants are shown to be complementary to other treatments, demonstrating that they likely act by distinct mechanisms.

  18. High indium non-polar InGaN clusters with infrared sensitivity grown by PAMBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Mukundan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the optical properties of InGaN alloy of relatively higher indium content are of potential interest to understand the effect of indium content on the optical band gap of epitaxial InGaN. We report the growth of self assembled non-polar high indium clusters of In0.55Ga0.45N over non-polar (11-20 a-plane In0.17Ga0.83N epilayer grown on a-plane (11-20GaN/(1-102 r-plane sapphire substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE. Such structures are potential candidates for high brightness LEDs emitting in longer wavelengths. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of two distinct compositions of InxGa1−xN alloys, which were further confirmed by photoluminescence studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of such structure was postulated which was supported with the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structure hence grown when investigated for photo-detecting properties, showed sensitivity to both infrared and ultraviolet radiations due to the different composition of InGaN region.

  19. Morphological, structural and electrical investigations on non-polar a-plane ZnO epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlaeger, Stefan; Eisermann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Michael N.; Roemer, Udo; Pinnisch, Melanie; Laufer, Andreas; Meyer, Bruno K.; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lajn, Alexander; Schmidt, Florian; Grundmann, Marius; Blaesing, Juergen; Krost, Alois

    2010-07-01

    We report on the growth of non-polar a-plane ZnO by CVD on r-plane-sapphire-wafers, a-plane GaN-templates and a-plane ZnO single-crystal substrates. Only the homoepitaxial growth approach leads to a Frank-van-der-Merwe growth mode, as shown by atomic force microscopy. The X-ray-diffraction spectra of the homoepitaxial thin films mirror the excellent crystalline quality of the ZnO substrate. The morphological and the structural quality of the homoepitaxial films is comparable to the best results for the growth on c-plane ZnO-substrates. The impurity incorporation, especially of group III elements, seems to be reduced when growing on the non-polar a-plane surface compared to the c-plane films as demonstrated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Optical properties have been investigated using low temperature photoluminescence measurements. We employed capacitance-voltage measurements ( C- V) to measure the background carrier density and its profile from substrate/film interface throughout the film to the surface. In thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) specific traps could be distinguished, and their thermal activation energies and capture cross sections could be determined.

  20. High indium non-polar InGaN clusters with infrared sensitivity grown by PAMBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Shruti; Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in; Shinde, Satish; Nanda, K. K. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013 (India); Maiti, R.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the optical properties of InGaN alloy of relatively higher indium content are of potential interest to understand the effect of indium content on the optical band gap of epitaxial InGaN. We report the growth of self assembled non-polar high indium clusters of In{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N over non-polar (11-20) a-plane In{sub 0.17}Ga{sub 0.83}N epilayer grown on a-plane (11-20)GaN/(1-102) r-plane sapphire substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Such structures are potential candidates for high brightness LEDs emitting in longer wavelengths. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of two distinct compositions of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys, which were further confirmed by photoluminescence studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of such structure was postulated which was supported with the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structure hence grown when investigated for photo-detecting properties, showed sensitivity to both infrared and ultraviolet radiations due to the different composition of InGaN region.

  1. Early predictors of narcotics-dependent patients in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not unusual that narcotics-dependent patients fulfill their medical requirements in the emergency department (ED. The behavior of these patients varies, and their manifestations and predictors are still not fully studied. We performed this retrospective study by prospectively collecting data on patients with suspected drug dependence who were undiagnosed at first and then treated for some kind of reported pain at the ED. Patients who were confirmed to have narcotics dependence were compared with control patients in a ratio of 1:3 matching for age, gender, disease, and clinical diagnoses. From January 2006 to October 2009, 26 of 223 patients treated for pain were found to be drug dependent (12 males and 14 females. The average dose of narcotics used was higher than the control group [3.23 ± 1.14 vs. 1.12 ± 0.36, p < 0.001, confidence interval (CI: 1.648–2.583]. Numbers of patients making unscheduled returns to the ED within 24 hours were significant [24/26 vs. 8/78, p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio (OR 105.00, 95% CI 20.834–529.175]. In addition, patients showing aggressive attitudes were significant (17/26 vs. 2/78, p < 0.001, OR 71.78, 95% CI 14.206–362.663. In the case group, six of them told the physician that they were allergic to medicines other than the particular one they wanted, and three of the six presented injuries that were reported to be in the same (or repeated place for unscheduled returns, which were not found in the control group. In this study, some behaviors were commonly observed in the at-risk group. These patients were prone to manifest some types of symptoms and behaviors, such as uncontrolled pain with three doses of analgesics, aggressive attitude, returning to the ED within 24 hours with the complaint of the same severe pain, repeating the same injury, claiming allergy to other analgesics, and asking for certain analgesics. All these behaviors should alert the physician to suspect a drug-seeking problem.

  2. Piroxicam and Doxepin—An Alternative to Narcotic Analgesics in Managing Advanced Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, L.; Machado, Antonio F.; Bier, Robert; Cohn, Marthe

    1988-01-01

    To provide an effective continuum of the relief of severe carcinomatous pain with minimal side reactions, we initiated treatment with piroxicam (60 to 120 mg per day) and doxepin hydrochloride (25 to 225 mg per day). Of 30 patients presenting with severe pain of cancer of various origins, 7 continued to death with piroxicam and doxepin therapy. An additional 17 were successfully treated for 6 to 66 weeks with therapy reported here but, as disease progressed, required supplemental narcotics. The remaining six abandoned the use of piroxicam due to complications of therapy, which ranged from diarrhea to gastric perforation; serious complications were associated with patients' failure to adhere to a prescribed regimen of sucralfate. Therapy with piroxicam and doxepin proved to be safe and efficacious. PMID:3363962

  3. THE CRIMINAL DEAD AGAINST THE PERPETRATORS OF THE CRIME OF NARCOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Hamid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted in Pinrang Regency District Court. The expected goal of researchis to know the elements of the crime of narcotics number 09/Pid. B/2015/PN.Prg.Data obtained by direct interviews with the resource person, and search thearchives/documents as well as reading literature related to the problems discussed.Data analysis was done using qualitative analysis.The research results showed that: (1 the elements of a criminal offence are containedin the Court ruling number 09/Pid. B/2015/PN. Prg has been proven by the defendantfulfills the elements in section 114 subsection (2 of the Act of the Republic ofIndonesia Number 35 in 2009. (2 the form of consideration given by the defendantbefore giving an award is to pay attention to the aspect of incriminating the accusedand defendants as well as relieve the aspect social values contained in its communityenvironment with reference to the existing legislation.

  4. Suprofen: the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of a new non-narcotic peripheral analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, E L; Rosenthale, M E; Capetola, R J; McGuire, J L

    1984-08-01

    Suprofen is a potent, peripherally-acting, non-narcotic analgesic agent. The mechanism of action of the compound involves inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and, perhaps, direct antagonism of the peripheral, pain inducing actions of prostaglandins, bradykinin and other pain mediators. Suprofen at a dose of 200 mg appears to be equal or greater in efficacy as an analgesic modality than those of ibuprofen, propoxyphene, naproxen and diflunisal or a combination of 650 mg aspirin plus 60 mg codeine. Its clinical utility has been amply demonstrated in the treatment of a number of types of pain including general and orthopedic surgery, episiotomy, post-partum pain, dysmenorrhea, dental pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Suprofen represents a new class of orally effective nonnarcotic analgesics with potential for effective clinical use in the treatment of pain.

  5. The Effect of Suppository Indomethacin Administration in Reducing Narcotics Dosage after Colles' Fracture Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Azizi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Postoperative acute pain is a complex reaction to tissue injury , visceral distention or a disease that causes harmful physiologic effects on several organs. It seems that with more epidemiologic and pathologic knowledge of postoperative pain, patients can be relieved more and hospital expenses reduced. One of the methods to reduce postoperative analgesics requirement is the preemptive analgesia. Many drugs like NSAIDs and narcotics have been used. The aim of this article was to study the effect of a single dose Indomethacin suppository given before operating colles fracture to reduce postoperative analgesics requirement.Materials & Methods: In this clinical study patients were divided into two groups randomly. The case group (55 people received 100 mg indomethacin thirty minutes before anesthesia , while the control group (45 people received nothing . All had the same kind of anesthesia , which lasted less than an hour for all . After operation they received NSAIDs or narcotics according to the Flacc pain scale.Results: The average NSAID received after the operation in the case group was 16.823.1 mg, and 30.533.6 mg in the control group. Studying these values with t- test illustrates that using preoperative indomethacin causes less postoperative NSAID requirement (P<0.05. The average opioid equivalent dose given in the case group was 1.3 2.9 mg and 6.28.3 mg in the control group , demonstrating less opioid requirement in the case group(P<0.05.Conclusion: Prescribing a single dose indomethacin suppository before colles' fracture operation has preemptive analgesic effect and reduces postoperative analgesic requirement.

  6. Covalent and non-covalent functionalization and solubilization of double-walled carbon nanotubes in nonpolar and aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Panchakarla; A Govindaraj

    2008-11-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been functionalized by both covalent and non-covalent means. Covalent functionalization has been carried out by attaching an aliphatic amide function to DWNTs which enable solubilization in non-polar solvents. Solubilization in non-polar solvents has also been accomplished by non-covalent functionalization by using 1-pyrenebutanoicacid succinimidyl ester (PYBS). Non-covalent functionalization of DWNTs has been carried out by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyoxyethylene(40)nonylphenyl ether (IGPAL), both of which enable solubilization in aqueous media. These functionalized DWNTs have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, IR and Raman spectroscopy.

  7. The Effectiveness of the Training of Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills on the Reduction of Addicts’ Positive Attitudes to Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farxaneh Bahrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills on the reduction of addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics. Method: The design of this study was experimental design namely: pre and post test with control group. The population included all addicts referring to Sanandaj self-report centers (500 addicts. By random sampling, 60 addicts were selected and completed the attitude questionnaire to narcotics use. Each of experimental groups was under problem-solving and decision-making skills training for ten 90 minute sessions. No training given to control group. Results: After training, two experimental groups significantly had lower levels of positive attitude to narcotics use. No difference was observed between two experimental groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills can reduce the addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics.

  8. Role of the electronegativity for the interface properties of non-polar heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-04-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the interfaces in the non-polar ATiO 3/SrTiO 3 (A=Pb, Ca, Ba) heterostructures. All TiO 2-terminated interfaces show an insulating behavior. By reduction of the O content in the AO, SrO, and TiO 2 layers, metallic interface states develop, due to the occupation of the Ti 3d orbitals. For PbTiO 3/SrTiO 3, the Pb 6p states cross the Fermi energy. O vacancy formation energies depend strictly on the electronegativity and the effective volume of the A ion, while the main characteristics of the interface electronic states are maintained. © Europhysics Letters Association, 2012.

  9. Homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amilusik, M.; Sochacki, T.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Weyher, J. L.; Teisseyre, H.; Sadovyi, B.; Bockowski, M.; Grzegory, I.

    2014-10-01

    In this work homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar GaN seeds was described. Two crystallization processes, in the same experimental conditions but using different carrier gases: N2 and H2, were performed. An influence of growth directions and growth conditions on the growth rate and properties (morphology, structural quality and oxygen and silicon contaminations) of obtained crystals were investigated and discussed. It was shown that the growth rate strongly depends on the growth direction and the carrier gas. It was demonstrated that for the semi-polar [20-21] direction it was possible to obtain high quality and highly conductive (without intentional doping) gallium nitride layers.

  10. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels as super-absorbent polymers for nonpolar organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Takahiro; Shinkai, Seiji; Sada, Kazuki

    2007-06-01

    Polyelectrolyte gels that are known as super-absorbent polymers swell and absorb water up to several hundred times their dried weights and have become ubiquitous and indispensable materials in many applications. Their superior swelling abilities originate from the electrostatic repulsion between the charges on the polymer chains and the osmotic imbalance between the interior and exterior of the gels. However, no super-absorbent polymers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and especially for nonpolar organic solvents (epsilonpolymer networks. This expands the potential of polyelectrolytes that have been used only in aqueous solutions or highly polar solvents, and provides soft materials that swell in a variety of media. These materials could find applications as protective barriers for VOCs spilled in the environment and as absorbents for waste oil.

  11. ADSORPTION OF LATERALLY INTERACTING 1-NAPHTHOL/1-NAPHTHYL AMINE MIXTURES ON NONPOLAR SURFACES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Zhang; Jin-long Chen; Qun Chen; Ming-yang He; Bing-cai Pan; Quan-xing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The binary adsorption behavior of 1-naphthol/1-naphthylamine mixtures in water on nonpolar adsorbent Amberlite XAD4 was investigated at 293 K, 303 K and 313 K, respectively. The experimental uptakes of 1-naphthol and 1-naphthylamine in all binary-component systems of different molar ratios were obviously higher than the corresponding uptakes predicted by the extended Langmuir model, assuming no interaction between the adsorbed molecules of the two components. This phenomenon was attributed to the cooperative adsorption effect arising from the hydrogen bonding interaction between 1-naphthol and 1-naphthylamine molecules. A modified extended Langmuir model was proposed to describe the binary adsorption behavior by means of introducing a fitting parameter related with the cooperative adsorption effect of the adsorbates.

  12. Variability of non-polar secondary metabolites in the red alga Portieria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Colo, Joannamel; Calumpong, Hilconida; de Clerck, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Possible sources of variation in non-polar secondary metabolites of Portieria hornemannii, sampled from two distinct regions in the Philippines (Batanes and Visayas), resulting from different life-history stages, presence of cryptic species, and/or spatiotemporal factors, were investigated. PCA analyses demonstrated secondary metabolite variation between, as well as within, five cryptic Batanes species. Intraspecific variation was even more pronounced in the three cryptic Visayas species, which included samples from six sites. Neither species groupings, nor spatial or temporal based patterns, were observed in the PCA analysis, however, intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites was detected between life-history stages. Male gametophytes (102 metabolites detected) were strongly discriminated from the two other stages, whilst female gametophyte (202 metabolites detected) and tetrasporophyte (106 metabolites detected) samples were partially discriminated. These results suggest that life-history driven variations, and possibly other microscale factors, may influence the variation within Portieria species.

  13. Variability of Non-Polar Secondary Metabolites in the Red Alga Portieria

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    Olivier de Clerck

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Possible sources of variation in non-polar secondary metabolites of Portieria hornemannii, sampled from two distinct regions in the Philippines (Batanes and Visayas, resulting from different life-history stages, presence of cryptic species, and/or spatiotemporal factors, were investigated. PCA analyses demonstrated secondary metabolite variation between, as well as within, five cryptic Batanes species. Intraspecific variation was even more pronounced in the three cryptic Visayas species, which included samples from six sites. Neither species groupings, nor spatial or temporal based patterns, were observed in the PCA analysis, however, intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites was detected between life-history stages. Male gametophytes (102 metabolites detected were strongly discriminated from the two other stages, whilst female gametophyte (202 metabolites detected and tetrasporophyte (106 metabolites detected samples were partially discriminated. These results suggest that life-history driven variations, and possibly other microscale factors, may influence the variation within Portieria species.

  14. Dynamics of electric field induced particle alignment in nonpolar polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Xiangyang; Wu, Guozhang; Yui, Hiroshi; Asai, Shigeo; Sumita, Masao

    2003-11-01

    The dynamics of electric field induced particle alignment in nonpolar polymer matrix to build one-dimensional conductive materials was investigated. The influence of electric field on particle alignment was real-time traced by dynamic percolation measurement using carbon black (CB) filled polyethylene as a model system. The activation energy of the continuous CB path formation was calculated and found to be unchanged with CB alignment. The critical percolation concentration at thermodynamic equilibrium state φc* was deduced to characterize the anisotropism of network structure, by which the thermodynamic prerequisite electric field E* for the transition from three-dimensional isotropic network to one-dimensional chain could be easily found out.

  15. Application of classical thermodynamics to the conductivity in non-polar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdin-Bertin, S.; Chassagne, C.

    2016-06-01

    Electrical conductivity in non-polar media is a subject which recently regained interest. If most of experiments and theoretical developments were done more than 50 years ago, new experiments and theories have been recently published. As the electrical conductivity describes, at low field, the equilibrium state of a system, it is natural to apply theories based on equilibrium thermodynamics. In this article, well-established classical thermodynamics and solvations models are applied to recently published data. This enables to get a new insight in intriguing phenomena, such as the linear dependence of the conductivity on the concentration of ionic surfactant and the evaluation of conductivity for the mixture of two miscible fluids, such as alcohol and alcane, which have very different conductivities.

  16. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  17. Non-polar lipids accumulate during storage of transfusion products and do not contribute to the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A L; Vervaart, M A T; van Bruggen, R; de Korte, D; Nieuwland, R; Kulik, W; Vlaar, A P J

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of non-polar lipids arachidonic acid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE and 15-HETE during storage of transfusion products may play a role in the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress after transfusion. We investigated non-polar lipid accumulation in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for 42 days, plasma stored for 7 days at either 4 or 20°C and platelet (PLT) transfusion products stored for 7 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether transfusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids induces TRALI in a 'two-hit' human volunteer model. All products were produced following Dutch Blood Bank protocols and are according to European standards. Non-polar lipids were measured with high-performance liquid chromotography followed by mass spectrometry. All non-polar lipids increased in RBCs after 21 days of storage compared to baseline. The non-polar lipid concentration in plasma increased significantly, and the increase was even more pronounced in products stored at 20°C. In platelets, baseline levels of 5-HETE and 15-HETE were higher than in RBCs or plasma. However, the non-polar lipids did not change significantly during storage of PLT products. Infusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids did not induce TRALI in LPS-primed human volunteers. We conclude that non-polar lipids accumulate in RBC and plasma transfusion products and that accumulation is temperature dependent. Accumulation of non-polar lipids does not appear to explain the onset of TRALI (Dutch Trial Register - NTR4455). © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jantjes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch’s method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115.

  19. Automatic parametrization of non-polar implicit solvent models for the blind prediction of solvation free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a systematic protocol is proposed to automatically parametrize the non-polar part of implicit solvent models with polar and non-polar components. The proposed protocol utilizes either the classical Poisson model or the Kohn-Sham density functional theory based polarizable Poisson model for modeling polar solvation free energies. Four sets of radius parameters are combined with four sets of charge force fields to arrive at a total of 16 different parametrizations for the polar component. For the non-polar component, either the standard model of surface area, molecular volume, and van der Waals interactions or a model with atomic surface areas and molecular volume is employed. To automatically parametrize a non-polar model, we develop scoring and ranking algorithms to classify solute molecules. The their non-polar parametrization is obtained based on the assumption that similar molecules have similar parametrizations. A large database with 668 experimental data is collected and employed to validate the proposed protocol. The lowest leave-one-out root mean square (RMS) error for the database is 1.33 kcal/mol. Additionally, five subsets of the database, i.e., SAMPL0-SAMPL4, are employed to further demonstrate that the proposed protocol. The optimal RMS errors are 0.93, 2.82, 1.90, 0.78, and 1.03 kcal/mol, respectively, for SAMPL0, SAMPL1, SAMPL2, SAMPL3, and SAMPL4 test sets. The corresponding RMS errors for the polarizable Poisson model with the Amber Bondi radii are 0.93, 2.89, 1.90, 1.16, and 1.07 kcal/mol, respectively.

  20. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  1. Suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use were more at risk to severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-07-01

    Support System for Injury Surveillance”. Data collected by abstraction of medical records by trained personnel using registry form in patients who had hospitalized in 3 hospitals from January to August 2010. Severe head injury classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score 3-9 diagnosed severe head injury, 10-12 moderate head injury and 13-15 mild head injury. Results: Out of 450 injured patients, 36 patients (8% who had severe head injuries. Patient who was suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use had nearly 5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury [adjusted odds ratio (ORa=4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.04-21.75] compared to not suspected. Patient who was referred had a 5.5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury (ORa=5.50; 95% CI=2.28-13.27 compared with not referred. Injured person due to traffic accident than other type of accident had 3-fold increase the risk of severe head injury (ORa=3.43; 95% CI=1.14-10.32. Conclusion: Suspected alcohol or addictive narcotic was the highest risk to severe head injury. Campaign against alcohol and addictive narcotic should be done to prevent head injury severity. (Health Science Indones 2011;34-40

  2. A study of factors that influence the severity of neonatal narcotic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, E M; Chavez, C J; Strauss, M E

    1975-01-01

    1. History is unreliable in assessing maternal drug habit. Morphine was detected in significant amounts in maternal and fetal urine regardless of whether the mother was on a methadone program or whether she denied any use of heroin during the last trimester of pregnancy. 2. Infants born to drug-addicted mothers were, in general, of birthweight normal and appropriate for gestational age (i.e., greater that 10th percentile). The infants born to mothers on a methadone clinic program had a higher birthweight compared to those whose mothers were not on any methadone program. 3. In order of frequency, the signs and symptoms of withdrawal were: central nervous system manifestations-fist sucking, irritability, tremors, sneezing, high-pitch cry, hypertonia; vasomotor in the form of stuffy nose; and gastrointestinal in the form of sweating, diarrhea, vomiting and yawning. Convulsions were not noted. No death occurred. 4. The severity of neonatal narcotic withdrawal did not correlate with the infant's gestational age, APGAR, sex or race; nor with maternal age, parity, duration of heroin addiction or duration of methadone intake. Also, it did not correlate with the total morphine level measured either in infant's or mother's urine or in cord blood. The serum levels of calcium and glucose were normal and identical in either mild or severe withdrawal. 5. The severity of neonatal withdrawal correlated significantly with the methadone dose per day of the mother (in initial, final or average dose). A maternal methadone dose of more than 20 mg per day was associated with a higher incidence of moderate to severe withdrawal in their babies. As a corollary, it was also noted that infants whose mothers were on a high methadone dose (i.e., greater than 20 mg per day) had a greater postnatal weight loss despite a significantly higher birthweight initially, and stayed in the hospital longer. 6. Finally, the modification of the environment to reduce external stimuli to the infant born to a

  3. Heme and non-heme iron transporters in non-polarized and polarized cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme and non-heme iron from diet, and recycled iron from hemoglobin are important products of the synthesis of iron-containing molecules. In excess, iron is potentially toxic because it can produce reactive oxygen species through the Fenton reaction. Humans can absorb, transport, store, and recycle iron without an excretory system to remove excess iron. Two candidate heme transporters and two iron transporters have been reported thus far. Heme incorporated into cells is degraded by heme oxygenases (HOs, and the iron product is reutilized by the body. To specify the processes of heme uptake and degradation, and the reutilization of iron, we determined the subcellular localizations of these transporters and HOs. Results In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localizations of 2 isoenzymes of HOs, 4 isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, and 2 candidate heme transporters--heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1 and heme responsive gene-1 (HRG-1--in non-polarized and polarized cells. In non-polarized cells, HCP1, HRG-1, and DMT1A-I are located in the plasma membrane. In polarized cells, they show distinct localizations: HCP1 and DMT1A-I are located in the apical membrane, whereas HRG-1 is located in the basolateral membrane and lysosome. 16Leu at DMT1A-I N-terminal cytosolic domain was found to be crucial for plasma membrane localization. HOs are located in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and colocalize with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Conclusions HCP1 and DMT1A-I are localized to the apical membrane, and HRG-1 to the basolateral membrane and lysosome. These findings suggest that HCP1 and DMT1A-I have functions in the uptake of dietary heme and non-heme iron. HRG-1 can transport endocytosed heme from the lysosome into the cytosol. These localization studies support a model in which cytosolic heme can be degraded by HOs, and the resulting iron is exported into tissue fluids via the iron transporter ferroportin 1, which is

  4. Assessment Role of Participation in Narcotic Anonymous in Opiate Dependents during Abstinence

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    Hossien Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.

  5. Transactions in Desire: Media Imaginings of Narcotics and Terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Lewis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Australia (an outpost of Anglo-western culture and Indonesia (the world's most populous Muslim nation has always been precarious. Much of the Australian media and political 'mediasphere' have contributed to the destabilisation of this relationship, most particularly as many media professionals reduce complex transcultural and transnational engagement to simple and essentialised cultural dichotomies. This limited vision is evident in the popular media's treatment of two significant politico-cultural issues: regional terrorism and the trade in illicit narcotics. Within a context of the global war on terror and Islamic attacks in Bali, much of the Australian popular media and public have been particularly agitated by the conviction and death sentencing of a group of Australians (the Bali Nine who had attempted to smuggle heroin out of Indonesia. This article examines the interrelationship between drug trafficking and regional security in South East Asia, most specifically as the issues have been conflated through transnational politics and the Australian media. The article concludes that these issues have a common trajectory within the momentum of globalisation and the cultural imaginaries created through the modern mediasphere.

  6. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  7. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project.

  8. Adolescents' participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous: review, implications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Myers, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Youth treatment programs frequently employ 12-Step concepts and encourage participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Since AA/NA groups are easily accessible at no charge and provide flexible support at times of high relapse risk they hold promise as a treatment adjunct in an increasingly cost-constricting economic climate. Yet, due to concerns related to adolescents' developmental status, skepticism exists regarding the utility of AA/NA for youth. This review evaluates the empirical evidence in this regard, identifies and discusses knowledge gaps, and recommends areas for future research. Searches were conducted in PsychINFO, Medline, relevant literature and by personal correspondence. Findings suggest youth may benefit from AA/NA participation following treatment, but conclusions are limited by four important factors: (1) a small number of studies; (2) no studies with outpatients; (3) existing evidence is solely observational; and (4) only partial measurement of the 12-Step construct. While surveys of adolescent SUD treatment programs indicate widespread clinical interest and application of adult-derived 12-Step approaches this level of enthusiasm has not been reflected in the research community. Qualitative research is needed to improve our understanding of youth-specific AA/NA barriers, and efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and process studies are still needed to inform clinical practice guidelines for youth providers.

  9. Transactions in desire : media imaginings of narcotics and terrorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Australia (an outpost of Anglo-western culture and Indonesia (the world's most populous Muslim nation has always been precarious. Much of the Australian media and political 'mediasphere' have contributed to the destabilisation of this relationship, most particularly as many media professionals reduce complex transcultural and transnational engagement to simple and essentialised cultural dichotomies. This limited vision is evident in the popular media's treatment of two significant politico-cultural issues: regional terrorism and the trade in illicit narcotics. Within a context of the global war on terror and Islamic attacks in Bali, much of the Australian popular media and public have been particularly agitated by the conviction and death sentencing of a group of Australians (the Bali Nine who had attempted to smuggle heroin out of Indonesia. This article examines the interrelationship between drug trafficking and regional security in South East Asia, most specifically as the issues have been conflated through transnational politics and the Australian media. The article concludes that these issues have a common trajectory within the momentum of globalisation and the cultural imaginaries created through the modern mediasphere.

  10. Remarks on energetic conditions for positronium formation in non-polar solids. Coupled Dipole Method application

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrow, Marek

    2015-01-01

    A numerical program calculating an energy of a positron or (and) an electron near the free volume in solid n-alkanes has been build. The theory of interaction of e+ or (and) e- with this non-polar media based on polarizability has been introduced. The energy of the e+ -- e- pair in the bulk was compared to that calculated when the pair forms a positronium (Ps) inside the free volume. The calculations are based on the Coupled Dipole Method and the dipole-dipole interaction energy for induced dipoles is taken into account. Furthermore, a correction of a local permittivity for the e+ -- e- interaction is calculated taking into account the non-isotropic medium between them. The method is a step toward more accurate calculations of energetic conditions during the Ps formation in matter. The possibility of emission of the excess energy of the Ps formation as electromagnetic radiation is discussed. It is argued that if this radiation is observed, it can be used as a new spectroscopic tool providing information about...

  11. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  12. Optical Kerr Effect Spectroscopy of a Nonpolar Solute in Dicationic versus Monocationic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Eshan; Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Quitevis, Edward

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of the intermolecular dynamics of small nonpolar solute molecules in monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids (ILs) was performed using optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES). The optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectrum of CS2 in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)amide [C3mim][NTf2] and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) hexane bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)amide [C6(mim)2][NTf2]2 was investigated as a function of concentration at 295 K. An additivity model with components from the subpicosecond dynamics of IL and CS2 was used to interpret the OKE spectra of the mixtures. The spectrum of CS2 in the two ILs is lower in frequency and narrower than that of neat CS2. The spectrum of CS2 in the dicationic IL is higher in frequency than in the monocationic IL. This result shows that CS2 molecule experiences a stiffer potential in dicationic ILs as compared to monocationic ILs. Higher stiffness in C6(mim)2][NTf2]2 might be due to a more ordered arrangement and lower mobility of the alkyl chains linking the imidazolium rings. This work was supported by NSF Grant CHE-1153077.

  13. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  14. Roles of urea and TMAO on the interaction between extended non-polar peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoqian; Dias, Cristiano

    Urea and trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO) are small molecules known to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the structure of proteins when added to aqueous solution. To unravel the molecular mechanisms of these cosolvents on protein structure we perform explicit all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of extended poly-alanine and polyleucine dimers. We use an umbrella sampling protocol to compute the potential of mean force (PMF) of dimers at different concentrations of urea and TMAO. We find that the large non-polar side chain of leucine is affected by urea whereas backbone atoms and alanine's side chain are not. Urea is found to occupy positions between leucine's side chains that are not accessible to water. This accounts for extra Lennard-Jones bonds between urea and side chains that favors the unfolded state. These bonds compete with urea-solvent interactions that favor the folded state. The sum of these two energetic terms provide the enthalpic driving force for unfolding. We show here that this enthalpy correlate with the potential of mean force of poly-leucine dimers. Moreover, the framework developed here is general and may be used to provide insights into effects of other small molecules on protein interactions. The effect of the TMAO will be in the presentation. Department of Physics, University Heights, Newark, New Jersey, 07102-1982.

  15. Competitive and cooperative adsorption behaviors of phenol and aniline onto nonpolar macroreticular adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ming; CHEN Jin-long; PAN Bing-cai; ZHANG Quan-xing

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of phenol and aniline on nonpolar macroreticular adsorbents( NDA100 and Amberlite XAD4) were investigated in single or binary batch system at 293K and 313K respectively in this study. The results indicated that the adsorption isotherms of phenol and aniline on both adsorbents in both systems fitted well Langmuir equation, which indicated a favourable and exothermic process. At the lower equilibrium concentrations, the individual amount adsorbed of phenol or aniline or macroreticular adsorbents in single-component systems was higher than those in binary-component systems because of the competition between phenol and aniline towards the adsorption sites. It is noteworthy, on the contrast, that at higher concentrations, the total uptake amounts of phenol and aniline in binary-component systems were obviously larger than that in single-component systems, and a large excess was noted on the adsorbent surface at saturation, which is presumably due to the cooperative effect primarily arisen from the hydrogen bonding or weak acidbase interaction between phenol and aniline.

  16. Self-consistent theory of nanodomain formation on nonpolar surfaces of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Ievlev, Anton V.; Obukhovskii, Vyacheslav V.; Fomichov, Yevhen; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a self-consistent theoretical approach capable of describing the features of the anisotropic nanodomain formation induced by a strongly inhomogeneous electric field of a charged scanning probe microscopy tip on nonpolar cuts of ferroelectrics. We obtained that a threshold field, previously regarded as an isotropic parameter, is an anisotropic function that is specified from the polar properties and lattice pinning anisotropy of a given ferroelectric in a self-consistent way. The proposed method for the calculation of the anisotropic threshold field is not material specific, thus the field should be anisotropic in all ferroelectrics with the spontaneous polarization anisotropy along the main crystallographic directions. The most evident examples are uniaxial ferroelectrics, layered ferroelectric perovskites, and low-symmetry incommensurate ferroelectrics. Obtained results quantitatively describe the differences at several times in the nanodomain length experimentally observed on X and Y cuts of LiNb O3 and can give insight into the anisotropic dynamics of nanoscale polarization reversal in strongly inhomogeneous electric fields.

  17. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J-H; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei

    2014-03-01

    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene) and model polar compounds (1-naphthol, 1-naphthylamine, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dinitrotoluene). GONPs exhibited strong adsorption affinities for all the test compounds, with distribution coefficients on the order of 10(3)-10(6) L/kg. Adsorption to GONPs is much more linear than to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and C60, likely because GO nanoflakes are essentially individually dispersed (rendering adsorption sites of similar adsorption energy) whereas CNT/C60 are prone to bundling/aggregation. For a given compound GONPs and CNTs often exhibit different adsorption affinities, which is attributable to the differences in both the morphology and surface chemistry between the two nanomaterials. Particularly, the high surface O-content of GONPs enables strong H-bonding and Lewis acid-base interactions with hydroxyl- and amino-substituted aromatics.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Behaviours of Non-Polar Droplets Merging and Interactions with Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Y.Yan; C.Y.Ji

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a molecular dynamics simulation of the behaviours of non-polar droplets merging and also the fluid molecules interacting with a hydrophobic surface. Such behaviours and transport phenomena are popular in general micro-channel flow boiling and two-phase flow. The droplets are assumed to be composed of Lennards-Jones type molecules. Periodic boundary conditions are applied in three coordinate directions ofa 3-D system, where there exist two liquid droplets and their vapour. The two droplets merge when they come within the prescribed small distance. The merging of two droplets apart from each other at different initial distances is tested and the possible larger (or critical) non-dimensional distance, in which droplets merging can occur, is discussed. The evolution of the merging process is simulated numerically by employing the Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. For interactions with hydrophobic solid wail, a system with fluid confined between two walls is used to study the wetting phenomena of fluid and solid wail. The results are compared with those of hydrophilic wall to show the unique characteristics of hydrophobic interactions by microscopic methods.

  19. Piezoelectricity and rotostriction through polar and non-polar coupled instabilities in bismuth-based piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Matias; Schmitt, Ljubomira A.; Cazorla, Claudio; Studer, Andrew; Zintler, Alexander; Glaum, Julia; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Donner, Wolfgang; Hoffman, Mark; Rödel, Jürgen; Hinterstein, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Coupling of order parameters provides a means to tune functionality in advanced materials including multiferroics, superconductors, and ionic conductors. We demonstrate that the response of a frustrated ferroelectric state leads to coupling between order parameters under electric field depending on grain orientation. The strain of grains oriented along a specific crystallographic direction, , is caused by converse piezoelectricity originating from a ferrodistortive tetragonal phase. For hhh> oriented grains, the strain results from converse piezoelectricity and rotostriction, as indicated by an antiferrodistortive instability that promotes octahedral tilting in a rhombohedral phase. Both strain mechanisms combined lead to a colossal local strain of (2.4 ± 0.1) % and indicate coupling between oxygen octahedral tilting and polarization, here termed “rotopolarization”. These findings were confirmed with electromechanical experiments, in situ neutron diffraction, and in situ transmission electron microscopy in 0.75Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-0.25SrTiO3. This work demonstrates that polar and non-polar instabilities can cooperate to provide colossal functional responses.

  20. Analysis of current transport properties in nonpolar a-plane ZnO-based Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hogyoung [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeri; Kim, Dongwook [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Using current-voltage (I - V) measurements, we investigated the temperature-dependent transport properties in Ag/nonpolar a-plane ZnO Schottky diodes. The bias-dependent ideality factors were altered by the different temperatures and showed a hump at lower temperatures. The series resistance of the diode depended on the temperatures, which was related to the number of free carriers contributing to the series resistance. For high forward bias, the slope m obtained from the lnI - lnV curves decreased with increasing temperature, assuring the space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) model controlled by an exponential distribution of traps. The reverse-biased current transport was associated with the Schottky effect, with a thermally-assisted tunneling for lower voltages and the Poole-Frenkel effect for higher voltages. The density of localized states (N{sub t}) was obtained by applying the theory of SCLC transport, which yielded a N{sub t} value of 8.32 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1}cm{sup -3}.

  1. Homoepitaxial nonpolar (10-10) ZnO/ZnMgO monolithic microcavities: Towards reduced photonic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Perez, J., E-mail: jzp@crhea.cnrs.fr; Kappei, L.; Deparis, C.; Chenot, S.; Leroux, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Reveret, F.; Jamadi, O.; Leymarie, J. [Clermont Université, Institut Pascal (IP), BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6602, IP, F-63171 Aubière (France); Grundmann, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Prado, E. de [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)

    2016-06-20

    Nonpolar ZnO/ZnMgO-based optical microcavities have been grown on (10-10) m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflectivity measurements indicate an exponential increase of the cavity quality factor with the number of layers in the distributed Bragg reflectors. Most importantly, microreflectivity spectra recorded with a spot size in the order of 2 μm show a negligible photonic disorder (well below 1 meV), leading to local quality factors equivalent to those obtained by macroreflectivity. The anisotropic character of the nonpolar heterostructures manifests itself both in the surface features, elongated parallel to the in-plane c direction, and in the optical spectra, with two cavity modes being observed at different energies for orthogonal polarizations.

  2. An analytical method of predicting Lee-Kesler-Ploecker binary interaction coefficients: Part 1, For non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.

  3. Chemical Profile and Biological Potential of Non-Polar Fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract. The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6% and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%. Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (--loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid, terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol, lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC50 = 19.1 μg.mL−1 and trypomastigote IC50 = 76.2 μg.mL−1. The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg by TLC-bioautography.

  4. Chemical profile and biological potential of non-polar fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Otávio P; De Felício, Rafael; Rodrigues, Ana Helena B; Ambrósio, Daniela L; Cicarelli, Regina Maria B; De Albuquerque, Sérgio; Young, Maria Claudia M; Yokoya, Nair S; Debonsi, Hosana M

    2011-08-19

    The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC(50) = 19.1 μg.mL-1 and trypomastigote IC(50) = 76.2 μg.mL-1). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography.

  5. Differences between Lipids Extracted from Five Species Are Not Sufficient To Explain Biomagnification of Nonpolar Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Holmbäck, Jan; Andersson, Rina Argelia

    2015-01-01

    headspace from spiked olive oil to determine their sorptive capacities. Lipids from seal blubber and pork bacon solely composed of triglycerides had capacities similar to that of olive oil; lipids from mussels, herring, and guillemot egg had quantifiable fractions of phospholipids and cholesterol and showed...... capacities reduced by factors of up to 2.3-fold. Generally, the sorptive capacities of the lipids were not elevated relative to the olive oil controls and are unlikely to explain a substantial part of biomagnification....

  6. The atomic structure of polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells and the green gap problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, C J; Griffiths, J T; Tang, F; Oehler, F; Findlay, S D; Zheng, C; Etheridge, J; Martin, T L; Bagot, P A J; Moody, M P; Sutherland, D; Dawson, P; Schulz, S; Zhang, S; Fu, W Y; Zhu, T; Kappers, M J; Oliver, R A

    2017-02-03

    We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations. The electrons are localised at the top QW interface by the built-in electric field and the well-width fluctuations, with a localisation energy of typically 20meV. The holes are localised near the bottom QW interface, by indium fluctuations in the random alloy, with a localisation energy of typically 60meV. On the other hand, the non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs contain nanometre-scale indium-rich clusters which we suggest localise the carriers and produce longer wavelength (lower energy) emission than from random alloy non-polar InGaN QWs of the same average composition. The reason for the indium-rich clusters in non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs is not yet clear, but may be connected to the lower QW growth temperature for the (11-20) InGaN QWs compared to the (0001) polar InGaN QWs.

  7. Tailoring of polar and nonpolar ZnO planes on MgO (001) substrates through molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Xia-Xia; Zhang, Yufeng; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Ou; Muhemmed, Emin; Qian, Hai-Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Chen, Xiaohang; Zhan, Huahan; Kang, Junyong

    2012-03-09

    Polar and nonpolar ZnO thin films were deposited on MgO (001) substrates under different deposition parameters using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The orientations of ZnO thin films were investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The film roughness measured by atomic force microscopy evolved as a function of substrate temperature and was correlated with the grain sizes determined by XRD. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed to study the conduction band structures of the ZnO films. The fine structures of the XAS spectra, which were consistent with the results of density functional theory calculation, indicated that the polar and nonpolar ZnO films had different electronic structures. Our work suggests that it is possible to vary ZnO film structures from polar to nonpolar using the MBE growth technique and hence tailoring the electronic structures of the ZnO films.PACS: 81; 81.05.Dz; 81.15.Hi.

  8. The nature of carrier localisation in polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Schulz, S.; Oliver, R. A.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the experimental data and the theoretical predictions of the low temperature optical properties of polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. In both types of structure, the optical properties at low temperatures are governed by the effects of carrier localisation. In polar structures, the effect of the in-built electric field leads to electrons being mainly localised at well width fluctuations, whereas holes are localised at regions within the quantum wells, where the random In distribution leads to local minima in potential energy. This leads to a system of independently localised electrons and holes. In nonpolar quantum wells, the nature of the hole localisation is essentially the same as the polar case but the electrons are now coulombically bound to the holes forming localised excitons. These localisation mechanisms are compatible with the large photoluminescence linewidths of the polar and nonpolar quantum wells as well as the different time scales and form of the radiative recombination decay curves.

  9. Interactions of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol with polar and nonpolar species in water at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2017-01-18

    Methanol is known as a strong inhibitor of hydrate formation, but clathrate hydrates of ethanol and 1-propanol can be formed in the presence of help gases. To elucidate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic effects of alcohols, their interactions with simple solute species are investigated in glassy, liquid, and crystalline water using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Nonpolar solute species embedded underneath amorphous solid water films are released during crystallization, but they tend to withstand water crystallization under the coexistence of methanol additives. The CO2 additives are released after crystallization along with methanol desorption. These results suggest strongly that nonpolar species that are hydrated (i.e., caged) associatively with methanol can withstand water crystallization. In contrast, ethanol and 1-propanol additives weakly affect the dehydration of nonpolar species during water crystallization, suggesting that the former tend to be caged separately from the latter. The hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic behavior of alcohols, which differs according to the aliphatic group length, also manifests itself in the different abilities of surface segregation of alcohols and their effects on the water crystallization kinetics.

  10. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    characteristics are obtained for measuring transducer. Its quality factor has been determined – it does not depend on what it is filled with air or oil. The moisture content in transformer oil for the amount of water to 10-3 % with an error of no more than 6.7 % has been determined. Originality. It has been proposed to use of an inhomogeneous step coaxial resonator as a measuring transducer. Original high sensitive moisture meter for the fluid at rest and flowing fluid with low values of parasitic capacitances has been developed and researched. An original method of determining the moisture by measuring the two frequencies of resonance has been proposed and implemented. Practical value. This meter may be used to determine moisture in any of the non-polar liquid with high speed and accuracy. Moisture meter can be used in electrical engineering, aeronautical engineering, in the chemical and food industries.

  11. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2008-05-07

    Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition), the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time) the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs--particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver--supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms--along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  12. Return to Galileo? The Inquisition of the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nearly 400 years after Galileo Galilei of Florence was arraigned and convicted of suspected heresy by the ten member Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB is similarly inserting itself into matters pertaining to innovations in healthcare and the public health response to addiction throughout the world. Like that earlier Inquisition of 1633 that convicted Galileo of heresy for holding that the sun is the centre of the universe with the earth revolving around it (in contradiction to church doctrine of the time the INCB and its thirteen-member panel, now rails against any evidence out of sync with the established doctrine of the war on drugs – particularly those innovations in public health called harm reduction. The latest healthcare and harm reduction practices to attract the ire of the INCB Inquisition are elements of Canada's most effective and innovative measures to minimize the harms of drugs in Vancouver – supervised injection facilities and, recently, the potential establishment of supervised inhalation rooms – along with the long established practice of providing safer mouthpieces for pulmonary inhalation in British Columbia. This is particularly significant as it comes in the midst of a crucial battle between municipal and provincial authorities in BC with the federal government in Ottawa, which seems determined to undermine all the most effective HR programs that are the result of years of steady local and governmental support in Vancouver and now threatens to derail all these programs and spread doubt about their usefulness despite the overwhelmingly positive findings of serous research.

  13. Preclinical toxicity and teratogenicity studies with the narcotic antagonist analgesic drug TR5379M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M C; Hartnagel, R E; Clemens, G R; Kowalski, R L; Bare, J J; Halliwell, W E; Kitchen, D N

    1983-01-01

    The narcotic antagonist TR5379M had po LD50 values of 365 and 750 mg/kg and iv LD50 values of 35.0 and 22.3 mg/kg in the mouse and rat, respectively. Subchronic (one month) po administration to rats at 40, 120, or 400 mg/kg/day and to cynomolgus monkeys at 20, 45, or 100 mg/kg/day showed the compound to be well tolerated at doses of 40 and 45 mg/kg, respectively. Deaths during the subchronic studies included one monkey following a single dose of 100 mg/kg and six rats following repeated doses of 400 mg/kg. Signs of toxicosis in rats included clonic convulsions (high-dose animals only) and mild dose-related salivation and hyperactivity. Signs of toxicosis in monkeys were limited to sporadic emesis and transiently decreased food consumption at all three dose levels. Emesis was not observed at doses of 20 or 45 mg/kg after the first week. Slightly increased weights (not significant at 40 mg/kg) for thyroid and adrenal glands occurred in male rats. Gross, microscopic, and clinical pathologic examinations revealed no treatment-related adverse effects at any dose level for either species. Administration of TR5379M to pregnant rats (20, 70, or 250 mg/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation) caused no teratogenicity or embryotoxicity and did not adversely affect any of the reproductive parameters examined. Dams given TR5379M at doses of 70 and 250 mg/kg salivated and had reduced weight gain. It was concluded from these studies that TR5379M has an adequate margin of safety to begin clinical investigations.

  14. Comparative Study of the Characteristics of the Basal Plane Stacking Faults of Nonpolar a-Plane and Semipolar (11(2)2) GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-Rui; HAO Yue; LIN Zhi-Yu; XUE Xiao-Yong; LIU Zi-Yang; MA Jun-Cai; JIANG Teng; MAO Wei; WANG Dang-Hui; ZHANG Jin-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar (11-20) and semipolar (11222) GaN are grown on r-plane and m-plane sapphire by MOCVD to investigate the characteristics of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs). Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the density of BSFs for the semipolar (11-22) and nonpolar a-plane GaN template is 3×105cm-1 and 8×10 cm'1, respectively. The semipolar (11-22) GaN shows an arrowhead-like structure, and the nonpolar a-plane GaN has a much smoother morphology with a streak along the c-axis. Both nonpolar (11-20) and semipolar (11-22) GaN have very strong BSF luminescence due to the optically active character of the BSFs.%Nonpolar (11(2)0) and semipolar (11(2)2) GaN are grown on r-plane and m-plane sapphire by MOCVD to investigate the characteristics of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs).Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the density of BSFs for the semipolar (11(2)2) and nonpolar a-plane GaN template is 3x105 cm-1 and 8×105 cm-1,respectively.The semipolar (11(2)2) GaN shows an arrowhead-like structure,and the nonpolar a-plane GaN has a much smoother morphology with a streak along the c-axis.Both nonpolar (11(2)0) and semipolar (11(2)2) GaN have very strong BSF luminescence due to the optically active character of the BSFs.

  15. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  16. The Ultimum Remedium Principle In The Context Of Criminal Punishment Against Children As An Actor Of Narcotics Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syachdin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug abuse has grown over the days with significant development. Narcotics crime actually not only brings individual actors but tends to be a criminal offense syndicate or covert organization over the worlds. In this case the syndicate allegedly not only brings perpetrators of adults but feared the actors who are categorized as a child in accordance with the applicable laws. On the other side children occupy a special place in the law. Basic philosophy of the treatment of juvenile delinquents is for the best interests of the child but the fact that peoples behavior lately is very alarming how society is so easy to judge people suspected as perpetrators of criminal acts. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the ultimum remedium principle as the basis for criminal punishment in the Indonesian criminal system in order to understand how the crisis is influencing drug phenomenon and drugs users lives and the extent of their impact on the settlement of narcotics crime against children as an offender. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Law No. 11 of 2012 regarding the Criminal Justice System for Juvenile Delinquency Rules of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 2014 on Guidelines for Diversion and Law No. 35 of 2009 regarding Narcotics Crime have been given the freedom and legitimacy to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium in handling cases of children in conflict with the law. As it turns out in practice however the ultimum remedium principle is rarely applied and tends to be overlooked in the process of juvenile justice.

  17. Recent Advances in Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jongjin; Woo, Seohwi; Min, Daehong; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-03-01

    The III-nitrides have attracted much attention because of their applicability in optoelectronic devices, whose emission wavelengths range from green to ultraviolet light due to their wide band gap. However, conventional c-plane GaN-based devices are influenced significantly by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects, which could pose a limitation for increased luminous efficiency as a result of the quantum confined stark effect. Since the early 2000s, many groups have tried to solve these problems by examining the growth of GaN on non- or semipolar surface planes. High power non- and semipolar LEDs can be realized by the growth of a thick active layer. In addition, it is expected that it is possible to grow nonpolar InGaN LEDs with high quality p-GaN layers due to lower hole activation energy, and also long-wavelength semipolar InGaN LEDs because of the capacity for high indium incorporation in the quantum wells (QWs). However, non- and semipolar structures grown on sapphire substrate usually contain a high density of basal stacking faults and threading dislocations. For this reason, the growth of non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs on a sapphire substrate has been attempted through the introduction of defect reduction techniques such as epitaxial lateral overgrowth, patterned sapphire substrate and re-growth techniques on a porous GaN layer, etc. Also, some researchers have grown high quality non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs using non- and semipolar freestanding GaN substrates. In this review paper, we introduce and discuss recent progress in the development of non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs and freestanding GaN substrates.

  18. Schottky contact formation on polar and non-polar AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Pramod; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Tweedie, James; Kirste, Ronny; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)

    2014-11-21

    The interfaces of m- and c-plane AlN with metals of different work functions and electro-negativities were characterized and the Schottky barrier heights were measured. The Schottky barrier height was determined by measuring the valence band maximum (VBM) with respect to the Fermi level at the surface (interface) before (after) metallization. VBM determination included accurate modeling and curve fitting of density of states at the valence band edge with the XPS data. The experimental behavior of the barrier heights could not be explained by the Schottky-Mott model and was modeled using InterFace-Induced Gap States (IFIGS). A slope parameter (S{sub X}) was used to incorporate the density of surface states and is a measure of Fermi level pinning. The experimental barriers followed theoretical predictions with a barrier height at the surface Fermi level (Charge neutrality level (CNL)) of ∼2.1 eV (∼2.7 eV) on m-plane (c-plane) and S{sub X} ∼ 0.36 eV/Miedema unit. Slope parameter much lower than 0.86 implied a surface/interface states dominated behavior with significant Fermi level pinning and the measured barrier heights were close to the CNL. Titanium and zirconium provided the lowest barriers (1.6 eV) with gold providing the highest (2.3 eV) among the metals analyzed on m-plane. It was consistently found that barrier heights decreased from metal polar to non-polar surfaces, in general, due to an increasing CNL. The data indicated that charged IFIGS compensate spontaneous polarization charge. These barrier height and slope parameter measurements provided essential information for designing Schottky diodes and other contact-based devices on AlN.

  19. Foaming properties of monoglycerol fatty acid esters in nonpolar oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji; Kato, Hiroyuki; Takase, Yoshihiko; Kunieda, Hironobu

    2006-09-26

    Foaming properties of monoglycerol fatty acid esters that have different alkyl chain lengths were studied in different nonpolar oils, namely liquid paraffin (LP 70), squalane, and squalene. The effect of the hydrocarbon chain length of the surfactant, the concentration, the nature of the oil, and the temperature on the nonaqueous foam stability was mainly studied. Five weight percent of glycerol alpha-monododecanoate (monolaurin) formed highly stable foams in squalane at 25 degrees C, and the foams were stable for more than 14 h. Foam stability of the monolaurin/LP 70 and the monolaurin/squalene systems are almost similar, and the foams were stable for more than 12 h. Foam stability was decreased as the hydrocarbon chain length of the monoglyceride decreased. In the glycerol alpha-monodecanoate (monocaprin)-oil systems, the foams were stable only for 3-4 h, depending on the nature of the oil. However, the foams formed in the glycerol alpha-monooctanoate (monocaprylin)-oil systems coarsened very quickly, leading to the progressive destruction of foam films, and all of the foams collapsed within a few minutes. Foam stability decreased when the oil was changed from squalane to squalene, in both monocaprin and monolaurin systems. It was observed that, in the dilute regions, these monoglycerides form fine solid dispersions in the aforementioned oils at 25 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the solid melts to isotropic single-liquid or two-liquid phases and the foams formed collapsed within 5 min. Judging from the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and the foaming test, it is concluded that the stable foams are mainly caused by the dispersion of the surfactant solids (beta-crystal) and foam stability is largely influenced by the shape and size of the dispersed solid particles.

  20. Probes for Narcotic Receptor Mediated Phenomena. 39. Enantiomeric N-Substituted Benzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols: Synthesis and Topological Relationship to Oxide-Bridged Phenylmorphans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    1989, 32, 2221–2226. (4) Burke, T. R. Jr.; Jacobson, A. E.; Rice, K. C.; Silverton , J. V. Probes for Narcotic Receptor Mediated Phenomena. 4...Chem. 1984, 49, 1051–1056. (5) Burke, T. R.Jr.; Jacobson, A. E.; Rice, K. C.; Silverton , J. V. Probes for Narcotic Receptor Mediated Phenomena. 6

  1. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J

    2007-06-01

    This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed.

  2. Kinetic and fluid descriptions of charged particle swarms in gases and nonpolar fluids: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujko, Sasa

    2016-09-01

    In this work we review the progress achieved over the last few decades in the fundamental kinetic theory of charged particle swarms with the focus on numerical techniques for the solution of Boltzmann's equation for electrons, as well as on the development of fluid models. We present a time-dependent multi term solution of Boltzmann's equation valid for electrons and positrons in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields. The capacity of a theory and associated computer code will be illustrated by considering the heating mechanisms for electrons in radio-frequency electric and magnetic fields in a collision-dominated regime under conditions when electron transport is greatly affected by non-conservative collisions. The kinetic theory for solving the Boltzmann equation will be followed by a fluid equation description of charged particle swarms in both the hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic regimes, highlighting (i) the utility of momentum transfer theory for evaluating collisional terms in the balance equations and (ii) closure assumptions and approximations. The applications of this theory are split into three sections. First, we will present our 1.5D model of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) which are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments. The model is employed to study the avalanche to streamer transition in RPCs under the influence of space charge effects and photoionization. Second, we will discuss our high-order fluid model for streamer discharges. Particular emphases will be placed on the correct implementation of transport data in streamer models as well as on the evaluation of the mean-energy-dependent collision rates for electrons required as an input in the high-order fluid model. In the last segment of this work, we will present our model to study the avalanche to streamer transition in non-polar fluids. Using a Monte Carlo simulation technique we have calculated transport coefficients for electrons in

  3. White light-emitting diodes based on nonpolar and semipolar gallium nitride orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demille, Natalie Fellows

    Gallium nitride has become one of the key components when fabricating white light-emitting diodes. Its use as the blue source in conjunction with a wavelength converter such as the yellow emitting phosphor YAG:Ce 3+ is a technology that is commercially available and usable for solid state lighting applications. Currently available white phosphor-based LEDs (pcLEDs) use the basal plane of wurtzite GaN as their source. Although research over the past couple decades has developed this technology into devices with good photometric performance and high reliability, the introduction of nonbasal plane wurtzite GaN orientations have benefits over basal plane GaN that can be incorporated into the white LED. The focus of this research deals with exploring white illumination on nonpolar and semipolar planes of GaN. Light extraction techniques will be described that allowed for high output powers and efficiencies on the c-plane as well as the (1100), (10 11), and (1122) planes of GaN. With higher performing devices, white pcLEDs were fabricated on c-plane, m-plane, and the (1011) semipolar plane. The novelty in the present research is producing white LEDs with nonbasal plane diodes which exhibit optical polarization anisotropy. This feature, absent on the basal plane, allows for tuning photometric quantities both electrically and optically. This is demonstrated on pcLEDs as well as dichromatic LEDs comprised solely of InGaN diodes. As a consequence of these measurements, an apparent optical polarization was seen to be occurring in the luminescence of the YAG:Ce3+ when the system absorbed linearly polarized light. Polarized emission in YAG:Ce3+ was explored by obtaining single crystals of YAG:Ce3+ with different planar orientations. The experiments led to the conclusion that crystal orientation plays no part in the optical polarization. It is suggested that the cause is a result of electric dipole transitions given by various selection rules between the Ce 3+ ion's 4f and 5d

  4. Foundational aspects of the concept of chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    -dwelling organisms and differences in chemical activity determine the direction and extent of diffusion between environmental compartments [1,2]. This makes chemical activity a meaningfull and well-defined exposure parameter that is closely linked to fugacity and freely dissolved concentration [2]. Classical...... toxicological studies have provided the first indication that narcosis occurs within a relatively narrow band of chemical activity [3-5], and during the last 10 years several studies have confirmed this for the „baseline toxicity“ of non-polar organic chemicals and their mixtures [6-8]. The first aim...

  5. The flotation of Roşia Poieni copper ore in column machine, with non-polar oils addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocani V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important natural resource of copper in Romania is the ore deposit of Roşia Poieni. At present, the utilization of Roşia Poieni poorphyry copper ore is possible by extraction in quarry of the mass ore and mineral processing into a technological flux with modest results for the value of metal recovery in concentrate 70-72 % and an average contents of 16,5 % Cu. Our researches were directed to studies regarding test and utilisation of special procedure of flotation – addition of the non-polar oil – applied to advanced grinding ore with column type machines.

  6. Free ion yields for nonpolar liquids exposed to 1.6-3.5 keV X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Holroyd, R A

    1998-01-01

    The yields of free ions formed following absorption of 1.6-3.5 keV X-rays were determined for several nonpolar liquids using a conductivity technique. The yields are much less for X-rays than for gamma rays; this effect is largest for branched hydrocarbons. A minimum in yield is observed around 2 keV. The dependence of G sub f sub i sup o on X-ray energy is in good agreement with computer simulations. For tetramethylsilane a sharp dip in ion yield is observed at the Si ls -> sigma sup * resonance, indicating that the free electron yield is even less at this energy.

  7. Annual Report for the Year 1983 of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This annual report describes the activities of the House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control in 1983 and makes recommendations to the House of Representatives to control the worldwide problem of drug abuse and drug trafficking. An initial section of the report describes the jurisdiction, authority, funding, and organization of the…

  8. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  9. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China during 2011-2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A "Plan, Do, Check, Act" cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China, (April 2012-October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements have been

  10. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. II. Absorption cross-sections of nonpolar ice molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Diaz, G A; Chen, Y -J; Yih, T -S

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains in cold circumstellar regions and dark-cloud interiors at 10-20 K are covered by ice mantles. A nonthermal desorption mechanism is invoked to explain the presence of gas-phase molecules in these environments, such as the photodesorption induced by irradiation of ice due to secondary ultraviolet photons. To quantify the effects of ice photoprocessing, an estimate of the photon absorption in ice mantles is required. In a recent work, we reported the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecules in the solid phase. The aim was to estimate the VUV-absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecular ice components, including CH4, CO2, N2, and O2. The column densities of the ice samples deposited at 8 K were measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. We found that, as expected, solid N2 has the lowest VUV-absorption cros...

  11. Radiative recombination mechanisms in polar and non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, T. J.; Ali, M.; Zhu, T.; Pristovsek, M.; Oliver, R. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    We study the photoluminescence internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and recombination dynamics in a pair of polar and non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diode (LED) structures as a function of excess carrier density and temperature. In the polar LED at 293 K, the variation of radiative and non-radiative lifetimes is well described by a modified ABC type model which accounts for the background carrier concentration in the QWs due to unintentional doping. As the temperature is reduced, the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to excess carrier density becomes progressively weaker. We attribute this behaviour to the reduced mobility of the localised electrons and holes at low temperatures, resulting in a more monomolecular like radiative process. Thus we propose that in polar QWs, the degree of carrier localisation determines the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to the excess carrier density. In the non-polar LED, the radiative lifetime is independent of excitation density at room temperature, consistent with a wholly excitonic recombination mechanism. These findings have significance for the interpretation of LED efficiency data within the context of the ABC recombination model.

  12. Effects of growth temperature on nonpolar a-plane InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore-560013 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Centre of Excellence in Information and Communication Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur-342011 (India); Sinha, Neeraj [Office of Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India, New Delhi 110011 (India); Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India); Jali, V.M. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Nonpolar a-plane InN films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with GaN underlayer. Effect of growth temperature on structural, morphological, and optical properties has been studied. The growth of nonpolar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) orientation was confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction study. The film grown at 500 C shows better crystallinity with the rocking curve FWHM 0.67 and 0.85 along [0 0 0 1] and [1 -1 0 0] directions, respectively. Scanning electron micrograph shows formation of Indium droplets at higher growth temperature. Room tem-perature absorption spectra show growth temperature dependent band gap variation from 0.74-0.81 eV, consistent with the expected Burstein-Moss effect. The rectifying behaviour of the I-V curve indicates the existence of Schottky barrier at the InN and GaN interface. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effects of n-alkanes on compositions of cellular non-polar lipids in Aspergillus sp. isolated from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazima, M.; Iida, M.; Iizuka, H.

    1985-01-01

    A strain of hydrocarbon-using filamentous fungi, Aspergillus sp. No. 250-2, was grown on n-alkanes (C/sub 11/ to C/sub 16/) and glucose as the sole carbon and energy sources, and the distribution of cellular non-polar lipids was determined. The non-polar lipids were examined by thin-layer chromatography; they were sterols, sterol esters, diglycerides, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and the major lipids were free fatty acids and triglycerides on all substrates. Free fatty acids were mainly even-chain saturated acids on all substrates. When grown on n-C/sub 11/ to 15, the unsaturated fatty acids were mainly incorporated into triglyceride, but there were saturated fatty acids with n-C/sub 16/ and glucose. The proportion of C/sub 16/.0 acid was increased markedly in n-C/sub 16/-grown cells, but C18:0 acid was increased in glucose-grown cells. Compositions of odd-chain fatty acids were slightly increased in both free fatty acids and triglycerides from n-C/sub 15/-grown cells. It is suggested that n-alkanes as substrates influenced the incorporation of fatty acids into triglyceride.

  14. PAH-induced sublethal narcosis alters the bioenergetics and bioaccumulation of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, A. [NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, Hazardous Materials and Response, Seattle (United States); Beard, E.; Baker, B. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Accumulation of non-polar narcotic chemicals in organisms alters their metabolic rates and, therefore their energetic demands. Since exposure of these hydrophobic chemicals is primarily through the diet, we hypothesize that decreasing metabolic rates caused by accumulation of narcotics reduces feeding which, in turn, decreases further exposure to the narcotic. Thus, dietary exposure to and accumulation of narcotics may cause a negative feedback, reducing net bioaccumulation. The purpose of this short paper is to discuss the results of a long-term fish contaminant exposure study and to describe a fish bioenergetics model coupled to a PCBbioaccumulation model. The laboratory component consisted of exposing the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus to environmentally-relevant levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) through their diet. We developed the model to further examine and understand the consequences of sublethal narcosis at both the individual and population levels of Fundulus heteroclitus.

  15. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  16. Narcotic effects produced by nitrous oxide and hyperbaric nitrogen narcosis in rats performing a fixed-ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turle-Lorenzo, N; Zouani, B; Risso, J J

    1999-09-01

    Narcosis is a neurological syndrome that reduces capacities of divers. Although this phenomenon appeared at the end of 19th century, the mechanisms are not yet elucidated. The greatest technical problem is that these studies are carried out under hyperbaric conditions. Nitrous oxide is known to be an inducer of narcosis, at atmospheric pressure. The aim of this study is to compare two narcotic environments; a normobaric narcosis under several percentages of nitrous oxide, and an hyperbaric narcosis under 0.9 MPa of Nitrox (N2O2 mixture). This comparison is realized on rats submitted to a fixed-ratio 15 test, in which they have to press a lever to get rewarded. The results show significant performances decreases: the number of pressed lever are reduced by 50% under Nitrox and by 70% under N2O. Nitrous oxide could be considered as a normobaric model of hyperbaric narcosis.

  17. A categorical review on electroanalytical determination of non-narcotic over-the-counter abused antitussive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Neeta; Patel, Harun; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Goyal, Rajendra N; Patel, Rajkumar

    2015-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) and diphenhydramine (DPH) are two commonly used over-the-counter non-narcotic antitussive drugs. Recent reports reveal the widespread abuse of DXM and DPH due to their euphoric and alcohol-like effects. Due to their medicinal importance as well as the apparent increase in their use as abused drugs, it has become critical to determine them in samples of biological, clinical and pharmaceutical interest. The electrochemical techniques for drug analysis have gathered considerable attention due to their pronounced selectivity, sensitivity and simplicity. The given review presents a compilation of published voltammetric and potentiometric methods developed for determination of DXM and DPH. It critically highlights the analytical performances, revealing the recent trends and progress in the specified approach for their analysis. The review forms a basis for further progress in this field and development of improved electrochemical sensors to determine the drug.

  18. Antidepressant-like effect of centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive caramiphen in a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Shima, Eriko; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2010-09-13

    Recently, we reported that a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats. Because pharmacological properties of tipepidine apparently differ from those of typical antidepressants developed to date, we speculated that caramiphen, another centrally acting antitussive, has an antidepressant-like effect. That effect of caramiphen was studied in rats using the forced swimming test. Caramiphen at 20 and 40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced immobility. At 40mg/kg i.p., it increased climbing behavior. Even at 40mg/kg, this drug had no effect on locomotor activity. Results suggest that a centrally acting antitussive possessing inhibition of GIRK channels has an antidepressant-like effect.

  19. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  20. Broad spectrum infrared thermal desorption of wipe-based explosive and narcotic samples for trace mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Staymates, Matthew; Sisco, Edward

    2017-08-07

    Wipe collected analytes were thermally desorbed using broad spectrum near infrared heating for mass spectrometric detection. Employing a twin tube filament-based infrared emitter, rapid and efficiently powered thermal desorption and detection of nanogram levels of explosives and narcotics was demonstrated. The infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) platform developed here used multi-mode heating (direct radiation and secondary conduction from substrate and subsequent convection from air) and a temperature ramp to efficiently desorb analytes with vapor pressures across eight orders of magnitude. The wipe substrate experienced heating rates up to (85 ± 2) °C s(-1) with a time constant of (3.9 ± 0.2) s for 100% power emission. The detection of trace analytes was also demonstrated from complex mixtures, including plastic-bonded explosives and exogenous narcotics, explosives, and metabolites from collected artificial latent fingerprints. Manipulation of the emission power and duration directly controlled the heating rate and maximum temperature, enabling differential thermal desorption and a level of upstream separation for enhanced specificity. Transitioning from 100% power and 5 s emission duration to 25% power and 30 s emission enabled an order of magnitude increase in the temporal separation (single seconds to tens of seconds) of the desorption of volatile and semi-volatile species within a collected fingerprint. This mode of operation reduced local gas-phase concentrations, reducing matrix effects experienced with high concentration mixtures. IRTD provides a unique platform for the desorption of trace analytes from wipe collections, an area of importance to the security sector, transportation agencies, and customs and border protection.

  1. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  2. Energetics of polar and nonpolar facets of PbSe nanocrystals from theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.; van Huis, M.A.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Surface energies of the distinct facets of nanocrystals are an important factor in the free energy and hence determine the nanocrystal morphology, chemical and physical properties, and even interparticle dipole interactions. Here we investigate the stability and atomic structure of polar and nonpola

  3. Use of polar and nonpolar fractions as additional information sources for studying thermoxidized virgin olive oils by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy has been proposed to study the degradation of virgin olive oils (VOO in samples undergoing thermoxidation. The polar and nonpolar fractions of oxidized oils have been analyzed by FTIR to provide further information on the minor spectral changes taking place during thermoxidation. This information assists in the interpretation of the spectra of the samples. For this purpose polar and nonpolar fractions of 47 VOO samples thermoxidized (190 °C in a fryer were analyzed by FTIR. The time-course change of the band area assigned to single cis double bonds was explained by their correlation with the decrease in oleic acid (adjusted-R2=0.93. The bands assigned to the hydroxyl groups and the first overtone of ester groups was better studied in the spectra collected for the polar and nonpolar fractions, respectively. The bands assigned to peroxide, epoxy, tertiary alcohols and fatty acids were clearly observed in the spectra of the polar fraction while they are not noticeable in the spectra of the oils.La espectroscopía de infrarrojos por transformada de Fourier (FTIR se ha propuesto para estudiar la degradación de los aceites de oliva vírgenes (AOV sujetas a termoxidación. Las fracciones polares y no polares de aceites oxidados se analizaron mediante FTIR para obtener más información sobre los cambios espectrales menores que tienen lugar durante la termoxidación. Esa información ayuda en la interpretación de los espectros de las muestras puras. Con este objetivo, fracciones polares y no polares de 47 AOV termoxidados (190 °C en una freidora se analizaron mediante FTIR. La banda asignada a dobles enlaces cis se explica por su correlación con la disminución de ácido oleico (R2-ajustado=0,93. Las bandas asignadas a los grupos hidroxilos y del primer sobretono de los grupos éster se estudió mejor en los espectros recogidos para la fracción polar y no polar, respectivamente. Grupos asignados a per

  4. Microstructure of non-polar GaN on LiGaO2 grown by plasma-assisted MBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Hung; Huang, Teng-Hsing; Schuber, Ralf; Chen, Yen-Liang; Chang, Liuwen; Lo, Ikai; Chou, Mitch Mc; Schaadt, Daniel M

    2011-06-15

    We have investigated the structure of non-polar GaN, both on the M - and A-plane, grown on LiGaO2 by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The epitaxial relationship and the microstructure of the GaN films are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The already reported epi-taxial relationship and for M -plane GaN is confirmed. The main defects are threading dislocations and stacking faults in both samples. For the M -plane sample, the density of threading dislocations is around 1 × 1011 cm-2 and the stacking fault density amounts to approximately 2 × 105 cm-1. In the A-plane sample, a threading dislocation density in the same order was found, while the stacking fault density is much lower than in the M -plane sample.

  5. Critical thickness for the formation of misfit dislocations originating from prismatic slip in semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Young, E. C.; Bougrov, V. E.; Speck, J. S.; Romanov, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the critical thickness for misfit dislocation (MD) formation in lattice mismatched semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride wurtzite semiconductor layers for the case of MDs originated from prismatic slip (PSMDs). It has been shown that there is a switch of stress relaxation modes from generation of basal slip originated MDs to PSMDs after the angle between c-axis in wurtzite crystal structure and the direction of semipolar growth reaches a particular value, e.g., ˜70° for Al0.13Ga0.87N/GaN ( h 0 h ¯ 1 ) semipolar heterostructures. This means that for some semipolar growth orientations of III-nitride heterostructures biaxial relaxation of misfit stress can be realized. The results of modeling are compared to experimental data on the onset of plastic relaxation in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures.

  6. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  7. Simultaneous analysis method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng by reversed-phase HPLC-PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sa-Im; Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2012-02-23

    The paper describes the development of a simultaneous determination method for polar and non-polar ginsenosides in red ginseng with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection method. This method could be applied directly without any pretreatment steps and enabled the performance of highly sensitive analysis within 1h. The detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) limits for the ginsenosides ranged 0.02-0.10 ng and 0.1-0.3 ng, respectively. The linear regression coefficients ranged 0.9975-0.9998. Intra- and inter-day precisions were <9.91%. The mean recoveries ranged 98.08-103.06%. The total amount of ginsenosides in the hairy root of red ginseng was higher than that in the main root.

  8. Critical thickness for the formation of misfit dislocations originating from prismatic slip in semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnov, A. M.

    2016-01-20

    We calculate the critical thickness for misfit dislocation (MD) formation in lattice mismatched semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride wurtzite semiconductor layers for the case of MDs originated from prismatic slip (PSMDs). It has been shown that there is a switch of stress relaxation modes from generation of basal slip originated MDs to PSMDs after the angle between c-axis in wurtzite crystal structure and the direction of semipolar growth reaches a particular value, e.g., ∼70° for Al0.13Ga0.87N/GaN (h0h̄ 1) semipolar heterostructures. This means that for some semipolar growth orientations of III-nitride heterostructures biaxial relaxation of misfit stress can be realized. The results of modeling are compared to experimental data on the onset of plastic relaxation in AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures.

  9. High-resolution field desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass analysis of nonpolar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Tanner M; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Qian, Kuangnan; Quinn, John P; Marshall, Alan G

    2003-05-01

    We report the first field desorption ionization broadband high-resolution (m/Deltam(50%) approximately 65 000) mass spectra. We have interfaced a field ionization/field desorption source to a home-built 9.4-T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The instrumental configuration employs convenient sample introduction (in-source liquid injection) and external ion accumulation. We demonstrate the utility of this configuration by generating high-resolution positive-ion mass spectra of C(60) and a midboiling crude oil distillate. The latter contains species not accessible by common soft-ionization methods, for example, low-voltage electron ionization, electrospray ionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. The present work demonstrates significant advantages of FI/FD FT-ICR MS for analysis of nonpolar molecules in complex mixtures.

  10. Critical thickness for the formation of misfit dislocations originating from prismatic slip in semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the critical thickness for misfit dislocation (MD formation in lattice mismatched semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride wurtzite semiconductor layers for the case of MDs originated from prismatic slip (PSMDs. It has been shown that there is a switch of stress relaxation modes from generation of basal slip originated MDs to PSMDs after the angle between c-axis in wurtzite crystal structure and the direction of semipolar growth reaches a particular value, e.g., ∼70° for Al0.13Ga0.87N/GaN ( h 0 h ̄ 1 semipolar heterostructures. This means that for some semipolar growth orientations of III-nitride heterostructures biaxial relaxation of misfit stress can be realized. The results of modeling are compared to experimental data on the onset of plastic relaxation in AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures.

  11. Modeling the structure and absorption spectra of stilbazolium merocyanine in polar and nonpolar solvents using hybrid QM/MM techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Aidas, Kestutis; Ågren, Hans

    2010-10-28

    We have performed Car-Parrinello mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (CP-QM/MM) calculations for stilbazolium merocyanine (SM) in polar and nonpolar solvents in order to explore the role of solute molecular geometry, solvation shell structure, and different interaction mechanisms on the absorption spectra and its dependence on solvent polarity. On the basis of the average bond length values and group charge distributions, we find that the SM molecule remains in a neutral quinonoid form in chloroform (a nonpolar solvent) while it transforms to a charge-separated benzenoid form in water (a polar solvent). Based on a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical response technique, with different MM descriptions for the water environment, absorption spectra were obtained as averages over configurations derived from the CP-QM/MM simulations. We show that for SM in water the solute polarization plays a major role in predictions of the λ(max) and solvatochromic shift and that once this effect is included the contributions from solvent polarization and intermolecular charge transfer become less important. For SM in chloroform and water solvents, we have also performed absorption spectra calculations using a polarizable continuum model in order to address its relative performance compared to the QM/MM response technique. In the case of SM in water, our study supports the notion that, in order to predict accurate absorption spectra and solvatochromic shifts, it is important to use a discrete description of the solvent when it, as in water, is involved in site-specific interaction with the solute molecule. The technique is thus shown to outperform the more conventional polarizable continuum model in predicting the solvatochromic shift.

  12. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. II. Absorption cross-sections of nonpolar ice molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yih, T.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Dust grains in cold circumstellar regions and dark-cloud interiors at 10-20 K are covered by ice mantles. A nonthermal desorption mechanism is invoked to explain the presence of gas-phase molecules in these environments, such as the photodesorption induced by irradiation of ice due to secondary ultraviolet photons. To quantify the effects of ice photoprocessing, an estimate of the photon absorption in ice mantles is required. In a recent work, we reported the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecules in the solid phase. Aims: The aim was to estimate the VUV-absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecular ice components, including CH4, CO2, N2, and O2. Methods: The column densities of the ice samples deposited at 8 K were measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Results: We found that, as expected, solid N2 has the lowest VUV-absorption cross section, which about three orders of magnitude lower than that of other species such as O2, which is also homonuclear. Methane (CH4) ice presents a high absorption near Ly-α (121.6 nm) and does not absorb below 148 nm. Estimating the ice absorption cross sections is essential for models of ice photoprocessing and allows estimating the ice photodesorption rates as the number of photodesorbed molecules per absorbed photon in the ice. Data can be found at http://ghosst.osug.fr/

  13. Indium incorporation in semipolar (20 2 ̅ 1) and nonpolar (10 1 ̅ 0) InGaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, M.; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, A.; Kryśko, M.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Siekacz, M.; Wolny, P.; Skierbiszewski, C.

    2017-02-01

    Semipolar (20 2 ̅ 1) , nonpolar m-plane (10 1 ̅ 0) and polar c-plane (0001) GaN and InGaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The surface of semipolar and nonpolar GaN grown under Ga-rich conditions is very smooth. The indium incorporation efficiency in InGaN layers grown under In-rich growth conditions is studied on three surface orientations (i) as a function of temperature from 570 to 650 °C and (ii) for varied active nitrogen flux from 0.41 to 2.03 μm/h. The In content follows the relation (10 1 ̅ 0) experiments. Indium composition in InGaN layers can be increased (i) by the decrease of the growth temperature and (ii) increase of the applied nitrogen flux for all studied surface orientations. Additionally, surface morphology of semipolar, nonpolar and c-polar InGaN layers grown at 650, 640 and 620 °C is compared. No increase in surface roughness for semipolar and nonpolar InGaN was observed in contrast to c-plane counterparts.

  14. Non-polar In x Ga1-x N/GaN quantum dots: impact of dot size and shape anisotropies on excitonic and biexcitonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta Patra, Saroj; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical analysis of the built-in potential, the excitonic and biexcitonic properties of non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum dots by means of self-consistent Hartree calculations using \\mathbf{k}\\centerdot \\mathbf{p} theory. Special attention is paid to the impact of dot size and shape anisotropies on the results. Our calculations reveal that even though non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum dots exhibit strongly reduced built-in fields when compared to c-plane dots, the excitonic and biexcitonic properties are significantly affected by these residual fields. Furthermore, changes in the built-in field when the geometrical dot features are modified, result in an unusual variation of the exciton binding energy. All these findings highlight that the dot geometry significantly affects electronic and optical properties of non-polar InGaN/GaN systems. This is further supported by comparing our theoretical data with experimental literature results. Here, we analyze also trends in exciton and biexciton binding energies and discuss the potential use of non-polar InGaN/GaN dots for entangled photon emission via the time reordering scheme.

  15. Defensive Armor of Potato Tubers: Nonpolar Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant Assessment, and Solid-State NMR Compositional Analysis of Suberin-Enriched Wound-Healing Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Kallash, Linda; Wang, Isabel; Phan, Van C; Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-08-05

    The cultivation, storage, and distribution of potato tubers are compromised by mechanical damage and suboptimal healing. To investigate wound-healing progress in cultivars with contrasting russeting patterns, metabolite profiles reported previously for polar tissue extracts were complemented by GC/MS measurements for nonpolar extracts and quantitative (13)C NMR of interfacial solid suspensions. Potential marker compounds that distinguish cultivar type and wound-healing time point included fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, glyceryl esters, α,ω-fatty diacids, and hydroxyfatty acids. The abundant long-chain fatty acids in nonpolar extracts and solids from the smooth-skinned Yukon Gold cultivar suggested extensive suberin biopolymer formation; this hypothesis was supported by high proportions of arenes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups in the solid and among the polar markers. The absence of many potential marker classes in nonpolar Atlantic extracts and interfacial solids suggested a limited extent of suberization. Modest scavenging activities of all nonpolar extracts indicate that the majority of antioxidants produced in response to wounding are polar.

  16. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  17. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xu Fang,1,2 Ling-ling Zhu,3 Sheng-dong Pan,4 Ping Xia,4 Meng Chen,5 Quan Zhou51Office of Hospital Administration, 2Office of Party and Administration Council, 3Geriatric VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 4Division of Medical Administration, 5Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China during 2011–2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000, and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China, (April 2012–October 2012, the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05. Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine

  18. Changes to patient limitation for dispensing or prescribing approved narcotic controlled substances for maintenance or detoxification treatment by qualified individual practitioners. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    On September 20, 2007, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (72 FR 53734) proposing to conform its regulations to recent statutory amendments to the Controlled Substances Act that changed certain patient limitations for practitioners who dispense or prescribe certain narcotic drugs for maintenance or detoxification treatment. DEA received one comment in support of this rulemaking. DEA is finalizing the rule as proposed.

  19. Application of Narcotic Drugs in OPD in Hospital%医院门诊药房麻醉药品应用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the application of narcotic drugs in OPD of hospital,and provide reference for clini-cal rational drug use. Method Between January 2013 and October 2013,the total number of narcotic drugs was 360. Statistics and analysis of the generic name of the drug,dosage form,specification,as well as the patient's gender,age,Department,etc. Results The use of narcotic drugs in hospitals involves 6 varieties,most of the elderly;The use of tumor department is the lar-gest,accounting for 66. 39% ;The use of morphine hydrochloride injection was the largest,accounting for 32. 22% . Conclusion Application of narcotic drugs is basically reasonable,but still need to strengthen supervision,the application will be more stand-ardized and reasonable.%目的:分析医院门诊麻醉药品应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法选取2013年1~10月麻醉处方360张。对处方中的药品通用名、剂型、规格,以及患者性别、年龄、科室等进行统计分析。结果2013年1~10月医院患者使用的麻醉药品涉及6个品种,以老年人居多;肿瘤科用量最大,占66.39%;盐酸吗啡注射液使用量最大,占32.22%。结论门诊麻醉药品应用基本合理,仍需加强监管,使应用更为规范合理。

  20. Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array (UPLC-PDA detection method was established for the determination of six alkaloids in Zoagumhwan (ZGW, and further for investigating the influence of nonpolar substances on the extraction efficiency of these alkaloids. The method was based on a BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column and mobile phase of aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile including 0.05% buffer solution under gradient elution. ZGW samples of ZGW I, II, III and IV were obtained and prepared by pre-processing the crude materials of Coptidis rhizoma and Evodiae fructus using four technologies, namely direct water decoction, removal of nonpolar substances in Evodiae fructus by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by SFE and removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by steam distillation. The developed and validated UPLC-PDA method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough based on the facts that the six alkaloids showed good regression (r > 0.9998, the limit of detections and quantifications for six alkaloids were less than 28.8 and 94.5 ng/mL, respectively, and the recovery was in the range of 98.56%–103.24%. The sequence of the total contents of six alkaloids in these samples was ZGW II > ZGW IV > ZGW III > ZGW I. ZGW II, in which nonpolar substances, including essential oils, were firstly removed from Evodiae fructus by SFE, had the highest content of the total alkaloids, indicating that extraction efficiency of the total alkaloids could be remarkably increased after Evodiae fructus being extracted by SFE.

  1. Narcotic drugs application in a hospital of Anhui from 2009 to 2011%2009-2011年我院麻醉药品应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 刘俊; 汪魏平

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解该院麻醉药品的使用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法 利用该院计算机管理系统收集2009-2011年度麻醉药品的应用数据并进行统计处理和分析.结果 麻醉药品销售金额及占总药品销售金额比例逐年增加,瑞芬太尼注射液各年度销售金额位居首位,瑞芬太尼注射液和芬太尼注射液用药频度(DDDs)呈逐年上升,尤其是芬太尼透皮贴剂在临床上得到广泛应用,而哌替啶注射液因神经毒性和较弱的镇痛作用导致其使用量逐年下降.麻醉药品日均费用(DDC)排序前3位的分别是瑞芬太尼注射液、舒芬太尼注射液、羟考酮缓释片.结论 该院麻醉药品使用基本合理,但仍存在不足,需进一步对其使用加强干预和管理.%Objective To understand the use of narcotic drugs to provide a reference for clinical medication. Methods The data of application on narcotic drugs from 2009 to 2011 were collected from the hospital computer management system for statistical analysis. Results The consumption sum of narcotic drugs and its proportion in the total consumption sum increased year by year and the consumption sum of remifentanil injection steadily dominated the first place. DDDs of remifentanil injection and fentanyl injection increased year by year, and fentanyl transdermal patches especially gained widespread use clinically. However those of pethidine injection decreased year by year because of its conspicuous and poor analgesic effect. Remifentanil injection, sufentanil injection and sustained release tablets of oxycodone took up the top three places in the list of DDC. Conclusion The utilization of narcotic drugs and the first psychotropic drugs in our hospital is basically reasonable, but there are also many deficiencies, so we must take measure to further strengthen the intervention and management in the application of narcotic drugs and the first psychotropic drugs.

  2. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  3. Implications of international law for the treatment of cancer: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the TRIPS Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, J

    2011-12-01

    The development, manufacture, trade and distribution of medicines all take place within a web of international legal obligations that states have accepted under a range of multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral agreements. International law can operate either to facilitate or hinder access, depending on how it is developed and implemented. This article examines two areas of international law that are relevant to cancer treatment: the international drug control system, which regulates opioid analgesics; and the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement. This article outlines recent developments in relation to both, including in the activities of the Vienna-based agencies that collectively oversee the implementation of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and in the negotiation of the recent United Nations General Assembly Political Declaration on Non-communicable Diseases. While underlining the importance of law, this article notes that battles over law should not distract from the importance of other essential efforts to enhance access to medicines within the context of the strengthening of health systems. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How safe are adolescents at Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous meetings? A prospective investigation with outpatient youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Dow, Sarah J; Yeterian, Julie D; Myers, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) have proven to be cost-effective recovery resources for adults and also appear helpful for youth. However, anecdotal concerns about adolescents' safety at meetings have dampened enthusiasm regarding youth participation. Unfortunately, little information exists to evaluate such concerns. Outpatients (N = 127; 24% female) were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, and 12 months regarding perceived safety at AA/NA, experience of negative incidents, and reasons for nonattendance/discontinuation. By 12-month follow-up, 57.5% reported some AA/NA attendance with a combined lifetime exposure of 5,340 meetings. Of these, 21.9% reported at least one negative experience, which was more common among NA than AA attendees. Overall, youth reported feeling very safe at meetings, and ratings did not differ by age or gender. Reasons for discontinuation or nonattendance were unrelated to safety or negative incidents. Weighing risks against documented benefits, these preliminary findings suggest that referral to AA/NA should not be discouraged, but, similar to adults, youth experiences at meetings should be monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical and pharmacological profiles of Echinacea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Peter; Šutovská, Martina; Kocmálová, Michaela; Fraňová, Soňa; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman

    2015-08-01

    Echinacea purpurea has a long history in traditional medicine. To verify the pharmacological efficacy of active principles, a polysaccharide-phenolic-protein complex has been isolated from flowering parts of herb by alkaline extraction. It showed on GPC and HPLC one peak of molecular mass around 10 kDa. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed carbohydrate, phenolic and protein contents in Echinacea complex. Pharmacological tests have shown its marked cough suppressing and bronchodilatory effects. The antitussive effect of Echinacea was similar to the narcotic drug codeine and the bronchodilatory effect was more significant than salbutamol, the antiasthmatic drug used in a clinical practice. Pharmacodynamic study shows the beneficial effects of Echinacea complex on the respiratory system and highlights the great potential for development of antitussive and bronchodilatory drugs from natural sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  7. Can Nonpolar Polyisobutylenes be Measured by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry? Anion-Attachment Proved to be an Appropriate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Deák, György; Kuki, Ákos; Purgel, Mihály; Narmandakh, Mijid; Iván, Béla; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2016-03-01

    Polyisobutylenes (PIBs) with different end-groups including chlorine, exo-olefin, hydroxyl, and methyl prepared from aliphatic and aromatic initiators were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Independently of the end-groups, presence or absence of aromatic initiator moiety, these PIB derivatives were capable of forming adduct ions with NO3 - and Cl- ions, thus allowing the direct characterization of these compounds in the negative ion mode of ESI-MS. To obtain [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- adduct ions with appreciable intensities, addition of polar solvents such as acetone, 2-propanol, or ethanol to the dichloromethane solution of PIBs was necessary. Furthermore, increasing both the polarity (by increasing the acetone content) and the ion-source temperature give rise to enhanced intensities for both [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- ions. Energy-dependent collision induced dissociation studies (CID) revealed that increasing the collision voltages resulted in the shift of the apparent molecular masses to higher ones. CID studies also showed that dissociation of the [PIB + Cl]- ions requires higher collision energy than that of [PIB + NO3]-. In addition, Density Functional Theory calculations were performed to gain insights into the nature of the interactions between the highly non-polar PIB chains and anions NO3 - and Cl- as well as to determine the zero-point corrected electronic energies for the formation of [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- adduct ions.

  8. Non-polar Extraction Effect Analysis of Mimusops elengi (L. bark to Larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung or Mimusops elengi is one of a tree that has many therapeutic effects and has been widely studied as an alternative drug like anti-inflammatory agent, diarrhea, and asthma. This study tested the larvicidal ability of Tanjung bark extract for larvae of Aedes aegypti. The solvent that will be used for Mimusops elengi stem extraction in this research is semi-polar and non-polar solvent, which is ethyl acetate and hexane. The method used in this research was reflux extraction and proceed further with fractionation that has been analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The larvicidal activity of Mimusops elengi extract was tested using a bioassay method that has been established by WHO to determine LC50 and LC9O which can be processed further in order to compare the ejjicacy ofsolvent used. The LC50 value of the extract 1,2 and 3, were each 59.36 ppm, 82.53 ppm, and 110.42 ppm. The experimental results showed that hexane has the most powerful larvicidal ability compared to other extracts.

  9. Relaxation phenomena of polar non-polar liquid mixtures under low and high frequency electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Dutta; S K Sit; S Acharyya

    2003-10-01

    Simultaneous calculation of the dipole moment and the relaxation time of a certain number of non-spherical rigid aliphatic polar liquid molecules () in non-polar solvents () under 9.8 GHz electric field is possible from real $'$ and imaginary $''$ parts of the complex relative permittivity $^{*}_{}$. The low frequency and infinite frequency permittivities 0 and ∞ measured by Purohit et al [1,2] and Srivastava and Srivastava [3] at 25, 35 and 30°C respectively are used to obtain static . The ratio of the individual slopes of imaginary and real $'$ parts of high frequency (hf) complex conductivity $^{*}_{}$ with weight fractions at → 0 and the slopes of $''_{}-'_{}$ curves for different s [4] are employed to obtain s. The former method is better in comparison to the existing one as it eliminates polar–polar interaction. The hf s in Coulomb metre (C m) when compared with static and reported s indicate that ss favour the monomer formations which combine to form dimers in the hf electric field. The comparison among s shows that a part of the molecule is rotating under X-band electric field [5]. The theoretical theos from available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups attached to the parent molecules differ from the measured s and s to establish the possible existence of mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in polar liquid molecules.

  10. Treatment of tunnel wash waters - experiments with organic sorbent materials. Part I: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nonpolar oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARUCH AdamM; ROSETH Roger

    2008-01-01

    Tunnel wash waters characterize all waters that run off after washing procedures of tunnels are performed. These waters represent a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic metals. Removal of such contaminants from water runoff was investigated using laboratory tests after washing procedure was performed on two road tunnels in eastern Norway (Hanekleiv and Bragernes). Due to diverse character of both, treatment media and treated wash waters, the whole investigation was divided into two separate laboratory experiments. The treatment efficiencies were established based on the levels of concentrations and reductions of the measured contaminants in the effluents released from the tested media. In the first part of the article, the contents of nonpolar oil (NPO), 16 individual PAHs, and total PAHs (∑PAH16) are described. This part revealed that the combination of two organic sorbent materials provided the highest treatment efficiency for wash waters released from the road tunnel and from electrostatic filters. The greatest reduction levels reached 97.6% for NPO, 97.2% for benzo[a]pyrene, and 96.5% for the total PAHs. In the second part of the article, the concentrations and the removal rates of toxic metals are reported

  11. Temperature dependence of the positronium yields in polar and nonpolar pure liquids; an experimental test of a phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, B

    2004-08-02

    A phenomenological model describing the temperature dependence of the positronium yields (I{sub Ps}, %) was tested in pure liquids of different polarity. The investigated solvents were: m-xylene (m-Xy) and iso-octane (i-C8) as aromatic and aliphatic nonpolar hydrocarbons, methanol (MeOH), water and dimethyl formamide as polar solvents with and without OH group. Arrhenius type linear relationship predicted by the model for the lnQ vs 1/T function, where Q=(100/I{sub Ps}-1), was found to be valid in all cases. The slopes of the lines correspond to the activation energy differences ({delta}E{sup *}=E{sub rec}-E{sub Ps}) between the two main competing reaction pathways in the positron spur, i.e., solvent recombination (e{sup -} + M{sup +}) and positronium formation (e{sup -} + e{sup +}). The slopes were positive, i.e., {delta}E{sup *}<0 and E{sub rec}

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations on Parallel Computers: a Study of Polar Versus Nonpolar Media Effects in Small Molecule Solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debolt, Stephen Edward

    Solvent effects were studied and described via molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy perturbation (FEP) simulations using the molecular mechanics program AMBER. The following specific topics were explored:. Polar solvents cause a blue shift of the rm nto pi^* transition band of simple alkyl carbonyl compounds. The ground- versus excited-state solvation effects responsible for the observed solvatochromism are described in terms of the molecular level details of solute-solvent interactions in several modeled solvents spanning the range from polar to nonpolar, including water, methanol, and carbon tetrachloride. The structure and dynamics of octanol media were studied to explore the question: "why is octanol/water media such a good biophase analog?". The formation of linear and cyclic polymers of hydrogen-bonded solvent molecules, micelle-like clusters, and the effects of saturating waters are described. Two small drug-sized molecules, benzene and phenol, were solvated in water-saturated octanol. The solute-solvent structure and dynamics were analysed. The difference in their partitioning free energies was calculated. MD and FEP calculations were adapted for parallel computation, increasing their "speed" or the time span accessible by a simulation. The non-cyclic polyether ionophore salinomycin was studied in methanol solvent via parallel FEP. The path of binding and release for a potassium ion was investigated by calculating the potential of mean force along the "exit vector".

  13. Short-wavelength, mid- and far-infrared intersubband absorption in nonpolar GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline B.; Beeler, Mark; Ajay, Akhil; Lähnemann, Jonas; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Bougerol, Catherine; Schörmann, Jörg; Eickhoff, Martin; Monroy, Eva

    2016-05-01

    This paper assesses nonpolar m-oriented GaN:Si/Al(Ga)N heterostructures grown on free-standing GaN for intersubband optoelectronics in the short-wavelength, mid- and far-infrared ranges. Characterization results are compared with reference c-plane samples and interpreted by correlation with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations. In the near- and mid-infrared regions, we demonstrate m-GaN/Al(Ga)N multi-quantum-wells exhibiting room-temperature intersubband absorption tunable in the range of 1.5-5.8 µm (827-214 meV), the long wavelength limit being set by the second order of the Reststrahlen band in the GaN substrates. Extending the study to the far-infrared region, low-temperature intersubband transitions in the 1.5-9 THz range (6.3-37.4 meV) are observed in larger m-plane GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells, covering most of the 7-10 THz band forbidden to GaAs-based technologies.

  14. Dielectric behaviour of some amides and formamides dissolved in nonpolar solvents under static electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahoo; S K Sit

    2011-08-01

    Structural and associational aspects of polar amides () like formamide, acetamide, Nmethyl acetamide (NMA), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetanilide dissolved in the nonpolar solvent () benzene or 1,4-dioxan have been estimated from the measured static relative permittivity 0 and high-frequency permittivity ∞ at different weight fractions s of polar solute at 35°C under static electric field using Debye model of polar liquid molecule. The static dipole moments s are compared with s reported from conductivity method and theoretical theos to get exact cal $\\cdot$ theos of the molecules are predicted from the available bond angles and bond moments where difference in electron affinity exists between two adjacent atoms of a polar group due to inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects in them. Solute–solute molecular association for NMA in benzene and solute–solvent association for other amides are ascertained to arrive at their conformational structures.

  15. Photo-Stimulated Electron Detrapping and the Two-State Model for Electron Transport in Nonpolar Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, I A

    2004-01-01

    In common nonpolar liquids, such as saturated hydrocarbons, a dynamic equilibrium between trapped (localized) and quasifree (extended) states has been postulated for the excess electron (the two-state model). Using time-resolved dc conductivity, the effect of 1064 nm laser photoexcitation of trapped electrons on the charge transport has been observed in liquid n-hexane and methylcyclohexane. The light promotes the electron from the trap into the conduction band of the liquid, instantaneously increasing the conductivity by orders of magnitude. From the analysis of the two-pulse, two-color photoconductivity data, the residence time of the electrons in traps has been estimated as ca. 8.4 ps for n-hexane and ca. 13 ps for methylcyclohexane (at 295 K). The rate of detrapping decreases at lower temperature with an activation energy of ca. 200 meV (280-320 K); the lifetime-mobility product for quasifree electrons scales linearly with the temperature. We suggest that the properties of trapped electrons in hydrocarbon...

  16. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-01-30

    Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.

  17. Use of liquid hydrocarbon and amide transfer data to estimate contributions to thermodynamic functions of protein folding from the removal of nonpolar and polar surface from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolar, R S; Livingstone, J R; Record, M T

    1992-04-28

    This extension of the liquid hydrocarbon model seeks to quantify the thermodynamic contributions to protein stability from the removal of nonpolar and polar surface from water. Thermodynamic data for the transfer of hydrocarbons and organic amides from water to the pure liquid phase are analyzed to obtain contributions to the thermodynamics of folding from the reduction in water-accessible surface area. Although the removal of nonpolar surface makes the dominant contribution to the standard heat capacity change of folding (delta C0fold), here we show that inclusion of the contribution from removal of polar surface allows a quantitative prediction of delta C0fold within the uncertainty of the calorimetrically determined value. Moreover, analysis of the contribution of polar surface area to the enthalpy of transfer of liquid amides provides a means of estimating the contributions from changes in nonpolar and polar surface area as well as other factors to the enthalpy of folding (delta H0fold). In addition to estimates of delta H0fold, this extension of the liquid hydrocarbon model provides a thermodynamic explanation for the observation [Privalov, P. L., & Khechinashvili, N. N. (1974) J. Mol. Biol. 86, 665-684] that the specific enthalpy of folding (cal g-1) of a number of globular proteins converges to a common value at approximately 383 K. Because amounts of nonpolar and polar surface area buried by these proteins upon folding are found to be linear functions of molar mass, estimates of both delta C0fold and delta H0fold may be obtained given only the molar mass of the protein of interest.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Do Drug-Dependent Patients Attending Alcoholics Anonymous Rather than Narcotics Anonymous Do As Well? A Prospective, Lagged, Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire; Bergman, Brandon G

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most prevalent 12-step mutual-help organization (MHO), yet debate has persisted clinically regarding whether patients whose primary substance is not alcohol should be referred to AA. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) was created as a more specific fit to enhance recovery from drug addiction; however, compared with AA, NA meetings are not as ubiquitous. Little is known about the effects of a mismatch between individuals' primary substance and MHOs, and whether any incongruence might result in a lower likelihood of continuation and benefit. More research would inform clinical recommendations. Young adults (N = 279, M age 20.4, SD 1.6, 27% female; 95% White) in a treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. A matching variable was created for 'primary drug' patients (i.e. those reporting cannabis, opiates or stimulants as primary substance; n = 198/279), reflecting the proportion of total 12-step meetings attended that were AA. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested this variable's effects on future 12-step participation and percent days abstinent (PDA). The majority of meetings attended by both alcohol and drug patients was AA. Drug patients attending proportionately more AA than NA meetings (i.e. mismatched) were no different than those who were better matched to NA with respect to future 12-step participation or PDA. Drug patients may be at no greater risk of discontinuation or diminished recovery benefit from participation in AA relative to NA. Findings may boost clinical confidence in making AA referrals for drug patients when NA is less available. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative intravenous ibuprofen does not influence postoperative narcotic use in patients undergoing elective hernia repair: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparber LS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lauren S Sparber,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Tanya S Vialet,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Inguinal and umbilical hernia repairs are among the most common surgical procedures performed in the US. Optimal perioperative pain control regimens remain challenging and opioid analgesics are commonly used. Preoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID administration has been shown to reduce postoperative narcotic requirements. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intravenous (IV ibuprofen on postoperative pain level and narcotic use in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair.Methods: A single center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving patients ≥18 years undergoing inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair was performed. Patients were randomized to receive 800 mg of IV ibuprofen or placebo preoperatively. Outcomes assessed included postoperative pain medication required and visual analog scale (VAS pain scores.Results: Forty-eight adult male patients underwent inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair. Patients receiving IV ibuprofen used more oxycodone/acetaminophen (32% vs 13% and IV hydromorphone (12% vs 8.7%, and fewer combinations of pain medications (44% vs 65.2% in the first two postoperative hours compared to placebo (p=0.556. The IV ibuprofen group had more patients pain free (28% vs 8.7%, p=0.087 and lower VAS scores (3.08±2.14 vs 3.95±1.54, p=0.134 at 2 hours postoperatively, compared to the placebo group, however, this was not statistically significant. Similar pain levels at 1, 3, and 7 days, postoperative and similar use of rescue

  20. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  1. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Lee, S.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ˜22 kA/cm2 (25 mA), with a peak output power of ˜180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP12,1), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  2. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, C.; Margalith, T.; Ng, T. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Ooi, B. S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with IIInitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 μm aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of ~550 μW with a threshold current density of ~3.5 kA/cm2, while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of ~80 μW and threshold current densities of ~7 kA/cm2.

  3. Non-polar organic compounds in marine aerosols over the northern South China Sea: Influence of continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yingyi; Fu, Pingqing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Fobang; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Shan; Lai, Senchao

    2016-06-01

    Filter samples of total suspended particle (TSP) collected during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013 were analyzed for non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs) as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble ions. A total of 115 NPOCs species in groups of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iso-/antiso-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, methylalkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and phthalates were detected. The characteristics of NPOCs in marine TSP samples were investigated to understand the sources from the Asian continent and other regions. The concentrations of total NPOCs ranged from 19.8 to 288.2 ng/m(3) with an average of 87.9 ng/m(3), which accounted for 0.8-1.7% (average 1.0%) of organic matter (OM). n-Alkanes was the predominant group, accounting for 43.1-79.5%, followed by PAHs (5.5-44.4%) and hopanes (1.6-11.4%). We found that primary combustion (biomass burning/fossil fuel combustion) was the dominant source for the majority of NPOCs (89.1%). Biomass burning in southern/southeastern China via long-range transport was proposed to be a major contributor of NPOCs in marine aerosols over the northern SCS, suggested by the significant correlations between nss-K(+) and NPOCs groups as well as the analysis of air mass back-trajectory and fire spots. For the samples with strong continental influence, the strong enhancement in concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes were attributed to fossil fuel (coal/petroleum) combustion. In addition, terrestrial plants waxes were another contributor to NPOCs.

  4. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  5. Analysis and interventions of narcotic drugs in inpatient pharmacy from 2005 to 2010%2005-2010年我院住院药房麻醉药品利用分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春玲; 朱华; 许建国; 邵建屛; 李贤文

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析我院住院药房麻醉药品的应用情况,评价其合理性.方法对我院2005-2010年住院药房麻醉药品的销售金额、用量、用药频度(DDDs)进行统计、分析.结果 我院麻醉药品共涉及12个品种、4种剂型,销售金额、用量基本呈逐年递增趋势.DDDs居首位的是芬太尼注射液和4.2 mg芬太尼透皮贴剂.芬太尼制剂、吗啡制剂增幅较大,哌替啶注射液用量逐年递减.结论通过采取有效的干预措施,我院麻醉药品用药结构趋于合理,用药基本合理.%Objective To investigate the application of narcotic drugs in inpatient pharmacy of our hospital, and evaluate the rationality. Methods The narcotic drugs in inpatient pharmacy of our hospital were analyzed statistically in respect of consumption sum, consumption quantity and DDDs from 2005 to 2010. Results There were 12 kinds of narcotic drugs including 4 dosage forms. Consumption sum and quantity of narcotic drugs increased year by year. Fentanyl injection and fentanyl transdermal patch took the lead in terms of DDDs. The consumption amount of morphines and fentanyl showed an obvious increasing trend, while that of pethidine injection decreased to a large extent. Conclusion The application structure of narcotic drugs has become reasonable gradually, and the narcotic drugs use is rational basically through effect interventions.

  6. Drug Take Back in Hawai‘i: Partnership Between the University of Hawai‘i Hilo College of Pharmacy and the Narcotics Enforcement Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C

    2014-01-01

    Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam. PMID:24470984

  7. Detection of Stimulants and Narcotics by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Sports Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brian D; Kucherova, Yulia; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Sports drug testing laboratories are required to detect several classes of compounds that are prohibited at all times, which include anabolic agents, peptide hormones, growth factors, beta-2 agonists, hormones and metabolic modulators, and diuretics/masking agents. Other classes of compounds such as stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, and glucocorticoids are also prohibited, but only when an athlete is in competition. A single class of compounds can contain a large number of prohibited substances and all of the compounds should be detected by the testing procedure. Since there are almost 70 stimulants on the prohibited list it can be a challenge to develop a single screening method that will optimally detect all the compounds. We describe a combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing method for detection of all the stimulants and narcotics on the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Urine for LC-MS/MS testing does not require sample pretreatment and is a direct dilute and shoot method. Urine samples for the GC-MS method require a liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride.

  8. Narcotic analgesic utilization amongst injured workers: using concept mapping to understand current issues from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Claire

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries result in considerable morbidity, as well as social and economic costs. Pain associated with these injuries is a complex, contested topic, and narcotic analgesics (NA remain important treatment options. Factors contributing to NA utilization patterns are poorly understood. This qualitative study sought to characterize the factors contributing to NA utilization amongst injured workers from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. Methods The study employed concept mapping methodology, a structured process yielding a conceptual framework of participants' views on a particular topic. A visual display of the ideas/concepts generated is produced. Eligible physicians and pharmacists (n = 22 serving injured workers in the province of Ontario (Canada were recruited via purposive sampling, and participated in concept mapping activities (consisting of brainstorming, sorting, rating, and map exploration. Participants identified factors influencing NA utilization, and sorted these factors into categories (clusters. Next, they rated the factors on two scales: 'strength of influence on NA over-utilization' and 'amenability to intervention'. During follow-up focus groups, participants refined the maps and discussed the findings and their implications. Results 82 factors were sorted into 7 clusters: addiction risks, psychosocial issues, social/work environment factors, systemic-third party factors, pharmacy-related factors, treatment problems, and physician factors. These clusters were grouped into 2 overarching categories/regions on the map: patient-level factors, and healthcare/compensation system-level factors. Participants rated NA over-utilization as most influenced by patient-level factors, while system-level factors were rated as most amenable to intervention. One system-level cluster was rated highly on both scales (treatment problems - e.g. poor continuity of care, poor interprofessional communication

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Soft ionization of saturated hydrocarbons, alcohols and nonpolar compounds by negative-ion direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John

    2013-03-01

    Large polarizable n-alkanes (approximately C18 and larger), alcohols, and other nonpolar compounds can be detected as negative ions when sample solutions are injected directly into the sampling orifice of the atmospheric pressure interface of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer with the direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source operating in negative-ion mode. The mass spectra are dominated by peaks corresponding to [M + O2]‾(•). No fragmentation is observed, making this a very soft ionization technique for samples that are otherwise difficult to analyze by DART. Detection limits for cholesterol were determined to be in the low nanogram range.

  11. Soft Ionization of Saturated Hydrocarbons, Alcohols and Nonpolar Compounds by Negative-Ion Direct Analysis in Real-Time Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Robert B.; Dane, A. John

    2013-03-01

    Large polarizable n-alkanes (approximately C18 and larger), alcohols, and other nonpolar compounds can be detected as negative ions when sample solutions are injected directly into the sampling orifice of the atmospheric pressure interface of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer with the direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source operating in negative-ion mode. The mass spectra are dominated by peaks corresponding to [M + O2]‾•. No fragmentation is observed, making this a very soft ionization technique for samples that are otherwise difficult to analyze by DART. Detection limits for cholesterol were determined to be in the low nanogram range.

  12. Drug Abuse in the New York City Schools. A Report of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (August 30-September 1, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The January 1977 hearing by the U.S. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control mandated three days of further hearings in 1978. The focus was upon New York city schools, but reflected many similar situations in other urban school systems according to the committee's judgement. The committee also found that alcohol and marihuana usage…

  13. The Narcotics Counterinsurgency Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    effective and fair national system of governanc Another factor in the rise of the FARC was persistent conflict within Colombia and a weak central...serious economic investment. The FARC has become quite adept at targeting employees of international corporations and then using the media to wage an

  14. The reaction-field effect on the chemical potentials of polar aprotic non-aromatic liquids 1. Vapour pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseinsky, D. R.; Stead, K.; Mowforth, C. W.

    1998-10-01

    The reaction field for the interaction of a molecule with its identical neighbours is shown to be a major determinant of the chemical potential of many dipolar liquids. The electrostatic potential w, derived for immersion of the dipolar molecule in its own kind, and notably comprising solely static and hf permittivities, is equated with the difference between the polar-liquid chemical potential and that of an isostructural non-polar hydrocarbon. For all the 26 non-aromatic Onsager liquids for which the requisite data are available, acceptable conformity is established of the vapour pressure calculated from w with that observed, fluorocarbons excepted. If w turns out to be small, vapour pressures of (these 12) dipolars approximate quite closely to those of the isostructural non-polars, as expected. For ketones and nitroalkanes varied-temperature data are available and well reproduced via w: thus calculated vaporization enthalpies equal the observed.

  15. Use of Narcotic Drugs in the Dispensary for Inpatients in Our Hospital from 2010 to 2012%2010~2012年我院住院患者麻醉药品应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠珍; 刘静; 靳会欣

    2014-01-01

    To understand the application of narcotic drugs in our hospital patients,the reasonable application of narcotic drugs and provide reference for standardization management. Methods: To extract data of narcotics used in hospitalized patients with 2010~2012 from our hospital HIS system, calculation of drug use frequency (DDDs),defined daily cost (DDC),analysis and comparison of the drug use.Results:Narcotic drugs in our hospital in 2011 and 2012 compared to 2010 the amount of medication decreased the past three years the number of narcotic drugs varieties and specifications increased from 10 to 13,sufentanil, remifentanil has been living in narcotics sales amount and frequency of administration the first two; morphine injection DDDs ranked 3; pethidine injection use in oncology accounted for 0.3% to 0.7% of the total amount used pethidine; Oxycodone sustained-release tablets for the new varieties, consumption increased significantly, the dosageof 90.2% to 100% for application of oncology department. Oncology department narcotics oral dosage forms consumption quantity and amount are increasing year.Conclusion:Variety of narcotic drugs, dosage formis complete,the applicationof narcotic drugsis reasonable, rationaluseof narcotic drugsoncologystructure, in line with the basic principles of"Three step treatment for cancer".%目的:了解我院住院患者麻醉药品的应用情况,为麻醉药品合理应用及规范化管理提供参考。方法:从我院HIS系统提取2010~2012年住院患者麻醉药品的应用数据,计算药品用药频度(DDDs)、限定日费用(DDC),分析比较各药物的使用情况。结果:我院麻醉药品用药金额2011、2012年较2010年呈下降趋势,3年来麻醉药品品规数由10个增加至13个,舒芬太尼、瑞芬太尼一直居于麻醉药品销售金额、频率的前2位;吗啡注射液DDDs一直稳居第3位;哌替啶注射液在肿瘤科使用量仅占全院哌替啶使用量的0.3%~0.7%;羟考

  16. Mode Coupling between the Nonpolar K3 and Polar Γ2-Phonons as the Ferroelectricity Origin of Multiferroic h-LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungwoo; Heo, Seungyang; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2014-03-01

    LuMnO3 is expected to show the highest stability towards the hexagonal phase among 15 different lanthanide-based manganites. Currently, the most puzzling problem associated with the hexagonal LuMnO3 (h-LMO) is the observed large temperature-gap between the structural phase transition to the polar P63cm phase at ~ 1290 K and the emergence of the spontaneous polarization at a substantially reduced temperature, ~ 750 K. This anomalous temperature-gap has also been observed in h-YMnO3. To resolve this puzzling issue, we have carried out density-functional theory calculations and found that the structural phase transition to the polar P63 cm phase from the nonpolar P63/mmc phase is mediated by the freezing-in of the zone-boundary K3 phonon in h-LMO. However, the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization does not appear until the amplitude of K3 phonon becomes a certain critical value above which the coupling of the polar Γ2-mode with the nonpolar K3 mode is practically turned on. This mode-coupling-induced polarization, thus, elucidates the above puzzle.

  17. Growth of non-polar (11-20 InGaN quantum dots by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy using a two temperature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Griffiths

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-polar (11-20 InGaN quantum dots (QDs were grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. An InGaN epilayer was grown and subjected to a temperature ramp in a nitrogen and ammonia environment before the growth of the GaN capping layer. Uncapped structures with and without the temperature ramp were grown for reference and imaged by atomic force microscopy. Micro-photoluminescence studies reveal the presence of resolution limited peaks with a linewidth of less than ∼500 μeV at 4.2 K. This linewidth is significantly narrower than that of non-polar InGaN quantum dots grown by alternate methods and may be indicative of reduced spectral diffusion. Time resolved photoluminescence studies reveal a mono-exponential exciton decay with a lifetime of 533 ps at 2.70 eV. The excitonic lifetime is more than an order of magnitude shorter than that for previously studied polar quantum dots and suggests the suppression of the internal electric field. Cathodoluminescence studies show the spatial distribution of the quantum dots and resolution limited spectral peaks at 18 K.

  18. Fatty acid profiles of polar and non-polar lipids of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cornucopiae var. 'citrino-pileatus' grown at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedneault, Karine; Angers, Paul; Avis, Tyler J; Gosselin, André; Tweddell, Russell J

    2007-10-01

    The application of fatty acid (FA) composition data has now extended to studies of physiology, chemotaxonomy, and intrageneric differentiation, as well as to studies of human nutrition. Environmental factors such as nutritional components, oxygen, and temperature are known to affect lipid content and composition in living organisms, including fungi. In the present study, the polar and non-polar lipid content of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cornucopiae var. citrino-pileatus fruiting bodies produced at temperatures ranging from 12-27 degrees C and from 17-27 degrees C, respectively, were analysed to evaluate the effect of temperature on lipid composition in these mushrooms. Results showed that lowering the growth temperature below 17 degrees C generally provided an expected increase in FA unsaturation in polar and non-polar lipids of P. ostreatus. Although raising the temperature above 17 degrees C did not show any clear-cut tendency in FA unsaturation, it did reveal that growth temperature had a differential effect on the FA profiles in fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus and P. cornucopiae. This study suggests that care should be taken when using FA content and unsaturation data for physiological, chemotaxonomic, and intrageneric differentiation studies, and that it may be possible to manipulate lipid unsaturation in Pleurotus spp. through modified growth temperatures.

  19. Characterization of electron-beam recorded microdomain patterns on the nonpolar surface of LiNbO{sub 3} crystal by nondestructive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokhanchik, L. S. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Volk, T. R., E-mail: volk@ns.crys.ras.ru [Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mishina, E. D.; Lavrov, S. D. [Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, 119454 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-06

    We report on characterization of the electron-beam fabricated planar domain gratings on the nonpolar (Y-) surface of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals performed with the use of AFM and confocal second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The dependence of domain formation on the irradiation conditions was investigated. The relation of domain thicknesses to the electron penetration depth is experimentally proved. In particular, the possibility of controlling the thickness of planar domains by varying acceleration electron-beam voltages is demonstrated. The observed specificity of SHG is analyzed in the framework of the Kleinman-Boyd theory [G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968)] and Uesu approach [Kaneshiro et al., J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054112 (2008); Kaneshiro et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 888 (2010)] extended in our case to reflection geometry. The calculations performed predict the dependence of SHG conversion efficiency η on the domain thickness, which is in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. It is shown that planar domains on top of the nonpolar surface always enhance the value of η as compared with the bare surface.

  20. Characterization of electron-beam recorded microdomain patterns on the nonpolar surface of LiNbO3 crystal by nondestructive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanchik, L. S.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Mishina, E. D.; Lavrov, S. D.; Volk, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We report on characterization of the electron-beam fabricated planar domain gratings on the nonpolar (Y-) surface of LiNbO3 crystals performed with the use of AFM and confocal second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The dependence of domain formation on the irradiation conditions was investigated. The relation of domain thicknesses to the electron penetration depth is experimentally proved. In particular, the possibility of controlling the thickness of planar domains by varying acceleration electron-beam voltages is demonstrated. The observed specificity of SHG is analyzed in the framework of the Kleinman-Boyd theory [G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968)] and Uesu approach [Kaneshiro et al., J. Appl. Phys. 104, 054112 (2008); Kaneshiro et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 888 (2010)] extended in our case to reflection geometry. The calculations performed predict the dependence of SHG conversion efficiency η on the domain thickness, which is in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. It is shown that planar domains on top of the nonpolar surface always enhance the value of η as compared with the bare surface.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF POLAR AND NON-POLAR EMOLLIENTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND SKIN MOISTURIZING POTENTIAL OF THE EMULSIONS STABILIZED BY MIXED EMULSIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stojiljković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate moisture content in the stratum corneum, as a superficial layer of the epidermis, provides softness and flexibility of the skin in different environmental conditions, and maintaining of skin humidity is very important in dermatology and dermocosmetology. In this paper, we investigated the skin moisturizing potential after a single application and structure of the emulsion of o/w type, stabilized by mixed emulsifier glycerylmonostearate self-emulsifying (GMSse, which contained polar emollients (PEG-7 glicerylcocoate and myristyl myristate and non-polar emollient (liquid paraffin, in a concentration of 10% (emulsions E1-E3, respectively. The emulsion structure was investigated by polarization microscopy, and the presence of different anisotropic structure was observed. The moisturizing potential after a single application and skin pH were investigated by skin bioengineering. Emulsions with polar emollients (E1 and E2 showed a statistically significant increase in skin moisture content after 30 minutes; 300 min after applications it did not exist; emulsion with a non-polar emollient (E3 showed significant moisturizing potential after 30 min and after 300 min probably as a consequence of occlusion. Nature and polarity of emollients affected the structure and properties of emulsions stabilized by anisotropic structures, and also the moisturizing level and pH of the skin immediately after their application.

  2. A detailed study on chemical characterization of essential oil components of two Plectranthus species grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Plectranthus arabicus grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed using gas chromatography techniques (GC–MS, GC–FID, Co-GC, LRI determination, and database and literature searches) using two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar). The analysis led to the characterization of a total of 157 different compounds from both oils. In the oil derived from P. cylindraceus, 79 compounds were identified, whereas 13...

  3. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Azkhosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran.Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group. One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P<0.05 and that acceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  4. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment. PMID:28050185

  5. Double relaxation phenomena of associated binary polar liquid mixture in non-polar solvent under high frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engg (India)], E-mail: swapansit@yahoo.co.in; Sit, S.K. [Department of Physics, Dr. Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Debhog, Haldia, Purba Medinipore, West Bengal 721657 (India)

    2009-06-25

    Double relaxation times {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} due to whole molecular rotation and the flexible parts of the binary polar liquid mixture (jk) 3-bromoaniline and 1-propanol dissolved in non-polar solvent (i) benzene were estimated in terms of measured real {chi}{sup '}{sub ijk}, imaginary {chi}{sup ''}{sub ijk} parts of complex high frequency orientational susceptibility {chi}{sub ijk}{sup *} and {chi}{sub 0ijk} which is real at 20, 30, 40 and 47 deg. C experimental temperatures for 0.0, 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1.00 mole fractions x{sub j}'s of 1-propanol under 9.1 GHz electric field. The slopes {omega}({tau}{sub 2} + {tau}{sub 1}) and intercepts {omega}{sup 2}{tau}{sub 2}{tau}{sub 1} of the analytical straight line equations used to estimate {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} were derived from Bergmann's equation [U. Saha, S.K. Sit, R.C. Basak, S. Acharyya, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27 (1994) 596] based on two Debye type dispersion model of binary polar mixture. The systems 3-bromoaniline in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and 1-propanol in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} show {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} only at 47 deg. C temperature like 3-bromoaniline + 1-propanol in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} at 20 and 47 deg. C temperatures for 0.25 and 0.50 mole fractions x{sub j}'s of 1-propanol. The binary polar mixture for x{sub j} = 0.75 of 1-propanol is an exception exhibiting double relaxation times at all the experimental temperatures. The relative contributions c{sub 1} and c{sub 2} due to {tau}{sub 1} and {tau}{sub 2} for eight non-rigid systems were calculated from Froehlich's equation as well as graphical plots of {chi}{sup '}{sub ijk}/{chi}{sub 0ijk}-w{sub jk} and {chi}{sup ''}{sub ijk}/{chi}{sub 0ijk}-w{sub jk} curve at w{sub jk}{yields}0. c{sub 1} and c{sub 2} are positive for Froehlich's method whereas most of the c{sub 2}'s are negative for graphical method. The dipole moments {mu}{sub 2} and {mu}{sub 1} for all the systems are calculated from

  6. Nonpolar m-plane GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with intersubband transitions in the 5-10 THz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C B; Ajay, A; Bougerol, C; Haas, B; Schörmann, J; Beeler, M; Lähnemann, J; Eickhoff, M; Monroy, E

    2015-10-30

    This paper assesses intersubband (ISB) transitions in the 1-10 THz frequency range in nonpolar m-plane GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells deposited on free-standing semi-insulating GaN substrates. The quantum wells (QWs) were designed to contain two confined electronic levels, decoupled from the neighboring wells. Structural analysis reveals flat and regular QWs in the two perpendicular in-plane directions, with high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images showing inhomogeneities of the Al composition in the barriers along the growth axis. We do not observe extended structural defects (stacking faults or dislocations) introduced by the epitaxial process. Low-temperature ISB absorption from 1.5 to 9 THz (6.3-37.4 meV) is demonstrated, covering most of the 7-10 THz band forbidden to GaAs-based technologies.

  7. Band-edge optical transitions in a nonpolar-plane GaN substrate: exciton-phonon coupling and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M. Z.; Xu, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the band-edge optical transitions involving the interacting exciton-phonon system, especially first-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-assisted luminescence of bound and free excitons in m- and c-plane GaN substrates in a low temperature range from 4 K to 40 K. The main luminescence features of all of the three kinds of excitons can be well described by the theoretical models that take exciton-LO-phonon coupling into account. The effective Bohr radii of the excitons play a key role in determining the Huang-Rhys factor characterizing the exciton-LO-phonon coupling strength in GaN. An interesting oscillatory structure is found to appear in the low-temperature luminescence spectra of the nonpolar-plane GaN substrate, which needs to be clarified by further investigations.

  8. Morphology and composition controlled growth of polar c-axis and nonpolar m-axis well-aligned ternary III-nitride nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Zhao, Guijuan; Kong, Susu; Han, Dongyue; Wei, Hongyuan; Wang, Lianshan; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Shaoyan

    2015-10-01

    Control over the nanostructure morphology and growth orientation is in high demand for fundamental research and technological applications. Herein we report a general strategy to fabricate polar c-axis and nonpolar m-axis well-aligned III-nitride ternary nanotube arrays with controllable morphologies and compositions. By depositing AlN on the InN nanorod array templates and thermally removing the InN templates, InAlN nanotubes can be obtained. Polar c-axis and nonpolar m-axis nanotubes were formed on the c- and r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. The nanotubes are single crystalline and highly ordered on the substrates, as revealed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and selected area electron microscopy characterization. It was found that the In droplets on top of the InN nanorods play a critical role in controlling the morphology of the nanotubes. By keeping or removing the In droplets, the obtained nanotubes exhibited both ends open or only one end open. And by varying the AlN deposition temperature, the In composition in the nanotubes can be changed from 0 to 0.29. The nanotube synthesis method is simple and can be applied to the formation of other III-nitride ternary (InGaN, and AlGaN) or quaternary (InAlGaN) alloy nanotube arrays.Control over the nanostructure morphology and growth orientation is in high demand for fundamental research and technological applications. Herein we report a general strategy to fabricate polar c-axis and nonpolar m-axis well-aligned III-nitride ternary nanotube arrays with controllable morphologies and compositions. By depositing AlN on the InN nanorod array templates and thermally removing the InN templates, InAlN nanotubes can be obtained. Polar c-axis and nonpolar m-axis nanotubes were formed on the c- and r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. The nanotubes are single crystalline and highly ordered on the substrates, as revealed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and selected area electron microscopy

  9. Growth of polar and non-polar nitride semiconductor quasi-substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for the development of optoelectronic devices by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldawer, Adam Lyle

    The family of nitride semiconductors has had a profound influence on the development of optoelectronics for a large variety of applications. However, as of yet there are no native substrates commercially available that are grown by liquid phase methods as with Si and GaAs. As a result, the majority of electronic and optoelectronic devices are grown heteroepitaxially on sapphire and SiC. This PhD research addresses both the development of polar and non-polar GaN and AIN templates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire and SiC substrates, as well as the growth and characterization of optoelectronic devices on these templates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Polar and non-polar GaN templates have been grown in a vertical HVPE reactor on the C- and R-planes of sapphire respectively. The growth conditions have been optimized to allow the formation for thick (50um) GaN templates without cracks. These templates were characterized structurally by studying their surface morphologies by SEM and AFM, and their structure through XRD and TEM. The polar C-plane GaN templates were found to be atomically smooth. However, the surface morphology of the non-polar GaN films grown on the R-plane of sapphire were found to have a facetted surface morphology, with the facets intersecting at 120° angles. This surface morphology reflects an equilibrium growth, since the A-plane of GaN grows faster than the M-planes of GaN due to the lower atomic density of the plane. For the development of deep-UV optoelectronics, it is required to grow AIGaN quantum wells on AIN templates. However, since AIN is a high melting point material, such templates have to be grown at higher temperatures, close to half the melting point of the material (1500 °C). As these temperatures cannot be easily obtained by traditional furnace heating, an HVPE reactor has been designed to heat the substrate inductively to these temperatures. This apparatus has been used to grow high-quality, transparent AIN films

  10. Doping dependent blue shift and linewidth broadening of intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Teruhisa, E-mail: tkotani@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 (Japan); Arita, Munetaka [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    Blue shift and broadening of the absorption spectra of mid-infrared intersubband transition in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN 10 quantum wells were observed with increasing doping density. As the doping density was increased from 6.6 × 10{sup 11} to 6.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} per a quantum well, the intersubband absorption peak energy shifted from 274.0 meV to 302.9 meV, and the full width at half maximum increased from 56.4 meV to 112.4 meV. Theoretical calculations reveal that the blue shift is due to many body effects, and the intersubband linewidth in doped AlGaN/GaN QW is mainly determined by scattering due to interface roughness, LO phonons, and ionized impurities.

  11. Critical and near-critical phase behavior and interplay between the thermodynamic Casimir and van der Waals forces in a confined nonpolar fluid medium with competing surface and substrate potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Galin; Dantchev, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We study, using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations, the behavior of the critical Casimir force and its interplay with the van der Waals force acting between two parallel slabs separated at a distance L from each other, confining some fluctuating fluid medium, say a nonpolar one-component fluid or a binary liquid mixture. The surfaces of the slabs are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials ensuring the so-called (+,+) boundary conditions. The slabs, on the other hand, influence the fluid by long-range competing dispersion potentials, which represent irrelevant interactions in renormalization-group sense. Under such conditions, one usually expects attractive Casimir force governed by universal scaling function, pertinent to the extraordinary surface universality class of Ising type systems, to which the dispersion potentials provide only corrections to scaling. We demonstrate, however, that below a given threshold thickness of the system Lcrit for a suitable set of slabs-fluid and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the slabs can result in sign change of the Casimir force acting between the surfaces confining the fluid when one changes the temperature T , the chemical potential of the fluid μ , or L . The last implies that by choosing specific materials for the slabs, coatings, and the fluid for L ≲Lcrit one can realize repulsive Casimir force with nonuniversal behavior which, upon increasing L , gradually turns into an attractive one described by a universal scaling function, depending only on the relevant scaling fields related to the temperature and the excess chemical potential, for L ≫Lcrit . We present arguments and relevant data for specific substances in support of the experimental feasibility of the predicted behavior of the force. It can

  12. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ziming, E-mail: wangziming@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma Qiang [Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123 (China); Lu Chunmei [College of Technology Center, Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Dong Deming [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAE-{mu}-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in {mu}-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-{mu}-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  13. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  14. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20, 2015. Anitha B. Prevention of complications in chemical peeling. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;3:186. Langsdon PR, et al. Latest chemical peel innovations. Facial and Plastic Surgery Clinics of ...

  15. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  16. Rotational Diffusion of Nonpolar and Ionic Solutes in 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate-LiBF4 Mixtures: Does the Electrolyte Induce the Structure-Making or Structure-Breaking Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sugosh R; Dutt, G B

    2015-12-03

    Rotational diffusion of three structurally similar solutes, 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA), fluorescein (FL), and rhodamine 110 (R110), has been investigated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate-lithium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]-LiBF4) mixtures to understand the influence of the added electrolyte on the mobility of nonpolar, anionic, and cationic solute molecules. It has been observed that the reorientation times of the nonpolar solute 9-PA become progressively shorter with an increase in the concentration of LiBF4 at a given viscosity (η) and temperature (T). In the case of ionic solutes also, a decrease in the reorientation times has been observed upon the addition of the electrolyte compared to those obtained in the neat ionic liquid at a given η/T. However, this decrease is found to be independent of [LiBF4]. 9-PA being a nonpolar solute is located in the nonpolar domains of the ionic liquid. An enhancement in [LiBF4] leads to an increase in the sizes of the nonpolar domains resulting in the faster rotation of the solute. Anionic solute FL and cationic solute R110, which are located in the ionic region experience specific interactions with the cation and anion of the ionic liquid, respectively. In the presence of electrolyte, however, the strengths of these specific interactions diminish as the ions of the ionic liquid are not readily accessible to the solute molecules due to the organized structure, which results in faster rotation. These observations suggest that addition of LiBF4 induces a structure-making effect in the ionic liquid.

  17. Analysis on the Application of Narcotic Analgesics in Cancer Ward of A Hospital%某院癌痛病房麻醉性镇痛药的使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 徐婷; 高永艳

    2013-01-01

      目的调查和分析我院癌痛病房麻醉性镇痛药的使用情况,为临床合理使用麻醉药品提供依据.方法对我院2011年1月至2012年6月麻醉性镇痛药的应用数据进行统计、分析.结果我院麻醉药品的配备符合广东省癌痛规范化治疗示范病房评审标准的要求.DDDs居前三位的依次是:芬太尼透皮贴剂(多瑞吉)8.4mg、盐酸羟考酮缓释片(奥施康定)10mg、吗啡缓释片(美施康定)30mg.结论我院癌痛病房麻醉性镇痛药的使用情况基本规范,遵循口服给药,按阶梯用药、按时给药、个体化给药的原则.%Objective To investigate and analyze the application of narcotic analgesics in cancer ward of our hospital in order to provide references for rational use of narcotic drugs in clinical practice.Methods The application data of narcotic analgesics in our hospital during Jan.2011 and Jun.2012 was collected and analyzed.Results The outfit of Narcotic drugs in our hospital complies with the requirements of Good Pain Management Ward in Guangdong Province. Fentanyl transdermal system (Duragesic®, 8.4mg) took up the first place in the list of DDDs, followed by Oxycodone Hydrochloride sustained-release tablets (Oxycontin®, 10mg), Morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets (Mscontin®, 30mg). Conclusion The application of narcotic analgesics for pain relief was basically rational in cancer ward of our hospital,which is in line with the principles of cancer pain relief“by the mouth, by the clock, by the ladder and for the individual”.

  18. Sign change in the net force in sphere-plate and sphere-sphere systems immersed in nonpolar critical fluid due to the interplay between the critical Casimir and dispersion van der Waals forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Galin; Dantchev, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We study systems in which both long-ranged van der Waals and critical Casimir interactions are present. The latter arise as an effective force between bodies when immersed in a near-critical medium, say a nonpolar one-component fluid or a binary liquid mixture. They are due to the fact that the presence of the bodies modifies the order parameter profile of the medium between them as well as the spectrum of its allowed fluctuations. We study the interplay between these forces, as well as the total force (TF) between a spherical colloid particle and a thick planar slab and between two spherical colloid particles. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field-type calculations utilizing the Derjaguin and the surface integration approaches. They both are based on data of the forces between two parallel slabs separated at a distance L from each other, confining the fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ . The surfaces of the colloid particles and the slab are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+) boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particles influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloids-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters, the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects involved result, when one changes T , μ , or L , in sign change of the Casimir force (CF) and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab, as well as between the colloids. This can be used for governing the behavior of objects, say colloidal particles, at small distances, say in colloid suspensions for preventing flocculation. It can also provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding

  19. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  20. A novel molecular distance edge vector as applied to chemical modeling of quantitative structure-retention relationships: Various gas chromatographic retention behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-furans on different polarity-varying stationary phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hong; HUANG Ping; HU Yinyu; YE Nancy; LI Zhiliang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the identical group as a pseudo atom instead of a typical atom, a novel modified molecular distance-edge (MDE) vector μ was developed in our laboratory to characterize chemical structure of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) congeners and/or isomers. Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) between the new VMDE parameters and gas chromatographic (GC) retention behavior of PCDFs were then generated by multiple linear regression (MLR) method for non-polar, moderately polar, and polar stationary phases. Four excellent models with high correlation coefficients, R=0.984-0.995, were proposed for non-polar columns (DB-5, SE-54, OV-101). For the moderately polar columns (OV-1701), the correlation coefficient of the developed good model is only 0.958. For the polar columns (SP-2300), the QSRR model is poor with R=0.884. Then cross validation with leave-one out of procedure (CV) is performed in high correlation with the non-polar (Rcv=992-0.974) and weakly polar (Rcv=921) columns and in little correlation (Rcv=0.834) with the polar columns. These results show that the new μ vector is suitable for describing the retention behaviors of PCDFs on non-polar and moderately polar stationary phases and not for the various gas chromatographic retention behaviors of PCDFs on the different polarity-varying stationary phases.

  1. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  2. Cathodoluminescence study of Mg activation in non-polar and semi-polar faces of undoped/Mg-doped GaN core-shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, V.; Martínez, O.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Jiménez, J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectrally and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were carried out at 80 K on undoped/Mg-doped GaN core-shell nanorods grown by selective area growth metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy in order to investigate locally the optical activity of the Mg dopants. A study of the luminescence emission distribution over the different regions of the nanorods is presented. We have investigated the CL fingerprints of the Mg incorporation into the non-polar lateral prismatic facets and the semi-polar facets of the pyramidal tips. The amount of Mg incorporation/activation was varied by using several Mg/Ga flow ratios and post-growth annealing treatment. For lower Mg/Ga flow ratios, the annealed nanorods clearly display a donor-acceptor pair band emission peaking at 3.26-3.27 eV and up to 4 LO phonon replicas, which can be considered as a reliable indicator of effective p-type Mg doping in the nanorod shell. For higher Mg/Ga flow ratios, a substantial enhancement of the yellow luminescence emission as well as several emission subbands are observed, which suggests an increase of disorder and the presence of defects as a consequence of the excess Mg doping.

  3. B3LYP periodic study of the physicochemical properties of the nonpolar (010) Mg-pure and fe-containing olivine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ruiz, Javier; Ugliengo, Piero; Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona

    2014-08-07

    B3LYP periodic simulations have been carried out to study some physicochemical properties of the bulk structures and the corresponding nonpolar (010) surfaces of Mg-pure and Fe-containing olivine systems; i.e., Mg2SiO4 (Fo) and Mg1.5Fe0.5SiO4 (Fo75). A detailed structural analysis of the (010) Fo and Fo75 surface models shows the presence of coordinatively unsaturated metal cations (Mg(2+) and Fe(2+), respectively) with shorter metal-O distances compared to the bulk ones. Energetic analysis devoted to the Fe(2+) electronic spin configuration and to the ion position in the surfaces reveals that Fe(2+) in its quintet state and placed at the outermost positions of the slab constitutes the most stable Fe-containing surface, which is related to the higher stability of high spin states when Fe(2+) is coordinatively unsaturated. Comparison of the simulated IR and the corresponding reflectance spectra indicates that Fe(2+) substitution induces an overall bathochromic shift of the spectra due to the larger mass of Fe compared to Mg cation. In contrast, the IR spectra of the surfaces are shifted to upper values and exhibit more bands compared to the corresponding bulk systems due to the shorter metal-O distances given in the coordinatively unsaturated metals and to symmetry reduction which brings nonequivalent motions between the outermost and the internal modes, respectively.

  4. Groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS HEMT with combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xiao, Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ning, Jing; Hao, Yue

    2016-08-01

    A novel groove-type channel enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS high electron mobility transistor (GTCE-HEMT) with a combined polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterostucture is presented. The device simulation shows a threshold voltage of 1.24 V, peak transconductance of 182 mS/mm, and subthreshold slope of 85 mV/dec, which are obtained by adjusting the device parameters. Interestingly, it is possible to control the threshold voltage accurately without precisely controlling the etching depth in fabrication by adopting this structure. Besides, the breakdown voltage (V B) is significantly increased by 78% in comparison with the value of the conventional MIS-HEMT. Moreover, the fabrication process of the novel device is entirely compatible with that of the conventional depletion-mode (D-mode) polar AlGaN/GaN HEMT. It presents a promising way to realize the switch application and the E/D-mode logic circuits. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02308-002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11435010, 61474086, and 61404099).

  5. Identifying important structural features of ionic liquid stationary phases for the selective separation of nonpolar analytes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ingram, Isaiah C; Hantao, Leandro W; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-03-20

    A series of dicationic ionic liquid (IL)-based stationary phases were evaluated as secondary columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons from kerosene. In order to understand the role that structural features of ILs play on the selectivity of nonpolar analytes, the solvation parameter model was used to probe the solvation properties of the IL-based stationary phases. It was observed that room temperature ILs containing long free alkyl side chain substituents and long linker chains between the two cations possess less cohesive forces and exhibited the highest resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The anion component of the IL did not contribute significantly to the overall separation, as similar selectivities toward aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed when examining ILs with identical cations and different anions. In an attempt to further examine the separation capabilities of the IL-based GC stationary phases, columns of the best performing stationary phases were prepared with higher film thickness and resulted in enhanced selectivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  6. The solution properties of mefenamic acid and a closely related analogue are indistinguishable in polar solvents but significantly different in nonpolar environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Byrn, Stephen R; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the cosolute effects of mefenamic acid (XA) and flufenamic acid (FA). These compounds serve as model of a drug discovery lead compound and a structural analogue. The activity coefficients of XA and FA in different solvents were obtained from solubility measurements at 25°C. The effect of varying concentrations of FA on the solubility of XA in four different solvents, including toluene, cyclohexane, ethanol, and an ethanol-water mixture (80:20, v/v), was investigated. The magnitude of change in the activity coefficient of XA in the presence of FA in different solvents was used to elucidate the thermodynamic effect of FA on the solubility of XA. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to obtain molecular level information about the interactions of the compounds in solution. The presence of FA increases XA solubility in toluene and in cyclohexane as much as seven-fold. Conversely, in ethanol and the ethanol-water mixture, similar levels of FA have essentially no effect on the solubility of XA. The solution properties investigated show that despite the close structural similarity between XA and FA, the two compounds are strongly distinguishable in nonpolar solvents. Conversely, the solution properties of the same two solutes are indistinguishable in polar solvents. A solubilization model based on solute-cosolute interactions is presented.

  7. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods.

  8. Iridium(I) complexes with anionic N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as catalysts for the hydrogenation of alkenes in nonpolar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolychev, Eugene L; Kronig, Sabrina; Brandhorst, Kai; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2013-08-21

    A series of lithium complexes of anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes that contain a weakly coordinating borate moiety (WCA-NHC) was prepared in one step from free N-heterocyclic carbenes by deprotonation with n-butyl lithium followed by borane addition. The reaction of the resulting lithium-carbene adducts with [M(COD)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir; COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) afforded zwitterionic rhodium(I) and iridium(I) complexes of the type [(WCA-NHC)M(COD)], in which the metal atoms exhibit an intramolecular interaction with the N-aryl groups of the carbene ligands. For M = Rh, the neutral complex [(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2] and the ate complex (NEt4)[(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2Cl] were prepared, with the latter allowing an assessment of the donor ability of the ligand by IR spectroscopy. The zwitterionic iridium-COD complexes were tested as catalysts for the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, which can be performed in the presence of nonpolar solvents or in the neat alkene substrate. Thereby, the most active complex showed excellent stability and activity in hydrogenation of alkenes at low catalyst loadings (down to 10 ppm).

  9. Nonpolar resistive memory switching with all four possible resistive switching modes in amorphous LaHoO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Yogesh; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Fachini, Esteban [General Studies College, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Scott, James F. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB0 3HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-07

    We studied the resistive memory switching in pulsed laser deposited amorphous LaHoO{sub 3} (a-LHO) thin films for non-volatile resistive random access memory applications. Nonpolar resistive switching (RS) was achieved in Pt/a-LHO/Pt memory cells with all four possible RS modes (i.e., positive unipolar, positive bipolar, negative unipolar, and negative bipolar) having high R{sub ON}/R{sub OFF} ratios (in the range of ∼10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}) and non-overlapping switching voltages (set voltage, V{sub ON} ∼ ±3.6–4.2 V and reset voltage, V{sub OFF} ∼ ±1.3–1.6 V) with a small variation of about ±5–8%. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I–V) characteristics indicated the metallic conduction in low resistance states (LRS). We believe that the formation (set) and rupture (reset) of mixed conducting filaments formed out of oxygen vacancies and metallic Ho atoms could be responsible for the change in the resistance states of the memory cell. Detailed analysis of I–V characteristics further corroborated the formation of conductive nanofilaments based on metal-like (Ohmic) conduction in LRS. Simmons-Schottky emission was found to be the dominant charge transport mechanism in the high resistance state.

  10. Effect of the alkyl chain length on the rotational dynamics of nonpolar and dipolar solutes in a series of N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Dinesh Chandra; Kumar, Jaini Praveen; Mondal, Navendu; Samanta, Anunay

    2013-05-01

    Rotational dynamics of two dipolar solutes, 4-aminophthalimide (AP) and 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN), and a nonpolar solute, anthracene, have been studied in N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl) bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) ionic liquids as a function of temperature and excitation wavelength to probe the microheterogeneous nature of these ionic liquids, which are recently reported to be more structured than the imidazolium ionic liquids (Khara and Samanta, J. Phys. Chem. B2012, 116, 13430-13438). Analysis of the measured rotational time constants of the solutes in terms of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory reveals that with increase in the alkyl chain length attached to the cationic component of the ionic liquids, AP shows stick to superstick behavior, PRODAN rotation lies between stick and slip boundary conditions, whereas anthracene exhibits slip to sub slip behavior. The contrasting rotational dynamics of these probe molecules is a reflection of their location in distinct environments of the ionic liquids thus demonstrating the heterogeneity of these ionic liquids. The microheterogeneity of these media, in particular, those with the long alkyl chain, is further evidence from the excitation wavelength dependence study of the rotational diffusion of the dipolar probe molecules.

  11. Giant tunneling electroresistance induced by ferroelectrically switchable two-dimensional electron gas at nonpolar BaTiO3/SrTiO3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyun; Shen, Lei; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Jingsheng; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2016-10-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the tunneling electroresistance (TER) of ferroelectric tunnel junctions [Pt /BaTiO3(BTO)/SrTiO3(STO )/Pt ]. It is found that the TER of Pt/BTO/STO/Pt junctions can be greatly increased with increasing thickness of STO layers. The underlying physics of this giant TER is the switchable two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at a nonpolar BTO/STO interface induced by the ferroelectric polarization. Our calculations show that when the ferroelectric polarization is pointing from BTO to STO, a 2DEG forms at the interface and acts as bridge for electrons to tunnel through the junctions. Nevertheless, there is no 2DEG at the interface under the opposite direction of the ferroelectric polarization, which results in a large tunnel resistance. More importantly, this ferroelectrically switchable 2DEG leads to a low resistance area product for Pt/BTO/STO/Pt junctions, which offers good compatibility with other components in an integrated circuit and is highly desired for industrial applications.

  12. Molecular dynamics analysis of the friction between a water-methanol liquid mixture and a non-polar solid crystal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Omori, Takeshi; Joly, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    We performed molecular dynamics analysis of the momentum transfer at the solid-liquid interface for a water-methanol liquid mixture between parallel non-polar solid walls in order to understand the strong decrease of the friction coefficient (FC) induced by the methanol adsorption at the surface observed in our previous work [S. Nakaoka et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 022402 (2015)]. In particular, we extracted the individual contributions of water and methanol molecules to the total FC and found that the molecular FC for methanol was larger than that for water. We further showed that the reduction of the total solid-liquid FC upon the increase of the methanol molar fraction in the first adsorption layer occurred as a result of a decrease in the molecular number density as well as a decrease in the molecular FCs of both molecules. Analysis of the molecular orientation revealed that the decrease of the molecular FC of methanol resulted from changes of the contact feature onto the solid surface. Specifically, methanol molecules near the solid surface had their C-O bond parallel to the surface with both CH3 and O sites contacting the solid at low methanol molar fraction, while they had their C-O bond outward from the surface with only the CH3 site contacting the solid at higher methanol molar fraction. The mechanisms discussed in this work could be used to search for alternative water additives to further reduce the solid-liquid friction.

  13. Characterization of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well using double nanopillar SiO2 mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Su; Honda, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masahito; Amano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of nonpolar a-plane (11\\bar{2}0) GaN (a-GaN) grown using single and double nanopillar SiO2 masks were investigated. The two nanopillar SiO2 masks were directly fabricated on an r-plane sapphire substrate and a-GaN by the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technique. Through the use of the single and double nanopillar SiO2 masks, the crystalline quality and optical properties of a-GaN were markedly improved because of the nanoscale ELOG effect and a number of voids in the single and double nanopillar SiO2 mask areas in comparison with the planar sample. The submicron pit densities of the planar, single, and double nanopillar mask samples were ˜2 × 109, ˜7 × 108, and ˜4 × 108 cm-2, respectively. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) values at room temperature of three-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown using the planar, single, and double nanopillar masks were 45, 60, and 68% at a carrier concentration of 1.0 × 1018 cm-3, respectively.

  14. Chemically selective coated quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) array for detection of volatile organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Spates, James J.; Bohuszewicz, Teresa V.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Bartholomew, John W.

    1998-12-01

    Liquid flow cells have been fabricated to prepare an array of QCMs operating simultaneously for detection and identification of VOCs in water. Two signals, a frequency response and a damping voltage response, were obtained per resonator. A blank QCM was used as a reference to account for changes in liquid density and viscosity. Nine different polymer coatings applied using a spin coat technique have been examined for VOC response under liquid flow conditions. A matrix of three classes of VOCs were examined for each coating with four chemicals in each class. The three classes of VOCs are polar, nonpolar and chlorinated. A pattern recognition technique, called visually empirical region of influence, was used to cluster the responses in n- dimensional space. Chemicals within a class varying by only one methyl group (e.g., toluene and xylene) are easily discriminated using only two different coatings with three different QCM responses. All chemicals were easily separated and detected with a total of 5 films and 6 responses with >99% accuracy.

  15. Impact of water dilution and cation tail length on ionic liquid characteristics: Interplay between polar and non-polar interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Govind A.; Bharadwaj, Vivek S.; Kinsinger, Corey L.; Schutt, Timothy C.; Pisierra, Nichole R.; Maupin, C. Mark

    2016-08-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass poses a major challenge that hinders the economical utilization of biomass for the production of biofuel, plastics, and chemicals. Ionic liquids have become a promising solvent that addresses many issues in both the pretreatment process and the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond for the deconstruction of cellulosic materials. However, to make the use of ionic liquids economically viable, either the cost of ionic liquids must be reduced, or a less expensive solvent (e.g., water) may be added to reduce the overall amount of ionic liquid used in addition to reducing the viscosity of the binary liquid mixture. In this work, we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the impact of water dilution on the overall liquid structure and properties of three imidazolium based ionic liquids. It is found that ionic liquid-water mixtures exhibit characteristics that can be grouped into two distinct regions, which are a function of the ionic liquid concentration. The trends observed in each region are found to correlate with the ordering in the local structure of the ionic liquid that arises from the dynamic interactions between the ion pairs. Simulation results suggest that there is a high level of local ordering in the molecular structure at high concentrations of ionic liquids that is driven by the aggregation of the cationic tails and the anion-water interactions. It is found that as the concentration of ionic liquids in the binary mixture is decreased, there is a point at which the competing self and cross interaction energies between the ionic liquid and water shifts away from a cation-anion dominated regime, which results in a significant change in the mixture properties. This break point, which occurs around 75% w/w ionic liquids, corresponds to the point at which water molecules percolate into the ionic liquid network disrupting the ionic liquids' nanostructure. It is observed that as the cationic alkyl

  16. Chemical defense by the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis against the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R Sorrells

    Full Text Available The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is established worldwide and displaces native ant species. In northern California, however, the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis persists in invaded areas. We found that in aggressive interactions between the two species, P. imparis employs a potent defensive secretion. Field observations were conducted at P. imparis nest sites both in the presence and absence of L. humile. These observations suggested and laboratory assays confirmed that P. imparis workers are more likely to secrete when outnumbered by L. humile. Workers of P. imparis were also more likely to secrete near their nest entrances than when foraging on trees. One-on-one laboratory trials showed that the P. imparis secretion is highly lethal to L. humile, causing 79% mortality. The nonpolar fraction of the secretion was chemically analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and found to be composed of long-chain and cyclic hydrocarbons. Chemical analysis of dissected P. imparis workers showed that the nonpolar fraction is derived from the Dufour's gland. Based on these conclusions, we hypothesize that this chemical defense may help P. imparis to resist displacement by L. humile.

  17. Chemical defense by the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrells, Trevor R; Kuritzky, Leah Y; Kauhanen, Peter G; Fitzgerald, Katherine; Sturgis, Shelby J; Chen, Jimmy; Dijamco, Cheri A; Basurto, Kimberly N; Gordon, Deborah M

    2011-04-19

    The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is established worldwide and displaces native ant species. In northern California, however, the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) persists in invaded areas. We found that in aggressive interactions between the two species, P. imparis employs a potent defensive secretion. Field observations were conducted at P. imparis nest sites both in the presence and absence of L. humile. These observations suggested and laboratory assays confirmed that P. imparis workers are more likely to secrete when outnumbered by L. humile. Workers of P. imparis were also more likely to secrete near their nest entrances than when foraging on trees. One-on-one laboratory trials showed that the P. imparis secretion is highly lethal to L. humile, causing 79% mortality. The nonpolar fraction of the secretion was chemically analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and found to be composed of long-chain and cyclic hydrocarbons. Chemical analysis of dissected P. imparis workers showed that the nonpolar fraction is derived from the Dufour's gland. Based on these conclusions, we hypothesize that this chemical defense may help P. imparis to resist displacement by L. humile.

  18. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka

    2015-10-20

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  19. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  20. Advancement of potent narcotic anaIgesics:combination of oxycodone%强效镇痛药羟考酮复方的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国明

    2014-01-01

    阿片受体激动剂羟考酮是强效麻醉性镇痛药,其镇痛作用强,但其耐受性、依赖性及其抑制胃肠道平滑肌蠕动等不良反应限制了其临床应用。自20世纪末,研究者开始分别将解热镇痛药、阿片受体激动剂、阿片受体拮抗剂、多巴胺受体拮抗剂等药物与羟考酮以不同比例进行组方,在增强镇痛作用的同时能降低羟考酮的用量并减少其不良反应,从而达到限制其滥用的目的。本文仅就羟考酮复方的发展进行较为系统的综述,以期为进一步促进其临床应用提供依据。%Oxycodone,an opioid receptor agonist,is one of potent narcotic analgesics. Despite its potent analgesic effect,the tolerant and dependent liability of oxycodone as well as its inhibition on gas-trointestinal motility strongly restricts its clinical application. Since the end of the last century,antipyretic, opioid receptor agonist,opioid receptor antagonist and dopamine receptor antagonist have been used to in combination with oxycodone at different ratios as complex prescriptions,the aim of which is to enhance the effect of oxycodone,decrease the dosage of oxycodone,and prevent the adverse effect and the tendency for misuse. Here we reviewed the development of oxycodone compositions in the recent years,hoping to provide more data for its potential clinical application.

  1. Attendance at Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, frequency of attendance and substance use outcomes after residential treatment for drug dependence: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossop, Michael; Stewart, Duncan; Marsden, John

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between frequency of attendance at Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous (NA/AA) meetings and substance use outcomes after residential treatment of drug dependence. It was predicted that post-treatment NA/AA attendance would be related to improved substance use outcomes. Using a longitudinal, prospective cohort design, interviews were conducted with drug-dependent clients (n = 142) at intake to residential treatment, and at 1 year, 2 years and 4-5 years follow-up. Data were collected by structured interviews. All follow-up interviews were carried out by independent professional interviewers. Abstinence from opiates was increased throughout the 5-year follow-up period compared to pre-treatment levels. Clients who attended NA/AA after treatment were more likely to be abstinent from opiates at follow-up. Abstinence from stimulants increased at follow-up but (except at 1-year follow-up) no additional benefit was found for NA/AA attendance. There was no overall change in alcohol abstinence after treatment but clients who attended NA/AA were more likely to be abstinent from alcohol at all follow-up points. More frequent NA/AA attenders were more likely to be abstinent from opiates and alcohol when compared both to non-attenders and to infrequent (less than weekly) attenders. NA/AA can support and supplement residential addiction treatment as an aftercare resource. In view of the generally poor alcohol use outcomes achieved by drug-dependent patients after treatment, the improved alcohol outcomes of NA/AA attenders suggests that the effectiveness of existing treatment services may be improved by initiatives that lead to increased involvement and engagement with such groups.

  2. Factors associated with attendance in 12-step groups (Alcoholics Anonymous/Narcotics Anonymous) among adults with alcohol problems living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Samet, Jeffrey H; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Saitz, Richard

    2011-01-15

    Despite the value of 12-step meetings, few studies have examined factors associated with attendance among those living with HIV/AIDS, such as the impact of HIV disease severity and demographics. This study examines predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need on attendance at Alcoholic Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings among those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Secondary analysis of prospective data from the HIV-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study, a cohort of 400 adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol problems. Factors associated with AA/NA attendance were identified using the Anderson model for vulnerable populations. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with self-reported AA/NA attendance. At study entry, subjects were 75% male, 12% met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, 43% had drug dependence and 56% reported attending one or more AA/NA meetings (past 6 months). In the adjusted model, female gender negatively associated with attendance, as were social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs, while presence of HCV antibody, drug dependence diagnosis, and homelessness associated with higher odds of attendance. Non-substance abuse related barriers to AA/NA group attendance exist for those living with HIV/AIDS, including females and social support systems that use alcohol and/or drugs. Positive associations of homelessness, HCV infection and current drug dependence were identified. These findings provide implications for policy makers and treatment professionals who wish to encourage attendance at 12-step meetings for those living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or other substance use problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ chemical functionalization of gallium nitride with phosphonic acid derivatives during etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stewart J; Greenough, Michelle; Arellano, Consuelo; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-03-04

    In situ functionalization of polar (c plane) and nonpolar (a plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate the emission properties and oxide formation of GaN, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and water contact angle. The use of (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid and propyl phosphonic acid in phosphoric acid demonstrated lower amounts of gallium oxide formation and greater hydrophobicity for both sample sets, while also improving PL emission of polar GaN samples. In addition to crystal orientation, growth-related factors such as defect density in bulk GaN versus thin GaN films residing on sapphire substrates were investigated as well as their responses to in situ functionalization. Thin nonpolar GaN layers were the most sensitive to etching treatments due in part to higher defect densities (stacking faults and threading dislocations), which accounts for large surface depressions. High-quality GaN (both free-standing bulk polar and bulk nonpolar) demonstrated increased sensitivity to oxide formation. Room-temperature PL stands out as an excellent technique to identify nonradiative recombination as observed in the spectra of heteroepitaxially grown GaN samples. The chemical methods applied to tune optical and physical properties of GaN provide a quantitative framework for future novel chemical and biochemical sensor development.

  4. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the amount of soil organic matter and total nitrogen content was. T DIFFERENT HOURS ... burning such as improvement in soil physical ... chemical properties. The aim is to find .... Humid Tropics with particular reference to. Nigeria.

  5. Reduced hospital stay and narcotic consumption, and improved mobilization with local and intraarticular infiltration after hip arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial of an intraarticular technique versus epidural infusion in 80 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Haraldsted, Viggo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia gives excellent pain relief but is associated with substantial side effects. We compared wound infiltration combined with intraarticular injection of local anesthetics for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty (THA) with the well-established practice of epidural....../mL at the conclusion of surgery combined with one postoperative intraarticular injection of the same substances through an intraarticular catheter (group A). RESULTS: Narcotic consumption was significantly reduced in group A compared to group E (p = 0.004). Pain levels at rest and during mobilization were similar...

  6. Fabrication of Schottky barrier diodes using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated non-polar ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwaba, Yasuhiro, E-mail: kashi@sendai-nct.ac.jp [Sendai National College of Technology, Advanced Course of Information and Electronic System Engineering, 4-16-1 Ayashi-chuo, Sendai 989-3128 (Japan); Sakuma, Mio [Sendai National College of Technology, Advanced Course of Information and Electronic System Engineering, 4-16-1 Ayashi-chuo, Sendai 989-3128 (Japan); Abe, Takami; Nakagawa, Akira; Niikura, Ikuo; Kashiwaba, Yasube; Daibo, Masahiro; Osada, Hiroshi [Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Non-polar single crystal ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) substrates with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment were characterized and applied to Schottky barrier diodes. Formation of a ZnO{sub 2} layer with a polycrystalline structure was confirmed by 2θ scans of X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Tails of the X-ray rocking curve of ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) planes were broadened with increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment time. Grain structures were clearly observed on the surfaces of ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) substrates with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment by an atomic force microscope, and the root mean square roughness of the ZnO{sub 2} surface was about 5 nm. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of Pd/ZnO/Al structures using ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) substrates without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment were ohmic. The J–V characteristics of Pd/ZnO{sub 2}/ZnO/Al structures using ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) substrates with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment time of 5 min showed good rectifying characteristics. The ideality factor n of this diode was 1.7 and the barrier height between Pd films and the ZnO{sub 2} layer on the ZnO (101{sup ¯}0) plane was estimated to be 0.92 eV.

  7. Can dispersion corrections annihilate the dispersion-driven nano-aggregation of non-polar groups? An ab initio molecular dynamics study of ionic liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firaha, Dzmitry S; Thomas, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Korth, Martin; Kirchner, Barbara

    2016-11-28

    In this study, we aim at understanding the influence of dispersion correction on the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid (IL) systems. We investigated a large bulk system of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate IL and a small cluster system of ethylamine in ethylammonium nitrate both under periodic boundary conditions. The large system displays several changes upon neglect of dispersion correction, the most striking one is the surprising decrease of the well-known microheterogeneity which is accompanied by an increase of side chain hydrogen atom-anion interplay. For the diffusion coefficient, we observe a correction towards experimental behavior in terms of the cation becoming faster than the anion with dispersion correction. Changes in the electronic structure upon dispersion correction are reflected in larger/smaller dipole moments for anions/cations also seen in the calculated IR spectrum. The energetics of different ion pair dimer subsystems (polar and non-polar) are in accordance with the analysis of the trajectories: A detailed balance in the ionic liquid system determines its particular behavior. While the overall interaction terms for dispersion-corrected calculations are higher, the decrease in microheterogeneity upon inclusion of dispersion interaction becomes obvious due to the relation between all contributions to polar-polar terms. For the small system, we clearly observe the well known behavior that the hybrid functionals show higher reaction barriers than the pure generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals. The correction of dispersion reduces the discrepancies in some cases. Accounting for the number of jumps, we observe that dispersion correction reduces the discrepancies from 50% to less than 10%.

  8. Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at nonpolar GaN (1 1 ¯ 00 ) surfaces: Kinetics and impact on surface vibrational and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J.; Himmerlich, M.; Krischok, S.; Rink, M.; Kröger, J.; Polyakov, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen at nonpolar GaN (1 1 ¯00 ) surfaces and its impact on the electronic and vibrational properties is investigated using surface electron spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the surface mediated dissociation of H2 and the subsequent adsorption of H, an energy barrier of 0.55 eV has to be overcome. The calculated kinetic surface phase diagram indicates that the reaction is kinetically hindered at low pressures and low temperatures. At higher temperatures ab initio thermodynamics show, that the H-free surface is energetically favored. To validate these theoretical predictions experiments at room temperature and under ultrahigh vacuum conditions were performed. They reveal that molecular hydrogen does not dissociatively adsorb at the GaN (1 1 ¯00 ) surface. Only activated atomic hydrogen atoms attach to the surface. At temperatures above 820 K, the attached hydrogen gets desorbed. The adsorbed hydrogen atoms saturate the dangling bonds of the gallium and nitrogen surface atoms and result in an inversion of the Ga-N surface dimer buckling. The signatures of the Ga-H and N-H vibrational modes on the H-covered surface have experimentally been identified and are in good agreement with the DFT calculations of the surface phonon modes. Both theory and experiment show that H adsorption results in a removal of occupied and unoccupied intragap electron states of the clean GaN (1 1 ¯00 ) surface and a reduction of the surface upward band bending by 0.4 eV. The latter mechanism largely reduces surface electron depletion.

  9. Can dispersion corrections annihilate the dispersion-driven nano-aggregation of non-polar groups? An ab initio molecular dynamics study of ionic liquid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firaha, Dzmitry S.; Thomas, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Korth, Martin; Kirchner, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we aim at understanding the influence of dispersion correction on the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquid (IL) systems. We investigated a large bulk system of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate IL and a small cluster system of ethylamine in ethylammonium nitrate both under periodic boundary conditions. The large system displays several changes upon neglect of dispersion correction, the most striking one is the surprising decrease of the well-known microheterogeneity which is accompanied by an increase of side chain hydrogen atom-anion interplay. For the diffusion coefficient, we observe a correction towards experimental behavior in terms of the cation becoming faster than the anion with dispersion correction. Changes in the electronic structure upon dispersion correction are reflected in larger/smaller dipole moments for anions/cations also seen in the calculated IR spectrum. The energetics of different ion pair dimer subsystems (polar and non-polar) are in accordance with the analysis of the trajectories: A detailed balance in the ionic liquid system determines its particular behavior. While the overall interaction terms for dispersion-corrected calculations are higher, the decrease in microheterogeneity upon inclusion of dispersion interaction becomes obvious due to the relation between all contributions to polar-polar terms. For the small system, we clearly observe the well known behavior that the hybrid functionals show higher reaction barriers than the pure generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals. The correction of dispersion reduces the discrepancies in some cases. Accounting for the number of jumps, we observe that dispersion correction reduces the discrepancies from 50% to less than 10%.

  10. Chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book, suitable as an introductory text for undergraduates, presents temperature, internal energy, and entropy with a minimum of mathematics. The basic mathematical models of classical chemical thermodynamics are developed later in the text. Includes numerous problems at the end of each chapter, an appendix giving thermodynamic data for common substances, a short list of references, answers to selected problems, and a subject index. Contents, abridged: Energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic functions. The third law of thermodynamics and absolute entropies. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Phase equilibria: the activity function. Thermodynamics of ions in solution. Statistical thermodynamics. Appendices. Index.

  11. Chemically Selective Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Array for Detection of Volatile Organic Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuszewicz, T.V.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Martin, S.J.; Osbourn, G.C. Bartholomew, J.W.; Schneider, T.W.; Spates, J.J.

    1998-11-04

    Liquid flow cells have been fabricated to prepare an array of QCMS operating simultaneously for detection and identification of VOCS in water. TWO signals, a tlequency response and a damping voltage response, were obtained per resonator. A blank QCM was used as a reference to account for changes in liquid density and viscosity. Nine different polymer coatings applied using a spin coat technique have been examined for VOC response under liquid flow conditions. A matrix of three classes of VOCS were examined for each coating with four chemicals in each class. The three classes of VOCS are polar, nonpolar and chlorinated. A pattern recognition technique, called visually empirical region of influence (VERI), was used to cluster the responses in n-dimensional space. Chemicals within a class varying by only one methyl group (e.g., toluene and xylene) are easily discriminated using only two different coatings with three different QCM responses. All chemicak were easily separated and detected with a total of 5 films and 6 responses with >99% accuracy.

  12. Chemical Potential of the Solvent: a Crucial Player for Rationalizing Host-Guest Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piguet, Claude; Baudet, Karine; Guerra, Sebastiano

    2017-08-08

    An access to reliable values of the thermodynamic constants which controls simple host-guest association, is crucial in medicine, biology, pharmacy and chemistry since the optimum concentration of an effector (i.e. a drug) acting on a receptor is set to the inverse of these constants. Intermolecular association between charged species in polar solvents largely obeys this principle. Any deviation from ideality is mastered by the Debye-Hückel theory of ionic atmosphere. Much less is known for related association reactions involving neutral species in non-polar (lipophilic) media such as membranes, bilayers or organic polymers. Taking the intermolecular association between [La(hfa)3dig] guest and tridentate polyaromatic host receptors L1-L3 in dichloromethane as a proof-of-concept, we show that the progress of the association reactions disrupt the chemical potential of the solvent to such an extent that may seemingly be shifted by two orders of magnitude, thus leading to erroneous dose-response prescriptions. A simple chemical model, which considers a subset of solvent molecules in surface contact with the partners of the association reaction, restores a reliable access to true and interpretable thermodynamic constants. This 'complement' to the law of mass action offers a simple method for safely taking care of the non-predictable variations of the activity coefficients of the various partners when host-guest reactions are conducted in non-polar media. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  14. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  15. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  16. Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Compares the coulumbic point charge model for hydrogen chloride with the valence bond model. It is not possible to assign either a nonpolar or ionic canonical form of the valence bond model, while the covalent-ionic bond distribution does conform to the point charge model. (JM)

  17. 2011-2013年常熟市3家医院麻醉药品应用分析%Analysis on Use of Narcotic Drugs in Three Hospitals of Changshu City during 2011-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俐

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解常熟市2家三乙医院、1家二甲医院麻醉药品的使用现状和趋势,评价药物利用情况。方法:采用回顾性分析方法,对上述3家医院2011—2013年麻醉药品的销售金额、用药频度( DDDs)和限定日费用( DDC)等进行排序、分析。结果:3年来,3家医院麻醉药品的销售金额和DDDs均有不同程度的增长。2011、2013年盐酸瑞芬太尼销售金额排序均居第1位(2012年居第2位);枸橼酸舒芬太尼注射液、枸橼酸芬太尼注射液、芬太尼透皮贴剂各年度销售金额排序在前5位内波动。枸橼酸芬太尼注射液的DDDs逐年递增,3年均居DDDs排序第1位;盐酸哌替啶注射液因其显著的神经毒性和较弱的镇痛效果,使用量明显减少。结论:常熟市3家医院麻醉药品的使用基本合理,但仍应继续加强对麻醉药品的规范化使用和管理。%OBJECTIVE:To analyze the status quo and the tendency of the use of narcotic drugs in three hospitals ( two three-B level hospital and one two-B level hospital ) in Changshu city and evaluate the drug use in these hospitals .METHODS:Retrospectively , the use of the narcotic drugs in three hospitals during the period of 2011-2013 was analyzed statistically in respect of the consumption sum , DDDs and DDC etc.RESULTS: The consumption sum and DDDs of narcotic drugs over the three years increased to different degree .In terms of consumption sum , remifentanil hydrochloride ranked the first in 2011 and 2013, and sufentanil citrate injection , fentanyl citrate injection, fentanyl transdermal system ranked among the top five .Fentanyl citrate injection increased year by year in DDDs and it dominated the DDDs list over three consecutive years .The consumption amount of pethidine hydrochloride injection was decreasing due to its strong neurotoxicity and poor analgesic effect .CONCLUSIONS:The use of narcotic drugs in three hospitals of Changshu was basic

  18. 一种二线制无极性数字称重传感器%A two-wire non-polarized digital weighing load cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭旗

    2015-01-01

    The present digital load cell is composed of 4 lines at least, which has 2 data lines and 2 power lines. The strict specialization and polarity make a wrong connection or a short circuit very dangerous. Once it happens, the equipment is prone to be damaged, and the installation and maintenance will become difficult for you; the data transmission encryption methods are not only limited, but also easy to be cracked. Our company's inventive patent"the two-wire data/ power collinear transmission device and technique with intelligent terminals and for complete machine power supply"(Patent No. 201510078098.7) can decrease the wires of digital loadcells to two Non-polarized wires. If a short circuit happens, it will not damage the equipment. Our patent product simplifies the system connection and improves the system reliability, thus making the installation and maintenance very simple. The special encryption method adopted by the data transmission is very hard to be cracked.%现有的数字传感器至少由2根数据线和2根电源线共4根线组成, 每根线均有明确的分工和极性, 不能接错和短路, 否则易损坏设备, 需专业人员才能安装和维护; 数据传输加密方式有限, 易破解. 利用本公司研发的"智能终端整机供电用二线制数据/电源共线传输装置及方法", 将数字传感器的连线减至2根, 且无极性、 可短路, 简化了系统的连接, 提高系统的可靠性, 使安装和维护变得极为简便. 数据传输采用特殊的加密方式, 极难破解.

  19. Nonpolar organic compounds as PM2.5 source tracers: Investigation of their sources and degradation in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongqiong; Feng, Yongming; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Griffith, Stephen M.; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qingyan; Wu, Dui; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-10-01

    A group of nonpolar organic compounds (NPOCs) in five compound classes including alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene were quantified in samples of particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm collected at four sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, over a 2 year period from 2011 to 2012. The four sites include industrial (Nanhai), urban (Guangzhou), urban outskirt (Dongguan), and suburban (Nansha) locations. Some NPOCs are uniquely emitted from particular combustion sources and thereby serving as markers in source apportionment. Based on this multiyear and multisite NPOC data set, spatial and seasonal variations, correlation analysis, and ratio-ratio plots were used to investigate the source information and degradation of NPOC tracers. In summer, NPOCs showed distinct local emission characteristics, with urban sites having much higher concentrations than suburban sites. In winter, regional transport was an important influence on NPOC levels, driving up concentrations at all sampling sites and diminishing an urban-suburban spatial gradient. The lighter NPOCs exhibited more prominent seasonal variations. Such spatiotemporal features suggest that their particle-phase abundance is more influenced by temperature, which is a critical factor in controlling the extent of semivolatile organics partitioned into the aerosol phase. The heavier NPOCs, especially PAHs, showed negligible correlation among the four sites, suggesting more influence from local emissions. Ratio-ratio plots indicate photodegradation and mixing of various sources for the NPOCs in the PRD. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of this large NPOC data set suggests that heavier NPOCs are more suitable source indicators than lighter NPOCs. Incorporating particle-phase light NPOC concentrations in PMF produces a separate factor, which primarily contains those light NPOCs and likely is not a source factor. Total

  20. Energy efficiency for the removal of non-polar pollutants during ultraviolet irradiation, visible light photocatalysis and ozonation of a wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Gómez, María José; Herrera-López, Sonia; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to assess the removal of a set of non-polar pollutants in biologically treated wastewater using ozonation, ultraviolet (UV 254 nm low pressure mercury lamp) and visible light (Xe-arc lamp) irradiation as well as visible light photocatalysis using Ce-doped TiO2. The compounds tracked include UV filters, synthetic musks, herbicides, insecticides, antiseptics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Raw wastewater and treated samples were analyzed using stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (SBSE-CG × GC-TOF-MS). Ozone treatment could remove most pollutants with a global efficiency of over 95% for 209 μM ozone dosage. UV irradiation reduced the total concentration of the sixteen pollutants tested by an average of 63% with high removal of the sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), the synthetic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydronaphthalene (tonalide, AHTN) and several herbicides. Visible light Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis reached ~70% overall removal with particularly high efficiency for synthetic musks. In terms of power usage efficiency expressed as nmol kJ(-1), the results showed that ozonation was by far the most efficient process, ten-fold over Xe/Ce-TiO2 visible light photocatalysis, the latter being in turn considerably more efficient than UV irradiation. In all cases the efficiency decreased along the treatments due to the lower reaction rate at lower pollutant concentration. The use of photocatalysis greatly improved the efficiency of visible light irradiation. The collector area per order decreased from 9.14 ± 5.11 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for visible light irradiation to 0.16 ± 0.03 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis. The toxicity of treated wastewater was assessed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Ozonation reduced the toxicity of treated wastewater, while UV irradiation and visible light photocatalysis limited by 20-25% the algal growth due to

  1. (Chemical thermodynamics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesmer, R.E.

    1990-09-12

    The purpose of this travel was for the traveler to participate in the 11th IUPAC International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and to present a paper of which he is co-author entitled The Transition from Strong-to-Weak Electrolyte Behavior Near the Critical Point of Water'' in the session on Solutions. The conference brought together nearly 500 scientists from around the world to discuss broad aspects of experimental thermodynamics and theoretical modeling. The traveler also visited the University of Karlsruhe to discuss current research with E.U. Franck and his collaborators. This institution has been for many years one of the leading centers for experimental studies on phase equilibrium and physical chemical studies especially on pure substances under the direction of Franck.

  2. Excess chemical potential of small solutes across water--membrane and water--hexane interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The excess chemical potentials of five small, structurally related solutes, CH4, CH3F, CH2F2, CHF3, and CF4, across the water-glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer and water-hexane interfaces were calculated at 300, 310, and 340 K using the particle insertion method. The excess chemical potentials of nonpolar molecules (CH4 and CF4) decrease monotonically or nearly monotonically from water to a nonpolar phase. In contrast, for molecules that possess permanent dipole moments (CH3F, CH2F, and CHF3), the excess chemical potentials exhibit an interfacial minimum that arises from superposition of two monotonically and oppositely changing contributions: electrostatic and nonelectrostatic. The nonelectrostatic term, dominated by the reversible work of creating a cavity that accommodates the solute, decreases, whereas the electrostatic term increases across the interface from water to the membrane interior. In water, the dependence of this term on the dipole moment is accurately described by second order perturbation theory. To achieve the same accuracy at the interface, third order terms must also be included. In the interfacial region, the molecular structure of the solvent influences both the excess chemical potential and solute orientations. The excess chemical potential across the interface increases with temperature, but this effect is rather small. Our analysis indicates that a broad range of small, moderately polar molecules should be surface active at the water-membrane and water-oil interfaces. The biological and medical significance of this result, especially in relation to the mechanism of anesthetic action, is discussed.

  3. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Batishko, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Schultz, John F.

    2002-10-01

    The infrared sensors task at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development will include detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology relevant to these primary missions is also likely to be useful for battlefield chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemical weapons destruction facilities or industrial chemical plants, and law enforcement applications. PNNL will seek to serve organizations with direct interest in these missions through collaborative research and development efforts approved by NA-22. During FY02, PNNL began assembling a remote IR detection capability that would allow field experiments to be conducted. The capability consists of a commercially available FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) emission spectrometer and a frequency-modulation differential-absorption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system being developed at PNNL. To provide environmental protection for these systems, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and procured. While the FTIR system was field-ready, the FM-DIAL system required many modifications to prepare for field deployment. This document provides an overview of the FTIR system, summarizes the modifications made to the FM-DIAL system, and describes the salient features of the remote systems trailer.

  4. Study on Surface Properties for Non-polar Fluids with Density Functional Theory%密度泛函理论在非极性纯流体表面性质研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 陆九芳; 付东; 刘金晨; 李以圭

    2004-01-01

    The density functional theory, simplified by the local density approximation and mean-field approximation, is applied to study the surface properties of pure non-polar fluids. A reasonable long rang correction is adopted to avoid the truncation of the potential. The perturbation theory is applied to establish the equation for the phase equilibrium, in which the hard-core chain fluid is as the reference fluid and the Yukawa potential is used as the perturbation term. Three parameters, ε/k, d and ms, are regressed from the vapor-liquid equilibria, and the surface properties, including density profile, surface tension and local surface tension profile are predicted with these parameters.

  5. 武汉同济医院开展癌痛规划化治疗示范病房建立管理规范培训暨麻醉处方权医师培训%Tongji Hospital launched the training programs for practices in wards with standard treatment of cancer pain and physicians'narcotic prescription right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ On July 18th,2011,Academic Exchange Center of Tongji Hospital was packed with medical staff from Cancer Center,Department of Anesthesia,Department of Pharmacy,and Nursing Department.All of the people participated in the opening ceremony of "the training programs for practices in wards with standard treatment of cancer pain and physicians'narcotic prescription right".

  6. Taking narcotics for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 12. Zhou YL. Principles of pain management, In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  7. USSOCOM Support for Counter Narcotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-21

    the identified drug runners are caught. Along the same lines, hundreds of National Guardsmen, including Army Special Forces, assisted border patrol...Role in Drug War." Army Times, 13 June 1989, p. 10. Kaplan, John. "Taking Drugs Seriosly." The Public Interest, Summer 1988, No. 92, pp. 32-50. Maze

  8. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  9. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  10. Reduce Errors Of Narcotic And The First Class of Psychotropic Drugs Management By QCC%品管圈活动降低麻醉药品管理差错率工作实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷利群; 肖顺林; 叶云; 张峥; 袁浩宇; 俞瑜

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过品管圈活动对麻醉药品及一类精神药品管理进行规范化管理,促进药事管理质量的持续改进。方法以“降低麻醉药品及一类精神药品管理差错率”为主题,按照品管圈活动的10个步骤进行计划、实施、确认和处置。结果3年的品管圈活动中,处方书写(开具)错误由改善前的249件降低到41件,专册登记数量与使用数量不符由14件降低到3件,未专册登记由10件降低到0件;目标达成率分别为118.18%,110.00%和125.00%;进步率分别高达83.53%,78.57%和100.00%。结论推行品管圈活动能够降低麻醉药品、一类精神药品管理差错率,减少了药物的浪费,从而提高了用药安全性。%Objective To Reduce errors of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management by QCC. enhance pharmacists’ consciousness of special drugs management and job satisfaction. Methods In accordance with the theme - reducing the error rates of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management, process such as planning, implementation, confirmation and disposition were redesigned by 10 steps. Results By 3 years QCC activities, the number of errors in Prescription writing (drawn), special issue registra-tions and absence reduced from 249 to 41, 14 to 3 and 14 to 0, with the standard - reaching rates of 118. 18% , 110. 00% and 125. 00% , the progress rates of 83. 54% , 78. 57% and 100. 00% . Conclusion “Quality Control Circle(QCC)”activities have achieved satisfactory results in reducing error rates of narcotic and the first class of psychotropic drugs management, cutted down drug waste and enhanced the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  11. Nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer: fundamentals of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer and new combination bands of (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2 involving the Bu, intermolecular bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghany, M; Afshari, Mahin; Abusara, Z; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N

    2009-09-21

    Spectra of the nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer in the region of the N2O v1 fundamental band are observed in a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion probed with a tunable diode laser. Four bands are analysed: two fundamentals of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer and combination bands involving the intermolecular disrotation of the monomers (Bu intermolecular bend) for both (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2. Because the determination of this intermolecular frequency relies on the experimentally unknown frequency of the (forbidden) symmetric fundamental, we used previously published ab initio results and their proximity to our experimental values to assign the upper state of the combination bands. The resulting intermolecular disrotation frequencies are 42.3(1.0) and 41.6(1.0) cm(-1) for the (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2, respectively. This represents the first observation of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer, and the direct determination of a second intermolecular frequency for the nonpolar (N2O)2.

  12. Behavior of anionic molybdenum(IV, VI) and tungsten(IV, VI) complexes containing bulky hydrophobic dithiolate ligands and intramolecular NH···S hydrogen bonds in nonpolar solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenaka, Yuki; Okamura, Taka-aki; Tatsumi, Miki; Inazumi, Naoya; Onitsuka, Kiyotaka

    2014-11-07

    Molybdenum(IV, VI) and tungsten(IV, VI) complexes, (Et4N)2[M(IV)O{1,2-S2-3,6-(RCONH)2C6H2}2] and (Et4N)2[M(VI)O2{1,2-S2-3,6-(RCONH)2C6H2}2] (M = Mo, W; R = (4-(t)BuC6H4)3C), with bulky hydrophobic dithiolate ligands containing NH···S hydrogen bonds were synthesized. These complexes are soluble in nonpolar solvents like toluene, which allows the detection of unsymmetrical coordination structures and elusive intermolecular interactions in solution. The (1)H NMR spectra of the complexes in toluene-d8 revealed an unsymmetrical coordination structure, and proximity of the counterions to the anion moiety was suggested at low temperatures. The oxygen-atom-transfer reaction between the molybdenum(IV) complex and Me3NO in toluene was considerably accelerated in nonpolar solvents, and this increase was attributed to the favorable access of the substrate to the active center in the hydrophobic environment.

  13. Chemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  14. 我院2009~2011年麻醉药品用药分析%The Analysis of Narcotic Drugs usage of Our Hospital from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建华

    2012-01-01

      目的:了解我院麻醉药品的应用情况。方法:收集我院2009~2011年麻醉药品的品种、用量,运用药物频度分析法(DDDs)和排序对麻醉药品应用情况进行统计分析和评价。结果:我院麻醉药品的使用量,吗啡制剂用量最大,盐酸哌替啶注射液使用频度有所下降,注射用盐酸瑞芬太尼的用量逐年递增。结论:我院麻醉药品使用基本合理,符合WHO推荐的癌痛治疗原则。%  To know of the application of the Narcotic drugs in our hospital. Methods: We collect all the information of anesthetic drug in our hospital from 2009 to 2011 such as varieties , dosage ,DDDs and sorting and then analysis and valuate it with statistic.Results:The dosage of morphine is the largest one in our hospital. The amount of usage of Pethidine hydrochloride injection is less than before. The usage of Remifentanil hydrochloride for injection is increased yearly. Conclusions:The application of Narcotic drugs in our hospital is rational and it conforms to the principals of cancer pain of WHO.

  15. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  16. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    expert in chemical security and work hard to safeguard the communities. Items discussed in this ... the public from injury, fire or other damage. In order to achieve these ..... 10.8 Transportation of hazardous chemicals and wastes? ... Chemical Security Engagement Program: https://chemsecurity.sandia.gov/. Chemical Safety.

  17. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  18. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  19. Reconstruction and Energetics of the Polar (112) and ( 1 1 2 ) Versus the Non-Polar (220) Surfaces of CuInSe2: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: First-principles total-energy study of CIS reveals a number of (112) and (-1-1-2) surface structures stable at different atomic chemical potentials. First-principles total-energy study for CuInSe2 reveals a number of (112) and ({ovr 112}) surface structures stable at different atomic chemical potentials. This structure richness raises the possibility for engineering CIS/CIGS properties by surface control during the growth. The experimentally observed spontaneous decomposition of the (220)/(204) surfaces into (112) and ({ovr 112}) is also confirmed by calculating the absolute surface energies.

  20. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  1. 2013-2015年新乡市第四人民医院住院药房麻醉药品应用分析%Analysis on Application of Narcotic Drugs in Hospital Pharmacy in Xinxiang the Fouth People's Hospital During 2013-2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the application of narcotic drugs in hospital pharmacy in Xinxiang the Fouth People's Hospital ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) , and to evaluate the rationality of the clinical application .METHODS:According to the application data and the special registration book for narcotic drugs provided by the HIS during 2013-2015, the defined daily dose system( DDDs) , drug utilization index( DUI) and defined daily cost( DDC) were calculated and the rationality was analyzed.RESULTS: The narcotic drugs used in our hospital increased year by year in both consumption amount and consumption sum, and the DUI were less than or equal to one except for sufentanil citrate injections, remifentanil hydrochloride injections and morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets.CONCLUSIONS:The application of narcotic drugs in our hospital was basically rational, which still need to further perfect the regulations for the administration of narcotic drugs and correct the irrational clinical application of drugs, so as to promote more safe, effective and rational application of narcotic drugs.%目的:了解新乡市第四人民医院(以下简称“我院”)住院药房麻醉药品的使用情况,评价其临床应用是否合理。方法:根据我院住院药房医院信息系统提供的2013—2015年麻醉药品使用数据及麻醉药品专用登记簿,计算麻醉药品的用药频度、药物利用指数( drug utilization index,DUI)、限定日费用,分析用药合理性。结果:2013—2015年我院住院药房麻醉药品的用量、销售金额逐年增加;除枸橼酸芬太尼注射液、注射用盐酸瑞芬太尼、硫酸吗啡缓释片的DUI>1外,其他麻醉药品的DUI≤1。结论:我院麻醉药品的使用基本合理,但还需进一步完善麻醉药品管理制度,纠正临床不合理用药,促使更安全、有效、经济地使用麻醉药品。

  2. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  3. Predicting soil sorption coefficients of organic chemicals using a neural network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C.; Govind, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tabak, H.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The soil/sediment adsorption partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon (K{sub oc}) is extensively used to assess the fate of organic chemicals in hazardous waste sites. Several attempts have been made to estimate the value of K{sub oc} from chemical structure or its parameters. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a nonlinear model for estimating K{sub oc} applicable to polar and nonpolar organics based on artificial neural networks using the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and water solubility (S). An analytic equation was obtained by starting with a neural network, converging the bias and weight values using the available data on water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient, and the normalized soil/sediment adsorption partition coefficient, and then combining the equations for each node in the final neural network. For the 119 chemicals in the training set, estimates using the neural network equation lie outside the 2{sigma} region (the standard deviation for the training set, {sigma} = 0.52) for only five chemicals, while all the chemicals in the test set lie within the 2{sigma} region. It was concluded that the neural network equation outperforms the linear models in fitting the K{sub oc} values for the training set and predicting them for the test set.

  4. Surgical management of infected pseudoaneurysms of femoral artery caused by narcotics injection%注射毒品致股动脉感染性假性动脉瘤的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全明; 舒畅; 姜晓华; 黎明; 李鑫; 何昊

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨注射毒品致股动脉感染性假性动脉瘤的外科治疗.方法:回顾性分析因注射毒品致股动脉感染性假性动脉瘤患者63例的临床资料.结果:假性动脉瘤破裂52例,住院期间再次或多次出血者26例.行髂外动脉-股浅动脉旁路带环人工血管重建术49例,行髂外动脉或股动脉结扎术14例.围手术期无死亡.1例住院期间出现移植物感染,5例随诊期间出现移植物感染,感染的移植物取出后同时行髂外动脉或股动脉结扎保肢成功.1例行股动脉结扎患者术后出现肢体坏死行大腿截肢.其余手术患者均恢复良好.36例复诊彩超检查示人工血管通畅.结论:尽早外科手术是抢救因注射毒品致感染性假性动脉瘤患者生命的唯一途径;彻底清创引流、髂外动脉-股浅动脉旁路带环人工血管重建以及控制感染是治疗的有效方法;在感染严重且局部条件无法重建血管的情况下,结扎髂外动脉或股动脉也是一种救治患者的可行选择.%Objective To investigate the surgical management of infected pseudoaneurysms of femoral artery caused by narcotics injection.Methods The clinical data of 63 cases of infected pseudoaneurysms of femoral artery caused by narcotics injection were reviewed retrospectively.Results The tumors in 52 cases ruptured. Rupture hemorrhoea first occurred in 45 patients before admission and in 7 during hospitalization. Twenty-six patients suffered from recurrent or multiple hemorrhoea while in hospital. Forty-nine patients received external iliac artery-superficial femoral artery extra-anatomic bypass reconstruction with banded vascular grafts and the other 14 received ligation operations of the external iliac artery or the femoral artery. No one died in the perioperative period. One patient with vascular graft reconstruction developed graft infection during hospitalization and 5 developed graft infection during the follow-up. No ischemic necrosis occurred

  5. The importance of chemical components in cleaning agents for the indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup, Karl Ventzel

    In order to evaluate the importance for the indoor environment of chemical compounds in cleaning agents, the emission of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from 10 selected cleaning agents and the content of LAS (Linear AlkanbenzeneSulfonate) in dust samples from 7 buildings were investigated...... VOCs. In one experiment, the concentration of nonpolar VOCs in the breathing zone of a person who treated the floor in a large climate chamber (45 m3) using a water based polish product was found to be 3,9 mg/m3. Use of scented cleaning agents usually means that odour thresholds of some compounds...... included in this investigation had a content of 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol of 1,5% and 3.1%. Investigation of their emission profiles in the FLEC showed that the emission of polar VOCs is delayed until the surface is nearly dry, hence the polar VOCs have elongated emission profiles. In experiments...

  6. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  7. No evidence for the induction of brown algal chemical defense by the phytohormones jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemeier, Theresa; Jahn, Karsten; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-12-01

    Induced chemical defense reactions are widespread in marine brown algae. Despite the evidence that the biosynthesis of defense metabolites can be up-regulated upon herbivory, we do not know how this regulation of biosynthetic pathways to secondary metabolites is achieved in brown algae. In higher plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is crucial for the mediation of induced chemical defenses, and several findings of this metabolite from marine sources have been reported. We tested the hypothesis that JA or related metabolites play a role in induced brown algal defense. Quantification of oxylipins with a detection limit around 20 ng g(-1) algal tissue did not reveal the presence of JA in the seven examined brown algal species Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia peregrina, Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata, Saccharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina), and Sargassum muticum. Moreover, treatment with ecologically relevant concentrations of JA and methyl jasmonate did not lead to a significant change in the profile of medium- and non-polar metabolites of the tested algae. Only when high concentrations of > or =500 microg ml(-1) medium of the phytohormones were applied that a metabolic response which could be attributed to unspecific stress was observed. Bioassays with D. dichotoma that focused on medium- and non-polar compounds confirmed the lack of a biological role of JA and methyl jasmonate in the induction of algal induced chemical defenses. The phytohormone-treated samples did not exhibit any increased defense potential towards the amphipod Ampithoe longimana and the isopod Paracerceis caudata. JA and related phytohormones, known to be active in higher plants, thus appear to play no role in brown algae for induction of the defense chemicals studied here.

  8. Predicting algal growth inhibition toxicity: three-step strategy using structural and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhama, A; Hasunuma, K; Hayashi, T I; Tatarazako, N

    2016-05-01

    We propose a three-step strategy that uses structural and physicochemical properties of chemicals to predict their 72 h algal growth inhibition toxicities against Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In Step 1, using a log D-based criterion and structural alerts, we produced an interspecies QSAR between algal and acute daphnid toxicities for initial screening of chemicals. In Step 2, we categorized chemicals according to the Verhaar scheme for aquatic toxicity, and we developed QSARs for toxicities of Class 1 (non-polar narcotic) and Class 2 (polar narcotic) chemicals by means of simple regression with a hydrophobicity descriptor and multiple regression with a hydrophobicity descriptor and a quantum chemical descriptor. Using the algal toxicities of the Class 1 chemicals, we proposed a baseline QSAR for calculating their excess toxicities. In Step 3, we used structural profiles to predict toxicity either quantitatively or qualitatively and to assign chemicals to the following categories: Pesticide, Reactive, Toxic, Toxic low and Uncategorized. Although this three-step strategy cannot be used to estimate the algal toxicities of all chemicals, it is useful for chemicals within its domain. The strategy is also applicable as a component of Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment.

  9. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products...... of potential environmental impacts occurs during the early product life cycle stages, potential impacts related to chemicals that are found as ingredients or residues directly in products can be dominated by the product use stage. Finally, methodological challenges in LCA studies in relation to chemicals......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...

  10. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  11. Fabrication of Long-Term Underwater Superoleophobic Al Surfaces and Application on Underwater Lossless Manipulation of Non-Polar Organic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinlong; Huang, Liu; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xin; Deng, Xu; Yang, Xiaolong; Huang, Shuai; Sun, Jing; Jin, Zhuji; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-08-23

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces have different applications in fields from oil/water separation to underwater lossless manipulation. This kind of surfaces can be easily transformed from superhydrophilic surfaces in air, which means the stability of superhydrophilicity in air determines the stability of underwater superoleophobicity. However, superhydrophilic surfaces fabricated by some existing methods easily become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic in air with time. Here, a facile method combined with electrochemical etching and boiling water immersion is developed to fabricate long-term underwater superoleophobic surfaces. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions are investigated. The results show that the electrochemically etched and boiling-water immersed Al surfaces have excellent long-term superhydrophilicity in air for over 1 year and boehmite plays an important role in maintaining long-term stability of wettability. Based on the fabricated underwater superoleophobic surfaces, a special method and device were developed to realize the underwater lossless manipulation of immiscible organic liquid droplets with a large volume. The capture and release of liquid droplets were realized by controlling the resultant force of the applied driving pressure, gravity and buoyancy. The research has potential application in research-fields such as the transfer of valuable reagents, accurate control of miniature chemical reactions, droplet-based reactors, and eliminates contamination of manipulator components.

  12. DAPNe with micro-capillary separatory chemistry-coupled to MALDI-MS for the analysis of polar and non-polar lipid metabolism in one cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jason S.; Aguilar, Roberto; Petros, Robby A.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2017-05-01

    The cellular metabolome is considered to be a representation of cellular phenotype and cellular response to changes to internal or external events. Methods to expand the coverage of the expansive physiochemical properties that makeup the metabolome currently utilize multi-step extractions and chromatographic separations prior to chemical detection, leading to lengthy analysis times. In this study, a single-step procedure for the extraction and separation of a sample using a micro-capillary as a separatory funnel to achieve analyte partitioning within an organic/aqueous immiscible solvent system is described. The separated analytes are then spotted for MALDI-MS imaging and distribution ratios are calculated. Initially, the method is applied to standard mixtures for proof of partitioning. The extraction of an individual cell is non-reproducible; therefore, a broad chemical analysis of metabolites is necessary and will be illustrated with the one-cell analysis of a single Snu-5 gastric cancer cell taken from a cellular suspension. The method presented here shows a broad partitioning dynamic range as a single-step method for lipid analysis demonstrating a decrease in ion suppression often present in MALDI analysis of lipids.

  13. Fabrication of Long-Term Underwater Superoleophobic Al Surfaces and Application on Underwater Lossless Manipulation of Non-Polar Organic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinlong; Huang, Liu; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xin; Deng, Xu; Yang, Xiaolong; Huang, Shuai; Sun, Jing; Jin, Zhuji; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2016-08-01

    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces have different applications in fields from oil/water separation to underwater lossless manipulation. This kind of surfaces can be easily transformed from superhydrophilic surfaces in air, which means the stability of superhydrophilicity in air determines the stability of underwater superoleophobicity. However, superhydrophilic surfaces fabricated by some existing methods easily become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic in air with time. Here, a facile method combined with electrochemical etching and boiling water immersion is developed to fabricate long-term underwater superoleophobic surfaces. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions are investigated. The results show that the electrochemically etched and boiling-water immersed Al surfaces have excellent long-term superhydrophilicity in air for over 1 year and boehmite plays an important role in maintaining long-term stability of wettability. Based on the fabricated underwater superoleophobic surfaces, a special method and device were developed to realize the underwater lossless manipulation of immiscible organic liquid droplets with a large volume. The capture and release of liquid droplets were realized by controlling the resultant force of the applied driving pressure, gravity and buoyancy. The research has potential application in research-fields such as the transfer of valuable reagents, accurate control of miniature chemical reactions, droplet-based reactors, and eliminates contamination of manipulator components.

  14. The chemical life(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond.

  15. TNF-α decreases VEGF secretion in highly polarized RPE cells but increases it in non-polarized RPE cells related to crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Terasaki

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in situ is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of the retina and choroid. VEGF is also involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We studied the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α on the secretion of VEGF in polarized and non-polarized RPE cells (P-RPE cells and N-RPE cells, respectively in culture and in situ in rats. A subretinal injection of TNF-α caused a decrease in VEGF expression and choroidal atrophy. Porcine RPE cells were seeded on Transwell™ filters, and their maturation and polarization were confirmed by the asymmetrical VEGF secretion and trans electrical resistance. Exposure to TNF-α decreased the VEGF secretion in P-RPE cells but increased it in N-RPE cells in culture. TNF-α inactivated JNK in P-RPE cells but activated it in N-RPE cells, and TNF-α activated NF-κB in P-RPE cells but not in N-RPE cells. Inhibition of NF-κB activated JNK in both types of RPE cells indicating crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB. TNF-α induced the inhibitory effects of NF-κB on JNK in P-RPE cells because NF-κB is continuously inactivated. In N-RPE cells, however, it was not evident because NF-κB was already activated. The basic activation pattern of JNK and NF-κB and their crosstalk led to opposing responses of RPE cells to TNF-α. These results suggest that VEGF secretion under inflammatory conditions depends on cellular polarization, and the TNF-α-induced VEGF down-regulation may result in choroidal atrophy in polarized physiological RPE cells. TNF-α-induced VEGF up-regulation may cause neovascularization by non-polarized or non-physiological RPE cells.

  16. First-principles investigation of the size-dependent structural stability and electronic properties of O-vacancies at the ZnO polar and non-polar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun Wong, Kin; Alay-e-Abbas, S. M.; Shaukat, A.; Fang, Yaoguo; Lei, Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method has been used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of polar (0001) and non-polar (101¯0) surfaces of ZnO in terms of the defect formation energy (DFE), charge density, and electronic band structure with the supercell-slab (SS) models. Our calculations support the size-dependent structural phase transformation of wurzite lattice to graphite-like structure which is a result of the termination of hexagonal ZnO at the (0001) basal plane, when the stacking of ZnO primitive cell along the hexagonal principle c-axis is less than 16 atomic layers of Zn and O atoms. This structural phase transformation has been studied in terms of Coulomb energy, nature of the bond, energy due to macroscopic electric field in the [0001] direction, and the surface to volume ratio for the smaller SS. We show that the size-dependent phase transformation is completely absent for surfaces with a non-basal plane termination, and the resulting structure is less stable. Similarly, elimination of this size-dependent graphite-like structural phase transformation also occurs on the creation of O-vacancy which is investigated in terms of Coulomb attraction at the surface. Furthermore, the DFE at the (101¯0)/(1¯010) and (0001)/(0001¯) surfaces is correlated with the slab-like structures elongation in the hexagonal a- and c-axis. Electronic structure of the neutral O-vacancy at the (0001)/(0001¯) surfaces has been calculated and the effect of charge transfer between the two sides of the polar surfaces (0001)/(0001¯) on the mixing of conduction band through the 4s orbitals of the surface Zn atoms is elaborated. An insulating band structure profile for the non-polar (101¯0)/(1¯010) surfaces and for the smaller polar (0001)/(0001¯) SS without O-vacancy is also discussed. The results in this paper will be useful for the tuning of the structural and electronic properties of the

  17. Roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of PEO-b-PCL with increasing PCL content for two hydrophobic Cucurbitacin drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sarthak K; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Choi, Phillip

    2009-09-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the roles of nonpolar and polar intermolecular interactions in the improvement of the drug loading capacity of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) with increasing PCL content for two water insoluble anticancer drugs: Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and Cucurbitacin I (CuI). In particular, random binary mixture models containing 10-12 wt % drug and remaining PEO-b-PCL with three different PCL/PEO (w/w) ratios (0.5, 1, and 2) were used to calculate their Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (chi). The MD simulation results show that, for both CuB and CuI, the computed chi decreases (i.e., affinity increases) with increasing PCL/PEO ratio. Such results are consistent with our experimental observation that increasing the PCL/PEO (w/w) ratio from 1 to 4.8 significantly increases the drug loading capacity of micelles formed by PEO-b-PCL for both drugs. Analysis of the energy data shows that increasing affinity (loading) at higher PCL/PEO ratio is attributed to the increase in favorable polar interactions and to the formation of additional hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) between the drugs and the PCL block rather than to the increase in the hydrophobic characteristics of the diblock copolymer as one would normally expect. In fact, the nonpolar intermolecular interactions became more unfavorable at higher PCL/PEO ratio. Analysis of the radial distribution functions of the model mixtures indicates that at high PCL/PEO ratio, multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block interacted with single H-bond sites on the drug molecules. However, at low PCL/PEO ratio, only single H-bonds formed between various H-bond sites on the drug molecules and those of the PCL and PEO blocks. It seems that formation of H-bonds between multiple H-bond sites on the PCL block and single H-bond sites on the drug molecules is responsible for inducing drug/PEO-b-PCL affinity. The finding also explains the experimental observation that release rates

  18. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200–400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  19. Aggregation behavior of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in a nonpolar solvent: evidence of large-scale structures by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and solution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Raffaini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified cyclodextrins carrying both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substituents may form supramolecular aggregates or nanostructures of great interest. These systems have been usually investigated and characterized in water for their potential use as nanocarriers for drug delivery, but they can also aggregate in apolar solvents, as shown in the present paper through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and dynamic light scattering measurements. The simulations, carried out with a large number of molecules in vacuo adopting an unbiased bottom-up approach, suggest the formation of bidimensional structures with characteristic length scales of the order of 10 nm, although some of these sizes are possibly affected by the assumed periodicity of the simulation cell, in particular at longer lengths. In any case, these nanostructures are stable at least from the kinetic viewpoint for relatively long times thanks to the large number of intermolecular interactions of dipolar and dispersive nature. The dynamic light scattering experiments indicate the presence of aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius of the order of 80 nm and a relatively modest polydispersity, even though smaller nanometer-sized aggregates cannot be fully ruled out. Taken together, these simulation and experimental results indicate that amphiphilically modified cyclodextrins do also form large-scale nanoaggregates even in apolar solvents.

  20. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-02-01

    Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

  1. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  2. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  3. Components in Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical equations are actually matrix equations, and this has important implications for their thermodynamic treatment. The fundamental equation for chemical thermodynamics for a chemical reaction system can be written in terms of species, but at chemical equilibrium, it has to be written in terms of components. The number of components is equal to the number of species minus the number of independent chemical reactions. The fundamental equation for the Gibbs energy of a system containing ethylene, methane, ethane, and propane is discussed. At chemical equilibrium there are two components, which can be taken to be carbon and hydrogen or ethylene and methane. There are advantages in using matrix notation.

  4. 出口压减压下非极性薄涂气相色谱柱的特性及应用%Performance and Application of Decompression and Low Coated Non-polar Liquid Phases in Gas Chromatographic Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓燕; 陈贻文

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,performance of decompression and low coated gas chromatographic column of non-polar liquid phases is described. Chromatographic parameters of a column packed with 0.5% OV-101 on glazing support (φ0.18~0.25mm) 302 was studied for C、C7、C8、C9 n-alkanes samples. The results showed that the column pressure 0.068 MPa was best,the column temperature for n-octane could be decreased to 52°C,column efficiency was four time as high as ordinary pressure detection.%以甲基硅油0V-101、210为固定液,研究了出口压减压下薄涂气相色谱柱的特性,从柱压、柱温、保留值、柱效、柱的稳定性等方面进行了探讨。应用于烷烃及几种农药的分离,效果良好。

  5. Efficient Carrier Injection, Transport, Relaxation, and Recombination Associated with a Stronger Carrier Localization and a Low Polarization Effect of Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fann-Wei; You, Yu-Siang; Feng, Shih-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Based on time-resolved electroluminescence (TREL) measurement, more efficient carrier injection, transport, relaxation, and recombination associated with a stronger carrier localization and a low polarization effect in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode ( m-LED), compared with those in a polar c-LED, are reported. With a higher applied voltage in the c-LED, decreasing response time and rising time improve device performance, but a longer recombination time degrades luminescence efficiency. By using an m-LED with a stronger carrier localization and a low polarization effect, shorter response, rising, and recombination times provide more efficient carrier injection, transport, relaxation, and recombination. These advantages can be realized for high-power and high-speed flash LEDs. In addition, with a weaker carrier localization and a polarization effect in the c-LED, the slower radiative and faster nonradiative decay rates at a larger applied voltage result in the slower total decay rate and the lower luminescence efficiency. For the m-LED at a higher applied voltage, a slow decreasing nonradiative decay rate is beneficial to device performance, while the more slowly decreasing and overall faster radiative decay rate of the m-LED than that of the c-LED demonstrates that a stronger carrier localization and a reduced polarization effect are efficient for carrier recombination. The resulting recombination dynamics are correlated with the device characteristics and performance of the c- and m-LEDs.

  6. Probing the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in the solvation of nonpolar nonaromatic solute molecules in ionic liquids: An OKE spectroscopic study of CS2/[CnC1im][NTf2] mixtures (n = 1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Gurung, Eshan; Quitevis, Edward L.

    2014-04-01

    The intermolecular dynamics of dilute solutions of CS2 in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]amide ([CnC1im][NTf2] for n = 1-4) were studied at 295 K using femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy. The OKE spectra of the CS2/ionic liquid (IL) mixtures were analyzed using an additivity model to obtain the CS2 contribution to the OKE spectrum from which information about the intermolecular modes of CS2 in these mixtures was gleaned. The intermolecular spectrum of CS2 in these mixtures is lower in frequency and narrower than that of neat CS2, as found previously for CS2 in [C5C1im][NTf2]. Moreover, a dependence of the spectra on alkyl chain length is observed that is attributed to the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions. The surprising result in this study is the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2], which involves the interaction of a nonpolar nonaromatic molecular solute and only the charged groups of the IL. We propose that the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2] is determined by three favorable factors - (1) large polarizability of the solute molecule; (2) small size of the solute molecule; and (3) low cohesive energy in the high-charge density regions of the IL.

  7. 77 FR 40086 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Chattem Chemicals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007). Any bulk manufacturer who is...). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR...

  8. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  9. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  10. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  11. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  12. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  13. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  14. Chemical thermodynamics: plenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    The invited and contributed papers dealing with the applications of chemical thermodynamics to planetary atmospheres research are briefly reviewed. The key areas for future applications of chemical thermodynamics research to planetary atmospheres are also described.

  15. Chemical Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical spil

  16. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  17. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  18. Chemical Physics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Munn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a guide to the chemical physics major. The scope of chemical physics is presented, along with the general features of course contents and possible course structures. This information was derived from a survey of British universities and colleges offering undergraduate degree courses in chemical physics. (BB)

  19. Chemical Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  20. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  1. Physical and Chemical Toeholds for Exoplanet Bioastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori

    2013-01-01

    If a search for exoplanet life were mounted today, the likely focus would be to detect oxygen (or ozone) in the atmosphere of a water-bearing rocky planet orbiting roughly 1AU from a G-type star. This appropriately conservative and practical default is necessary in large part because biological input on the question of where and how to look for life has progressed little beyond a purely empirical reliance on the example of terrestrial biology. However, fundamental physical and chemical considerations may impose significant yet universal constraints on biological potential. The liquid water + oxygen paradigm will be considered as an example, with a focus on the question, is liquid water a prerequisite for life? . Life requires a solvent to mediate interactions among biological molecules. A key class of these interactions is molecular recognition with high specificity, which is essential for high fidelity catalysis and (especially) information processing. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity greater than 10(exp 7):1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in

  2. High sensitivity stand-off detection and quantification of chemical mixtures using an active coherent laser spectrometer (ACLaS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Neil A.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-05-01

    High sensitivity detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in a stand-off configuration is a highly sought after capability across the security and defense sector. Specific applications include assessing the presence of explosive related materials, poisonous or toxic chemical agents, and narcotics. Real world field deployment of an operational stand-off system is challenging due to stringent requirements: high detection sensitivity, stand-off ranges from centimeters to hundreds of meters, eye-safe invisible light, near real-time response and a wide chemical versatility encompassing both vapor and condensed phase chemicals. Additionally, field deployment requires a compact, rugged, power efficient, and cost-effective design. To address these demanding requirements, we have developed the concept of Active Coherent Laser Spectrometer (ACLaS), which can be also described as a middle infrared hyperspectral coherent lidar. Combined with robust spectral unmixing algorithms, inherited from retrievals of information from high-resolution spectral data generated by satellitebased spectrometers, ACLaS has been demonstrated to fulfil the above-mentioned needs. ACLaS prototypes have been so far developed using quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and interband cascade lasers (ICL) to exploit the fast frequency tuning capability of these solid state sources. Using distributed feedback (DFB) QCL, demonstration and performance analysis were carried out on narrow-band absorbing chemicals (N2O, H2O, H2O2, CH4, C2H2 and C2H6) at stand-off distances up to 50 m using realistic non cooperative targets such as wood, painted metal, and bricks. Using more widely tunable external cavity QCL, ACLaS has also been demonstrated on broadband absorbing chemicals (dichloroethane, HFC134a, ethylene glycol dinitrate and 4-nitroacetanilide solid) and on complex samples mixing narrow-band and broadband absorbers together in a realistic atmospheric background.

  3. 浙江省11家医院2010~2014年肺癌患者麻醉药品使用情况分析%Application Analysis of Narcotic Drugs Used in Lung Cancer Patients in 11 Hospitals of Zhejiang during 2010 and 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海樱; 王增; 辛文秀; 童莹慧; 陈凌亚; 程斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application and tendency of narcotic drugs used in the patients with lung cancer in 11 hospitals of Zhejiang during 2010 and 2014 to provide reference for clinical rational use of narcotic drugs. Methods:The medical ad-vice during 2010 and 2014 for lung cancer patients in 11 hospitals of Zhejiang was withdrawn, and the consumption sum, DDDs, DDC, order and amount ratio of oral sustained or controlled release preparations to patches were analyzed. Results:The total amount of drug consumption and narcotic drug consumption during 2010 and 2014 in the 11 hospitals of Zhejiang increased year by year, and the pro-portion of narcotic drugs increased by 81. 43% in the five years. During 2010 and 2014, the consumption amount and DDDs of oxyc-odone hydrochloride sustained release tablets significantly increased, which was the most common used narcotic drug. Meanwhile, the consumption amount and DDDs of immediate release morphine tablets increased notably, which indicated that the dosage titration and the management of breakthrough pain were becoming more rational. In addition, among the sustained or controlled release preparations, the ratio of oral administration to patches rose gradually, which met the treatment concept for cancer pain stated by WHO. Conclusion:The application of narcotic drugs in the patients with lung cancer tends to be more and more reasonable in 11 hospitals of Zhejiang dur-ing 2010 and 2014.%目的:了解浙江省11家医院2010~2014年肺癌患者麻醉药品的使用情况及用药趋势,为麻醉药品临床合理应用提供参考.方法:抽取浙江省11家医院2010~2014年肺癌患者的医嘱,对麻醉药品的用药金额、用药频度(DDDs)、限定日费用(DDC)、排序比以及口服缓控释制剂与贴剂用量比值进行分析.结果:浙江省11家医院肺癌患者2010~2014年抽样医嘱中药品消耗总金额与麻醉药品销售金额均逐年增加,麻醉药品金额构成比也逐年增加,5年

  4. Optical properties and chemical behavior of Laser-dye Coumarin-500 and the influence of atmospheric corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, S Sinan; Aslan, Necdet; Bayrakçeken, Fuat

    2009-03-01

    Structure elucidation of Coumarin-500 Laser-dye in cyclohexane at room temperature has been studied by UV-Vis, Raman, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Optical properties and chemical behavior under the influence of atmospheric positive electric pulsed corona discharges were also examined. The effects of UV-Vis irradiation changed some optical parameters, such as decrease in optical density on the absorption spectrum and formation of photoproducts, due to the chromaticity removal. No significant optical changes were observed in the light absorption upon UV-irradiation but large changes in absorption spectrum were observed after positive electric corona discharge treatments, FTIR and Raman spectra in non-polar solvent are recorded and interpreted.

  5. Marine and terrestrial herbivores display convergent chemical ecology despite 400 million years of independent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasher, Douglas B; Stout, E Paige; Engel, Sebastian; Shearer, Tonya L; Kubanek, Julia; Hay, Mark E

    2015-09-29

    Chemical cues regulate key ecological interactions in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. They are particularly important in terrestrial plant-herbivore interactions, where they mediate both herbivore foraging and plant defense. Although well described for terrestrial interactions, the identity and ecological importance of herbivore foraging cues in marine ecosystems remain unknown. Here we show that the specialist gastropod Elysia tuca hunts its seaweed prey, Halimeda incrassata, by tracking 4-hydroxybenzoic acid to find vegetative prey and the defensive metabolite halimedatetraacetate to find reproductive prey. Foraging cues were predicted to be polar compounds but instead were nonpolar secondary metabolites similar to those used by specialist terrestrial insects. Tracking halimedatetraacetate enables Elysia to increase in abundance by 12- to 18-fold on reproductive Halimeda, despite reproduction in Halimeda being rare and lasting for only ∼36 h. Elysia swarm to reproductive Halimeda where they consume the alga's gametes, which are resource rich but are chemically defended from most consumers. Elysia sequester functional chloroplasts and halimedatetraacetate from Halimeda to become photosynthetic and chemically defended. Feeding by Elysia suppresses the growth of vegetative Halimeda by ∼50%. Halimeda responds by dropping branches occupied by Elysia, apparently to prevent fungal infection associated with Elysia feeding. Elysia is remarkably similar to some terrestrial insects, not only in its hunting strategy, but also its feeding method, defense tactics, and effects on prey behavior and performance. Such striking parallels indicate that specialist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems can evolve convergent ecological strategies despite 400 million years of independent evolution in vastly different habitats.

  6. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  7. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  8. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study o

  9. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  10. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.).

  11. Problems and Solutions of the Enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in Medical Institutions%医疗卫生机构在执行《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》过程中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢顶仁; 杨华萍; 朱腊荣; 张友干

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the enforcement of Usage Regulation on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (called Regulation for short).METHODS:Problems about the implementation of Regulation in health department,between departments and in medical institutions as well as Regulation was listed after relevant checks,and the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Some health departments didn't supervise the implementation of the Regulation that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should be bought by special card.The communication of health department with drug administration,medical institution with drug administration,enterprise and user with departments of security was in shortage.The training and examination of doctors and narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances registration were inadequate in medical institutions,and there was no designated counter for the storage of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.The narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were not used according to the Guiding Principle of Clinical Use and didn' t meet the demands of patients; the maximum dosage of a prescription for narcotic drugs and psyehotropic substances was not up to the regulation of Department of Public Health.It is suggested to delete the provisions of "prohibition of opium" and "drug abuse" in the Regulation;preserve the authority of the policies; strengthen communication and cooperation; enhance the training of medical persons for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,master the aim of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; clear and defmite their management responsibilities; master the principle,method and caution of use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; perfect the contents of individual items.%目的:为《麻醉药品和精神药品管理条例》(以下简称《条例》)的全面贯彻执行提供参考.方法:总结相关检查之后发现的卫生部门、部门之间、医疗机构及

  12. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on the secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by chemical stimulation of the gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, V A; Khropycheva, R P

    2013-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors were shown to affect the sensitivity of the gastric mucosa to chemical agents. This effect is associated with inhibition of proton back-diffusion and increase in the permeability of the gastric epithelium. We studied the effect of omeprazole on gastric secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by irritation of the gastric mucosa in narcotized rats with a hypertonic solution of high acidity (500 mM NaCl, pH 2.0). Irritation of the gastric mucosa increased the basal secretion of bicarbonates and potentiated the secretion of HCO3(-)and pepsinogen induced by electrostimulation of the vagus nerve. Omeprazole stimulated the prostaglandin-induced increase in the basal secretion of HCO3(-)and pepsinogen. By contrast, bicarbonate production in response to vagal stimulation was suppressed in the presence of omeprazole. Our results indicate that proton pump blockade has a modulatory effect on gastric secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by chemical stimulation of the gastric mucosa.

  13. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  14. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  15. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  16. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  17. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  18. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  19. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  20. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  1. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  2. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  3. Drug: D02182 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Coca alkaloids 8121 Cocaines D02182 Cocaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) ...c category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 812

  4. Risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction associated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, non-narcotic analgesics and other drugs used in osteoarthritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco J; Gil, Miguel J; García Poza, Patricia; Bryant, Verónica; Oliva, Belén; Timoner, Julia; García-Rodríguez, Luis A

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs), non-narcotic analgesics (paracetamol and metamizole), and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) overall and in different subgroups of patients. We performed a nested case-control study using a Primary Care Database (Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria), over the study period, 2001-2007. We included patients aged 40-90 years, with nonfatal AMI and randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and calendar year. Exposure to drugs was assessed within a 30-day window before the index date. We did not find an association with nonfatal AMI in patients at low-intermediate background cardiovascular risk (odds ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.12), whereas there was a moderate significant association among those at high risk (1.28; 1.06-1.54) or when tNSAIDs were used for longer than 365 days (1.43; 1.12-1.82). The greatest risk occurred when these two conditions were combined (1.80; 1.26-2.58). The risk varied across individual tNSAIDs, with ibuprofen (0.95; 0.78-1.16) in the lower and aceclofenac (1.59; 1.15-2.19) in the upper part of the range. Low-dose aspirin did not modify the risk profile showed by any of the individual tNSAIDs examined. Paracetamol (0.84; 0.74-0.95), metamizole (1.06; 0.87-1.29) and SYSADOAs (0.68; 0.47-0.99) were not associated with an increased risk overall or in any subgroup of patients. The risk of nonfatal AMI varied with individual tNSAIDs, duration of treatment and background cardiovascular risk. Paracetamol, metamizole and SYSADOAs did not increase the risk in any of the conditions examined. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Accounting for the dissociating properties of organic chemicals in LCIA: An uncertainty analysis applied to micropollutants in the assessment of freshwater ecotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Sérgio Alberto, E-mail: sergioalberto.cruzmonteiro@uab.cat [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA-Inèdit), Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Delerue-Matos, Cristina [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA-Inèdit), Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola d’Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fate parameters of dissociating chemicals were estimated and applied to an LCIA model. ► Results were compared to the default model using non-polar partitioning regressions. ► Negligible differences were estimated for direct emissions to freshwater. ► Results were overestimated in the default model for indirect emissions. ► Sorption of the cationic fraction of organic bases was the most influential parameter. -- Abstract: In life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) models, the sorption of the ionic fraction of dissociating organic chemicals is not adequately modeled because conventional non-polar partitioning models are applied. Therefore, high uncertainties are expected when modeling the mobility, as well as the bioavailability for uptake by exposed biota and degradation, of dissociating organic chemicals. Alternative regressions that account for the ionized fraction of a molecule to estimate fate parameters were applied to the USEtox model. The most sensitive model parameters in the estimation of ecotoxicological characterization factors (CFs) of micropollutants were evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis in both the default USEtox model and the alternative approach. Negligible differences of CFs values and 95% confidence limits between the two approaches were estimated for direct emissions to the freshwater compartment; however the default USEtox model overestimates CFs and the 95% confidence limits of basic compounds up to three orders and four orders of magnitude, respectively, relatively to the alternative approach for emissions to the agricultural soil compartment. For three emission scenarios, LCIA results show that the default USEtox model overestimates freshwater ecotoxicity impacts for the emission scenarios to agricultural soil by one order of magnitude, and larger confidence limits were estimated, relatively to the alternative approach.

  6. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  7. Capturing Chemical Identity Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Chemical identity, the idea that every substance has at least one property that makes it unique and able to be differentiated from other substances, is core to the practice of chemistry. Such practice requires using properties to classify as well as to differentiate. Learning which substance properties are productive in chemical identity thinking…

  8. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a

  9. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  10. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  11. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  12. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  13. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustai

  14. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  15. Passive Sampling of Nonpolar Compounds in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...silicone ! SPME! POG! LDPE! Chemcatcher ! SPMD! POCIS ! Mesco I 300 200 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 N ( n g ) log Kow Cw = 1 ng / L week 123456 Evolution of peak pattern

  16. Wetting films of polar and nonpolar liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Rosa; Nogueira, Rui; Busquets, Sandra; Mata, José Luís; Saramago, Benilde

    2005-04-15

    Disjoining pressure isotherms for water and n-octane films on glass obtained using a recently developed apparatus, based on the interferometric technique, are compared with other values reported in the literature. Our method, including a simple cleaning procedure, yields experimental results in excellent agreement both with other experimental results and with theoretical predictions. An error analysis was made which quantifies the uncertainty of our results and simultaneously allows the minimization of the errors.

  17. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  18. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  19. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  20. Reverse micelles: inert nano-reactors or physico-chemically active guides of the capped reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk; Drofenik, Miha

    2007-05-31

    Reverse micelles present self-assembled multi-molecular entities formed within specific compositional ranges of water-in-oil microemulsions. The structure of a reverse micelle is typically represented as nano-sized droplet of a polar liquid phase, capped by a monolayer of surfactant molecules, and uniformly distributed within a non-polar, oil phase. Although their role in serving as primitive membranes for encapsulation of primordial self-replicating chemical cycles that anticipated the very origins of life has been proposed, their first application for 'parent(hesis)ing' chemical reactions with an aim to produce 'templated' 2D arrays of nanoparticles dates back to only 25 years ago. Reverse micelles have since then been depicted as passive nano-reactors that via their shapes template the growing crystalline nuclei into narrowly dispersed or even perfectly uniform nano-sized particles. Despite this, numerous examples can be supported, where from deviations from the simple unilateral correlations between size and shape distribution of reverse micelles and the particles formed within may be reasonably implied. A rather richer, dynamical role of reverse micelles, with potential significance in the research and design of complex, self-assembly synthesis pathways, as well as possible adoption of their application as an aspect of biomimetic approach, is suggested herein.