WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpoint source nps

  1. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  2. The non-point source (NPS) information system based on remote sensing and GIS and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-point source information system (NPSIS) has been constructed by use of remote sensing and GIS technology, and a construction method of NPSlS introduced with Shenzhen as an example. With the remote sensing land-using images as an environment unit, the analysis modules based on NPSIS are built through combining the NPS model with NPSIS, and the preliminary NPS calculation and analysis performed.

  3. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  4. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation.

  5. Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Projects Grants (Section 319) - 2008 active projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The California Nonpoint Source (NPS) Program allocates about $4.5 million of CWA Section 319 funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annually to...

  6. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  7. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  8. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  9. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  10. [Impacts of the urbanization on waters non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-11-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the prominent source of water pollution in many countries, included America and China, of the world. Urban NPS pollution was attached little importance for long, compared with agriculture NPS pollution. While urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, the hydrology, other physical properties of watersheds as well as their NPS pollution potential at present. The formation of urban NPS pollution of water could be described by "source-process-sink". Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution. A review was conducted on the international researches of urbanization impacts on NPS pollution in urban water environment from the point of view of "describe-predict and evaluation-application". The studies of urbanization impacts on urban NPS pollution were focused on modeling the process of urban NPS pollution by hydrologic model, predicting the pollutants load of NPS pollution. It is a fresh methodology that the relationship between urbanization and urban NPS pollution of water was analyzed by the method of landscape change and ecological process. The research on temporal-spatial comprehensive impacts of landscape pattern changes, led by urbanization, on the urban NPS pollution will be one of the hotspots.

  11. Introducing nonpoint source transferable quotas in nitrogen trading: The effects of transaction costs and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuru; Ye, Weili; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Transaction costs and uncertainty are considered to be significant obstacles in the emissions trading market, especially for including nonpoint source in water quality trading. This study develops a nonlinear programming model to simulate how uncertainty and transaction costs affect the performance of point/nonpoint source (PS/NPS) water quality trading in the Lake Tai watershed, China. The results demonstrate that PS/NPS water quality trading is a highly cost-effective instrument for emissions abatement in the Lake Tai watershed, which can save 89.33% on pollution abatement costs compared to trading only between nonpoint sources. However, uncertainty can significantly reduce the cost-effectiveness by reducing trading volume. In addition, transaction costs from bargaining and decision making raise total pollution abatement costs directly and cause the offset system to deviate from the optimal state. While proper investment in monitoring and measuring of nonpoint emissions can decrease uncertainty and save on the total abatement costs. Finally, we show that the dispersed ownership of China's farmland will bring high uncertainty and transaction costs into the PS/NPS offset system, even if the pollution abatement cost is lower than for point sources.

  12. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  13. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  14. Study on Management and Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Surface Runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Keliang; Zhu Xiaodong; Wang Xianghua; Ma Yan

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, hydrology, physical properties of watersheds and their nonpoint source (NPS) pollution potential at present. Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution, especially raised the pollution load of urban runoff NPS in receiving water. Urban runoff pollution is a hot spot of research on NPS. This paper analyzed type,source and harm of the NPS pollutants of urban runoff and its influence on the receiving water. Through estimating NPS pollution load of urban runoff and summarizing the law and characteristics of urban runoff NPS systemically, study on management and control of urban runoff NPS pollution was focused on the application of BMPs (best management practices). It is a fresh methodology that management and control on NPS pollution from urban surface runoff was analyzed by methods of landscape ecology,environmental economics and environmental management. The paper provided a scientific reference for mitigating urban water environment pressure and an effective method for management and control of NPS pollution from urban surface runoff..

  15. Mitigation of nonpoint source pollution in rural areas: From control to synergies of multi ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Shen, Renfang; Fu, Bojie

    2017-12-31

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution produced by human activities in rural areas has induced excessive nutrient input into surface waters and the decline of water quality. The essence of NPS pollution is the transport of nutrients between soil and water. Traditional NPS pollution control strategies, however, are mainly based on the solid and liquid phases, with little focus on the bio-phase between water and soil. The pollutants produced from NPS can be regarded as a resource if recycled or reused in an appropriate way in the agricultural ecosystem. This mini review proposes novel strategies for NPS pollution control based on three phases (liquid, solid and bio-phase) and highlights the regulating services of an agricultural ecosystem by optimizing land use/cover types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Chul Lee; In-Hyeok Park; Byung Sik Kim; and Sung Ryong Ha

    2015-01-01

    In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC) which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs) as a non-point source (NPS) pollution indicator and the green factor (GF) as a low impact development (LID) land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated wit...

  17. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  18. Mapping the scientific research on non-point source pollution: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei; Huang, Kai; Sun, Dezhi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to examine the progress and future research trends of non-point source (NPS) pollution during the years 1991-2015 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WoS). The publications referencing NPS pollution were analyzed including the following aspects: document type, publication language, publication output and characteristics, subject category, source journal, distribution of country and institution, author keywords, etc. The results indicate that the study of NPS pollution demonstrated a sharply increasing trend since 1991. Article and English were the most commonly used document type and language. Environmental sciences and ecology, water resources, and engineering were the top three subject categories. Water science and technology ranked first in distribution of journal, followed by Science of the total environment and Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The USA took a leading position in both quantity and quality, playing an important role in the research field of NPS pollution, followed by the UK and China. The most productive institution was the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Acad Sci), followed by Beijing Normal University and US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS). The analysis of author keywords indicates that the major hotspots of NPS pollution from 1991 to 2015 contained "water," "model," "agriculture," "nitrogen," "phosphorus," etc. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of NPS pollution research and help readers to establish the future research directions.

  19. Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution Through Collaboration: Policies and Programs Across the U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Scott D.; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than 204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act’s Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  20. Nanomaterials for environmental burden reduction, waste treatment, and nonpoint source pollution control: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobin SHAN; Rao Y. SURAMPALLI; Rajeshwar D. TYAGI; Tian C. ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials are applicable in the areas of reduction of environmental burden, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. First, environmental burden reduction involves green process and engineering, emis-sions control, desulfurization/denitrification of nonrenew-able energy sources, and improvement of agriculture and food systems. Second, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes involves converting wastes into products, groundwater remediation, adsorption, delaying photocatalysis, and nanomembranes. Third, NPS pollution control involves controlling water pollution. Nanomater-ials alter physical properties on a nanoscale due to their high specific surface area to volume ratio. They are used as catalysts, adsorbents, membranes, and additives to increase activity and capability due to their high specific surface areas and nano-sized effects. Thus, nanomaterials are more effective at treating environmental wastes because they reduce the amount of material needed.

  1. Loss coefficient of nitrogenous non-point source pollution under various precipitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,calibrations of non-point source (NPS) pollution models are performed based on Black River basin historical real-time runoff data,sedimentation record data,and NPS sources survey information.The concept of NPS loss coefficient for the watershed or the loss coefficients (LC) for simplicity is brought up by examining NPS build-up and migration processes along riverbanks in natural river systems.The historical data is used for determining the nitrogenous NPS loss coefficient for five land use types including farmland,urban land,grassland,shrub land,and forest under different precipitation conditions.The comparison of outputs from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and coefficient export method showed that both methods could obtain reasonable LC.The high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.94722) between those two sets of calculation results justified the consistency of those two models.Another result in the study is that different combinations of precipitation condition and land use types could significantly affect the calculated loss coefficient.As for the adsorptive nitrogen,the order of impact on LC for different land use types can be sorted as:farm land > urban land > grassland > shrub land > forest while the order was farmland > grass land > shrub land > forest > urban land for soluble nitrogen.

  2. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  3. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  4. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement.

  5. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  6. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  7. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  8. Uncertainty analysis for an effluent trading system in a typical nonpoint-sources-polluted watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Wang, Guobo; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-07-01

    Conventional effluent trading systems (ETSs) between point sources (PSs) and nonpoint sources (NPSs) are often unreliable because of the uncertain characteristics of NPSs. In this study, a new framework was established for PS-NPS ETSs, and a comprehensive analysis was conducted by quantifying the impacts of the uncertainties associated with the water assimilative capacity (WAC), NPS emissions, and measurement effectiveness. On the basis of these results, the uncertain characteristics of NPSs would result in a less cost-effective PS-NPS ETS during most hydrological periods, and there exists a clear transition occurs from the WAC constraint to the water quality constraint if these stochastic factors are considered. Specifically, the emission uncertainty had a greater impact on PSs, but an increase in the emission or abatement uncertainty caused the abatement efforts to shift from NPSs toward PSs. Moreover, the error transitivity from the WAC to conventional ETS approaches is more obvious than that to the WEFZ-based ETS. When NPSs emissions are relatively high, structural BMPs should be considered for trading, and vice versa. These results are critical to understand the impacts of uncertainty on the functionality of PS-NPS ETSs and to provide a trade-off between the confidence level and abatement efforts.

  9. Uncertainty analysis for an effluent trading system in a typical nonpoint-sources-polluted watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Wang, Guobo; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-07-11

    Conventional effluent trading systems (ETSs) between point sources (PSs) and nonpoint sources (NPSs) are often unreliable because of the uncertain characteristics of NPSs. In this study, a new framework was established for PS-NPS ETSs, and a comprehensive analysis was conducted by quantifying the impacts of the uncertainties associated with the water assimilative capacity (WAC), NPS emissions, and measurement effectiveness. On the basis of these results, the uncertain characteristics of NPSs would result in a less cost-effective PS-NPS ETS during most hydrological periods, and there exists a clear transition occurs from the WAC constraint to the water quality constraint if these stochastic factors are considered. Specifically, the emission uncertainty had a greater impact on PSs, but an increase in the emission or abatement uncertainty caused the abatement efforts to shift from NPSs toward PSs. Moreover, the error transitivity from the WAC to conventional ETS approaches is more obvious than that to the WEFZ-based ETS. When NPSs emissions are relatively high, structural BMPs should be considered for trading, and vice versa. These results are critical to understand the impacts of uncertainty on the functionality of PS-NPS ETSs and to provide a trade-off between the confidence level and abatement efforts.

  10. Event-based nonpoint source pollution prediction in a scarce data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying the rainfall-runoff-pollutant (R-R-P) process is key to regulating non-point source (NPS) pollution; however, the impacts of scarce measured data on R-R-P simulations have not yet been reported. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of scarce data that addressed both rainfall-runoff and runoff-pollutant processes, whereby the impacts of data scarcity on two commonly used methods, including Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Loads Estimator (LOADEST), were quantified. A case study was performed in a typical small catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. Based on our results, the classification of rainfall patterns should be carried out first when analyzing modeling results. Compared to data based on a missing rate and a missing location, key information generates more impacts on the simulated flow and NPS loads. When the scarcity rate exceeds a certain threshold (20% in this study), measured data scarcity level has clear impacts on the model's accuracy. As the model of total nitrogen (TN) always performs better under different data scarcity conditions, researchers are encouraged to pay more attention to continuous the monitoring of total phosphorus (TP) for better NPS-TP predictions. The results of this study serve as baseline information for hydrologic forecasting and for the further control of NPS pollutants.

  11. The Roles of Countrywomen in Controlling Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Zhou Yuanfang; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The main causes of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake are the improper ways of crop production, animal husbandry, and daily runoff. The paper discusses the relationship between countrywomen and non-point source pollution control by 731 questionnaires in Weidu village and 466 questionnaires in Dapu Town. The roles of countrywomen have changed in families and they have close relationship with non-point source pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility and methods of organizing countrywomen in non-point source pollution control.

  12. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  13. Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

    2010-03-15

    Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed.

  14. Regional-scale assessment of non-point source groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Corwin, Dennis L.

    1998-05-01

    Predictive assessments of non-point source (NPS) pollution can have great utility for environmentally focused land use decisions related to both the remediation of existing groundwater contamination and the regulation of current (and future) agrochemical use. At the regional scales associated with NPS agrochemical applications there are staggering data management problems in assessing potential groundwater vulnerability. Geographical information system (GIS) technology is a timely tool that greatly facilitates the organized characterization of regional-scale variability. In this paper we review the recently reported (Loague et al., 1998a,b) simulations of NPS groundwater vulnerability, resulting from historical applications of the agrochemical DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), for east-central Fresno County (California). The Fresno case study helps to illustrate the data requirements associated with process-based three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid flow and solute transport in the unsaturated/saturated subsurface at a regional scale. The strengths and weaknesses of using GIS in regional-scale vulnerability assessments, such as the Fresno case study, and the critical problem of estimating the uncertainties in these assessments (owing to both data and model errors) are discussed. A regional GIS-driven integrated assessment approach is proposed, which is based upon cost-benefit analysis, and incorporates both physical and economic factors that can be used in a regulatory decision process.

  15. Using site-specific soil samples as a substitution for improved hydrological and nonpoint source predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Zhao, Xin; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-08-01

    Soil databases are one of the most important inputs for watershed models, and the quality of soil properties affects how well a model performs. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the sensitivity of model outputs to soil properties and to (2) use site-specific soil properties as a substitution for more accurate hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) predictions. Soil samples were collected from a typical mountainous watershed in China, and the impacts of soil sample parameters on H/NPS predictions were quantified using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The most sensitive parameters related to predicting flow, sediment, and total phosphorus (TP) mainly were the soil hydrological, the channel erosion processes, and the initial soil chemical environment, respectively. When the site-specific soil properties were used, the uncertainties (coefficient of variation) related to predicting the hydrology, sediment and TP decreased by 75∼80 %, 75∼84 %, and 46∼61 %, respectively. Based on changes in the Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, the model performance improved by 4.9 and 19.45 % for the hydrological and sediment model, accordingly. However, site-specific soil properties did not contribute to better TP predictions because of the high spatial variability of the soil P concentrations across the large watershed. Thus, although site-specific soil samples can be used to obtain more accurate H/NPS predictions, more sampling sites are required to apply this method in large watersheds.

  16. Evaluating the impacts of soil data on hydrological and nonpoint source pollution prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-01

    Soil data are one key input for most hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) models, and quantifying the error transmission from soil data to H/NPS predictions is of great importance. In this study, two typical soil datasets were compared using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a typical mountainous watershed, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Besides, the effects of soil data resolution were evaluated, and the error transmission from soil data to watershed management strategy was assessed. The results indicate that model outputs are not sensitive to changes of soil data resolution but the choice of soil data greatly impacts the application of watershed models, in terms of the goodness-of-fit indicator, predicted data and related uncertainty. This soil data-induced error would be inevitably magnified from the flow simulation to the NPS prediction stage. This study could indicate that the choice of soil data will lead to significant differences in management schemes for specific pollution periods. These results provide information on the impacts of soil data on the functionality of watershed models and valuable information for the appropriateness of each soil database.

  17. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  18. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  19. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  20. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  1. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  2. Management of unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources through water quality trading market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoobi, Emad; Sarang, Amin; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) could be an innovative policy to incentivize farmers to implement best management practices (BMPs) for their activities. This study focused on assessment of involving unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources (NPS) into the WQT market in Gharesoo watershed in the west of Iran. It also proposes a methodology to determine location-based trading ratios as well as environmental penalty cost to achieve a more well-designed market structure. Trading activities in different scenarios were described by trading volume (TV), participation rate (PR), total exchanged value (TEV), and other market parameters in order to achieve a better comparison of market performance. Results showed that, by applying NPS to the Gharesoo watershed, total phosphorous (TP) trading market could increase TV, PR, and TEV up to 11, 1.7 and 7.5 times, respectively, depending on which level of BMPs are implemented by them. Additionally, it could save 29% of the total cost of implementing a TP total maximum daily load in this watershed compared to the 'command and control' approach. Furthermore, the agricultural sector could profit by $5.49 million (or $75/ha) by choosing solutions such as terrace systems and filter strips to register into the market. This profit can be allocated to the development of new agricultural technologies.

  3. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  4. EPA Office of Water (OW): Nonpoint Source Projects NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GRTS locational data for nonpoint source projects. GRTS locations are coded onto NHDPlus v2.1 flowline features to create point and line events or coded onto NHDPlus...

  5. Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures - Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to assist state, regional, and local environmental professionals in tracking the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) used to control nonpoint source pollution generated by forestry practices.

  6. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  7. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  9. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  10. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  11. [Bivariate statistical model for calculating phosphorus input loads to the river from point and nonpoint sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-Jiang; Sun, Si-Yang; Jia, Ying-Na; Chen, Jia-Bo; Lü, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the hydrological difference between the point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution processes and the major influencing mechanism of in-stream retention processes, a bivariate statistical model was developed for relating river phosphorus load to river water flow rate and temperature. Using the calibrated and validated four model coefficients from in-stream monitoring data, monthly phosphorus input loads to the river from PS and NPS can be easily determined by the model. Compared to current hydrologica methods, this model takes the in-stream retention process and the upstream inflow term into consideration; thus it improves the knowledge on phosphorus pollution processes and can meet the requirements of both the district-based and watershed-based wate quality management patterns. Using this model, total phosphorus (TP) input load to the Changle River in Zhejiang Province was calculated. Results indicated that annual total TP input load was (54.6 +/- 11.9) t x a(-1) in 2004-2009, with upstream water inflow, PS and NPS contributing to 5% +/- 1%, 12% +/- 3% and 83% +/- 3%, respectively. The cumulative NPS TP input load during the high flow periods (i. e. , June, July, August and September) in summer accounted for 50% +/- 9% of the annual amount, increasing the alga blooming risk in downstream water bodies. Annual in-stream TP retention load was (4.5 +/- 0.1) t x a(-1) and occupied 9% +/- 2% of the total input load. The cumulative in-stream TP retention load during the summer periods (i. e. , June-September) accounted for 55% +/- 2% of the annual amount, indicating that in-stream retention function plays an important role in seasonal TP transport and transformation processes. This bivariate statistical model only requires commonly available in-stream monitoring data (i. e. , river phosphorus load, water flow rate and temperature) with no requirement of special software knowledge; thus it offers researchers an managers with a cost-effective tool for

  12. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  13. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  14. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs as a non-point source (NPS pollution indicator and the green factor (GF as a low impact development (LID land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated with storm factors whereas they showed significant differences according to the land use types. The calculated REMCs for BOD, COD, TSS, TN, and TP showed negative correlations with the GFs. However, even though the GFs of the agricultural area were concentrated in values of 80 like the green areas, the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were especially high. There were few differences in REMC runoff characteristics according to the GFs such as recreational facilities areas in suburbs and highways and trunk roads that connect to major roads between major cities. Except for those areas, the REMCs for BOD and COD were significantly related to the GFs. The REMCs for BOD and COD decreased when the rate of natural green area increased. On the other hand, some of the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were still high where the catchments encountered mixed land use patterns, especially public facility areas with bare ground and artificial grassland areas. The GF could therefore be used as a major planning indicator when establishing land use planning aimed at sustainable development with NPS management in urban areas if the weighted GF values will be improved.

  15. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  16. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  17. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  18. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  19. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  20. Nonpoint-Source Pollution Issues. January 1990-November 1994. QB 95-01. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Joe

    Citations in this bibliography are intended to be a substantial resource for recent investigations (January 1990-November 1994) on nonpoint source pollution and were obtained from a search of the National Agriculture Library's AGRICOLA database. The 196 citations are indexed by author and subject. A representation of the search strategy is…

  1. Estimation of Non-point Source Pollution Loads Under Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruzhong

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of uncertainties are involved, such as random, fuzzy, grey, unascertained property and so on, in soil erosion process. To exactly predict the non-point source pollution loads, some uncertainties should be taken into consideration. Aiming at the deficiency of present blind number theory being helpless for fuzziness, a novel blind number, i.e. extended-blind number, was introduced by substituting a set of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), ex-pressed as α-cuts, for interval values in present blind number, and the expected value of extended-blind number was also brought forward by referring to the current blind number theory. On the basis of denoting the parameters of Uni-versal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) as extended-blind parameters, a novel USLE model was established for quantita-tively evaluating soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads. As a case, the uncertain USLE was employed for predicting the soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads of absorbed nitrogen and phosphorus in a dis-trict in the Hangbu-Fengle River basin, in the upstream of Chaohu Lake watershed. The results show that it is feasible in theory to extend blind number into fuzzy environment and reliable on conclusion to apply extended-blind number theory for predicting non-point source pollution loads.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  3. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, N.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hyp

  4. Water and nonpoint source pollution estimation in the watershed with limited data availability based on hydrological simulation and regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiliang, Wang; Zening, Wu; Caihong, Hu; Xinzhong, Du

    2015-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered as the main reason for water quality deterioration; thus, to quantify the NPS loads reliably is the key to implement watershed management practices. In this study, water quality and NPS loads from a watershed with limited data availability were studied in a mountainous area in China. Instantaneous water discharge was measured through the velocity-area method, and samples were taken for water quality analysis in both flood and nonflood days in 2010. The streamflow simulated by Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) from 1995 to 2013 and a regression model were used to estimate total annual loads of various water quality parameters. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were much higher during the flood seasons, but the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) were lower during the flood seasons. Nevertheless, only TP concentration was positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed was significant. Statistical results indicated the significant contribution of pollutant fluxes during flood seasons to annual fluxes. The loads of TP, TN, NH3-N, and NO3-N in the flood seasons were accounted for 58-85, 60-82, 63-88, 64-81% of the total annual loads, respectively. This study presented a new method for estimation of the water and NPS loads in the watershed with limited data availability, which simplified data collection to watershed model and overcame the scale problem of field experiment method.

  5. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution:Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Jue; PENG

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution.Therefore,this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples,our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects:farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution concept,farmers’ cognition to rural environment satisfaction,farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution in agricultural production and farmers’ cognition on the consequences of agricultural non-point source pollution and the effects on ecological environment.The analysis and conclusions of farmers’ consciousness cognition on agricultural non-point source pollution,provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing the behavior of farmers,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  6. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  7. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  8. Spatial-temporal characteristics of phosphorus in non-point source pollution with grid-based export coefficient model and geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Dong, Guangxia; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiujuan; He, Mengchang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes and trends in non-point source (NPS) total phosphorus (TP) pollution were analyzed by land and non-land uses in the Songliao River Basin from 1986 to 2000 (14 years). A grid-based export coefficient model was used in the process of analysis based on to a geographic information system. The Songliao Basin is divided in four regions: Liaoning province, Jilin province (JL), Heilongjiang province and the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Region. Results indicated that the NPS phosphorus load caused by land use and non-land use increased steadily from 3.11×10(4) tons in 1986 to 3.49×10(4) tons in 2000. The southeastern region of the Songliao Plain was the most important NPS pollution contributor of all the districts. Although the TP load caused by land use decreased during the studied period in the Songliao River Basin, the contribution of land use to the TP load was dominant compared to non-land uses. The NPS pollution caused by non-land use steadily increased over the studied period. The IM Autonomous Region and JL province had the largest mean annual rate of change among all districts (more than 30%). In this area, livestock and poultry breeding had become one of the most important NPS pollution sources. These areas will need close attention in the future.

  9. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  10. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  11. Percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination of recently recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4...

  12. FY1995 contaminant study proposal : CO-nonpoint source pollution on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution to water bodies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Arsenal). The Service will...

  13. An interdisciplinary assessment of regional-scale nonpoint source ground-water vulnerability; theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Dinitz, Laura B.; Loague, Keith

    2001-01-01

    An integrated earth science-economics model, developed within a geographic information system (GIS), combines a regional-scale nonpoint source vulnerability assessment with a specific remediation measure to avoid unnecessary agricultural production costs associated with the use of agrochemicals in the Pearl Harbor basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This approach forms the core of a risk-based regulation for the application of agrochemicals and estimates the benefits of an information-based approach to decisionmaking.

  14. THE METHOD OF CAR HEADLIGHTS LUMINOUS INTENSITY MEASURING FOR NON-POINT SOURCES OF LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the measurements of luminous intensity of car headlights luminous intensity for non-point sources have pecularities. A simplified method for correction the luminous intensity at various distances is developed. The applicability of the given method with possible measurement errors is studied. The results were obtained, using a stand of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Metroligy”.

  15. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  16. Modeling nonpoint source nitrate contamination and associated uncertainty in groundwater of U.S. regional aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Lujan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater is spatially variable and can result in elevated nitrate concentrations that threaten drinking-water quality in many aquifers of the United States. Improved modeling approaches are needed to quantify the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination and the associated uncertainty of predictive models. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, logistic regression models were developed to predict nitrate concentrations greater than background in recently recharged (less than 50 years) groundwater in selected regional aquifer systems of the United States; including the Central Valley, California Coastal Basins, Basin and Range, Floridan, Glacial, Coastal Lowlands, Denver Basin, High Plains, North Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Piedmont aquifer systems. The models were used to evaluate the spatial controls of climate, soils, land use, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water-quality conditions on nitrate contamination. The novel model Raster Error Propagation Tool (REPTool) was used to estimate error propagation and prediction uncertainty in the predictive nitrate models and to determine an approach to reduce uncertainty in future model development. REPTool consists of public-domain, Python-based packages that implement Latin Hypercube sampling within a probabilistic framework to track error propagation in geospatial models and quantitatively estimate the prediction uncertainty of the model output. The presented nitrate models, maps, and uncertainty analysis provide important tools for water-resource managers of regional groundwater systems to identify likely areas and the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater.

  17. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  18. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations.

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie; YANG; Huanghuang; ZENG; Budan; CHEN; Fang; CHEN; Shikai; WU

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution.[Method]By investigating the park water environment,analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate,setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying.The COD of lakes and river outside the park and ammonia mean concentration belong to grade III.The total nitrogen of lake belongs to grade III.The total phosphorus belongs to grade IV.The total nitrogen of river is the worst.The total phosphorus is grade V.[Conclusion] The lake water quality is highly affected by the point and non-point source pollution,the quality of the river is worse than that of the lake in the park,and it needs powerful governance.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun RONG; Jiqiang ZHANG; Yang SHI

    2016-01-01

    The SWAT model was applied to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of non-point source pollution loads and the difference of pollution loads of different land use types in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin. The results showed that both yearly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads were evenly distributed during 1973 to 1979,the annual TN pollution from non-point source was 1530 t,or 6. 3 kg / ha,and the annual TP pollution from non-point source was 270 t,or 1. 1 kg / ha during 1973 to 1979 in the watershed. Considerable differences were identified on both monthly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads. The TN and TP pollution loads during the flood season( from April to September) accounted for 76. 2% and 75. 8% of the annual load respectively. There were great differences in both TN and TP pollution loads of different land use types in the study area,and the pollution load of both farmland and orchard was higher than that of the other land use types. TN and TP pollution loads of farmland accounted for 66% and 83% of total watershed. There was a great spatial difference in the nonpoint source pollution load of the study area. The critical source areas of non-point source pollution are mainly located at Guanqiao Town,Longmen Town,Changkeng Town,Shangqing Town and Dapu Town,where the efforts of controlling pollution should be made.

  2. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  3. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  4. Enabling and enacting 'practical action' in catchments: responding to the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source pollution in coastal subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting 'practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to 'wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on 'enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other 'wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  5. Global Pollution of Surface Waters from Point and Nonpoint Sources of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van Drecht

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Global 0.5- by 0.5-degree resolution estimates are presented on the fate of nitrogen (N stemming from point and nonpoint sources, including plant uptake, denitrification, leaching from the rooting zone, rapid flow through shallow groundwater, and slow flow through deep groundwater to riverine systems. Historical N inputs are used to describe the N flows in groundwater. For nonpoint N sources (agricultural and natural ecosystems, calculations are based on local hydrology, climate, geology, soils, climate and land use combined with data for 1995 on crop production, N inputs from N fertilizers and animal manure, and estimates for ammonia emissions, biological N fixation, and N deposition. For point sources, our estimates are based on population densities and human N emissions, sanitation, and treatment. The results provide a first insight into the magnitude of the N losses from soil-plant systems and point sources in various parts of the world, and the fate of N during transport in atmosphere, groundwater, and surface water. The contribution to the river N load by anthropogenic N pollution is dominant in many river basins in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Our model results explain much of the variation in measured N export from different world river basins.

  6. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  7. Response of non-point source pollutant loads to climate change in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wenxi; An, Yonglei; Li, Di; Gong, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment are predicted by combining a general circulation model (HadCM3) with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A statistical downscaling model was used to generate future local scenarios of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation. Then, the downscaled meteorological variables were used as input to the SWAT hydrological model calibrated and validated with observations, and the corresponding changes of future streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment were simulated and analyzed. Results show that daily temperature increases in three future periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) relative to a baseline of 1961-1990, and the rate of increase is 0.63°C per decade. Annual precipitation also shows an apparent increase of 11 mm per decade. The calibration and validation results showed that the SWAT model was able to simulate well the streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads, with a coefficient of determination of 0.7 and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of about 0.7 for both the calibration and validation periods. The future climate change has a significant impact on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads. The annual streamflow shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2010 to 2099, with an increase rate of 1.1 m(3) s(-1) per decade, and a significant upward trend in summer, with an increase rate of 1.32 m(3) s(-1) per decade. The increase in summer contributes the most to the increase of annual load compared with other seasons. The annual NH (4) (+) -N load into Shitoukoumen reservoir shows a significant downward trend with a decrease rate of 40.6 t per decade. The annual TP load shows an insignificant increasing trend, and its change rate is 3.77 t per decade. The results of this analysis provide a scientific basis for effective support of decision

  8. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  10. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  11. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction I: a geographical allocation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Nowak, Peter J; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  12. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to estimate loads from nonpoint source ground water inputs.Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source

  13. The removal of nutrients from non-point source wastewater by a hybrid bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Graham, Bruce; Kerr, Philip G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing nutrients from non-point source wastewater. The proposal involves a hybrid bioreactor comprised of sequential anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic (A(2)/O) processes and an eco-ditch being constructed and applied in a suburban area, Kunming, south-western China, where wastewater was discharged from an industrial park and suburban communities. The results show that the hybrid bioreactor fosters heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms. When the hydraulic load is 200 m(3) per day with the running mode in 12h cycles, the removal efficiencies of the nutrients were 81% for TP, 74% for TDP, 82% for TN, 79% for NO(3)-N and 86% for NH(4)-N. The improved bacterial community structure and bacterial habitats further implied enhanced water quality and indicates that the easily-deployed, affordable and environmentally-friendly hybrid bioreactor is a promising bio-measure for removing high loadings of nutrients from non-point source wastewater.

  14. Distributed Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution in Ashi River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ma; Xiaofeng Jiang; Li Wang; Zhe Li; Xiongwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of non⁃point source pollution, it is essential to examine its temporal and spatial distribution. A physically⁃based distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool ( SWAT) , was used in this research, to quantitatively estimate the NPS load and analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of NPS pollution in Ashi River Basin. The results indicated that SWAT was suitable to simulate stream⁃flow and water quality in Ashi River Basin. Total Nitrogen which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TN) accounted for 32�47%-62�61%, and Total Phosphorus which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TP) accounted for 22�30%-57�85% of the total load respectively. In inter⁃annual timescale, both NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were influenced by stream⁃flow and fertilizer. However, when compared with fertilizer, NPS pollution was more directly affected by stream⁃flow. In annual timescale, NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP mainly occurred in flood season (from May to September). In the aspect of space, spatial differences of NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were extremely significant. The spatial variations of NPS pollution were mainly influenced by land use, precipitation, soil and slope.

  15. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  16. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  17. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  18. Modified Weighting for Calculating the Average Concentration of Non-Point Source Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of runoff depends upon that of soil loss and the latter is assumed to be linear to the value of EI that equals the product of total storm energy E times the maximum 30-min intensity I30 for a given rainstorm. Usually, the maximum accumulative amount of rain for a rainstorm might bring on the maximum amount of runoff, but it does not equal the maximum erosion and not always lead the maximum concentration. Thus, the average concentration weighted by amount of runoff is somewhat unreasonable. An improvement for the calculation method of non-point source pollution load put forward by professor Li Huaien is proposed. In replacement of the weight of runoff, EI value of a single rainstorm is introduced as a new weight. An example of Fujing River watershed shows that its application is effective.

  19. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  20. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  1. Tracking Nonpoint Source Nitrogen and Carbon in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Duan, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered nitrogen and carbon cycles in rivers regionally with important impacts on coastal ecosystems. Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is a leading contributor to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Shifts in sources of carbon impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants in coastal zones. We used a combination of stable isotopes and optical tracers to investigate fate and transport of nitrogen and carbon sources in tributaries of the largest estuary in the U.S., the Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed isotopic composition of water samples from major tributaries including the Potomac River, Susquehanna River, Patuxent River, and Choptank River during routine and storm event sampling over multiple years. A positive correlation between δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in the Potomac River above Washington D.C. suggested denitrification or biological uptake in the watershed was removing agriculturally-derived N during summer months. In contrast, the Patuxent River in Maryland showed elevated δ15N-NO3- (5 - 12 per mil) with no relationship to δ18O-NO3- suggesting the importance of wastewater sources. From the perspective of carbon sources, there were distinct isotopic values of the δ13C-POM of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMS) for rivers influenced by their dominant watershed land use. EEMS showed that there were increases in the humic and fulvic fractions of dissolved organic matter during spring floods, particularly in the Potomac River. Stable isotopic values of δ13C-POM also showed rapid depletion suggesting terrestrial carbon "pulses" in the Potomac River each spring. The δ15N-POM peaked to 10 - 15 per mil each spring suggested a potential manure source or result of biological processing within the watershed. Overall, there were considerable changes in sources and transformations of nitrogen and carbon that varied across rivers and that contribute to nitrogen and carbon loads

  2. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  3. Study on the Control Model of Rural Non-point Source Pollution——Taking Ninghe County in Tianjin as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control model of rural non-point source pollution.[Method] Taking Ninghe County(a typical agricultural county in Tianjin) as an example,the current development of local economy and society and characteristics of rural non-point source pollution were studied firstly,then the control model of rural non-point source pollution suitable for Ninghe County was constructed,and its environmental and economic benefits were analyzed finally.[Result] According to the sources of non-...

  4. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  5. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  6. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL EROSION AND NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION BASED ON GIS IN ERLONG LAKE WATERSHED, JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Hong-yan; WANG Hui-lian; ZHANG Zheng-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Data collection, factor composition, nappe analysis and integrative simulation of natural geographical factors in Erlong Lake watershed have been carried out based on GIS. The risk areas where non-point source pollution may occur were compartmentalized and assessed, and the total soil erosion and the runoffs of N and P with rainfall in this valley were worked out by experiment and GIS mapping. The study indicated that the main type of soil in dry land with variable slope east of the lake and the middle-south parts of steep slope mountainous region (erosion source pollution (NSP) of nitrogen and phosphorus loss was corresponded with the soil erosion. Spatial distribution and the reasons of the distribution difference have been presented and it was emphasized that the human activities among the influence factors was the most important. It surely offers a scientific basis to control and prevent non-point source pollution in the watershed.

  7. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Robertson, Dale M; Han, Seungbong; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km(2)) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale.

  9. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  10. Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2002-01-01

    The search for solutions to the problem of non-point source pollution (NSP) includes alternatives based on theories associated with the use of tradable pollution permits. Tradable permit programs have received significant support as a promising policy for the reduction of effluent discharges but programs in practice have not been regarded as successful. The lack of success is ascribed to the design of the programs. However, this may be a design problem which is insurmountable due to the nature of the NSP problem. Tradable permit solutions are based on an assumption that the assignation of quantifiable rights to both point and nonpoint sources, based on some predetermined ambient water quality measure, is possible. The conclusion here is that there are significant features particular to NSP that hinder the introduction of rights and significantly decrease the utility of tradable permit solutions.

  11. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  12. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  13. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  14. Pollution of surface waters by metalaxyl and nitrate from non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Álvarez-Enjo, Manuel Ali; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the contaminant chemical and the properties of the soil. In order to explore these relationships, the district of A Limia (Galicia, NW Spain) was selected as the study area--a cropland devoted to growing potatoes, where the soil had been managed intensively over the last 50 years. The soil was characterised by low slopes with the water table located very close to the soil surface. Our aim was to study the influence of high and intensive crop production on the water bodies and non-point source contamination, with a particular focus on metalaxyl and nitrate. The highest concentrations of metalaxyl occurred when rainfalls were low and in zones of the study area where natural hydrology was significantly altered by numerous drainage canals. The spatial and temporal distributions of the nitrate also showed a high variability, with the interaction between seasons and sampling area being the most significant factor in explaining the levels found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of type transfer functions for regional-scale nonpoint source groundwater vulnerability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Loague, Keith

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessments of nonpoint source agrochemical contamination at regional scales are either qualitative in nature or require prohibitively costly computational efforts. By contrast, the type transfer function (TTF) modeling approach for vadose zone pesticide leaching presented here estimates solute concentrations at a depth of interest, only uses available soil survey, climatic, and irrigation information, and requires minimal computational cost for application. TTFs are soil texture based travel time probability density functions that describe a characteristic leaching behavior for soil profiles with similar soil hydraulic properties. Seven sets of TTFs, representing different levels of upscaling, were developed for six loam soil textural classes with the aid of simulated breakthrough curves from synthetic data sets. For each TTF set, TTFs were determined from a group or subgroup of breakthrough curves for each soil texture by identifying the effective parameters of the function that described the average leaching behavior of the group. The grouping of the breakthrough curves was based on the TTF index, a measure of the magnitude of the peak concentration, the peak arrival time, and the concentration spread. Comparison to process-based simulations show that the TTFs perform well with respect to mass balance, concentration magnitude, and the timing of concentration peaks. Sets of TTFs based on individual soil textures perform better for all the evaluation criteria than sets that span all textures. As prediction accuracy and computational cost increase with the number of TTFs in a set, the selection of a TTF set is determined by a given application.

  16. A distributed non-point source pollution model: calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Zhang, Xue-song; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model--SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database, which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998--1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  17. Model AVSWAT apropos of simulating non-point source pollution in Taihu lake basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Ying-Xu; Jilani, Ghulam; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Yu, Qiao-Gang

    2010-02-15

    Accelerated eutrophication and nutrient loads in the lakes are of major concern for human health and environment. This study was undertaken for modeling the non-point source pollution of Taihu lake basin in eastern China. The SWAT model having an interface in ArcView GIS was employed. Model sensitive parameters related to hydrology and water quality were obtained by sensitivity analysis, and then calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions with field data. The GIS showed good potential for parameterization of hill-slopes, channels, and representative slope profiles for SWAT model simulations. In a monthly and daily time step, the model's Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) indicated that values of simulated runoff, NH(4)(+)-N and total phosphorus were acceptably closer to the measured data. Surface water parameters especially CN, Soil-AWC and ESCO were the most sensitive and had more recognition in the model. It is concluded that runoff carrying N and P nutrients from chemical fertilizer inputs in agricultural areas is the major contributor to NPSP in the lake basin. So, decrease in excessive use of N and P fertilizers and their synergism with organic manures is recommended that would significantly reduce nutrient pollution in the lake ecosystem.

  18. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  19. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  20. Estimating the susceptibility of surface water in Texas to nonpoint-source contamination by use of logistic regression modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Ulery, Randy L.; Winterstein, Thomas; Welborn, Toby

    2003-01-01

    In the State of Texas, surface water (streams, canals, and reservoirs) and ground water are used as sources of public water supply. Surface-water sources of public water supply are susceptible to contamination from point and nonpoint sources. To help protect sources of drinking water and to aid water managers in designing protective yet cost-effective and risk-mitigated monitoring strategies, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey developed procedures to assess the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters in Texas to the occurrence of 227 contaminants. One component of the assessments is the determination of susceptibility of surface-water sources to nonpoint-source contamination. To accomplish this, water-quality data at 323 monitoring sites were matched with geographic information system-derived watershed- characteristic data for the watersheds upstream from the sites. Logistic regression models then were developed to estimate the probability that a particular contaminant will exceed a threshold concentration specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Logistic regression models were developed for 63 of the 227 contaminants. Of the remaining contaminants, 106 were not modeled because monitoring data were available at less than 10 percent of the monitoring sites; 29 were not modeled because there were less than 15 percent detections of the contaminant in the monitoring data; 27 were not modeled because of the lack of any monitoring data; and 2 were not modeled because threshold values were not specified.

  1. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  2. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  3. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  4. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pohlert; J. A. Huisman; L. Breuer; Frede, H.-G.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993) and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003). The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002) and validati...

  5. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay( WTP ) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Yongyan; ZUO

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution,and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore,this investigation and study choose rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our sample,respectively make interview survey with the WTP(money or voluntary work) of farmers for improving local water and soil quality. Based on the statistical analysis of survey data,this study also takes empirical test and analysis with the influence factors on the WTP of farmers for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. The analysis and conclusions of this research provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing farmers’ behavior,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  6. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  7. 非点源污染负荷模型的研究进展%Research Progress of Non-point Source Pollution Models in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞华; 王东; 赵越; 张晶

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-point source load model research at home and abroad, in accordance of the agriculture, urban and mixed non-point source models, the main conditions for the application model were summarized, and the development of non-point source model was prospected.%基于国内外非点源负荷污染模型的研究现状,针对农业、城市和混合三种类型非点源模型,总结并梳理了主要模型的适用条件,并对非点源模型的发展趋势进行了展望.

  8. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianchao; YU; Limeng; GU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City,this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides,which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with whether farmers have participated in agricultural technology training,that is,the farmers having participated in agricultural technology training have stronger ability to scientifically apply pesticides,and in-depth understanding of advanced agricultural production technology and positive and negative effects of pesticides,so they often choose to reduce the application rate of pesticide; the cognitive factor on the role of pesticides in better promoting the growth of crops is significant,which requires the government and relevant departments to carry out concrete publicity of effectiveness and negative impact of different pesticides during the popularization of agricultural science knowledge,to prompt farmers to have a systematic and in-depth understanding of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution caused by pesticides.

  9. Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution and Water Environmental Quality Variation Trends in the Nansi Lake Basin from 2002 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data analysis of economic development and the water environmental quality from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake Basin in China, the correlation between economic development and the water environmental quality was researched. Analysis shows that the GDP of the Nansi Lake Basin had an average annual growth of 7.3% in 2012, and the COD and CODMn had the average annual decrease of 7.69% and 6.79%, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water environmental quality overall improved, reaching Class III of the “Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002.” The pollution of the water environment was analyzed from three aspects: agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, livestock, and aquaculture. Results indicated that the water pollution of the Nansi Lake Basin mainly came from nonpoint source pollution, accounting for more than 80% of the overall pollution. The contributions of both agricultural fertilizers and pesticides account for more than 85% of the overall nonpoint source, followed by livestock and aquaculture. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake Basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected, to solve the pollution problem of the Nansi Lake Basin.

  10. Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) using handheld Raman spectroscopy employing both 785 and 1064nm laser sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Amira; Girotto, Sarah; Berti, Benedetta; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2017-02-04

    The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines. Identification was initially assessed using the instruments' in built algorithm (i.e., % HQI) and then further by visual inspection of the Raman spectra. Confirmatory analysis was preformed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For the 60 diverse products, an NPS was successfully identified via the algorithm in 11 products (18%) using the 785nm source and 29 products (48%) using the 1064nm source. Evaluation of the Raman spectra showed that increasing the excitation wavelength from 785 to 1064nm improved this 'first pass' identification primarily due to a significant reduction in fluorescence, which increased S/N of the characteristic peaks of the substance identified. True positive correlations between internet products and NPS signatures ranged from 57.0 to 91.3% HQI with typical RSDs<10%. Tablet formulations and branded products were particularly challenging as a result of low NPS concentration and high chemical complexity, respectively. This study demonstrates the advantage of using a 1064nm source with handheld Raman spectroscopy for improved 'first pass' NPS identification when minimal spectral processing is required, such as when working in field. Future investigations will focus on the use of mixture algorithms, effect of NPS concentration, and further improvement of spectral libraries.

  11. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pohlert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993 and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003. The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002 and validation period (April 2002 to January 2003, respectively. However, the model efficiency for daily loads is low (0.15, which cannot only be attributed to the quality of input data of point source effluents. An analysis of the internal fluxes and cycles of nitrogen pointed out considerable weaknesses in the models conceptualisation of the nitrogen modules which will be improved in future research.

  12. Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Owen, Jeffrey S; Kim, Bomchul

    2016-12-01

    Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.

  13. A West Virginia case study: does erosion differ between streambanks clustered by the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby L. McQueen; Nicolas P. Zegre; Danny L. Welsch

    2013-01-01

    The integration of factors and processes responsible for streambank erosion is complex. To explore the influence of physical variables on streambank erosion, parameters for the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model were collected on a 1-km reach of Horseshoe Run in Tucker County, West Virginia. Cluster analysis was used to establish...

  14. The impact of information on behavior under an ambient-based policy for regulating nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haoran; Fooks, Jacob R.; Guilfoos, Todd; Messer, Kent D.; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Suter, Jordan F.; Trandafir, Simona; Uchida, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Stemming from Segerson [1988], literature on nonpoint source pollution shows that ambient-based regulatory policies can induce polluters in a common watershed to comply with an exogenously determined pollution standard. This study uses laboratory economic experiments in a spatially heterogeneous setting to test the effectiveness of an ambient tax/subsidy policy in a setting with realistic in-stream nutrient transport dynamics when varying levels of sensor information on ambient pollution are available to the agents and the regulator. We find that increasing the frequency of ambient monitoring improves the spatial allocation of emissions reductions. In particular, with more frequent monitoring, the ambient-based policy induces firms further from the monitoring point to reduce emissions significantly more than downstream firms. Overall, the results suggest that enhanced temporal resolution of monitoring leads to efficiency gains.

  15. NASA-Modified Precipitation Products to Improve EPA Nonpoint Source Water Quality Modeling for the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. Ninety percent of the impairments are typically caused by nonpoint sources. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires States to monitor the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted", for any watershed in the U.S.. In response to this mandate, the EPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a Decision Support Tool (DST) for assessing pollution and to guide the decision making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program -- Fortran (HSPF), computes daily stream flow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, stream flow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better stream flow statistics and, ultimately, in improved water quality assessment.

  16. Estimation of contribution from non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants in a river by using boron as a wastewater tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The contribution of non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in a river was evaluated by estimating their fluxes and by using boron (B) as a tracer. The utility of PFSs/B as an indicator for evaluating the impact of non-point sources was demonstrated. River water samples were collected from the Iruma River, upstream of the intake of drinking water treatment plants in Tokyo, during dry weather and wet weather, and 13 PFSs, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and B were analyzed. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) were detected on all sampling dates. The concentrations and fluxes of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, e.g. PFOA and PFNA) were higher during wet weather, but those of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs, e.g. PFHxS and PFOS) were not. The wet/dry ratios of PFSs/B (ratios of PFSs/B during wet weather to those during dry weather) agreed well with those of PFS fluxes (ratios of PFS fluxes during wet weather to those during dry weather), indicating that PFSs/B is useful for evaluating the contribution from non-point sources to PFSs in rivers. The wet/dry ratios of PFOA and PFNA were higher than those of other PFSs, DOC, and TN, showing that non-point sources contributed greatly to PFOA and PFNA in the water. This is the first study to use B as a wastewater tracer to estimate the contribution of non-point sources to PFSs in a river.

  17. Reduction rate of nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution under different riparian buffer restoring strategies%不同河岸带修复策略对氮磷非点源污染的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 胡艳芳; 林峻宇

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted along Liuxi River watershed, a main branch of Beijiang River, in Guangdong Province. Based on the non-point source (NPS) pollution and riparian buffer’s reduction in current situations of the Liuxi River Basin, the differences of NPS pollution reduction improvement of different restoration strategies were investigated by scenario simulations. In order to compare the efficiency of different restoration strategies, the relationships between the improvement of NPS reduction rate and the increase of buffer area were interpreted by benefit-cost index. The results showed the NPS reduction rate performed remarkable spatial variation. Each scenario had improved the NPS reduction rates to varying degrees (TN: 23.36%~30.72%; TP: 27.19%~39.86%). The relationships between buffer areas and NPS reduction rate of each scenario were fitted well by the logarithmic function (P<0.05). The strategy with restoring the sub-basins of prior riparian buffer restoration, which integrated NPS loading and riparian buffers conditions, could reach the best benefit-cost index (1.19%).%选择北江的重要支流流溪河流域为研究对象,基于现有河岸带对非点源污染削减作用的模拟结果,采用情景分析法,预测不同河岸带修复策略对非点源污染的削减作用,使用效益-成本指数表征 TN 和 TP 削减率提高幅度与增加河岸带面积的关系,比较不同河岸带修复策略的效率.结果表明:河岸带对TN和TP的削减能力具有较大的空间差异性.各修复情景都在不同程度上提高了河岸带对TN和TP的削减率(TN:23.36%~30.72%;TP:27.19%~39.86%),河岸带增加总面积与削减率呈现对数增长关系(P<0.05).选择综合考虑了流域非点源负荷量以及河岸带状况的优先修复子流域进行河岸带修复时,效益-成本指数达最高为1.19%.

  18. Study on Control Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Lakeside Belt of Poyang Lake——Taking Duchang Section in the Lower Reaches of Poyang Lake as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point source pollution in lakeside belt of Poyang Lake.[Method] The current situation of water quality of Poyang Lake was analyzed firstly,then the causes of agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake were studied,finally corresponding control countermeasures were put forward.[Result] Agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake was mainly related to the rapid developm...

  19. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  20. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin

  1. Assessment of the impacts of land use changes on nonpoint source pollution inputs upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huicai; Wang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yan; Xue, Baolin; Wu, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, land use upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed significantly because of the TGR project. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was examined for its ability to assess relationships between land use changes and nonpoint pollutant indexes upstream of the TGR. Results indicated that the SWAT model, calibrated with the adjusted parameters, could successfully reproduce the nonpoint indexes at the water quality monitoring sites in the two rivers. The different land use change types were shown to be sensitive to nonpoint pollutants in the study area. The land use change type from upland to water was the strongest influence on changes in total nitrogen and total phosphorus. An empirical regression equation between nonpoint indexes and different land use change types was developed for the study area by partial least squares regression (PLSR) as follows: Y = b 0 + ∑ i=1 (m) b i X i. This regression equation was useful for evaluating the influence of land use change types on changes in nonpoint pollutants over a long time period. The results from this study may be useful for the TGR management and may help to reduce nonpoint pollutant loads into downstream water bodies.

  2. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  3. 农业非点源污染研究进展和趋势%The Progress and Trends of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 李强坤

    2014-01-01

    根据国内外农业非点源污染研究现状,本文在探讨农业非点源污染内涵及其特征的基础上,简要总结了农业非点源污染负荷的估算模型,列举区域农业非点源污染风险评估的手段和方法,从不同角度归纳了农业非点源污染的控制技术,并提出了近期农业非点源污染急需研究的热点和趋势,以期为进一步的农业非点源污染管理和控制提供参考。%According to the current research on agricultural non-point source pollution at home and abroad, the connotation and feature of a-gricultural non-point source pollution were explored in this paper, and then the estimating model of pollution load was concluded briefly. Meanwhile, the paper also listed the means and methods of risk assessment of regional agricultural non-point source pollution and summed up the control technologies from different angles. Finally, the recent much-needed research hotspots and trends were put forward in order to provide reference for further management and control of agricultural non-point source pollution.

  4. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  5. NASA-modified precipitation products to improve USEPA nonpoint source water quality modeling for the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The USEPA has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires states to monitor the total maximum daily load, or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted," for any watershed in the United States (Copeland, 2005). In response to this mandate, the USEPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a decision support tool for assessing pollution and to guide the decision-making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), computes continuous streamflow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events, especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA-modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, streamflow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better streamflow statistics and, potentially, in improved water quality assessment.

  6. A distributed non-point source pollution model:calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-bua; ZHANG Xue-song; YANG Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model-SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database,which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998-1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  7. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zonation for nonpoint source pollution control in Hongfenghu reservoir watershed%红枫湖流域非点源污染控制区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿润哲; 殷培红; 原庆丹

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus is degrading surface water quality throughout the world. Sources of nutrients include over-fertilized agriculture lands, urban areas with excessive usage of herbicides and insecticides, and eroded soils. Due to the variation of nutrient export over the area and time, it is difficult to identify, assess and control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The prevention and mitigation of NPS pollution have become priority tasks in water monitoring and restoration programs in many countries. The interaction of human activities with the inherent variations in soil type, climate, topography and hydrology gives rise to large spatial and temporal variation in nutrient concentrations in surface runoff. Many research efforts are made to explore the processes and spatial characteristics of NPS pollution for prevention and mitigation measures. Major pollutants, particularly from agricultural activities, which include nitrogen, phosphorus nutrients and sediment that have been released into aquatic environments, have caused problems in the Hongfenghu Reservoir watershed, Guiyang. It is necessary to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of NPS pollutants and the highly polluted areas for the purpose of watershed management.In this paper, GIS technology, ArcSWAT model, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and CA (Cluster analysis) were used to identify the zonation of NPS sources and control in Yangchanghe river watershed which is one of the main tributaries in northwest of Hongfenghu Reservoir watershed, with relative strong intensive agricultural activities. The results showed that the spatial distribution of NPS pollution load in Yangchanghe river watershed was of great heterogeneity, the agricultural land at higher elevation had the highest NPS pollution loads, and the Liu Guang, Huang La, Jiu Zhou and Bai Yun towns were identified as the critical towns for NPS pollution control. In addition, the most important

  9. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  10. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkosky, M; Hernández-Delgado, E A; Sandoz, B; Robledo, I E; Norat-Ramírez, J; Mattei, H

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source fecal contamination across the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Inshore waters were highly turbid, consistently receiving fecal pollution from variable sources, and showing the highest frequency of positive molecular marker signals. Signals were also detected at offshore waters in compliance with existing microbiological quality regulations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most isolates were of human fecal origin. The geographic extent of non-point source fecal pollution was large and impacted extensive coral reef systems. This could have deleterious long-term impacts on public health, local fisheries and in tourism potential if not adequately addressed.

  11. 拉萨河流域非点源污染输出风险评估%Risk assessment of non-point source pollution export in Lasahe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方广玲; 香宝; 杜加强; 王宝良; 张立坤; 胡钰; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the high risk area of non-point source pollution has important practical significance to control non-point source pollution and improve the water environment quality. Lasahe River basin located in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China is important drinking-water source for Lhasa City, Linzhou County and Dangxiong County. Because the underdevelopment of industry and the less discharge of industrial pollutants in this area, non-point source pollution is the most important contributing factor for water pollution. Lhasa River basin is the region of agricultural production base with the densest population in the Tibet Autonomous Region. This study built the output risk model that includes rainfall, topography, and fertilization influence factor, identification the output risk region unit from basin non-point source pollution at all levels object. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was classed into five levels: lowest, lower, moderate, higher and highest. Data used in this study were mainly from remote sensing image, statistical yearbook, and the parameters in output risk model were collected from the literatures. The results showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution output in 1996 and 2010 was 50%and 46.3%respectively. 17.5%in 1996 and 12.6%in 2010 of the study area showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution was more than 70%. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was spatially heterogeneous, corresponding with the attributes of land use types. The areas with highest risk of non-point source pollution were concentrated in farmland, where agricultural activities strengthened, and concentrated in unused land with great ecological vulnerability and sensitivity to external interference. Areas with lowest and lower risk of non-point source pollution mainly distributed in grassland, which has relative stability and robustness. Our study also found that risk probability of non-point source pollution

  12. 植草沟技术在面源污染控制中的研究进展%Advance on Grassed Swales Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 尹炜; 叶闽; 雷阿林; 李思敏

    2011-01-01

    Current research advances of non-point source pollution, especially urban non-point source pollution were introduced. Research advances and applications of grassed swales technology in non-point source pollution control were expounded. Main problems and application prospects of grassed swales technology in actual engineering were discussed as well. Coupling of grassed swales technology and other non-point source pollution control technology are proposed to be considered as a development direction in urban non-point source pollution control.%文章介绍了面源污染,尤其是城市面源污染的现状及其控制技术研究进展,并论述了植草沟技术的国内外研究进展及应用现状,讨论了其在工程中需解决的问题及应用前景,提出了植草沟技术与其他面源污染控制单项技术有机耦合是城市面源污染控制的一个发展方向.

  13. A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

    2014-05-01

    In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

  14. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  15. 河流污染的点源和非点源负荷分割研究%The Segmentation of the Point Source and Non-point Source Pollution Load of Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔继平; 代俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become the major source of pollution of water environment .Point source pollution and non-point source pollution of river water environmental monitoring to distinguish sections is very necessary .This paper mainly intro‐duces the research progress at home and abroad about non point source pollution .This paper focuses on the pollution load partition of Nanliu River Basin in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone .The segmentation of point source pollution and non-point source pollution of potassium permanganate index ,total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen are made based on the hydrological estimation method and the digital filtering method .The hydrological estimation method results show that three indexes of non-point source pollution the to‐tal pollution load ratio is 0 .77 ,0 .74 and 0 .76 .And the digital filtering method results show that they are 0 .59 ,0 .64 and 0 .66 .Di‐viding two methods of non-point source is close to the result ,Nanliu River Basin is more serious .%非点源污染已经成为水环境的主要污染源,区分河流水环境监测断面的点源污染与非点源污染显得十分必要。以广西入海河流南流江为研究背景,采用数字滤波法和水文估算法进行点源与非点源污染负荷的分割。分析结果显示,基于水文估算法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.77、0.74、0.76;采用数字滤波法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.59、0.64、0.66。结果表明,两种方法分割的非点源结果的变幅趋势相同,南流江的非点源污染在总污染负荷中的比例较高。

  16. Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Countermeasures in Yunnan%云南省农业面源污染及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱成

    2014-01-01

    云南省主要农业环境污染问题包括:化肥使用量不断增加;地膜使用量及其覆盖面积不断增加;农药使用量不断增加;畜禽粪便污染日益加重。分析了问题产生的原因,提出了防治农业污染的建议。%Environmental problems are emerging due to agricultural non -point source pollution in Yunnan.The most serious problems are as follows:an increasing usage of chemical fertilizers and plastics in farm field,a rising release of pesticide,and a growing amount of waste from livestock and poultry.Agricultural non-point sources in Yunnan were identified.Suggestions were put forward to control agricultural pollution.

  17. Synthesis of lignin-based copolymer LSAA and the application on controlling non-point source pollution (NPS) resulted from surface runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chen; WU Guangxia; MU Huanzhen; YUAN Zonghuan; TANG Lianyi; LIN Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 26.67%-42.86%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. Tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste.

  18. Assessment of Non-Point Source Total Phosphorus Pollution from Different Land Use and Soil Types in a Mid-High Latitude Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport characteristics of phosphorus in soil and the assessment of its environmental risk have become hot topics in the environmental and agricultural fields. The Sanjiang Plain is an important grain production base in China, and it is characterised by serious land use change caused by large-scale agricultural exploitation. Agricultural inputs and tillage management have destroyed the soil nutrient balance formed over long-term conditions. There are few studies on non-point source phosphorus pollution in the Sanjiang Plain, which is the largest swampy low plain in a mid-high-latitude region in China. Most studies have focused on the water quality of rivers in marsh areas, or the export mechanism of phosphorus from specific land uses. They were conducted using experimental methods or empirical models, and need further development towards mechanism models and the macro-scale. The question is how to find a way to couple processes in phosphorus cycling and a distributed hydrological model considering local hydrological features. In this study, we report an attempt to use a distributed phosphorus transport model to analyse non-point source total phosphorus pollution from different land uses and soil types on the Sanjiang Plain. The total phosphorus concentration generally shows an annually increasing trend in the study area. The total phosphorus load intensity is heterogeneous in different land use types and different soil types. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different land use types can be ranked in descending order from paddy field, dry land, wetlands, grassland, and forestland. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different soil types can be ranked in descending order: paddy soil, bog soil, planosol, meadow soil, black soil, and dark brown earth. The dry land and paddy fields account for the majority of total phosphorus load in the study area. This is mainly caused by extensive use of phosphate fertilizer on the

  19. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  1. Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  2. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin management:Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG; Brian; WINDOLF; JФrgen; GRANT; Ruth; ANDERSEN; Hans; E; THODSEN; Hans; OVESEN; Niels; B; LARSEN; SФren; E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to follow the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment. Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources. Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen removal in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  3. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin man-agement: Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG Brian; WINDOLF J(φ)rgen; GRANT Ruth; ANDERSEN Hans E; THODSEN Hans; OVESEN Niels B; LARSEN S(φ)ren E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to fol-low the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment.Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources.Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen re-moval in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  4. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  5. [Analysis on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed based on L-THIA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zeng, Fan-Tang; Fang, Huai-Yang; Lin, Shu

    2013-11-01

    Based on the Long-term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model, the effect of land use and rainfall change on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed was analyzed. The parameters in L-THIA model were revised according to the data recorded in the scene of runoff plots, which were set up in the watershed. The results showed that the distribution of areas with high pollution load was mainly concentrated in agricultural land and urban land. Agricultural land was the biggest contributor to nitrogen and phosphorus load. From 1995 to 2010, the load of major pollutants, namely TN and TP, showed an obviously increasing trend with increase rates of 17.91% and 25.30%, respectively. With the urbanization in the watershed, urban land increased rapidly and its area proportion reached 43.94%. The contribution of urban land to nitrogen and phosphorus load was over 40% in 2010. This was the main reason why pollution load still increased obviously while the agricultural land decreased greatly in the past 15 years. The rainfall occurred in the watershed was mainly concentrated in the flood season, so the nitrogen and phosphorus load of the flood season was far higher than that of the non-flood season and the proportion accounting for the whole year was over 85%. Pearson regression analysis between pollution load and the frequency of different patterns of rainfall demonstrated that rainfall exceeding 20 mm in a day was the main rainfall type causing non-point source pollution.

  6. Assessing the Hydrologic Performance of the EPA's Nonpoint Source Water Quality Assessment Decision Support Tool Using North American Land Data Assimilation System (Products)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ni-Meister, W.; Toll, D.; Nigro, J.; Guiterrez-Magness, A.; Engman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of streamflow predictions in the EPA's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) decision support tool is affected by the sparse meteorological data contained in BASINS. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data with high spatial and temporal resolutions provide an alternative to the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s station data. This study assessed the improvement of streamflow prediction of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model contained within BASINS using the NLDAS 118 degree hourly precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates in seven watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Our results demonstrated consistent improvements of daily streamflow predictions in five of the seven watersheds when NLDAS precipitation and evapotranspiration data was incorporated into BASINS. The improvement of using the NLDAS data is significant when watershed's meteorological station is either far away or not in a similar climatic region. When the station is nearby, using the NLDAS data produces similar results. The correlation coefficients of the analyses using the NLDAS data were greater than 0.8, the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model fit efficiency greater than 0.6, and the error in the water balance was less than 5%. Our analyses also showed that the streamflow improvements were mainly contributed by the NLDAS's precipitation data and that the improvement from using NLDAS's evapotranspiration data was not significant; partially due to the constraints of current BASINS-HSPF settings. However, NLDAS's evapotranspiration data did improve the baseflow prediction. This study demonstrates the NLDAS data has the potential to improve stream flow predictions, thus aid the water quality assessment in the EPA nonpoint water quality assessment decision tool.

  7. Nitrogen Non-Point Source Pollution Identification Based on ArcSWAT in Changle River%基于ArcSWAT模型的长乐江流域非点源氮素污染源识别和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欧平; 孙嗣旸; 吕军

    2013-01-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source ( NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35% , 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.%本研究以我国东南沿海地区的典型农业流域——长乐江流域为对象,通过实地调查、数据收集和分析,

  8. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  9. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangxi Province%江西省农业面源污染空间分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文东; 许仕; 庐俊

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural non-point source pollution is becoming an increasingly important eco-envjonrmental problem, il is difficult lo control due lo its dispersive and extensive characteristics. Jiangxi Province is still at ihe initial stage ai agricultural modernization, bul its agricultural non-point source pollution is exacerbating. According to the investigation on the pollution sources of planting, animal husbandry and aq-uaculture in Jiangs i Province, the ArcGIS software was adopted to analyze the spatial and digital features of agricultural non-point source pollution. As indicated by the results, the principal pollution source is animal husbandry, then followed by planting, ihe pollution from aquarulture is becoming more and more serious. The study provided scientific basis for the evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution in Jiangxi Province.%农业面源污染正成为生态环境的主要问题,但其分散性、广泛性等特点又决定了其治理难度较大.江西目前仍处于农业现代化的起点阶段,农业面源污染日益严重:该研究通过对江西省农业的种植业、畜禽业和水产养殖业的污染源进行调查,利用ArcGIS软件,对江西省农业面源污染进行了空间化和数字化处理.结果表明,江西省农业污染源主要是畜禽养殖业,其次是种植业,水产养殖业污染日趋严重.该研究为江西省农业面源污染评估提供了科学依据.

  10. Assessment of point and non-point pollution associated with the power generation sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, H D; Heath, R G

    2007-01-01

    Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The need for guidelines to improve management of this valuable resource, and to regulate pollutant discharge, is therefore of national interest. A new and growing threat to our natural water resources is non-point source (NPS) pollution. The important distinction between point pollution and NPS pollution is that the latter is difficult to identify and the entry point of contamination to resources is diffuse and not limited to a single location. NPS pollution associated with power generation includes, but is not limited to, atmospheric deposition resulting from emissions (air and water), leachate from coal storage piles and runoff from impervious areas which are covered with dust fallout from coal and ash handling operations. Emissions of primary concern are sulfur, nitrogen and mercury.

  11. Past leaded gasoline emissions as a nonpoint source tracer in riparian systems: A study of river inputs to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C.E.; Bouse, R.; Flegal, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of lead in 1995-1998 river waters flowing into San Francisco Bay trace the washout of lead deposited in the drainage basin from leaded gasoline combustion. At the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers where they enter the Bay, the isotopic compositions of lead in the waters define a linear trend away from the measured historical compositions of leaded gas in California. The river waters are shifted away from leaded gasoline values and toward an isotopic composition similar to Sierra Nevadan inputs which became the predominant source of sedimentation in San Francisco Bay following the onset of hydraulic gold mining in 1853. Using lead isotopic compositions of hydraulic mine sediments and average leaded gasoline as mixing end members, we calculate that more than 50% of the lead in the present river water originated from leaded gasoline combustion. The strong adsorption of lead (log K(d) > 7.4) to particulates appears to limit the flushing of gasoline lead from the drainage basin, and the removal of that lead from the system may have reached an asymptotic limit. Consequently, gasoline lead isotopes should prove to be a useful nonpoint source tracer of the environmental distribution of particle- reactive anthropogenic metals in freshwater systems.

  12. NPS TINYSCOPE Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    orbit and the rotation of the Earth and Moon . The planets will also perturb the orbits with Jupiter and Venus acting as the primary sources...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NPS TINYSCOPE Program Management 6. AUTHOR( S ) Christopher Gordon Turner 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING

  13. Status of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollu-tion in China and Com-prehensive Treatment%我国农业面源污染现状及综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓俐

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is worsening in China, mainly due to excessive and irrational use of pesticides, excessive use of fertil-izers, plastic sheeting pollution, straw pollution, intensive breeding farms pol-lution,etc. Agricultural non-point source pollution is harmful to water, atmosphere and soil,so the comprehensive treatment measures were put forward.%我国农业面源污染日益严重,主要原因是过量且不合理地使用农药,过量使用化肥,农膜污染、秸秆污染、集约化养殖场污染等。农业面源污染对水体、大气、土壤等造成严重危害,故提出综合治理措施。

  14. 缓冲带在农业面源污染防治上的应用%Study on pollution control of agricultural nonpoint source by means of buffer strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 刘赢男; 焉志远; 黎叩晨; 倪红伟

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has become one of the m ost important threats to water environment safety. To ensure security of water environment, it is necessary to prevent and control agricultural non-point source pollution. Riparian buffer zone, which could effectively prevent and control agricultural non-point source pollution, has been widely recognized, and it also has a certain application on the source of water prevention. Based on the introduction of definition of buffer zone, structure of macro and microscopic, mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus losing and research of different countries and regions of agricultural non-point pollution, the protection of riparian buffer strips in the water environment was proposed.%农业面源污染已经成为威胁水环境安全的一个重要因素,为了保证水质安全,对进入水体的农业面源污染进行防治是十分必要的。缓冲带在防治农业面源污染上的功效已经得到了广泛的认可,并在水污染治理上有一定的应用前景。通过对缓冲带的定义、宏观和微观结构、氮磷元素流失机理以及不同国家和地区应用缓冲带去除农业面源污染方面的研究,提出了我国缓冲带在水环境保护中的应用前景。

  15. Relations of nonpoint-source nitrate and atrazine concentrations in the High Plains aquifer to selected explanatory variables in six Nebraska study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druliner, A.D.; Chen, H.H.; McGrath, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical techniques were used to relate nonpoint-source ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine to a variety of explanatory variables for six study areas in Nebraska. Water samples were collected from 268 wells in 12 counties from 1984 through 1987 and were analyzed for nitrate concentrations; water samples from 210 of the wells were analyzed for atrazine. A number of hydrochemical, climatic, hydrologic, soil, and land-use explanatory variables, which were believed to affect the contamination of ground water by agricultural chemicals, were identified and quantified for each of the 268 wells. Multiple regression methods were used to determine which explanatory variables were statistically related to ground-water concentrations of nitrate and atrazine. Regression models predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations were produced that explained from about 50 to 68 percent of the variation in the dependent variables. Geographic- information-system methods were used to produce maps predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations in ground water for one study area using selected regression and logistic models. The results of this study indicate that multiple regression techniques coupled with geographic information systems can be an effective means of identifying areas of potential ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine.

  16. Using SWAT to Assess the Critical Areas and Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction Best Management Practices in Lam Takong River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netnapa Pongpetch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are essential tools for water resource and nonpoint source pollution management. This study aimed to evaluate critical areas and best management practices (BMPs of sediment and nutrient loads in Lam Takong River basin, Northeastern Thailand, using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was calibrated and validated using daily data of streamflow, sediment, NO3-N and TP in Lam Takong River from 2007-2008 and 2009, respectively. In general, the simulated streamflow and sediment were in reasonable agreement with the measured values with coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE greater than 0.50 and the percent bias (PBIAS less than 25%. Additionally, nutrient loads showed a fair relationship between observation and simulation with R2 values more than 0.6 and PBIAS values less than 25%. From simulation, September was the month with the highest sediment, NO3-N and TP yields while January and December were the lowest months. From the model, SWAT identified 1 severe and 1 high soil erosion subbasins. Two subbasins were classified into medium loading for NO3-N. However, 9 subbasins were classified into high loading rate of TP. For BMPs, the 30-mwide filter strip was the best scenario reducing 100% of both sediment and TP, and 97.27% of NO3-N. These results could be a useful tool for water resources managements and soil conservation planning in Lam Takong River basin.

  17. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of non-point sources in a water quality model applied to a dammed low-flow-reach river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nayana G M; von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Downstream of Capim Branco I hydroelectric dam (Minas Gerais state, Brazil), there is the need of keeping a minimum flow of 7 m3/s. This low flow reach (LFR) has a length of 9 km. In order to raise the water level in the low flow reach, the construction of intermediate dikes along the river bed was decided. The LFR has a tributary that receives the discharge of treated wastewater. As part of this study, water quality of the low-flow reach was modelled, in order to gain insight into its possible behaviour under different scenarios (without and with intermediate dikes). QUAL2E equations were implemented in FORTRAN code. The model takes into account point-source pollution and diffuse pollution. Uncertainty analysis was performed, presenting probabilistic results and allowing identification of the more important coefficients in the LFR water-quality model. The simulated results indicate, in general, very good conditions for most of the water quality parameters The variables of more influence found in the sensitivity analysis were the conversion coefficients (without and with dikes), the initial conditions in the reach (without dikes), the non-point incremental contributions (without dikes) and the hydraulic characteristics of the reach (with dikes).

  19. 基于农业面源污染控制的三峡库区种植业结构优化%Planting structure optimization based on agricultural non-point source pollution control in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 谢德体; 何丙辉; 魏朝富; 倪九派

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution has gradually become a major pollution source of lake eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in recent years. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is both an important sensitive eco-economy area and a typical poverty-stricken mountain area. However, its unique geographical location, its irrational agricultural structure and its increasing serious agricultural non-point source pollution problems challenge the environment in this region. Hence, it is a necessity to take controlling agricultural non-point source pollution from the source as one of the most effective approaches. In current research, agricultural non-point source pollution control excessively depends on engineering and technology. Anyhow, the roles of agricultural planting structure adjustment and agricultural cleaner production which can reduce non-point source pollution should not be ignored. Promoting the adjustment of planting structure, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and adopting agricultural cleaner production technologies not only help improve the land production capacity and agricultural products quality, but also effectively reduce the agricultural non-point source pollution. By these important measures for energy saving and emission reduction can be realized in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Based on the dual goals of the optimal agricultural economic benefits and non-point source pollution emission reduction, the linear programming model was used to optimize the planting structure and clean agricultural production in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The optimization results showed that the optimal paths to maximize the crop net income were as follows: The land area for grain production should cover 119.16×104hm2but cleaner production area of rice-wheat, corn, soybean and tuber crops needs 31.91×104, 18.69×104, 6.79×104and 19.55×104 hm2; the land area for vegetables planting should be 33.25×104hm2 and its cleaner

  20. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  1. Effects of nonpoint and selected point contaminant sources on stream-water quality and relation to land use in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, October 2002 through June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Mau, D.P.; Rasmussen, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 12 watersheds in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, to determine the effects of nonpoint and selected point contaminant sources on stream-water quality and their relation to varying land use. The streams studied were located in urban areas of the county (Brush, Dykes Branch, Indian, Tomahawk, and Turkey Creeks), developing areas of the county (Blue River and Mill Creek), and in more rural areas of the county (Big Bull, Captain, Cedar, Kill, and Little Bull Creeks). Two base-flow synoptic surveys (73 total samples) were conducted in 11 watersheds, a minimum of three stormflow samples were collected in each of six watersheds, and 15 streambed-sediment sites were sampled in nine watersheds from October 2002 through June 2004. Discharge from seven wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) were sampled during base-flow synoptic surveys. Discharge from these facilities comprised greater than 50 percent of streamflow at the farthest downstream sampling site in six of the seven watersheds during base-flow conditions. Nutrients, organic wastewater-indicator compounds, and prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical compounds generally were found in the largest concentrations during base-flow conditions at sites at, or immediately downstream from, point-source discharges from WWTFs. Downstream from WWTF discharges streamflow conditions were generally stable, whereas nutrient and wastewater-indicator compound concentrations decreased in samples from sites farther downstream. During base-flow conditions, sites upstream from WWTF discharges had significantly larger fecal coliform and Escherichia coli densities than downstream sites. Stormflow samples had the largest suspended-sediment concentrations and indicator bacteria densities. Other than in samples from sites in proximity to WWTF discharges, stormflow samples generally had the largest nutrient concentrations in Johnson County streams. Discharge

  2. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  3. 兰州农村面源污染现状及防治对策分析%The Analysis of the Rural Non-point Source Pollution Situation and Countermeasures in Lan Zhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂洪杰; 赵军平; 杜海霞; 张君弟; 刘佳

    2011-01-01

    文中在兰州统计年鉴的基础上,根据面源污染来源,分析了农业、畜牧业、生产和生活活动的危害,初步估算了主要面源污染物的流失量。并根据兰州市农村具体情况提出了相应的保护和控制措施,旨在为解决农村面源污染问题和保护农村生态环境提供借鉴。%In this paper,on the basis of Lan Zhou statistical yearbook,We analyzed the dangers of agriculture,animal husbandry,production activities and life activities according to the sources of rural non-point pollution,and then,we preliminary estimate the loss of the main non-point pollutant.In order to Provide reference for solving the problem of non-point pollution and the rural ecological environment protection,we put forward the corresponding protection and control measures,according to the specific situation of Lan Zhou countryside.

  4. NPS AUV Integrated Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    147 3. GRAPHIC OBJECT MODEI’QUSING OBJECTFILE FORMAT (cIF)...................... ........... 149. APPENDIX -C. NPS, AUV SONAR CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM...Monterey Bay .. 15 Figure 2.8 Graphics simulation for NPS AUV sonar visualization .......... 15’ Figure 3.1 Integrated simulator network physical...3.11 Integrated simulation display of AUV minefield searh ........ 39 Figure4.1 NPS AUV sonar beam profiles in the NPS pool .......... 43 Figure 42 NPS

  5. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  6. Trends of nitrogen and phosphorus input into Lake Neusiedl from wastewater treatment plants and non-point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Paul; Heiss, Gerhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    nitrogen load amounted to 304 tons in 2010, compared to 47 tons in 2001. In the period 1992-2010 the nitrogen load caused by diffuse sources was 4.3 times higher than the point source nitrogen load (2 wastewater treatment plants). The proportion of total discharge, of inorganic nitrogen load and of phosphorus load caused by the two wastewater treatment plants depended on the discharge rate of the river Wulka (monitoring station Schützen). In 2001 (low precipitation year: 578 mm annual sum) point sources contributed about 47% of the discharge, 51% of the nitrogen load and 65% of the phosphorus load of the river Wulka. In 2010 (high precipitation year: 945 mm annual sum) point sources contributed 25% of the discharge, 11% of the nitrogen load and 31% of the total phosphorus load. In the period 1992 to 2010 the inorganic nitrogen load caused by surface water (Wulka, WWTP, creeks and channels) varied from 65 t/a to 675 t/a (mean:233 t/a).

  7. 基于博弈论的非点源污染控制模型探讨%Modeling Nonpoint Source Pollution Control from the View of Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蔚文; 刘飞; 王新艳

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing ability to deal with point source pollution, such as industrial and urban life sewage, the impact of agricultural non-point source pollution on water quality environment has become more and more apparent. Compared with point source pollution, non-point source pollution occurs at an uncertain time, in an uncertain way and with uncertain quantity, which brings much more difficulties to the making of some relevant control policies. Beginning with the famous phenomenon of the Tragedy of Commons, this paper analyzes the game situation among the non-point pollution makers based on the marketing game model and the government supervision game model, and then proposes a way to manage and control non-point pollution in the form of "collective performance". Premising with the target of decreasing pollutant discharge, marketing game model proves that it is feasible and efficient to do the trade on point-nonpoint source pollution on the basis of the principle of Optimal Cost, while the results of the government supervision game model show that; a reasonable environment subsidy and punishment mechanism, and government's attaching importance to the self-reputation and public image will play a positive role in promoting non-point source pollution control.%随着对工业和城市生活污水等点源污染治理能力的不断增强,农业非点源污染对水质环境的影响日益凸现.相对于点源污染,非点源污染发生的不确定时间、不确定途径、不确定量等特点给治理政策的制定带来很大难度.本文从著名的公地悲剧现象出发,着力从市场博弈及政府监督博弈两个模型分析非点源污染制造者之间的博弈格局,并提出以“集体表现”的形式对非点源污染进行管理和控制.市场博弈模型中以一定的排污削减目标为前提,确定以成本最优的原则进行点源-非点源排污权交易是可行且有效率的;而政府监督博弈模型的结果显示:合理的

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON NONPOINT SOURCE NUTRIENT OUTPUT FROM XIANGXI BASIN IN THREE GORGES RESERVOIR%三峡库区香溪河流域非点源营养盐输出变化的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋林旭; 刘德富; 肖尚斌

    2011-01-01

    综合三峡库区香溪河流域土地利用结构和水系特点,在三大支流出口处设置常规水质监测断面,于干流响滩处设置水文控制断面,通过断面水质水量监测,利用数字滤波法解析径流多源和污染多源,研究上游来流点源和非点源营养盐输出负荷变化。结果表明:受农业非点源污染影响,TN是高岚河(0.788mg/L)〉古夫河(0.712mg/L)〉南阳河(0.567mg/L);南阳河受磷矿企业点源输入的影响,TP是南阳河(0.323mg/L)〉高岚河(0.074mg/L)〉古夫河(0.053mg/L);断面流量与降雨量的相关系数R2=0.%In order to study non-point source nutrient from Xiangxi River,considering the characteristics of the land use and the basin network,establishing the regular quality monitoring and hydrographic control section respectively in 3 major branches and upstream main channel.According to the water quality and quantity monitoring data,studying the spatial and temporal variation of the water quality from the upstream and the flux output process during raining,distinguishing the contribution of nonpoint and point source pollution load by digital filtering technology.The results demonstrate:controlled by agriculture nonpoint source pollution,TN is in GLGFNY,because of the point source pollution from P enterprise,TP is in NYGLGF;the correlation coefficient of flow and rainfall is 0.720 2;annual load ratio of TN and TP is 61% and 40%,during raining,the TN and TP contribution from nonpoint source pollution is 75.2% and 70.9%;the pollution load is decided by the runoff,the correlation of TN/TP load and runoff is that TN is 0.963 6,and TP is 0.978 9.

  9. Assessment and Strategies for Watershed Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control%集水区农业非点源污染之评估及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昭远; 陈键鑫; 颜正平

    2001-01-01

    Improper agricultural activities accelerate soil loss and water pollution. An assessment system for agricultural non-point source pollution estimation was developed in this study. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) couples with non-point source pollution models were applied in the system to discuss the efficiency of non-point pollution control in a watershed. Concepts of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and placement of riparian buffer strips couples with the analysis of topography and hydrology for the watersheds of interest to classify the sensitive zone could effectively monitor and control watershed agricultural non-point-source pollution.%集水区内不当之农业活动,加速集水区土壤流失及水库水质恶化。本研究利用数值地形模型(Digital Elevation Model, DEM)、配合遥感探测 (Remote Sensing, RS)与地理信息系统(Geographic Information Systems, GIS)等技术,撰写程序建立集水区农业非点源污染评估系统,探讨集水区农业非点源污染控制之成效。利用泥砂递移率与植生缓冲带区位检视集水区内之农业非点源污染源,划定集水区环境敏感区位,针对敏感区回收造林,可有效控制集水区农业非点源污染。

  10. SWAT模型在大洋河流域非点源污染模拟中的运用研究%The application of the SWAT model in a non-point source pollution in the Dayang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓哲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the SWAT model to Ocean River watershed for the study, quantitative modeling of the ocean River 2000 - -2010 Pollution, the results show that non-point source: SWAT model is appropriate for non-point source pollu-tion ocean river basin model parameters of periodic and verification simulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus relative er-ror is less than 30%, the simulation uncertainty factor of 0. 5 or more, to meet the non-point source pollution simulation ac-curacy; total nitrogen and total phosphorus peak ocean River mainly 7 - September. Research for Ocean River water environ-mental protection and governance provide a reference value.%基于SWAT模型,以大洋河流域为研究流域,定量模拟了大洋河流域2000 -2010 年非点源污染,研究结果表明:SWAT模型适合于大洋河流域的非点源污染模拟,模型在参数率定期和验证模拟总氮和总磷相对误差均小于30%,模拟确定性系数达到0. 5 以上,满足流域非点源污染模拟精度要求;大洋河流域总氮和总磷峰值主要集中在7 -9 月份. 研究成果对于大洋河流域水环境保护和治理提供参考价值.

  11. A review on Non-point Source Nutrient Pollution of Irrigation Plain Areas%平原灌区农田养分非点源污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    平原灌区作为农业规模化生产的基地,在农业乃至经济社会发展中起到了重要作用,但是随着农业的发展,平原灌区农田非点源污染问题日益严重,研究平原灌区农田非点源污染具有重要意义。文章以平原灌区污染物随水文循环迁移过程为基础对平原灌区养分非点源污染研究进行综述。(1)平原灌区农田非点源污染的主要来源是过量的化肥施用,农药和农膜,秸秆等农作物的降解,牲畜粪便,污水灌溉,灌溉引起的盐渍化以及大气的干湿沉降等;产生及影响因素主要有土壤的理化性质,水分的输入方式和人为管理措施等。(2)降雨径流及灌溉排水条件下污染物在多级渠系中的迁移规律和灌区地表水与地下水的交互耦合作用决定了平原灌区农田非点源污染的输送途径与特征。(3)在监测资料比较缺乏时,采用输出系数法进行负荷估算;在监测资料充足情况下,采用针对灌区特殊的水文特征而改进的经典水文模型对平原灌区农田非点源污染的负荷进行估算。(4)新型肥料、配方施肥、合理的耕作措施及生态沟渠的设置有利于平原灌区农田非点源污染的控制,TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Loads)为平原灌区农田非点源污染控制提供可靠的依据。针对平原灌区非点源污染研究现状,提出了中国开展平原灌区农田非点源污染研究的重点,包括养分污染物在多级沟渠中的迁移,灌区地表与地下水水量水质耦合模型的建立,分级控制单元与TMDL的制定以及多模型结合模拟等,可望在控制农业非点源污染方面起到指导作用。%Plain irrigation areas as the basis of agricultural large-scale production played an important role in agricultural, economic and social development. However, the seriousness of non-point source pollution in plain irrigation areas is increasing with the

  12. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  13. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye; Silitonga, M.; Tadesse, W

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal element...

  15. The urban atmosphere as a non-point source for the transport of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCS) to shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J.F.; Thomson, N.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Baehr, A.L.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    all no- net recharge cases. The mechanism responsible for this effect was the dispersion acting on each downward infiltration event, and also on the ET-induced flow. The ability of MTBE to reach groundwater in cases 2-5 is taken as evidence of the potential importance of urban air as a non-point source for VOCs in shallow urban groundwater. Two subcases were run for both case 4 and case 5: subcase a (water and VOCs move with ET) and subcase b (water only moves with ET).Numerical simulations were conducted using a 1-D model domain set in medium sand to provide a test of whether methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other atmospheric volatile organic compounds could move to shallow groundwater within the 10-15 y time frame over which MTBE was used in large amounts. The gasoline additive MTBE is of special interest because of its: current levels in some urban air; strong partitioning from air into water; resistance to degradation; use as an octane-booster since the 1970s; rapidly increasing use in the 1990s to reduce CO and O3 in urban air; and its frequent detection at low microgram per liter levels in shallow urban groundwater.

  16. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  17. 宁夏黄河灌区农业非点源污染损失估算%Economic loss caused by non-point source pollution ——A case study of Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨引禄; 冯永忠; 杨世琦; 曹艳春; 刘强; 杨改河

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution have become more and more serious and brought enormous danger to water environment in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, so it has important significance for ecological security to esti-mate the economic value of losses of pollution load in this area. In this paper, according to the JOHNES export coefficient method, calculation is made of non-point source pollution load in'Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, and the methoddology of enxironmental economics is used to reckon quantitatively economic loss caused by agricultural non-point source pollution. The results showed that the livestock breeding pollution contributed 41.27% to the pollution load of the area, and 37.25 % to the TN and 4.03 % to the TP pollution load of the area. The planting was the second and the rural domestic waste was the lowest proportion in non-point source pollution load, which was 34.54% and 24.2% to the pollution load of the area. The economic loss caused by the regional non-point source pollution was calculated at about 548.741 million RMB in total, of which about 40.97% was coutributed by livestock breeding pollution, while the planting and the rural areaa domestic waste respectively 35.6% and 23.4% to the all economic loss. This results illuminate that only the control of livestock breeding pollution can reduce economic loss caused by agricultural ono-point source pollution in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District.%以宁夏黄河灌区为研究区,在充分利用JOHNES输出系数法计算灌区非点源污染负荷的基础上,应用环境经济学中的恢复防护费用法对灌区农业非点源污染产生的负荷转化为经济损失进行估算.结果表明:宁夏黄河灌区禽畜养殖产生的污染负荷最高,占灌区污染负荷的41.27%,其中全氮排放占整个区域污染负荷的37.25%,全磷排放占整个区域污染负荷的4.03%,种植业产生的氮磷污染负荷次之,居民生活

  18. Present Situation and Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Wuhan City%武汉市农业面源污染现状及治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪坤乾; 张凯; 苏斌; 夏杏明; 汤少云

    2014-01-01

    从化肥施用、农药使用、农膜使用现状3个方面阐述了武汉市农业面源污染现状和为害性,分析了武汉市农业面源污染产生的原因,提出了建立政府主导的农业面源污染治理机制、应用化肥减量化技术、应用农药减量化和残留控制技术、推广可降解地膜等治理面源污染的对策。%We pointed out the status and harmfulness of agricultural non-point source pollution in Wuhan from the three aspects, including the application of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film, and analyzed the factors that caused the problem, in addition, we put forward related countermeasures, including establishing the government leading mechanism to control agricultural non-point source pollution, using chemical fertilizer reduction technology, applying pesticide reduction and residue control technology, and using biodegradable plastic film.

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, W; Silitonga, M.; I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a resu...

  20. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to

  1. 重庆市四面山4种森林群落面源污染控制功能分析%The non-point source pollution control function of four forest communities in Simian Mountains, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣文卓; 张洪江; 杜仕才; 程金花; 王伟; 李根平; 古德洪

    2009-01-01

    Selecting canopy interception rate, capillary porosity,non-capillary porosity and soil anti-erosion coefficient as analysis indices, the function of non-point source pollution control of four forest communities in Simian Mountains of Chongqing were ana-lyzed by Grey Relational Grade Analiysis. The results show that the grey correlation degree of natural Phyllostachys pubescens for-est is 0.887 7, hgher than other three communities, which means that the function of non-point source pollution control of Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest is the best. In the planatations types, the grey correlation degree of broadleaf forest is the highest, 0.779 4, followed by mixed broadleaf-conifer forest (0.699 2). The grey correlation degree of coniferous forest is the lowest, 0.636 1. Which means it has the lowest function for non-point source pollution control.%以重庆市四面山4种森林群落为研究对象,选取林冠截留率、林地土壤毛管孔隙度、林地土壤非毛管孔隙度和林地0~20 cm土壤抗冲刷系数为分析指标,运用灰色关联度法对4种森林群落的面源污染控制功能进行研究.结果表明:在4种森林群落中作为天然林的楠竹林灰关联度值最大为0.887 7,面源污染控制功能最好,其次是人工阔叶林(0.7794)和人工混交林(0.6992),人工针叶林(0.636 1)面源污染防控能力相对较弱.在人工林方面,阔叶林灰关联度值最大为0.7794,面源污染防控能力最好,其次是针阔混交林(0.699 2),针叶林灰关联度值最低为0.636 1,其面源污染防控能力较弱.

  2. NPS career forward

    OpenAIRE

    McLay, Deidre

    2014-01-01

    "NPS provided a critical link in my career from warfighting operator to strategic thinker and reasoner. I found the education at NPS to be superior in every respect, and I enrolled in as many classes as was physically possible during my time there so that I could take advantage of the expertise and resources that were available. My NPS education, as well as the Strategic Group XIX fellowship formulated many of the current initiatives for my Joint UAS Concepts team." US Navy (USN) author

  3. Hydrogeology and Water Quality of the Pepacton Reservoir Watershed in Southeastern New York. Part 3. Responses of Stream Base-Flow Chemistry to Hydrogeologic Factors and Nonpoint-Sources of Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    Base-flow samples were collected seasonally from 20 small streams in the 372-square-mile Pepacton Reservoir watershed to evaluate the effects of hydrogeologic factors and nonpoint sources of contamination on the chemical composition of ground-water discharge. The reservoir provides part of New York City?s water supply. The subbasins represented one of three general types of land use, each with at least 45 percent forested area (mostly on the hillsides): farmed (dairy) land, formerly farmed land with low-density residential development, or forested land with little or no development. The subbasin areas ranged from 0.38 to 10.23 square miles. All streams were sampled in December 2000 and in May, July, and October 2001. Three of the sites were designated as landuse- index sites and were sampled as many as five additional times during the study. No samples exceeded state or federal drinking-water standards for chloride, sodium, nitrate, orthophosphate, herbicides, or herbicide degradates. The chemical composition of base-flow samples was classified into major-ion water types, which were broadly defined as naturally occurring and road-salt-affected water types. About one-third of the base-flow samples were roadsalt- affected types. Natural water types were differentiated as dilute or evolved. Dilute waters have bicarbonate and sulfate as dominant anions and evolved waters have only bicarbonate as a dominant anion. Dilute water types indicate relatively short ground-water residence times or contact with unreactive aquifer material. Evolved waters have either longer ground-water residence time or contact with more reactive aquifer material than dilute ground waters. The larger subbasins with wider valley-bottom areas were more likely to have evolved water types than small subbasins with little floodplain development. Positive correlations between selected constituents and the intensity of nonpoint sources emphasize the connection between land use, shallow ground

  4. A Review of the Research on Eco-Technologies for Control of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution%城市面源污染生态控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬

    2011-01-01

    快速城市化导致了土地利用类型的迅速变化,由此引起的城市面源污染已成为威胁城市水体健康的主要因素。根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从净化机理、运行效能、影响因素及评价方法等方面详细介绍了缓冲带、绿色屋顶、植草沟等面源生态控制技术的应用研究情况。各类研究指出,在确保适宜的宽度和坡度、连续植被覆盖的植被缓冲带对消减径流和清除沉积物是极其有效的;绿色屋顶对径流污染消减能力受屋面介质厚度、屋顶坡度、降雨强度、植物类型、土壤层湿度等因素的影响明显;植草沟对于沉积物和重金属去除效率高,而对于易引起水体富营养化的溶解性营养盐的去除效能有待改善,构建介质优化是关键。指出充分发挥各种生态技术的优势、构建城市面源污染生态控制网络是消除城市面源污染毒性、维护健康城市水环境的重要途径。%Land use type has been changed rapidly because of the speeding urbanization,and urban nonpoint source pollution has become the prominent reason of urban waters' deterioration.According to researches in recent years,studies about nonpoint source eco-control technologies such as buffer zones,green roofs and bioswales were introduced in detail in purification mechanism,operating performance,affecting factors,evaluation methods,and other aspects.Buffer zones were very effective in reducing runoff and removing sediment as long as appropriate width and slope,and continuous vegetation covering were ensured.Ability of green roofs in controlling runoff pollution was correlated greatly with medium thickness,roof slope,rainfall intensity,plant type,soil moisture levels and other factors. The efficiencies for removal of TSS and heavy metals by bioswales were very high,however,the ability to control soluble nutrition was still needed to be improved whilst the construction media were the key factor

  5. 国内外遥感技术在非点源污染模拟中的应用%Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天培

    2011-01-01

    综述了遥感技术在土壤类型和性质、植被类型和性质、水文气象以及土地利用等直接影响非点源污染产生的因素中的应用,以期为模型模拟与遥感技术联合研究非点源污染提供借鉴.%The application of remote sensing technology on the main factors, including soil types and properties, characteristics of vegetation,hydrological process, meteorological information, land use and so on were discussed in this paper so as to provide references for using modelsimulation and remote sensing technology to study the non-point source pollution.

  6. 英国农业面源污染防控对我国的启示%Prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollutions in UK and suggestions to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 任天志; 吴文良; 孟凡乔; Jessica Bellarby; Laurence Smith

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environ-mental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prevention and control technology, technology extension systems and related policy measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in UK. We then proposed the promotion of preven-tion and control of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. Considering the current agricultural resources and environment counter-measures of“one control”(control over the total quantity of the agricultural water and agricultural water environment pollution),“two re-duction”(reduction in quantities of fertilizers and pesticides), and “three basic countermeasures”(resource utilization, recycling, and disharm treatment of livestock and poultry wastes, agricultural plastic films and crop straws), we suggested that in the near future source control and process prevention should be technical priorities. Optimzation and reduction of chemical fertilizer, combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, land utilization management, agricultural sector adjustment and integration of crop production with animal husbandry should be the key technologies. The role of non-governmental technical service should be promoted. Government subsidies, ecological com-pensations and other forms of economic means could be used to encourage famers actively participate in the prevention and control of nitro-gen and phosphorus losses and pollution in soil and water systems. Related technical documents and regulations should be more specific, clear, and practical. Collection, transmission and analysis of

  7. Investigation on Present Xingtai Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Preventive Countermeasures%邢台市农业面源污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈计兵

    2014-01-01

    Xingtai has a large population, with a serious contradiction between demand for food and land supply. The development of agriculture has brought about some pollution, and agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control is the basic guarantee to realize agricultural sustainable development. Xingtai agricultural non-point source pollution is serious. The pollutants mainly include chemical fertilizer, chemical pesticide, agricultural plastic films, livestock and poultry breeding wastes and life wastes. The pollution has caused the decrease of the farmland quality, the degradation of the quality of agricultural products and water, the damage of the ecological balance. The countermeasures include technical measures, management measures, publicity and education measures, etc.%邢台市人口数量大、粮食需求、土地供给矛盾突出,在农业发展中,产生了一些不可忽视的污染现象,而农业面源污染的防治是实现农业可持续发展的基本保障。邢台市农业面源污染比较严重,污染源主要包括化学肥料污染、化学农药污染、农膜污染、畜禽养殖业污染和生活废弃物污染;污染带来耕地质量下降、农产品和水质质量变差、破坏生态平衡等危害;防治对策包括技术措施、管理措施及宣传教育措施等。

  8. Source Apportionment of Non-point Source Nitrogen Pollution in Ashi River Basin Usingδ15N Technique%阿什河流域非点源氮污染的δ15N源解析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钰; 王业耀; 滕彦国; 香宝; 马广文; 方广玲

    2015-01-01

    crop farming on water nitro-gen pollution were dependent on river water seasonal periods and farming cycles. During the normal water period, non-point nitrogen pollu-tion by crop farming occurred mainly in the midstream and downstream sections, with δ15N value ranging from 0.46%to 0.77%. The pollu-tion sources were primarily artificial chemical fertilizers and farmland water recession. During the high water period, the pollution from non-point nitrogen extended to the upstream area, withδ15N range of 0.19%~0.4%. The main pollution source was artificial chemical fertilizers in the upstream area, while it was soil organic nitrogen via soil erosion caused by rainfall and irrigation in the midstream and downstream. Dur-ing the low water period, however, artificial chemical fertilizers were still the main contributor of non-point nitrogen pollution, with δ15N val-ues of 0.11%to 0.39%. This was resulted from the feedback of the nitrite-nitrogen from artificial chemical fertilizers that were applied and infiltrated in the ground during the monsoon.

  9. SWAT模型在洱海流域面源污染评价中的应用%Application of SWAT Model in Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Investigation in Lake Erhai Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玥; 尚晓; 沈剑; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    重点污染区域和污染因子的识别是面源污染控制的基础.通过将物理过程模拟及排污系数法计算进行整合,建立了SWAT模型,以描述农业生产活动与污染入湖量之间的关联关系,并以云南洱海流域总氮污染为例,使用验证后的SWAT模型模拟计算不同空间单元和不同农业生产活动对入湖TN的污染贡献系数,定量分析流域内各区域的农业面源污染源结构,识别洱海流域重点农业污染源和农业污染村镇.结果表明,奶牛养殖、生猪养殖和大蒜种植是目前洱海流域内入湖TN污染的最重要农业污染源,占流域总污染负荷的66.12%.对入湖TN污染贡献最大的6个村镇为江尾、右所、三营、玉湖、凤仪和喜洲,占流域总污染负荷的63.41%.%The identification of key polluted areas and factors is the basis of non-point source pollution control. Based on physical processes simulation and the discharge coefficient method, the SWAT model was established to describe the relationship between agricultural production activities and pollution load into a lake. Lake Erhai watershed in Yunnan province was selected as the research area, and TN variation in the lake was calculated. The contribution coefficients of TN nonpoint source pollution to the lake by different spatial areas and different agricultural production activities were calculated with the verified SWAT model, and the pollution source composition in each spatial unit was calculated quantitatively. The key pollution sources and Bpatial units ( administrative village in this study) were identified. The results showed that dairy cattle breeding, pig farming and garlic planting were the major agricultural pollution sources, contributing 66.12% of TN load to the lake. Six villages - Jiangwei, Yousuo, Sanying, Yuhu, Fengyi and Xizhou - contributed most to TN pollution in the lake, accounting for 63.41% of the watershed total pollution load.

  10. Research progress in erosion-type nonpoint source poLLution process simuLationof the Loess PLateau%黄土高原水土流失型非点源污染过程模拟研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊; 马孝义

    2015-01-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil and water loss area of the Loess Plateau not only reduces the utilization rate of fertilizer,but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments.This study takes the typicality of soil and nutrient loss in the Lo-ess Plateau Region as a starting point to deeply analyse and systematically summarize the basic status of the Loss Plateau,the re-search progress of hydrological process,soil erosion,erosion-type nonpoint source pollution and its control strategies of the Loess Plateau.Aiming at the few existing studies on the Loess Plateau,the key research directions of nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau for the future were proposed,such as the loss mechanism of nonpoint source pollution,the load estimation method of nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau,the coupled model of water,sediment and pollution in the Loess Plateau,the combined application of 3S technology and control strategies of erosion-type nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau etc.This re-sult may provide reference for studying the modeling process of erosion-type nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau.%黄土高原严重的水土流失造成了土壤氮磷流失,不仅降低了化肥的利用率,而且对水环境造成了潜在威胁。从黄土高原区水土与养分流失的典型性入手,剖析和总结了黄土高原区基本概况、水文过程、土壤侵蚀、水土流失型非点源污染过程模拟及防控策略等的研究进展。针对目前黄土高原区尤其是黄土丘陵沟壑区非点源污染研究较少,提出了未来黄土高原地区非点源污染的研究方向与建议:黄土区非点源污染物流失机理,非点源污染负荷估算方法,流域水、沙、污染物耦合模型以及3S 技术与流域非点源污染防控决策耦合应用等。

  11. 模拟排水沟渠非点源溶质氮迁移实验研究%Transformation of Non-point Source Soluble Nitrogen in Simulated Drainage Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强坤; 宋常吉; 胡亚伟; 彭聪; 马强; 姜正曦; 琚艺萌

    2016-01-01

    The drainage ditch has a compound ecosystem structure consisting of water, sediment and plants. Migration and transformation of the non-point source solute is important to study interception, control and management of agricultural non-point source pollution in the drainage ditch. Based on the experiment on static simulation of drainage ditches, the article used typical non-point source soluble nitrogen as an example to analyze the changing process of nitrogen content in water, sediment and reeds, and to study the effects of the sediment adsorption and desorption, reeds growth and death in different periods on nitrogen concentration in water. The article discussed nitrogen migration in water-sediment- reeds compound ecosystem and its influence on nitrogen concentration in water. The results showed that both adsorption and desorption in sediment and absorption and assimilation of reeds growth had effect on nitrogen concentration in water. The effect before October was reducing the nitrogen concentration in water, which was the process of nitrogen purification in water. After October, the nitrogen concentration in water increased and made it easy to form secondary nitrogen pollution. Meanwhile, the migration in the water-sediment-seeds ecosystem in simulated drainage ditch had close ties, any migration and transformation of nitrogen in a single medium or between different mediums would cause adjustment of nitrogen concentration in water.%农田排水沟渠是由水-底泥-植物组成的复合生态结构,其间非点源溶质的迁移转化对研究沟渠拦截、控制和管理农业非点源污染具有重要意义。本研究以模拟排水沟渠静态实验为基础,以典型非点源溶质氮素为例,分析了实验期内水体、底泥及芦苇不同介质内氮含量变化过程,分析了底泥吸附与解析、芦苇生长与衰败等年内不同时期对水体中氮素浓度的影响,探讨了水-底泥-芦苇复合生态体内氮迁移及对水体中氮

  12. Research Progress on Guangdong Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control-Conservation Agriculture Project%广东农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小平; 区颖刚; 杨丹彤; 唐湘如; 胡建广

    2015-01-01

    广东省属于农业大省,近年来随着人口增加和农村经济快速发展,农业面源污染形势十分严峻.广东省承担的世界银行农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目,通过在省内的项目示范区域进行水稻和甜玉米的示范试验,探索保护性耕作减少农业面源污染源的作用和方法.项目组设计了免耕和少耕插秧、免耕和少耕直播4种主要模式,投入了50多台套农业机械,经过4个试验点1年的试验,初步结果表明,南方高温潮湿地区水稻和甜玉米生产采用保护性耕作技术是有效果的,所选的农机具大多数是适用的,部分北方旱地机械还需要改进.讨论了广东保护性耕作存在的问题和改进的意见.%Guangdong province is an important agricultural province. The agricultural non-point source pollution situation is very grim in recent years as the population increases and the rural economy grows rapidly. Explo-ration, supported by the world bank agriculture non-point source pollution control-conservation tillage project, has been undertaken in Guangdong province to discover the roles and methods for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution by conservation tillage. The project is conducted in four paddy rice and sweet corn demonstration and experimental sites in the province. Four main models, the no-till and less-till transplanting, no-till and less-till direct seeding, have been designed by the project team. More than 50 sets of agricultural machines have been put into the experiments. After one year's experiments conducted in four sites, prelimi-nary results show that the conservation tillage technology is effective in the paddy rice and sweet corn produc-tion in southern area with high temperature and wet conditions. Most of the selected farm machines are appli-cable. Some of the northern dryland machines need to be improved. The paper discussed the problems and im-provement opinions existing in the Guangdong conservation

  13. Review of green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution%绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely adopted abroad that green roof is an effective mode in controlling Urban Non-point Source Pollution(UNSP),which still belongs to new research fields in China.Based on studies in recent years home and abroad,highlight is given about green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution from three aspects(i.e.,the reduction and retention of runoff volume,water quality from green roof and the installation method of green roof).Results show that further study is needed for a long time in order to establish the function between stormwater runoff reduction volume and influencing factors;the physical and chemical properties of plants growth media is the key problem affecting runoff water quality.It should follow a wide rang of purposes to install green roofs at home,and the design guidance for green roofs should also be made according to domestic environmental background.The plants growth substrate and the choice of plants are primary problems to be ascertained.%应用绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染在欧美国家已得到广泛认同和应用,但在国内尚处于起步阶段.根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从绿色屋顶消减暴雨径流、绿色屋顶径流水质、绿色屋顶构建方法等方面详细介绍了绿色屋顶技术在控制城市面源污染中的应用研究情况.研究结果表明,建立绿色屋顶暴雨径流消减量与影响因子的映射关系仍需要大量的、长期的研究;植物生长介质的理化性质是影响绿色屋顶径流水质的关键.在国内构建绿色屋顶,应遵循构建目的多元化的原则,逐步建立起适合国内国情的新的绿色屋顶构建导则,其中,植物生长基质搭配方式和植物选取是需要重点明确的问题.

  14. Application of SWMM in the Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution Load in Urban Residential Area%SWMM模型应用于城市住宅区非点源污染负荷模拟计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 朱元励; 梅琨; 张艳军; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on the non-point source pollution loading in a typical urban residential area in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the SWMM principle, parameters from the literature and field experiments were integrated, and a non-point source pollution calibration model was constructed. Four different rainfall scenarios were designed to analyze the pollution loads and the accumulation process of total suspended solids (TSS) , chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus ( TP). The results showed that the simulated data matched the field-monitored data satisfactorily. The relative errors between the simulated and the true values of all the four parameters were less than 10%. Under' the four rainfall conditions: 1) the highest concentrations of the pollutants were observed within 30-40 minutes; the heavier the rain, the earlier their highest concentrations appeared; 2) higher-intensity rainfall caused more serious pollution to the receiving water bodies than the low-intensity rainfall did.%以温州市典型住宅区非点源污染为对象,基于SWMM(storm water management model)模型的模拟机理,借鉴国内外相关研究的模型参数,结合降雨径流实测数据率定模型参数,将模型“本地化”,构建了基于SWMM模型的研究区非点源污染负荷计算模型,并设计了4种不同降雨情景,分析在不同降雨条件下研究区非点源污染固体悬浮物(TSS)、CODCr、TN和TP的污染负荷量及其累积变化过程.结果表明,构建的SWMM模型的模拟值可以较好地与实测值相吻合,4种污染物模拟的相对误差均小于10%.在设计的4种降雨情景下:①污染物浓度峰值出现在降雨30~40 min内,降雨强度越大,出现浓度峰值的时间越早;②高强度降雨较低强度降雨可对受纳水体造成更大的污染.

  15. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  16. Demonstration and Effects of Best Management Practices Applied to Control of Rural Non-point Source Pollution in Poyang Lake Area%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染控制中最佳管理措施示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万金保; 孙蕾; 刘峰; 汤爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Water environment security in rural areas around Poyang Lake has been threatened by increasingly severe non-point source pollution(NPS pollution).Combined with the features of NPS pollution in the areas,the structural best management practices(BMPs) are established in the demonstration area of Xingzi County to control the rural NPS pollution.Monitoring results show that in the monitoring period,the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN by the BMPs are 568.25,3.06 and 26.90 kg,respectively.Constructed wetland maintains the better and more stable pollutant removal capability and the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN per unit area are about 40,0.4 and 3.0 g/m2,respectively.The removal amounts of the pollutants per unit area by ecological ditch vary greatly.Ecological ditch has better removal ability per unit area than constructed wetland,but has poor stability.In consideration of the advantages of ecological ditch and tri-class surface flow constructed wetland(3-SFW),the plants suitable to ecological ditch are recommended to improve its stability in pollutant removal.%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染问题日益严峻,已威胁到湖泊的水环境安全。结合该区域农村面源污染自身的变化特征,在星子县示范区内构建结构性最佳管理措施BMPs(best management practices)系统对区域内农村面源污染进行控制。结果表明,在监测期间该BMPs系统对COD,TP和TN的削减量分别为568.25,3.06和26.90kg。其中人工湿地对COD,TP和TN的单位面积削减量约达40,0.4和3.0g/m2,有较稳定的污染物去除能力;生态沟渠对各污染物单位面积削减量变化较大,与人工湿地相比虽有更强的污染物削减能力,但稳定性较弱。结合生态沟渠和三级表面流人工湿地的特点,建议通过引入适宜的植物至生态沟渠提高其处理污染物的稳定性。

  17. 流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析%Remote sensing parsing on non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern in river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 程熙; 李万庆; 罗雷

    2014-01-01

    流域非点源污染景观源汇格局解析是流域水质污染物产生、输运机理认知与有效防治措施制定的重要科学理论基础。该文以充分挖掘流域遥感数据多时空尺度的特征与优势为目标,制定了流域非点源污染景观源汇类型界定方案,提出了像元级、亚像元级以及时序更新的流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析方法。在此基础上,以福建省九龙江流域为例,对不透水面这一典型流域非点源污染“源”景观2010年空间格局进行了信息提取,并对2000、2005年对应信息进行了时序更新与空间特征分析,结果显示2000-2010年间九龙江流域内不透水面覆盖面积增长了33.38%。该研究可为中国流域非点源污染研究、生态管理与建设提供参考。%The non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern of a river basin and its spatio-temporal process analysis are the scientific theoretical bases for studying the pollution, production, transport, prevention, and policy of river water. In this paper, to mine the spatio-temporal character and advantages of remote sensing data, the definition schedule of the landscape of the river basin non-point pollution source and assembly was introduced. The first types of landscape in the river basin included the impervious surface area (ISA) and the pervious surface area. The second types of landscapes in the river basin consisted of 14 different types, including woodland, orchard, road, rural area, town, and paddy field, etc. The river basin non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern remote sensing parsing method was subsequently presented at the pixel, sub-pixel, and time-renewing levels. (1) A “globe-local” coupling information extraction model for ISA at the pixel level was established. Through the mining and integration of the spatial information in a local image area, the spectral instability of the whole scale was optimized. The

  18. 潮河流域非点源污染关键区识别及其管理措施研究%IDENTIFICATION OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN THE CHAO RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳芳; 徐宗学; 徐华山

    2012-01-01

    选取SWAT模型,对潮河流域径流、泥沙及非点源污染过程进行模拟.在对模型进行率定和验证的基础上,参照土壤侵蚀模数与国家地表水环境质量标准对土壤侵蚀及总氮污染关键区进行识别.最后分别在土壤侵蚀和总氮污染关键区设置污染控制情景,对控制措施成效进行模拟和评价.结果表明,SWAT模型可以较好地模拟潮河流域水文过程和污染物迁移转化过程;流域20.9%的区域为轻度土壤侵蚀区,39.8%的区域为总氮风险区;梯田、等高耕作、退耕还林还草和减少化肥施用量等措施都不同程度地对非点源污染负荷起到一定的削减效果.%Chao River basin is one of the most important surface water sources for drinking water in Beijing.In recent years,the Chao River basin is facing water scarcity and water quality problem due to the impact of human activities,development of local economy and climate change.The Chao River basin was selected as the study area in this investigation.SWAT model was applied to simulate hydrological cycle and process of nutrient movements and transformation in the Chao River basin.Then critical source areas of soil erosion were identified according to soil erosion modulus,and critical source areas of TN concentration were identified based on the National Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.Finally,several scenarios to control non-point source pollution on critical source areas of soil erosion and TN concentration were proposed.Data showed that the performance of calibration and validation for runoff,sediments and nutrients were satisfactory.Mild soil erosion area was 1260.657 km2,accounting for 20.9% of the total basin area,while critical source area of TN was 2405.1 km2,accounting for 39.8% of the total area.Data also showed that the measures including terraces,contour farming,turning farm into forest and grasslands and fertilizer reduction played different reduction role on controlling

  19. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is important for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of land use changes such as urban sprawl, most planners, government agencies and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools that can be used with readily available data. Before investing in sophisticated analyses and customized data collection, it is desirable to be able to run initial screening analyses using data that are already available. In response to this need, we developed a long-term hydrologic impact assessment technique (L-THIA) using the popular Curve Number (CN) method that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data. Initially developed as a spreadsheet application, the technique allows a user to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Consequently, a NPS pollution module was incorporated to develop the L-THWNPS model. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GE by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. Manipulation of the land use layer, or provision of multiple land use layers (for different scenarios), allows for rapid and

  20. 苏州市农业面源污染现状与控制研究%Current situation and control recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵龙; 秦伟; 管永祥; 邱丹; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of national survey of pollution sources, the production and emission characteristics of pollutants from agricultural activities and the major control measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou along the Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Yangchenghu Lake were analyzed and demonstrated. The results showed that among the non-point source pollutants, the totalamount of nitrogen and phosphorus emitted were 11 878.9 and 1 343.8 t respectively, pesticides loss was 28.0 t, plastic membrane residual was 203.9 t, the volume of straw burned was 214 000 t, total amount of COD emitted by livestock breeding, aquaculture and rural community was 92 360.3 t; The emission amount of nitrogen and phosphorus along the Yangtze River was the largest followed by Taihu Lake, along the Yangcbenghu Lake the lowest. According to the analysis of the total amount of N and P emitted, the ranking of pollutant resource was as below: rural community > livestock breeding >aquaculture > planting; The pollution intensity caused by the four sources were different. The three watershed, the pollution intensity of farming, animal husbandry and rural communities was greater in the Yangtze River, but the pollution intensity of aquaculture was greater in Taihu Lake Therefore,in guiding concept for the prevention and control of no point source pollution, the government should pay close attention to the Yangtze River, give more weight to domestic pollution sources. In view of the above -mentioned facts,to control agricultural non-point source pollution. Some proposals were offered as follows, concentrating superior resources to dispose rural sewage, optimizing the agricultural industry structure, strengthening the ecological construction, comprehensively treating livestock pollution, promoting the utilization of crop straw resources,and reasonably planning aquaculture etc.%利用提供的区城产排污系数,对苏州市沿长江、太湖和阳澄湖流域农业面

  1. Yield calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in Huntai River Basin based on SWAT model%基于SWAT模型的浑太河流域农业面源污染物产生量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 臧文斌; 董飞; 付敏; 张剑

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of non-point source pollutants output load model under the mode of rainfall-runoff and land use, the analog calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in the process of migration and transformation, and the systematic analysis of non-point source pollutants discharge quantity, distribution and composition characteristics are based on actual monitoring data, calibration and validation model, in consideration of underlying surface, hydrology and meteorology, and physical features of Huntai River basin. The areas 1 km away from each side of master stream Huntai River, Taizihe River and Daliaohe River and 5 km away from reservoir were defined as buffer zone, where the mode of land use was transformed so as to restore the natural ecosystem. The process of pollutant migration and conversion was simulated based on the calibration of key hydrological parameters, and the causes as well as the migratory features of non-point source pollution were investigated. The primary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of the mainstreams of Huntai River. The point-source pollutant was mainly related to the distribution of industry and the amount of discharged wastewater. The risk of non-point pollution was mainly related to the pattern of agricultural plantation and farmland utilization. The secondary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of tributaries. Therefore, the situation of pollutant production corresponding to the intra-regional regulation of industrial structure, land utilization pattern surrounding the water channel should be highlighted. The non-point pollution in Huntai watershed was dominated by farmland pollution, and the main indices of pollutants were total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P). The contribution rate of pollutants was farmland runoff > livestock and poultry breeding > urban runoff > water and soil erosion

  2. Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production: Global,Regional and National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.NORSE

    2005-01-01

    China is now the world's largest producer and user of industrial fertilizers and manures. Consequently China plays a substantial role in global N cycle dynamics and in man's disruption of the nitrogen cycle though there are still significant uncertainties about the size and importance of emission and leaching rates. A major cause of 1China's global role is the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, which is most serious with intensive vegetable production where application rates can be up to 50% greater than crop needs, but is also a problem with wheat, rice and maize.China's overuse of nitrogen fertiliser over the past 10-20 years has resulted in non-point source (NPS) pollution from crop production becoming a major cause of water pollution, and the situation is projected to get worse. In contrast, water pollution from point sources such as intensive livestock production and urban or industrial development is being brought more under control. The consequences for air pollution are equally serious. Emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers and manures may be so large that China could be responsible for 25-30% of global emissions of this damaging greenhouse gas and of the global warming resulting from it.The main national and local issues relate particularly to low fertilizer use efficiency and the losses of ammonia and NOx that lead to acid precipitation, and leaching and run-off losses that result in high nitrate levels in groundwater and eutrophication of rivers and lakes. The reasons why farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer are complex and not fully understood. They involve agro-climate differences between provinces and counties, farming systems and farm income structures. Although there is a wide range of institutional and technological improvements that can greatly reduce this overuse rapid progress in reducing NPS is unlikely.

  3. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  4. Today@NPS / July 2016

    OpenAIRE

    NPS Public Affairs Office

    2016-01-01

    Today@NPS showcases some of the speakers, conferences, experiments, lectures and other events that take place at the Naval Postgraduate School Contents: July 1, 2016: NPS Leadership Share Life Primers with Summer STEM Interns; July 5, 2016: Summer Quarter Welcomes Largest Incoming Class of the Year; July 6, 2016: NSAM Welcomes New Students With MWR Leisure Fair; July 7, 2016: Bowman Scholars Make the Rapid Transition to Graduate Studies; July 8, 2016: NPS Legal Details the Basics of Protec...

  5. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piniewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC, which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated against daily discharges (10 gauges, NO3-N and TP loads (7 gauges. Overall, the model generally performed well during the calibration period but not during the validation period for simulating discharge and loading of NO3-N and TP. Diffuse agricultural sources appeared to be the main contributors to the elevated NO3-N and TP loads in the streams. The existing, default representation of buffer zones in SWAT uses a VFS sub-model that only affects the contaminants present in surface runoff. The results of an extensive monitoring program carried out in 2011–2013 in the SRC suggest that buffer zones are highly efficient for reducing NO3-N and TP concentrations in shallow groundwater. On average, reductions of 56% and 76% were observed, respectively. An improved simulation of buffer zones in SWAT was achieved through empirical upscaling of the measurement results. The mean values of the sub-basin level reductions are 0.16 kg NO3/ha (5.9% and 0.03 kg TP/ha (19.4%. The buffer zones simulated using this approach contributed 24% for NO3-N and 54% for TP to the total achieved mean reduction at the sub-basin level. This result suggests that additional measures are needed to achieve acceptable water quality status in all water bodies of the SRC, despite the fact that the buffer zones have a high potential for reducing contaminant emissions.

  6. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented.

  7. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  9. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  10. “双重失灵”视角下我国农业面源污染的法律规制%Legal Regulation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in the Perspective of “Double Failure”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝创杰

    2016-01-01

    来自化肥、农药、农膜、畜禽养殖等污染源的农业面源污染已经成为我国水污染的最大污染源。现行立法对农业面源污染的规制在指导思想、具体内容和立法技术等方面仍存在一些不足,而这些不足又是忽略或缺乏经济法的思维方式所致。我国农业面源污染恶化是市场失灵和政府失灵共同作用的结果。克服“双重失灵”,有效规制面源污染,可以通过完善环境税收体系,增设生态税、建立排污权交易制度等经济法的调整手段实现。%The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution (ANPSP),which is caused by pollution source like chemical fertilizers,pesticides,agricultural film and livestock breeding,has already be-come the largest source of pollution of our country's water pollution.The regulation of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution given by current legislation still has some deficiencies in guiding ideology, concrete content and legislative technique.This is caused by neglecting or lacking the thinking mode of economic law.The root cause of the deterioration of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in China is the combined action of market failure and government failure.The task of overcoming “double failure”and controlling The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution can be finished by using adjust-ment methods of economic law.The methods may include improving the environmental tax system, adding ecological taxation and establishing emission trading system.

  11. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution: prevention and estimate methods; L'inquinamento di origine agricola: quali strumenti di prevenzione e stima?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Rapagnani, M.R.; Triolo, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Non point source pollutants, such as pesticides and fertilizers derived from agricultural activities, are recognized as an important threat to environment and human health. To prevent the adverse effects of these agrochemicals it is necessary to provide growers and decision makers with easy-to-use information. Attempts have been made to put information on pesticides environmental and health effects into a formula that could summarize, in a single number, these effects. However a single number could be misleading because of the lack of information on chemical-physical parameters and the difficulty to evaluate the relative importance of various environmental and health effects. As an alternative it is here proposed an approach based on schedule containing information, for each pesticides, such as short and long term effects on human health, environmental fate and degradation time, capacity to bio accumulate, toxicity of degradation products. Using information in the schedule, decision makers could make more circumstantiate choices and could program the best agricultural actions under particular environmental circumstances with less impact on man and environment. [Italian] L'inquinamento diffuso derivante dall'uso dei fertilizzanti e dei pesticidi in agricoltura, rappresenta un rischio rilevante per l'ambiente e la salute umana. Al fine di prevenire tale rischio e' necessario fornire a coloro che gestiscono e pianificano le attivita' agricole informazioni facilmente comprensibili, mirate a ridurre o eliminare gli effetti indesiderati derivanti dai prodotti agrochimici. Tentativi sono stati fatti per sviluppare metodologie che sintetizzino queste informazioni in un indice numerico in modo da stilare una graduatoria di pericolosita' dei singoli prodotti. Si propone, in questo lavoro, un approccio basato sulla elaborazione di schede, per ogni principio attivo, che contengono una serie di informazioni quali gli effetti a breve e lungo termine

  12. 我国农业面源污染现状及其对策研究%Review of the current situation and control countermeasures in agricultural non-point source pollution control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自林

    2013-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展,农业面源污染已成为我国环境污染的主要原因之一。农业面源污染制约农业可持续发展,已成为亟待解决的环境问题。目前,造成农业面源污染的原因主要是化肥农药的过量施用和流失,畜禽和水产养殖业污染,水土流失,作物秸秆大量废弃以及农膜污染。农业面源污染具有分散性、广泛性、随机性等特征,对土壤、水体、大气造成负面影响。本文针对农业面源污染问题,从生物、物理、化学以及农业管理等角度提出了相应的防治对策及措施,以期有效治理农业面源污染,保护环境,促进农业可持续发展。%Agricultural non-point source pollution is the main factor to the environmental pollution in rural China now with the development of economy in China .It has gained the attention of the government and scientist in the country , and also is the main factor to restrain the agricultural sustainable development .At present ,the reasons are list as follow :chemical fertilizer and pesticide and excessive application ;Livestock and aquatic products pollution ;soil erosion ;a ma-jority of strews abandoned ;agricultural plastic film pollution .It has the characteristics of dispensability ,universality and randomness ,which have negative effects on soil ,water and air .In terms of biological chemistry and physics and agricul-tural management ,this paper proposes countermeasures to control agricultural non -point source pollution ,protect the environment ,and promote the sustainable development of agriculture .

  13. 宁夏农村面源污染现状调查分析结果初报%Preliminary Report on Investigation and Analysis Result of Current Situation of Rural Non-point Source Pol ution in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 靳军良; 王金保

    2014-01-01

    通过调查监测,宁夏农村面源污染的主要来源集中体现在化肥污染、农药污染、畜禽粪便污染、农膜污染及农村生活污染5个方面,但其影响和污染主要表现在对水环境和土壤环境的污染上。其中,对水环境的污染形式则是通过地表径流和地下淋溶把过剩的氮、磷、有机农药、无机盐等带到地表水和地下水中,致使地表水富营养化,破环水生态环境,鱼虾难以生存。对土壤环境的污染形式是通过农业投入品超量施入,在改变土壤物理性状、破环土壤通透性、造成土壤板结、粘结的同时,造成重金属离子和病原菌的积累,给农产品质量安全带来危害。%Based on an investigation and monitoring,the main sources of Ningxia rural non-point source pollution includes the five aspects of chemical fertilizer pollution, pesticide pollution, livestock and poultry manure pollution, agricultural plastic film pollution and rural domestic pollution. But the impact and pollution were mainly manifested in the pollution of water envi-ronment and soil environment. The form of pollution of the water environment was bringing excess nitrogen, phosphorus, or-ganic pesticides and inorganic salt to the surface water and underground water by the surface runoff and underground leach-ing,it caused the surface water eutrophication,the destruction of the aquatic ecological environment and made the fish and shrimp hard to survive. The form of pollution of the soil environment was changing the soil physical characteristic, destroying the soil permeability, causing soil compaction and bond,and causing the accumulation of heavy metal ions and pathogenic bacteria by excessive application of agricultural inputs, and it brought harms to the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  14. Optimization of Policy and Management Service System on Control of Rural Non-Point Source Pollution-A Case Study of the Rural Area of Shanghai%农村面源污染治理的政策与管理服务体系优化——以上海郊区农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 沈哲

    2012-01-01

    It is a common view that control of rural non-point source pollution is not only a technology issue, but also a management system issue. So hard currently it has become a hot spot and a hard nut as well to probe and consummate the policy, management and service system for control of rural non-point source pollution. Selecting the rural suburbs of Shanghai for case study, the status quo of the rural non-point source pollution and its management have been analyzed and summarized. While affirming the effect of the current work on pollution management, the limitations of the work are discerned and it was pointed out that inharmony between the agriculture development policy and the environmental protection policy and the lag of the management mechanism and service system behind the change in the rural development model are the basic causes. To counter the major contributors of the rural non-point source pollution, i. e. chemical fertilizers, pesticides , livestock excretes and rural domestic sewage, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for management of the pollution from the aspects of modification of the agricultural subsidization system, reconfiguration and implementation of the rural multi-value system and consummation of agricultural production service system.%农村面源污染控制不仅是技术问题,也是管理体制与机制问题,探讨并完善农村面源污染治理的政策、管理与服务体系已成为当前研究的热点与难点.以上海郊区农村为例,梳理总结农村面源污染及其控制现状;在肯定当前治理效果的同时,识别其局限性,指出农业政策与环境保护政策的不协调、农村发展模式转变下制度与服务体系的相对滞后是根本原因;针对当前农村面源污染重要的贡献者——化肥、农药、畜禽粪便以及农村生活污水,分别从改革农业补贴制度、重构实现农村多重价值的制度以及完善农业生产服务体系等方面给出了治理的对策与建议.

  15. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  16. Review on super absorbent polymer application for improving fertilizer efficiency and controlling agricultural non-point source pollutions%高吸水树脂保水剂提高肥效及减少农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖人宽; 杨培岭; 任树梅

    2012-01-01

    Super absorbent polymer (SAP) is a new type of multifunctional material in drought resistant and pollution control. SAP can quickly absorb water and fertilizer for increasing soil crumb structure and porosity, restraining soil evaporation, promoting crop physiological function and reducing fertilizer loss, so as to result in significant improvement of water and fertilizer use efficiency and marked reduction in fertilizer pollution. In recent years, SAP has been widely used in agricultural nonpoint source pollution control as a chemical product of absorbing and storing water and fertilizer. The paper expounds its acting mechanism and efficiency in controlling pollution, introduces the researches on its main antifouling function, and emphatically summarizes the researches of SAP application in agricultural production and the development of agricultural antifouling absorbent agent. In the end, the problems existing in the field are discussed and the future research fields are proposed.%高吸水树脂(保水剂)是一种新型多功能抗旱、防污材料,能够快速吸持水肥,增加土壤团粒结构和孔隙度,抑制土面蒸发,提升作物生理机能,减少养分淋失,从而达到提高水肥利用效率和减少肥料污染的作用.近年来,保水剂在农业面源污染防治方面得到了越来越广泛的应用.该文阐述了保水剂的防污作用机理及效能,介绍了保水剂主要防污作用方面的研究,重点对保水剂在农业生产上的防污应用及农用防污型保水剂的研制进行了综述,最后分析了保水剂在农业防污应用和研究过程中存在的问题,提出了保水剂未来进行防污应用的研究方向.

  17. Estimation of nonpoint-source loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins, Michigan, by use of the PLOAD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project partners planned a 3-year assessment study of the surface water in the Lake St. Clair drainage basins in Michigan. This study included water-quality monitoring and analysis, collection of discrete (grab) and automatic water-quality samples, monitoring of bacteria, and the creation of a database to store all relevant data collected from past and future field-data-collection programs. In cooperation with the Lake St. Clair Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed nonpoint-source loads of nutrients and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins. The principal tool for the assessment study was the USEPA’s PLOAD model, a simplified GIS-based numerical program that generates gross estimates of pollutant loads. In this study, annual loads were computed for each watershed using the USEPA’s Simple Method, which is based on scientific studies showing a correlation between different land-use types and loading rates. The two land-use data sets used in the study (representing 1992 and 2001) show a maximum of 0.02-percent change in any of the 15 land use categories between the two timeframes. This small change in land use is reflected in the PLOAD results of the study area between the two time periods. PLOAD model results for the 2001 land-use data include total-nitrogen loads from the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins of approximately 495,599 lb/yr, 156,561 lb/yr, and 121,212 lb/yr, respectively; total-phosphorus loads of 80,777 lb/yr, 25,493 lb/yr, and 19,655 lb/yr, respectively; and total-suspended-solids loads of 5,613,282 lb/yr, 1,831,045 lb/yr, and 1,480,352 lb/yr, respectively. The subbasins in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basin with comparatively high loads are characterized by comparatively high percentages of industrial, commercial, transportation, or residential land use. The results from the PLOAD model provide useful information about the approximate average annual loading

  18. Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest and historically most productive estuary in the United States. It is approximately 200 miles long and 35 mile wide at it broadest point. The Bay's watershed includes parts of six states (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the entire District of Columbia. This area encompasses 64,000 square-miles, 150 major rivers and s...

  19. 林带对太湖地区农业非点源的控制效应研究%Controlling effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands in Taihu Lake area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金林; 侍璐璐; 张爱国

    2002-01-01

    in water, crops and underground of forest, the transfer and loss of N and P (main water pollutants) in faming ecosystem were studied, and the effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands was analyzed. The results indicated that the transfer and loss of N and P vary with means of rotation, types of crops and the amount of fertilizer application. Buffering forest belts betweens farmlands and ditches can effectively stop and purify such elements as N and P in soil runoffs, thus controlling non-point source pollution of agricultural lands. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 100 to 40, 50.05% losing N, 29.37% losing P can be absorbed by forest under rape-rice rotation and 30.98% N, 86.73% P can be absorbed by forest under wheat-rice rotation. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 150 to 40, 33.37% losing N, 19.58% losing P can be absorbed by the forest under rape-rice rotation, and under wheat-rice rotation 20.65% lost N and 57.82% lost P can be absorbed. There is only some purification effect when the width ration of farmland to forest belt is 200 to 40. Based on model of buffering forest belts, the width ratio of farmland to forest is determined between 100 to 40 and 150 to 40, because it not only can purify water, but also occupy less farmland. It is suggested that Poplars, with the characteristics of fast-growing and high value, are suitable to be planted as shelter-forest in Taihu Lake Watershed.

  20. 苏州市东山镇池塘养蟹面源污染现状及控制%Current status and control strategies of non-point source pollution from pond aquaculture in Dongshan town of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学宏; 郭培红; 孙丽萍; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    结合全国污染源普查活动,以苏州市养殖老区东山镇养殖池塘为典型,调查其现行养殖模式、经济效益、养殖污染状况.调查结果显示,东山镇现有养殖面积为2253.33hm2,主养品种为河蟹.1个养殖周期中,养殖池塘通过沟渠排入外界的TN、TP含量分别平均为21.25kg/hm2、2.34kg/hm2;密度为9000只/hm2的低密度养殖池外排的TN含量为16.79kg/hm2,而无TP排出.分析苏州地区池塘养殖产生水环境污染的主要原因,从池塘管理体制改革、科学生态养殖技术及养殖尾水处理等方面探讨池塘养殖污水零排放技术,为苏州市养殖业面源污染的控制提供对策和措施.%Combining with national census of pollution sources and using large-scale pond aquaculture in Dongshan town in Suzhou as a case study, the current cultural modes, economic benefits, and aquaculture pollution were surveyed. The results showed that there were 2 253.33 hm2 of aquaculture in Dongshan town, and the Chinese mitten crab was the main specie. In a single aquaculture period, the discharged total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from pounds to outside through canals and ditches were on average 21.25 kg/hm2 and 2.34 kg/hm2 respectively. However, in a lowdensity crab raising pond of 9000 ind/hm2, the discharged TN was 16.79 kg/hm2, and no TP was found to be discharged.Based on the case study, the main reasons for the water environment pollution by pond aquaculture were analyzed, and the zero discharge technologies for the waste water of pond aquaculture were discussed from aspects of the management system reform for pond, the scientific and ecological raising technique, and the aquaculture wastewater treatment. The possible strategies and countermeasures for controlling the aquacultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou were also provided.

  1. 日本福岛第一核电站事故源项及后果评价%Fukushima Daiichi NPS Accident Source Term and Consequence Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海洋; 黄树明; 王晓霞; 尤伟; 米爱军; 张普忠

    2011-01-01

    根据已有的日本福岛第一核电站相关资料,利用美国核管理委员会《轻水堆核电厂事故源项》中的假设条件,计算出事故后安全壳内的放射性源项,综合考虑各种不确定性因素,得出较为保守的环境释放源项。采用美国核管理委员会RG 1.4中大气扩散模式的假设计算大气弥散因子,并应用ICRP 71号出版物F、GR 12号报告等资料中的剂量计算模式及剂量转换因子进行了事故剂量后果的估算、分析和评价。%Conservative source term of radioactive release to the environment is calculated after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station based on updated informational materials and the assumptions made in NUREG-1465 by U.S.Nuclear Regulatory Commission(U.S.NRC),with the consideration of the various uncertainties.And a series of atmospheric dispersion factors are obtained from U.S.NRC Regulatory Guide 1.4(RG 1.4).Finally,this paper provides calculation of the accidental dose,which is analyzed and assessed specifically,using the models and parameters in ICRP Publication 71,FGR 12 and so on.

  2. Information Engineering of the curricular Officers’ Segment of a Unified Student Academic Database System for NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    HOUSING OCCUPANT SECTION-NUMBER SPLIT SECTION PROPOSED NPS DEGREE ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR COMMISSIONING SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER NUMBER DATE OF...ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR - COMMISSIONING- SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER NUMBER DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH CITY PLACE OF BIRTH STATE DATE REPORTED ABOARD...LAMESA HOUSING OCCUPANT SECTION -NUMBER SPLIT SECTION - PROPOSED NPS DEGREE ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR - COMMISSIONING- SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER

  3. Inside NPS, December 2010 [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2010-01-01

    TNT Camp Roberts,Battlefield Medic,Paul Stockton. "Inside NPS" is a monthly show that features a wide range of university news, from research projects and student efforts to distinguished visitors and faculty honors. The monthly 30-minute broadcast is aired on the Pentagon Channel and can be seen locally on Access Monterey Television. With Host Alan Richmond.

  4. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  5. 基于改进USLE模型的北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分析%Potential Sensitive Areas Analysis of Non-Point Source Pollution in North Canal Basin based on Improved USLE Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳美珠; 张晓惠; 袁雪竹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the universal soil loss equation (USLE), the model of demarcation of sensitive areas of the non-point pollution in North Canal basin is developed. With the database of TM remote sensing images, digital elevation model (DEM), and the map of soil use type in research area in 2009, distribution map of sensitive areas of non-point source in North Canal basin is produced by the model. Base on the simulation, the three risk areas (high, medium and low) and safe areas are identified. Results show that improved model can be effectively used in the analysis of sensitive areas of non-point source pollution.%基于通用土壤流失方程(USLE)建立北运河流域非点源污染敏感区的划分模型,以2009年研究区域TM遥感影像、数字高程模型(DEM)、研究区土壤利用类型图等为数据基础,在GIS9.3和ERDAS9.2平台上通过对各模型因子进行栅格运算生成北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分布图,在此基础上划分了高、中、低三个风险区以及安全区.鉴于我国与美国不同的自然条件,以及土壤流失与固体垃圾的扩散之间所存在的差异,在引进和应用该模型时,对方程中各因子的算法和参数做了一定的调整和改进,结果表明改进后的模型可以有效的运用于非点源污染敏感区的分析.

  6. Spatial-temporal Variation of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Based on GIS Technology in Guangdong Province, China%基于GIS的广东省农业面源污染的时空分异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶延琼; 章家恩; 李逸勉; 李韵; 吴睿珊

    2013-01-01

    近年来,广东省化肥、农药等农用化学品的投入量大增,农业面源污染问题日趋严重.采用历年统计数据以及GIS技术,对广东省农业面源污染的时空分异性进行了分析.结果表明,全省化肥、农药使用量均呈逐年增加态势,化肥使用量由1990年的162.41万t增加到2010年的237.29万t,农药由1990年的7.95万t增加到2010年的10.44万t.畜禽粪尿排放量则由2000年的339.34亿t减少到2010年的222.08亿t;在空间分布上,全省化肥投入强度超过400 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的35个增加到2010年的61个,粤西、粤东全部,珠三角大部以及粤北部分地区均属化肥严重污染区,其原因主要在于对农作物产量增加的追求.农药投入强度超过30 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的10个增加到2010年的27个,这主要是由于广东的气候条件及种植结构改变造成的.畜禽粪尿排放污染情况相对较好,但因粤西的雷州半岛地区以水稻生产为主,大牲畜牛的养殖规模较大,因此畜禽粪尿重度污染主要集中在这一地区.GIS空间分析的运用,能直观地反映各地区农业面源污染的时空动态变化情况,为有针对性地开展污染治理提供依据.%Agriculture non-point source pollution (ANSP) is becoming a serious environmental concern in Guangdong Province due to the increased applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in recent years. This study investigated the spatial-temporal variation of ANSP using the historical statistical data and GIS technology. Results showed that the fertilizer, pesticide and other agrochemical applications in Guangdong Province were increased and reached quite a high level in order to secure food supply. The total amount of chemical fertilizer application increased from 1.62x1061 in 1990 to 2.73x1061 in 2010 and the total amount of pesticide application elevated from 7.95X1041 to 10.04X1041, while the total amount of animal manure

  7. Application of a Multi-Objective Optimization Method to Provide Least Cost Alternatives for NPS Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Arabi, Mazdak; Engel, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sediment, and pesticides are the foremost sources of water contamination in many of the water bodies in the Midwestern agricultural watersheds. This problem is expected to increase in the future with the increasing demand to provide corn as grain or stover for biofuel production. Best management practices (BMPs) have been proven to effectively reduce the NPS pollutant loads from agricultural areas. However, in a watershed with multiple farms and multiple BMPs feasible for implementation, it becomes a daunting task to choose a right combination of BMPs that provide maximum pollution reduction for least implementation costs. Multi-objective algorithms capable of searching from a large number of solutions are required to meet the given watershed management objectives. Genetic algorithms have been the most popular optimization algorithms for the BMP selection and placement. However, previous BMP optimization models did not study pesticide which is very commonly used in corn areas. Also, with corn stover being projected as a viable alternative for biofuel production there might be unintended consequences of the reduced residue in the corn fields on water quality. Therefore, there is a need to study the impact of different levels of residue management in combination with other BMPs at a watershed scale. In this research the following BMPs were selected for placement in the watershed: (a) residue management, (b) filter strips, (c) parallel terraces, (d) contour farming, and (e) tillage. We present a novel method of combing different NPS pollutants into a single objective function, which, along with the net costs, were used as the two objective functions during optimization. In this study we used BMP tool, a database that contains the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration which provides pollutant loads during optimization. The BMP optimization was performed using a NSGA

  8. 农业面源污染治理的政策效用评估以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥推广为例%Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Controlling Policy's Utility Evaluation Based on Environmental Cost:A Case Study of Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation Technology in Hai'an County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为衡量农业面源污染治理政策的作用效果,文章基于环境成本的视角,探索了农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般方法与步骤。首先,结合农业化肥的环境污染特点,利用输出系数模型以实现对区域内农业化肥造成的总氮TN、总磷TP排放量的合理测算。然后,建立了基于能值分析法的环境成本估计模型,并结合经济成本和经济收益,构建了基于成本-收益分析的农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般模型。最后,以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥技术的推广为例,对海安县测土配方施肥节本增收效果进行综合评价,并探索了江苏省实现测土配方施肥全覆盖时的总体效果,为面源污染治理政策的评估提供思路。%In order to assess the policy effect of controlling agricultural non-point source pollution ,this paper ,based on the perspec‐tive of environmental cost ,explores the general methods and steps for utility evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution's treatment measures .First of all ,combined with the characteristics of environmental pollution caused by agricultural fertilizer ,this paper chooses a rational export coefficient model to calculate total nitrogen (TN) ,total phosphorus (TP) emissions caused by agri‐cultural fertilizer in the region .Then ,targeted at soil testing and fertilizer recommendation technology ,this paper constructs envi‐ronmental cost estimation model based on energy analysis and general utility evaluation model based on cost-benefit analysis .Finally , this paper takes Hai'an County's promotion of soil testing and fertilizer recommendation in Jiangsu Province for example ,the synthe‐sized evaluation of the technology is achieved in saving costs and increasing income .Further ,this paper explores the beneficial se‐quence when the technology is spread to the whole Jiangsu Province ,which will provide ways to better choose

  9. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  10. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2013-06-01

    Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China.

  11. 东江源山地果畜结合区面源污染生态化控制模式与效果分析%Study on ecological control mode of non-point source pollution from the system of orchard linked with animal husbandry in the valley of Dongjiang River Headwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席运官; 刘明庆; 王磊; 汪贞; 李德波; 王宏燕

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the structure and functions of pig-biogas-fruit-fish eco-agricultural mode in the headwater of Dongjiang River based on the Xinglin farm in Dingnan County, analyzed the controlling effect in quality and quantity to the water pollution nutrition through source controlling, drainage reducing and cleaning, and tested the draining water of Xinglin farm showing that draining water quality was better than the Ⅳ level standard of surface water. It proved that this model had the features of opearational, extentional and low input, and could be the important mode for controlling the non-point source pollution in the headwater of Dongjiang River.%  分析东江源山地果畜结合区“猪-沼-果-鱼”生态农业模式的结构与功能,定性和定量分析农庄采用生态化技术对水体污染物控源、减排、净化的效果,跟踪采样分析农庄排水水质,结果表明,农庄排水全年优于地表水Ⅳ类水标准,该模式兼具可操作、可推广、低投入特性,是东江源控制农业面源污染的重要模式。

  12. Evaluating Urbanization Impacts from Non-Point Stormwater Runoff using Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovich, B. R.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments, nutrients and other chemical impairments caused by urbanization continue to deteriorate natural ecosystem processes, resulting in the current degraded state of urban surface waters. Understanding non-point source impacts on these natural ecosystems has become a prevalent topic in sustainable urban infrastructure design as efforts to restore the urban hydrologic regime continue to drive engineers, planners, and environmentalists to develop optimal design practices for rapidly expanding built environments. To best understand how and where these impairments are received, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other organizations have adopted urban runoff programs to identify contributions from non-point sources. This presentation provides a geospatial analysis method for identifying non-point source watersheds, and associated sub-basins, that contribute the highest loads of pollutants to receiving urban streams and lakes. This method, using a form of linear matrix inversion, is an area-averaged weighting method for non-point pollutants that corresponds to a geospatial land cover analysis. This two-phase analysis can be used to aid all parties in understanding how different land use types affect urban stream systems and processes. Optimal locations for water quality features (i.e., best management practices) can be evaluated in order to reduce, capture, and treat stormwater runoff as close to the source as possible. These best management practices have the ability to operate most effectively when located properly, because their ability to act as a minor treatment and prevention system is of great important for the restoration of the urban hydrologic regime.

  13. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NITROGEN EMISSION FROM AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN THE MIDDLE-LOWER YANGTZE RIVER BELT%长江中下游城市群农业面源污染氮排放评价及调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖敏; 王伟力; 郭灵辉

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important component of protein and essential element for the growth of aquatic biomass. Excessive nitrogen input to natural water bodies leads to huge ecological pressure and environmental pollutions such as eutrophication. As point source pollution got effective control in the socio-economic system, agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main cause of eutrophication. Quantifying and regulating the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions throughout the entire socio-economic system is crucial to mitigate or avoid pro-ducing water pollution. Based on the inventory analysis method and emission coefficient method, this paper calcu-lated the nitrogen emission from the agricultural non-point source for the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt. The results showed that the total nitrogen emission from the agricultural non -point source in the whole area was 128. 27 × 104 t in 2011, of which agricultural emission accounted for 58. 92%, and e-mission from livestock and poultry was 33 . 53%. The sensitivity analysis method and scenario analysis method were then applied to simulate the emission situation during 2011 to 2020 and 2020 to 2030 . Some conclusions were drawn as follows:Under scenario 1, if more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the nitrogen e-mission from the agricultural non-point source would increase 16 . 29% during 2011 to 2020 , and 18 . 78% during 2020 to 2030. Under scenario 2 and scenario 3, by contrast, the total nitrogen emission of the four urban agglomer-ations would be 15% fewer in 2020 than in 2011 , and 25% fewer in 2030 than in 2011 . The nitrogen emission re-duction effect in scenario 2 was better than that in scenario 3;Scenario 3 was considered to be more conducive to couple the relationship between regional economic growth and environmental protection. Finally, some recommen-dations were put forward to regional emission reduction, including reducing

  14. Source apportionment and spatial heterogeneity of agricultural non-point source pollution based on water environmental function zoning%基于水环境功能区划的农业面源污染源解析及其空间异质性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓雍; 沈根祥; 郭春霞; 顾海蓉; 朱英; 王振旗

    2011-01-01

    Taking township as basic unit, the inventory analysis method and equivalent standard method were conducted to determine the discharge amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from different types of agricultural non-point sources, including chemical fertilizer application, animal manure application, crop straws, animal husbandry, aquaculture and rural sewage. The impact of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) on water environment and its spatial heterogeneity were analyzed based on water environmental function zoning at the scales of county and town. The results indicated that, the absolute discharge amount of COD, TN and TP from ANPSP were 4.42× 104,1.13× 104, 0.44× 104 t/a respectively, and the discharge amount in equivalent standard were 0.16× 104, 0.93 × 104, 1.65× 104 m3/a respectively. The primary pollution source was animal husbandry, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 66.31%, and the primary pollutant was TP, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 60.32%. Discharge concentration of COD, TN and TP caused by ANPSP in different districts were in the range of 4.16-40.91, 1.30-8.71, 0.23-4.94 mg/L respectively, while the average water quality index ranged from 0.67 to 5.91. From the point view of town-based pollution stress, the pollution extent of the towns in South Shanghai and Chongming Island was much higher, which had greater agriculture productive value and located near the water conservation area with stricter water quality standards.%通过清单分析方法和等标污染负荷法,以乡镇为单元研究了上海市化肥施用、有机肥施用、农作物秸秆、畜禽养殖、水产养殖、农村生活污水等农业面源污染来源化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等污染物的排放量及其贡献率,并根据各区域水环境功能区划分别在区县尺度和乡镇尺度分析了农业面源污染程度及其区域分布.结果表明,上

  15. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to

  16. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop

  17. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  18. A simple laboratory project for introducing nonpoint source pollution concept to students of environmental and agricultural related courses Uma experiência laboratorial simples para introduzir o conceito de poluição disseminada a estudantes das áreas do ambiente e agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a simple laboratory project to introduce students to the nonpoint source pollution, which may be an issue of great interest to both undergraduate and graduate students of environmental or agricultural chemistry courses. The aim of this work is introduce to the students the concepts and techniques such as the polymericbased controlled release system of an agrochemical, theory of diffusion (first Fick law and spectrophotometric analysis. Thus, this laboratory project includes three experimental modules to be conducted during three weeks. Programmatic contents are described in this proceeding. Students must be aware that dissemination of nutrients and pesticides is prone to occur by both surface runoff and groundwater leaching, causing damages on all neighboring land. To demonstrate dissemination of such pollutants, we have chosen inorganic phosphorus as example of a common agrochemical. Students are invited to follow the eventual movement of the inorganic P into the groundwater. With this purpose, gelatin gels containing inorganic P were prepared to obtain a continuous release of inorganic P at a controlled rate. The slow release of P allows fewer applications and less active ingredient needed, helping to prevent leaching, with consequent reduction of groundwater contamination. At this point, students are able to compare the advantages of slow release inorganic P vs. its application by conventional methods.Este trabalho descreve uma experiência laboratorial simples para introduzir o conceito de poluição disseminada (nonpoint source pollution a estudantes do Ensino Secundário e Universitário das áreas de Ambiente e de Agricultura. O objectivo deste trabalho é introduzir aos estudantes conceitos e técnicas, tais como os sistemas de libertação controlada, a teoria da difusão (1ª lei de Fick e a análise espectrofotomética. Este projecto laboratorial inclui três módulos experimentais a serem efectuados durante 3

  19. 基于排水过程分析的水稻灌区农田面源污染模拟%Simulation of agricultural non-point source pollution from paddy rice irrigation district based on analyses of drainage processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会; 王康; 周祖昊

    2012-01-01

    对前郭灌区主要面源污染物迁移、转化及汇集过程开展了2a的系统试验与监测,模拟了灌区面源污染水质水量过程,分析了灌区农田面源污染形成机制.水均衡测定结果表明,灌区排水主要由灌溉退水、稻田地表弃水和稻田渗流排水3部分组成,采用马斯京根法和连续分段马斯京根法能够有效地模拟各级排水沟道的排水过程.主要面源污染物随水体发生迁移及掺混,采用一级动力学方法描述污染物转化过程,模拟的灌区水质水量过程与实际过程符合较好,稻田地表退水主要影响水稻抽穗前的面源污染入河过程,而渗流排水则在抽穗后灌区排水水质中起主要作用.结果表明水稻灌区中地表排水和稻田渗漏排水对于面源污染过程起主要作用.%The transport and transformation processes of non-point source pollutions form paddy rice field to the main drainage canal through lateral and branch drainage canals were monitored in the Qianguo irrigation district during the rice growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. Water balance were measured in lateral canal in the controlled irrigation region. Results showed that the drainage water were composed of the rice field surface returned water, the irrigation returned water and the seepage from rice field to the drainage canals. Drainage processes in branch and main canal were simulated using the Muskingum method and the Muskingum segmentation flow routing method, respectively. The transport processes of chemical concentrations were determined by the mix and convection of water flow and the transformation processes were described using the first order kinetic equation. Drainage processes and contaminant concentration simulated showed good agreements with the measured values. The returned water and seepage from rice field played key roles in the process of agricultural non point pollution into the river. This research suggested the surface drainage and seepage

  20. 考虑面源污染的中国苹果全要素生产率及其空间集聚特征分析%Total factor productivity of apple industry in China considering non-point source pollution and its spatial concentration analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓龙; 霍学喜

    2015-01-01

    Apple industry has become a major industry of rural economy in most of the north region in China, which plays an important role on the adjustment of agricultural structure, the increase of farmer’s income and the export. But overall, the development of apple industry still has belonged to the traditional production style depending on fertilizer and pesticide; on one side it has brought high economic benefits for farmers, and on the other side it has been the main reason to agricultural non-point source pollution. There is no doubt that this production style has exacerbated the contradiction between the development of apple industry and the ecological environment in China. Therefore, in order to achieve the sustainable development of apple industry, the transformation of the development mode of apple industry, the improvement of resource use efficiency and the effective control of non-point source pollution in apple production should be taken into account urgently. And to achieve these goals are closely dependent on the contribution of apple total factor productivity to industry development, the reasonable estimation of apple total factor productivity, and thus the guide of the correct policy. Using the unit investigation and evaluation model, this paper calculates the non-point source pollution from apple industry, which is taken as non-ideal output and integrated into the model of total factor productivity, then analyzes the total factor productivity of apple industry under the constraint of environment of 21 provinces in China from 1994 to 2013 by applying the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, and finally tests the spatial autocorrelation of total factor productivity of apple industry by using Moran’s index. The results show as follows: 1) Apple total factor productivity index under the constraint of environment is lower than that without this constraint, implying that environment pollution has obvious negative effects on apple productivity in China

  1. 基于“压力-响应”机制的江苏省农业面源污染源解析及其空间特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Origin of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangsu Province Based on Pressure-response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆尤尤; 胡清宇; 段华平; 卞新民

    2012-01-01

    运用清单分析、等标负荷和聚类分析等方法,对江苏省农业面源污染源、影响因子、空间分布特征等进行了分析与评价.结果表明:江苏省农业面源污染化学需氧量(COD)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)绝对实物排放量分别为155.23×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、9.05×104t/a,相应的绝对等标排放量分别为7.76×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、45.23×104t/a.农业面源污染造成的COD、TN、TP的平均排放浓度分别为6.25 mg/L、2.53mg/L、0.36 mg/L,排放浓度地区差异显示苏北>苏中>苏南.农业面源污染综合水质指数显示,江苏省均值为2.10,达到中度污染水平.其中徐州、连云港、宿迁处于严重污染状态;淮安、盐城、泰州处于中度污染状态;南通、扬州处于轻度污染状态;南京处于警戒状态;无锡、常州、苏州、镇江处于安全状态.主要污染物依次是TN、TP,其贡献率分别为54.71%和38.86%;主要污染源依次是化肥施用、畜禽养殖、人粪尿、水产养殖,其贡献率分别为30.75%、24.94%、16.85%、15.28%;在国土面积、农业产值和农村人口几大因子中,农业产值是与污染物排放量相关性程度最高的因子.通过对”压力-响应”的表征量进行聚类分析得出江苏省农业面源污染的空间分布特征,其压力和响应基本一致.%The primary source, influence factors, and spatial distribution characteristics of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPSP) in Jiangsu Province were analyzed by inventory analysis, equivalent standard load, and cluster analysis methods. Results showed that the absolute real emissions of COD, TN and TP from NPSP were 155.23× 104t/a, 62.34×l04t/a and 9.05×l04t/a respectively. And the related standard emissions were 7.76×104 t/a, 62.34×104t/a and 45.23×104 t/a. The average concentrations of COD, TN and TP emitted from NPSP were 6.25 mg/L, 2.53 mg/L, 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of these

  2. On the applicability of SWAT model to the nonpoint source pollution in the watershed of the three-gorge reservoir%SWAT模型在三峡库区流域非点源污染模拟的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛; 郭秀锐; 程水源; 王征; 秦翠红; 陆瑾; 高继军

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to study the applicability of SWAT model to the non-point Source pollution in the watershed of the Three-Gorge Reservoir. The so-called SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a model we have developed in hoping to be applied and adapted to the macro-scale watershed, in the TGR area as a case study. The said model has been established under the support of the Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) as well as the spatial dataset such as DEM(digital elevation model), land-use map and so on. In our research, we have studied the data of hydrolngical and water quality in the TGR area from 2002 to 2008 for simulated calibration and validation. On the whole, our simulation proves to be successful, for the indicator ENS ( Nash-Suttclife efficiency) for stream flow in most cases was above 0.9, whereas the Ens for sediment was from 0.46 to 0.9 though the ENS for nutrient in some individual cases was less than 0.36. We have also studied the correlation between the precipitation and the surface runoff, sediment load, nutrient load in the TGR area, too. The results of our simulated investigation have shown that the surface runoff and sediment load were both closely related with the precipitation, except that the peak of sediment load took place earlier than that of surface runoff in April or May occasionally. The reason for the sediment situation is perhaps that it is because of the large amounts of the soil loss caused by the tillage and precipitation activities during the season. As to the nutrient load, especially, the TP, the consequence seems also relevant to the sediment load in comparison with the surface runoff. And, finally, we have also analyzed the pollution loads generated by the different landuse types in the area. When we worked out the order of the average pollution load for different landuse situations, we have found that the most serious non-point sources of pollution are the crop fileds in the TGR area. So it is urgent to improve the

  3. Advances on agricultural non-point source pollution and the control in regions around Hung-tse Lake%环洪泽湖区域农业面源污染特征及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇峰; 陈子鹏; 吴翼; 朱咏莉; 李萍萍

    2016-01-01

    Hung⁃tse Lake, located in the northwest of Jiangsu Province, is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. It is also one of the key hinge lakes in the east route of the south⁃to⁃north water transfer project. However, the water quality for the lake was worse than grade Ⅴ according to the Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water of the People�s Republic of China. Non⁃point source pollution around the lake was considered one of the main reasons. In the present study, the feature, sources, inducement, control and management of agricultural non⁃point pollution around the lake were reviewed. We held that the unreasonable application of chemical fertilizer was the largest source of the pollution. Aquaculture pollution was substantially increasing due to the facts of the ineffective management to enclosure culture and the abuse of exogenous diets. In addition, the emissions of livestock and poultry breeding, rural sewage and unordered waste management were the main contributors of the pollution. Therefore, the control strategies for the agricultural non⁃point source pollution in the regions should focused on ① developing ecological agriculture with reasonable applications of fertilizer and pesticides,②integrating and optimizing the aquaculture,③improving the treatment of rural sewage and recycling of agricultural wastes,④ reducing pollution by enhancing the land use among farmlands, woodlands and wet⁃lands.%洪泽湖是位于江苏省西北部的我国第四大淡水湖泊,同时是南水北调东线工程的重要节点湖泊。然而,目前洪泽湖水质总体状况仍呈下降趋势,其中面源污染是重要原因之一。笔者对环洪泽湖地区农业面源污染的特点、来源与诱因以及控制技术等进行系统评述,分析认为:不合理的化肥施用是该区域第一大面源污染来源;围网养殖区无序规划及大量外源性饵料的投加,使得水产养殖的污染排放呈现增加趋

  4. The Empirical Analysis of EKC on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in Chongqing%重庆市农业面源污染源的 EKC实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志欣; 邵景安; 李阳兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory and the data from 2000-2012 of Chongqing , five indexes ,w hich are related to the agricultural non‐point source pollution ,are selected as variances and the Environmental Kuznets Curve model are established to analyze the relationship between agricultural non‐point source pollution and the agricultural economic growth .Meanwhile ,use the software of Eviews 7 .0 and SPSS 17 .0 to estimate the parameters .The conclusions can be drawn as follows :1) The chemical fertilizer application level ,the pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues exhibited typical inverted‐U shaped curve relations with the per capita agricultural net income of farmers .And the chemical fertilizer application level ,pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues have reduced with the agricultural economic grow th .2) During the study period ,the agricultural films ap‐plication level exhibited liner relations with the per capita agriculture net income of farmers .With the grow th of agricultural economy ,the environmental pressure caused by agricultural films will be further in‐creased .3) The pig droppings equivalent emission density of livestock and poultry manure with the per ca‐pita agricultural net income of farmers exhibited “N”shaped curve characteristics ,the curve exists two in‐flection points .Currently it’s on the right side of the second inflection point and it indicates that the envi‐ronmental pressure caused by livestock and poultry manure pollution will deteriorate again with the devel‐opment of agricultural economy .The government should take effective measures to strengthen the agricul‐tural non‐point source pollution control .%基于环境库兹涅茨曲线理论,根据重庆市2000-2012年的时序数据,选取5个与农业面源污染有关的指标作为污染变量,分析农业面源污染与农业经济增长的关系,并利用EVIEWS7.0

  5. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98% of total N input and only 2% of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River Basin (69% of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20%), N fixation in croplands (7%), and N content of imported food and feed (2%). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point N input and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams influenced the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from point and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  6. NPS Ocean Acoustics Laboratory Marine Mammal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Ching-Sang; Collins, Curtis; Joseph, John; Margolina, Tetyana; Stimpert, Alison; Miller, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Marine Mammal Group within the Ocean Acoustics Laboratory at NPS is involved with a range of research studying marine mammal acoustics , both sound production and effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A sampling of our research is described below.

  7. Primary care NPs: Leaders in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartwout, Kathryn D

    2016-08-18

    A 2012 Institute of Medicine report calls primary and public healthcare workers to action, tasking them with working together to improve population health outcomes. A Practical Playbook released in 2014 enables this public health/primary care integration. Primary care NPs are in an excellent position to lead the charge and make this integration happen.

  8. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    with a. temporary seeding. b. permanent seeding. c. mulching. d. sod, trees, shrubs, vines , and ground cover. 35. Dikes and bermns or level spreaders...tree pruning . Maintenance inspe~ctionts should be used to aiXentify any routine maintenance requirements. Nonroutine maintenance practices involve the...sediments from the inlets could be done manually or hy a vacuum pump. Tree Pruning . The trees adjacent to any infiltration trench may need to be

  9. Reconnaissance survey of nonpoint source pesticides in Maryland surface waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of the Chesapeake Bay Agreement, the "Maryland Toxics Reduction Strategy for the Chesapeake Bay and its Tributaries" committed the State to identify the most...

  10. Nonpoint Source Pollution Taxes and Excessive Tax Burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, L. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, 207 Giannini Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    If a regulator is unable to measure firms individual emissions, an ambient tax can be used to achieve the socially desired level of pollution. With this tax, each firm pays a unit tax on aggregate emissions. In order for the tax to be effective, firms must recognize that their decisions affect aggregate emissions. When firms behave strategically with respect to the tax-setting regulator, under plausible circumstances their tax burden is lower under an ambient tax, relative to the tax which charges firms on the basis of individual emissions. Firms may prefer the case where the regulator is unable to observe individual firm emissions, even if this asymmetric information causes the regulator to tax each firm on the basis of aggregate emissions.

  11. MODELING OF SEDIMENT AND NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANT YIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai'en LI; Xiaokang Hong; Bing SHEN

    2001-01-01

    For water and soil conservation and water pollution control, it is very important to simulate and predict the load of sediment and pollutant during storm-runoff. On the basis of analyzing the simultaneous measurements of flow, sediment and pollutants observed at watershed outlet, a practical sediment yield model is developed by standardizing the load rate. The results show that the standardized pollutant yield equals effective rainfall and the process of effective load yield is the same as effective rainfall hyetograph. Comparison with measured data show that this model is applicable to various pollutants.

  12. Literature Review: Computer Aided Assessment Techniques for Nonpoint Source Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Equilibrium Metals Speciation Model ( MINTEQ ) is a highly specialized model for metals only. It produces highly precise results, but requires a high level of...dynamic model that can be used for evaluating the behavior of syn- thetic organic chemicals in lakes, rivers and estuaries. 5. MINTEQ : The...conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters," Part I and Part 2, EPA-600/685/002a,b, Washington, DC, 1985. (1987a). " MINTEQAl : An equilibrium

  13. Palladium-phosphorus/sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on graphene oxide: synthesis using the same precursor for NPs and catalytic applications in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hemant; Sharma, Kamal Nayan; Sharma, Alpesh K.; Singh, Ajai Kumar

    2014-04-01

    PdP2 and Pd4S nanoparticles (NPs) (size: ~2-6 and 9-15 nm respectively) have been prepared for the first time from a single source precursor complex [Pd(L)Cl2] (1) by its one pot thermolysis at 200 °C in TOP and OA/ODE (1 : 1) respectively. These NPs were stirred with graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature to prepare NP composites, GO-PdP2 and GO-Pd4S. The GO-PdP2 NPs have been synthesized for the first time. The thioether ligand L prepared by reaction of 1,3-dibromo-2-propanol with the in situ generated PhSNa reacts with [PdCl2(CH3CN)2] in CH3CN at 70 °C resulting in 1. The L and 1 have been characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR and HR-MS. The single crystal structure of 1 determined by X-ray diffraction reveals nearly square planar geometry around the Pd metal centre. The catalytic activities of two palladium nano-phases having phosphorus and sulphur respectively as a co-constituent for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling have been found to be exceptionally different, as PdP2 nanoparticles (NPs) grafted on graphene oxide (GO-PdP2) are significantly more efficient than Pd4S NPs grafted on GO. Without grafting PdP2 and Pd4S both have low efficiency. This is the first report comparing the influence of P and S on the catalytic activity of Pd NPs. TEM, SEM-EDX and powder-XRD have been used to authenticate all NPs. The GO-PdP2 NPs have been found to be efficient catalysts for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions (yield up to 96% in 30 min) at room temperature to 80 °C. Their recyclability has been found up to 6 cycles. In contrast, GO-Pd4S NPs are little active in comparison with GO-PdP2 NPs. The size of NPs and their distribution on GO appear to be key factors affecting the catalytic efficiency of the composite NPs. Leaching of Pd from GO-PdP2 NPs contributes significantly to the catalysis as evidenced by the three phase test, hot-filtration and recycling experiments. The catalysis is almost homogeneous.PdP2 and Pd4S nanoparticles (NPs) (size: ~2-6 and 9-15 nm respectively) have

  14. Piezoelectric electrospun nanocomposite comprising Au NPs/PVDF for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Asma Sadat; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, Fereshteh; Bagheri Khoulenjani, Shadab; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-03

    In this study, gold nanoparticles/Polyvinylidenefluoride composite electrospun mat with enhanced piezoelectricity were fabricated and characterized. Gold colloidal nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared via laser ablation of metallic targets in liquid media. The active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used as an irradiation source. Then, PVDF (Polyvinylidenefluoride) was dissolved in Au NPs colloidal solution at 30% wt for the synthesis of Au NPs/PVDF composite nanofibers by electrospinning. The optical absorbance spectra of Au NPS and the polymeric solutions were obtained by the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the morphology of Au NPS, nanostructures of fibers and diameter size distribution of nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmitted Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods. The crystallinity and piezoelectricity of PVDF and Au NPs/PVDF composite nanofibers mats were measured by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) methods. Subsequently, in vitro cytocompatibility was evaluated by MTT assay and the attachment and morphology of PC-12 cells cultured on scaffolds were studied. It was found that laser ablated Au NPs can be used in electrospun nanofibers of PVDF with adequate structural properties and increase piezoelectricity of nanofibers which might be suitable for applying as nerve tissue engineering scaffolds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual and Co Transport Study of Titanium Dioxide NPs and Zinc Oxide NPs in Porous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumari

    Full Text Available The impact of pH and ionic strength on the mobility (individual and co-transport and deposition kinetics of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in porous media was systematically investigated in this study. Packed column experiments were performed over a series of environmentally relevant ionic strengths with both NaCl (0.1-10 mM and CaCl2 (0.01-0.1mM solutions and at pH 5, 7, and 9. The transport of TiO2 NPs at pH 5 was not significantly affected by ZnO NPs in solution. At pH 7, a decrease in TiO2 NP transport was noted with co-existence of ZnO NPs, while at pH 9 an increase in the transport was observed. At pH 5 and 7, the transport of ZnO NPs was decreased when TiO2 NPs was present in the solution, and at pH 9, an increase was noted. The breakthrough curves (BTC were noted to be sensitive to the solution chemistries; the decrease in the breakthrough plateau with increasing ionic strength was observed under all examined pH (5, 7, and 9. The retention profiles were the inverse of the plateaus of BTCs, as expected from mass balance considerations. Overall, the results from this study suggest that solution chemistries (ionic strength and pH are likely the key factors that govern the individual and co-transport behavior of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in sand.

  16. Effects of Grass Hedges and No-tillage Practice Oil the Removing of Typical Agricultural Non-point Source Pollutants from Runoff%免耕和草篱措施对径流中典型农业面源污染物的去除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 陶梅; 肖波; 王庆海; 陈建平

    2011-01-01

    Chemical fertilizer and herbicide are widely used in agricultural production. These chemical substances not only significantly increase crop yields but also result in serious water pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three practices (no-tillage, grass hedges, no-tillage and grass hedges) on the loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff. The results showed that no-tillage and grass hedges significantly reduced agricultural non-point source pollution. As compared to the control, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and atrazine loss in the plots with no-tillage were decreased by 53%, 51% and 56%, respectively; reductions by the grass hedges were 68%, 61% and 90%, respectively; the decreases due to no-tillage and grass hedges were 77%, 76% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the regression results showed that the losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff were positively correlated to the surface runoff. From these results could be concluded that both of no-tillage and grass hedges could significantly reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine loss with runoff, and the integration of these two practices was proved to be much more effective than their individual effects.%大量施用农业化学物质在提高作物产量的同时,也导致了严重的水体污染.在北京地区不同坡度的径流小区上,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究免耕、草篱、以及免耕与草篱复合3种措施对农田径流中氮、磷、阿特拉津3种典型农业面源污染物的去除效果.结果表明:免耕措施可减少53%的总氮、51%的总磷和56%的阿特拉津流失;草篱措施可减少68%的总氮、61%的总磷和90%的阿特拉津流失;而免耕与草篱复合措施可减少77%的总氮、76%的总磷和92%的阿特拉津流失.另外,总氯、总磷和阿特拉津流失量均与径流量呈显著的线性正相关关系.本研究证实,免耕和草篱措施均能有效防止氮、磷以及阿特拉津随农

  17. [Nonpoint pollution control for rural areas of China with ecological engineering technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengqing; Mao, Zhanpo

    2002-02-01

    Nonpoint pollution from rural areas is the results of the ecosystem degradation, and ecological engineering technologies are good ways for the restoration of watershed and enhancing material cycling. There are two types of treatment strategies: to control the polluted runoff and to reduce the pollutants from the sources. Six control technologies are introduced and they are multipond systems, grassed filter trips, wetland systems, eco-agriculture, slope ecological engineering, ecological treatment of wastewater and solid waste. These technologies need to be combined systematically in order to form a watershed ecological engineering. In the control program, it is important to use countermeasure suitable to the local conditions. In addition, the input of sufficient investment, management and education is necessary.

  18. Long-term variation (1960-2003) and causal factors of non-point-source nitrogen and phosphorus in the upper reach of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Ding, Xiaowen; Hong, Qian; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-05-15

    The knowledge of long-term variation and causal factors of non-point source (NPS) pollution in large-scale watersheds is helpful in the development of water quality control programs. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were combined to estimate the temporal and spatial variations (1960-2003) of NPS pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Two change points for NPS pollution were successfully detected. In the URYR, the dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased before 2000 and decreased after 2000, whereas the inflection points from increase to decline were around 1980 for the adsorbed N (AN) and adsorbed P (AP). The results also indicated that the dissolved pollutants were mainly contributed by the anthropogenic factors, while the adsorbed pollutants were primarily exported by the natural factors. By comparing the load intensities from each source, it revealed that for the dissolved pollutants, the major source of the high load intensity transferred from urban land to dry land after 1980. Simultaneously, the high load intensity areas of the adsorbed pollutants transferred from forest to orchard around 1980, which was mainly attributed to the increasing fertilizer application. These results may be useful for planning and management of the URYR and other large-scale watersheds.

  19. Synthesis of Green Metallic Nanoparticles (NPs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology (NT is a field that is mushrooming, making an impact in all spheres of human life. Presently available literature revealed that the NP synthesis using medicinal plants, microorganisms and algae and others as source has been unexplored and underexploited. NT is very important in developing sustainable technologies for the future, for humanity and the environment. The development of green processes for the synthesis of NP is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. Natural sources of nanoparticles include fires and volcanic eruptions. The nanotechnology have short to long term uses like environmental pollution cleanup, efficient and safe drug delivery mechanisms with less side effects, developments in information technology, self-cleaning window glass , ‘smart’ fabrics which adjust to suit the temperature. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of NP of attractive and diverse morphologies and elimination of elaborate maintenance of cell cultures and ecofriendliness. It has many advantages such as, ease with which the process can be measured up, economic viability and etc. Presently, the researchers are looking into the development of cost-effective procedures for producing reproducible, stable and biocompatible metal NPs.

  20. One pot biosynthesis of gold NPs using red cabbage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeufack, Diane D; Brioude, Arnaud

    2012-02-07

    Red cabbage extract was used as reducing agent and capping agent for the synthesis of gold NPs. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the control of NPs shape and size by changing the pH value and the concentration of aqueous red cabbage extract solution.

  1. Allosteric activation of the Ca2+ receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by NPS 467 or NPS 568.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerland, L G; Garrett, J E; Hung, B C; Levinthal, C; Nemeth, E F

    1998-06-01

    The Ca2+ receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that enables parathyroid cells and certain other cells in the body to respond to changes in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, two novel phenylalkylamine compounds, NPS 467 and NPS 568, were examined for effects on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the bovine or human parathyroid Ca2+ receptors. Increases in chloride current (ICl) were elicited in oocytes expressing the bovine Ca2+ receptor when the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was raised above 1.5 mM, whereas Ca2+ concentrations > 3 mM were generally necessary to elicit responses in oocytes expressing the human Ca2+ receptor. NPS 467 and NPS 568 potentiated the activation of ICl by extracellular Ca2+ in oocytes expressing either Ca2+ receptor homolog, and this resulted in a leftward shift of the Ca2+ concentration-response curve. Neither compound was active in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Certain inorganic and organic cations known to activate the Ca2+ receptor were substituted for elevated levels of extracellular Ca2+ to increase ICl and the effects of these agonists were also potentiated by NPS 568 or NPS 467. The effects of NPS 568 were stereoselective and the R-enantiomer was about 10-fold more potent than the corresponding S-enantiomer. Neither NPS 467 nor 568 affected ICl in water-injected oocytes or in oocytes expressing the substance K receptor or the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a. These results provide compelling evidence that NPS 467 and NPS 568 act directly upon the parathyroid Ca2+ receptor to increase its sensitivity to activation by extracellular Ca2+. This activity suggests that these compounds are positive allosteric modulators of the Ca2+ receptor. As such, these compounds define a new class of pharmacological agents with potent and selective actions on the Ca2+ receptor.

  2. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning.

  3. NPS Patent Office Helps Researchers Safeguard Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Associate Council, Intellectual Property Attorney Lisa Norris, and her assistant, Paralegal Kate Black-Will, are an Army of two, with a singular mission to protect the intellectual property of NPS students and faculty.

  4. NPS Defense Management Expert Elected to ASPA National Council

    OpenAIRE

    Honegger, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) George F. A. Wagner Professor of Public Management Lawrence R. "Larry" Jnoes, a world renowned expert on defense budgeting and financial management, has been elected to National Council of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA),

  5. Transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagee, Omer; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The effect of soil properties on the transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied in a set of laboratory column experiments, using different combinations of size fractions of a Mediterranean sandy clay soil. The AgNPs with average size of ~30nm yielded a stable suspension in water with zeta potential of -39mV. Early breakthrough of AgNPs in soil was observed in column transport experiments. AgNPs were found to have high mobility in soil with outlet relative concentrations ranging from 30% to 70%, depending on experimental conditions. AgNP mobility through the column decreased when the fraction of smaller soil aggregates was larger. The early breakthrough pattern was not observed for AgNPs in pure quartz columns nor for bromide tracer in soil columns, suggesting that early breakthrough is related to the nature of AgNP transport in natural soils. Micro-CT and image analysis used to investigate structural features of the soil, suggest that soil aggregate size strongly affects AgNP transport in natural soil. The retention of AgNPs in the soil column was reduced when humic acid was added to the leaching solution, while a lower flow rate (Darcy velocity of 0.17cm/min versus 0.66cm/min) resulted in higher retention of AgNPs in the soil. When soil residual chloride was exchanged by nitrate prior to column experiments, significantly improved mobility of AgNPs was observed in the soil column. These findings point to the importance of AgNP-soil chemical interactions as a retention mechanism, and demonstrate the need to employ natural soils rather than glass beads or quartz in representative experimental investigations.

  6. Behind the scenes w/ an NPS alum (poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Reber, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    How NPS helped my Navy M&S career: "The Naval Postgraduate School provided the technical, analytical, research and critical thinking skills I required to excel as the Navigation, Seamanship, and Shiphandling Simulation Program Manage at the U.S. Navy's Shiphandling Center of Excellence, the Surface Warfare Officers School. No prgogram other than NPS' Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) curriculum provides such a full range of topics, skills, and joint service institutional ...

  7. Photoluminescent colloidal Cu@C-NPs suspensions synthesized by LASL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Contreras, D.; González-Aguilar, M. A.; Camacho-López, M. A.; Vigueras-Santiago, E.; Camacho-López, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of photoluminescent carbon-coated copper nanoparticles (Cu@C-NPs) based colloidal suspensions, using the laser ablation of solids in liquids technique (LASL). LASL experiments were carried out by ablating a Cu solid target immersed in acetone as the liquid medium with ns-laser pulses (1064 nm) of a Nd-YAG laser. In all experiments the per pulse laser fluence and the repetition rate frequency were kept constant and the ablation time was varied. The as obtained Cu@C-NPs suspensions were optically characterized with absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Raman spectroscopy was used to give evidence of the carbon shell deposited around the Cu NPs. TEM results showed that 10 nm spheroids Cu@C-NPs were obtained. The as obtained Cu@C-NPs suspensions displayed out a PL emission band similar to that for carbon nanoparticles suspensions obtained by the same technique. We have found that the blue-green PL emission band intensity is mainly dependent on the ablation and aging time of the samples. The Cu@C-NPs-based colloidal suspensions can be proposed as multifunctional due to its absorbance and emission properties.

  8. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS: a Study on Persian Language Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schi¬Fano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS.The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites.Methods: The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites.Results: The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online.Conclusion: The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS.

  9. Nutrient sources and dynamics in a mediterranean fluvial regime (Ebro river, NE Spain) and their implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla, Néstor J.; Galve, Jorge P.; Zaera, Lidia G.; Retamar, Javier F.; Álvarez, Alejandro N. A.

    2005-03-01

    Nonpoint source and point source nutrient loads (N, PO 4-P, COD) to the Ebro River in its central sector were estimated using hydrogeological and socioeconomical data. Their impacts on eutrophication and nutrient dynamics in the river were analyzed through a review of the public administration's historical data and the interpretation of two sampling profiles in September 02 (low flows season) and April 03 (high flows season). A marked seasonality was found in nutrient concentrations, nutrient loads and eutrophication indicators (O 2, Turbidity), appearing symptoms of eutrophication during the summer related to both NPS and PS Nutrient loads within the study area. Agricultural NPS account for 64% of NO 3 loads generated within the study area while urban and industrial PS are responsible of 88% PO 4-P and 71% COD loads. Biological reactions within the river ecosystem (including denitrification in the most eutrophic branches) were found to be a key factor in nutrient content and dynamics. Improvements in urban and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, land use planning and restoration of river-side wetlands, seem to be adequate policies for the improvement of the nutrient water quality in the studied sector of the Ebro River. Flow and temperature seasonality related to Mediterranean fluvial regime imposes significant limitations to nutrient PS in order to accomplish the combined approach proposed in European Water Framework Directive (WFD), based upon Emission Limit Values (ELV) and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).

  10. SIMULATION OF NON-POINT POLLUTANTS EVOLUTION IN COASTAL PLAIN ISLAND-A CASE STUDY OF CHONGMING ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-long; JIANG Wen-yan; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    The coastal plain region usually shows the agricultural dominated industry mode, so more and more attention is paid to non-point pollutants discharge. In this study, the method for assessing the influence of non-point pollutants discharge on river water quality is probed which is concluded as follows: (1) Considering the costal plain island is characterized as nearly even elevation, the conventional gravitational runoff confluence method based on eight-point gravitational flowing directions (D8) is unable to compute the runoff confluence received by the surrounding rivers, so a new method of triangular confluence based on three-points of grid center and the river segments is presented. Further the equations of non-point pollutants loads estimation and non-point pollutants confluence on rivers are presented. (2) The integration mode of non-point pollutants model and river water quality model is presented so as to further assess the non-point pollutants contribution to river water quality. (3) With the Chongming Island, the third largest island in China, as an example, the above-mentioned equations are specified. For this island, the non-point pollutants loads are estimated and linked to the developed water quality model of the river network in the island, and further the non-point pollution evolution in river network is simulated. In this scenario, the non-point pollution contribution to river water quality over the whole island is clearly displayed, and the area where the river water quality is seriously influenced by non-point pollutants discharge is distinctly depicted. This scenario also shows the water quality contribution ratio of non-point pollution to point pollution can be in the range of 55.5% to 44.5% which proves the importance of non-point pollution control in costal plain islands.

  11. A Study on the Mechanism of Emission Trading between Industrial Point Pollution and Agriculture Non-Point Pollution%工业点源-农业面源排污权交易的机制创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 王会; 陈海丹; 詹贤达

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture non-point pollution has been one of the most important sources of the water pollution in China.Compared with industrial point pollution, the emission reduction cost of agriculture non-point pollution is lower, which make the emission trade feasible. First, the characteristics of agriculture non-point pollution were recognized as that agriculture non-point pollution had many sources, uncertainty in occurring, difficulty to supervise. Then, two emission trade mechanisms had been built, one of which was that farmers changed production behavior uniformly and the other was that industrial point pollution built public pollution eliminating infrastructures. Finally, some key problem in the emission trading between industrial point pollution and agriculture non-point pollution were discussed.%当前,农业面源污染已经成为我国水环境污染的主要来源.相比较于大型工业点源,农业面源污染减排成本较低的状况为二者进行排污权交易提供了有利条件.在分析面源污染具有涉及个体多、发生不确定性强、减排结果监测困难等特征的基础上,提出了工业点源与农业面源排污权交易的两种机制:基于污染产生的"农户统一行动交易机制"和基于污染治理的"农业公共治理设施建设交易机制".最后,针对工业点源-农业面源排污权交易中存在的一些问题进行了初步探讨.

  12. Assessment of Network and Data Communication Reliability for Lungmen NPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Teng Chieh; Chou, Hwai Pwu [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Chao, Chun Chang [The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China)

    2011-08-15

    The Lungmen nuclear power station (NPS) is an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) with fully digitized instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The present work is to use the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique to investigate the concerns about network reliability and data communication errors for Lungmen NPS. The reactor protection system (RPS) has chosen as the target to investigate the network and data communication reliability. A fault tree based on the RPS configuration has been modeled to evaluate the weak point in the digital logic part. A Lungmen NPS event tree model has also built to calculate the core damage frequency (CDF). Sensitivity studies were performed by assuming various data communication delays and errors and to evaluate the network affect and the influence on the CDF.

  13. Effects of Forest Ecosystems on Non-point Pollution Control%森林生态系统对非点源污染的控制机理与效果及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿强; 张彪; 李文华; 杨艳刚; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, particularly agricultural non-point source pollution, has become a major contributor of water pollution in many countries during recent years. Major lakes and rivers in China have suffered from serious eutrophication problems, e.g., five lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Taihu Lake, Hongze Lake, and Chaohu Lake), the Three Gorges Reservoir,Baiyangdian Lake, Nansi Lake, and Yilong Lake. The contribution rate of non-point pollution to eutrophication has been found to be much higher than point source pollution. Although tremendous efforts have been made to control non-point pollution, they seem to be far from effective due to uncertain emissions of the non-point pollutants. As such, people are resorting to purifying natural ecosystems, e.g., forest riparian buffer has been recommended as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) for non-point source pollutant control in the United States. The authors comprehensively summarized studies associated with the effects of forest ecosystems on non-point source pollution control. Forest ecosystems have been shown to be of the capacity to adsorb and purify non-point source pollutants mainly through plants, canopy, ground litter, and soil layers.Plant uptake is one of important mechanisms of nutrients control. Part of pollutions carried by rainfall can be intercepted by canopy, while the nutrient content will increase because of eluviations. However, the non-point pollution can be greatly reduced after runoff flow through ground cover and soil layer. Numerous studies show that forests could reduce about 60~90% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus from upper farming areas. Non-point source pollution control is generally affected by many factors. The forest belt width has an impact on the effect of non-point source pollution reduction, and therefore the width needs to be adjusted appropriately. Different tree species show varying absorption capacities of non-point source pollutants; therefore the

  14. Bio-Economic Strategy to Combat Non-Point Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yong-Ping; CHEN De-Li; B.DAVIDSON; R.E.WHITE

    2005-01-01

    While non-point pollution from agriculture has become an increasingly serious problem in China, some progress has been made in studying the causal biophysical processes. However, few studies have assessed the economic consequences of non-point pollution in China or the policy options that could be employed to combat it. In this work a sustainable strategy to control non-point pollution from crop production, which involved taxing excessive inputs of irrigation water and fertilizer, was proposed. The approach taken to assess these measures combined biophysical and economic models,having a trade-off between economic returns and an improved environment. A proven and practical spatially referenced water and nutrient management model was used to determine the quantities of excessive irrigation water and fertilizer for specific soil and land use. Also, a set of indicators were proposed for evaluating the effects of agricultural economic output and agricultural practices on the environment.

  15. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-18

    monthly AO and CH account statements (GSA, n.d.-d). The government has partnerships with Citibank , JP Morgan Chase, and U.S. Bank (GSA, n.d.-b), and... Citibank to process all types of transactions, including those made with the purchase, travel, and fleet card. However, the DoD’s independent agencies also...purchase card training. Furthermore, DoD annual ethics training is required as well. Initial training with Citibank is required, and NPS also requires that

  16. NPS Solar Cell Array Tester Cubesat Flight Testing and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    front face of NPS-SCAT. The antenna comprises two pieces of piano wire cut to the proper length, stowed using fishing line. Once in orbit, a piece of...launch and the other satellites in the launch vehicle. This is a risk mitigation technique and is performed on every spacecraft large or small...the experiment. Instead the distinction was made after the results were evaluated. As such, there was no previous disposition to which technique

  17. Application of Potential Non-Point Pollution Index For An Urban Watershed: Istanbul, Kucukcekmece Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoglu, N.; Dikerler, T.; Seker, D. Z.; Ustun, B.

    2011-12-01

    Istanbul is a major city with more than 15 million population and limited water resources. Besides, its urbanized area has been rapidly expanding for more than 30 years. Küçükçekmece Lagoon, as a potential RAMSAR site with its rich natural diversity and housing asset for birds, has been suffering from urbanization and industrial stress. With Sazlidere Dam constructed on the Lagoon's most important creek which supplies fresh water, Küçükçekmece Basin has almost 600 km2 wide area. Due to dam operation which cuts fresh water input down, water quality of the Küçükçekmece Lagoon has been deteriorating, as well as other antropogenic impacts. Potential non-point pollution index (or PNPI) is based on land use, soil and topographic data and aims to highlight the potentially polluting areas in a watershed. Denoting those areas, PNPI puts an assessment of the pressure exerted on the water bodies by different land uses. This index calculates different layers in order to represent run-off, land cover effect, and the distance of each polluting source (or pixels) in the study area. By the multiplication of those layers under GIS, a new data layer is produced showing the polluting potential of each pixel on the study area. For by Küçükçekmece Basin, Landsat ETM satellite images have been taken and its land use produced by unsupervised classification. Using this updated data, land use - land cover indicator has been calculated for the basin. Topography is another fact that is needed to produce both run-off indicator and distance indicator and it is generated by elevation data with 5m resolution. By integrating these indicator layers, PNPI analysis layer has been produced for Küçükçekmece Lagoon watershed.

  18. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution.

  19. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...

  20. Effects of Climate Change on Non-Point Pollution in Huaibei Region and Comprehensive Regulation Strategies%气候变化对淮北地区面源污染的影响及综合调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 严登华; 尹军; 翁白莎

    2011-01-01

    分析了安徽省淮北地区面源污染的现状与压力,从污染物的产生、迁移、转化与汇聚的机理讨论气候变化对面源污染的影响机制,最后从源头控制、途径控制、末端治理、调控机制建设4个层面提出综合调控措施.%In this study, the situation and pressure of non-point pollution in Huaibei region of Anhui province were analyzed. The influence mechanism of climate change on non-point pollution was discussed from mechanism of generation, migration, conversion, and aggregation of contaminants. In the end, comprehensive coping strategies were put forward from four levels: source control, process control, end treatment and construction of regulation mechanism.

  1. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3 (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pollutant Source Identification Project (MB-3) sought to provide a summary and analysis of pollutant loads to Mamala Bay from both point and nonpoint sources....

  2. Encapsulation of catechin and epicatechin on BSA NPS improved their stability and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ramdhan; Kumar, Dharmesh; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation of antioxidant molecules on protein nanoparticles (NPs) could be an advanced approach for providing stable, better food nutraceuticals and anticancer drugs. The bioavailability and stability of catechin (CAT) and epicatechin (ECAT) were very poor. In the present study, the CAT and ECAT were loaded on bovine serum albumin (BSA) NPs following desolvation method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) recorded size of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were 45 ± 5 nm and 48 ± 5 nm respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of CAT and ECAT on BSA NPs was found to be 60.5 and 54.5 % respectively. CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs show slow and sustained in vitro release. The CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were stable in solution at various temperatures 37 °C, 47 °C and 57 °C. DPPH assay revealed that CAT and ECAT maintained their functional activity even after encapsulation on BSA NPs. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs determined against A549 cell lines was found to be improved. CAT and ECAT aptly encapsulated in BSA NPs, showed satisfactory sustained release, maintained antioxidant potential and found improved efficacy. This has thus suggested their more effective use in food and nutraceuticals as well as in medical field.

  3. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  4. ERIC-PCR Fingerprinting of Fecal Escherichia Coli and Microbial Source Tracking in Non-point Pollution of the Shellfish Culture Area of East China Sea%大肠埃希氏菌ERIC-PCR指纹图谱构建及贝类污染微生物源示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何力; 傅玲琳; 冯立芳; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish a host-orign fecal E. Coli DNA fingerprint library by rep-PCR method using ERIC primers from livestock and poultry farms in the shellfish culture area of East China Sea. Moreover, the efficacy of microbial source tracking (MST) based on ERIC-PCR for differentiating host sources of E. Coli from shellfish and their growing waters is also evaluated. Methods: fecal samples of poultry and livestock were obtained as cloacal swabs from different farm sites in Xiangshan Bay. E. Coli isolates were purified from the fecal samples by selective cultivation and API 20E tests. The genomic DNA of E. Coli isolates was extracted by bacterial genomic DNA purification kit and fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR. InfoQuestFPTM software was used to analyze the similarities, rate of correct classification(RCC) and the stability of library. Finally, host sources of E. Coli obtained from shellfish and shellfish growing waters were predicted using MST method by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). Results: cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprints of 216 E. Coli isolates revealed 37 clusters. Jack-knife analysis revealed high rate of correct classification(RCC) with 91.7%, 76.9%, 100% and 94.4% of swine, chicken, duck and goose E. Coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. In addition, based on the above host-origin library by discriminant analysis, 12 unknown source strains from shellfish and growing waters were successfully discriminanted with RCC value of 78.8%. Conclusion: this work suggests that ERIC-PCR fingerprinting can be a promising genotypic tool applied in the shellfish growing water management on East Chi na Sea for source identification of fecal pollution.%目的:采用rep-PCR的ERIC引物(ERIC-PCR)构建象山港周边粪污染指示因子大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)的DNA指纹图谱库,并根据所建DNA指纹图谱库对贝类产品污染进行微生物源示踪(Microbial Source Tracking,MST).方法:在选定的贝类养殖区域周

  5. 77 FR 59222 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and... Submission) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to ensure... in use without an OMB Control Number. Title: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

  6. SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 38 (April 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This April 2009 issue of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter highlights the following research: "Join MDA [Maritime Defense and Awareness] Outreach on ODNI [Office of the Director of National Intelligence] Bridge" and "NPS Cooperative Operations and Applied Science & Technology Studies." It also provides links to future events, reports, articles, and NPS Theses regarding maritime defense and security.

  7. Controlling the Nanoscale Patterning of AuNPs on Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Allender

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effectiveness of vapour-phase deposition for creating sub-monolayer coverage of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES on silicon in order to exert control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition. Surface coverage was evaluated indirectly by observing the extent to which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited onto the modified silicon surface. By varying the distance of the silicon wafer from the APTES source and concentration of APTES in the evaporating media, control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition was achievable to an extent. Fine control over AuNP deposition (AuNPs/μm2 however, was best achieved by adjusting the ionic concentration of the AuNP-depositing solution. Furthermore it was demonstrated that although APTES was fully removed from the silicon surface following four hours incubation in water, the gold nanoparticle-amino surface complex was stable under the same conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to study these affects.

  8. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  9. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hong, E-mail: hxu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Mao Zhiping, E-mail: zhpmao@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  10. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....

  11. A case study on non-point source pollution and environmental carrying capacity of animal raising industry in subtropical watershed%亚热带流域氮磷排放与养殖业环境承载力实例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岑; 李裕元; 许晓光; 高茹; 王毅; 张满意; 吴金水

    2013-01-01

    畜禽养殖业粪便排放已经成为我国农村地区主要的农业面源污染源之一,也是制约养殖业良性发展的主要瓶颈.本文以湖南省长沙县典型亚热带流域为研究单元,基于流域水环境定位观测、耕地氮(N)磷(P)消纳能力以及养殖业调查和土壤分析资料,初步分析了亚热带丘陵区的面源污染现状及畜禽养殖业的环境承载力.结果表明,研究区金井河流域134.4 km2范围内N、P年负荷分别为N 2.72 t·km-2和P0.11t·km-2,其中养殖粪便对水体总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)负荷的贡献率分别约为42.2%和62.0%.区内平均畜禽养殖密度为3.46 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪24.39万头),显著高于现有化肥用量条件下流域的实际承载力1.13 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪6.35万头),因此养殖密度过高是导致研究区水体NP负荷较高的主要原因.区内N、P盈余量分别为N 35.8 kg·hm-2、P 18.61 kg·hm-2.研究区基本不施用化肥条件下畜禽养殖业的最大环境承载力为7.26 AU·hm-2,在有机肥占合理施肥量30%条件下,当地畜禽养殖业的环境承载力为2.74AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪19.50万头).降低养殖密度、调整养殖业空间布局以及提高养殖废弃物的资源化利用率是防治当前面源污染的有效途径.%The discharge of faeces from animal production is a major source of nitrogen ( N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants in the subtropical region of China. To quantify the N and F load from animal production to hydro-systems in the region, surveys on pig density and N,P inputs to farmlands, soil N and P contents, and annual observations of the N and P flows in the streams and the terminal river were carried out in a hilly watershed (134.4 km2 ) in Changsha County, Hunan Province. It was showed that the total NP loads from the watershed to the terminal river was 2.72 t and 0. 11 t·km-2·a-1, respectively ; within which 42. 2% of the N and 62. 0% of

  12. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Selected data for 1992 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, D.J.; Walker, J.F.; Greb, S.R.; Corsi, Steven R.; Owens, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the annual results of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin. The overall objective of each individual project in the program is to determine if the water chemistry in the receiving stream has changed as a result of the implementation of land-management practices in the watershed. This is accomplished through monitoring of water chemistry and ancillary variables before best-management practices (BMP's) are installed ('pre-BMP'), during installation ('transitional'), and after ('post-BMP') watershed- management plans have been completely implemented. Fecal-coliform (FC) counts ranged between 10 and 310,00/100 mL. A large range of values occurred within duplicate and triplicate samples as well as over time. The median percentage difference between duplicate and triplicate samples was 17 percent although 4 out of the total 60 duplicate and triplicate samples had differences greater than 100 percent. A decrease in FC counts generally occurred over the duration of the 4-day analyses. Linear regression models of the log-concentration values (dependent variable) with respect to time (independent variable) were calculated for all samples. Negative slopes were found for 14 of the 15 samples. Slopes varied from +0.5 to -38.4 percent gain/loss/day, with a median slope of -8.5 percent/day. A t-test was applied to the data to examine whether or not significant differences in FC counts exist with respect to holding times. Because the T-test only compares two treatments, the test was conducted 3 times (0 versus 24-hr holding time, 0 versus 48-hr holding time, and 0 versus 72-hr holding time). Setting the level of significance at p less than 0.05 and assuming equal variances, 27 percent (all from Bower and Otter Creeks) of the samples demonstrated a significant difference in colony count over the first 24 hr, 40 percent over 48 hr, and 47 percent over 72 hr. All samples that exhibited a significant change in colony count were because of a decrease in colony count of the sample.

  13. MARKET INCENTIVES AND NONPOINT SOURCES: AN APPLICATION OF TRADABLE CREDITS TO URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess stormwater runoff can cause serious pollution, habitat degradation and flooding in cities where growth in impervious surface area (such as pavement, buildings, etc.) has created a situation where stormwater runoff routinely exceeds the normal capacity of natural and constr...

  14. SWAT: Agricultural water and nonpoint source pollution management at a watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global change and demographic changes increasingly cause water, food, and health problems in many areas of the world. In addition, the growth in bioenergy production leads to land-use change and associated environmental impacts. The lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads...

  15. MARKET INCENTIVES AND NONPOINT SOURCES: AN APPLICATION OF TRADABLE CREDITS TO URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess stormwater runoff can cause serious pollution, habitat degradation and flooding in cities where growth in impervious surface area (such as pavement, buildings, etc.) has created a situation where stormwater runoff routinely exceeds the normal capacity of natural and constr...

  16. Watershed Management Tool for Selection and Spacial Allocation of Non-Point Source Pollution Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed-parameter watershed models are often utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of sediment and nutrient abatement strategies through the traditional {calibrate→ validate→ predict} approach. The applicability of the method is limited due to modeling approximations. In ...

  17. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  18. Study of energy transfer between riboflavin (vitamin B2) and AgNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Vidya V.; Walekar, Laxman S.; Anbhule, Prashant V.; Lee, Sang Hak; Patil, Shivajirao R.; Kolekar, Govind B.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report the studies on the interaction and formation of nanobiocomplex between silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and vitamin B2, i.e., riboflavin (RF). The binding study of AgNP to RF was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis, and TEM techniques. AgNPs were prepared by reducing AgNO3 with trisodium citrate. Prepared nanoparticles size obtained at 20 nm having surface Plasmon resonance band at 426 nm. The absorbance band of RF at 264, 374, and 444 nm changes significantly in the presence of AgNPs suggests that there is change in the chemical environment surrounding AgNPs. A fluorescence spectral change for a solution of RF upon the addition of AgNPs and rapid quenching is suggestive of a rapid adsorption of RF on AgNPs.

  19. Enhancement of QDs photoluminescence by localized surface plasmon effect of Au-NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Esmaeil; Greco, Tonino; Stumpe, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Photoluminescence enhancement of CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs by localized surface plasmon resonance of large Au-NPs has been investigated. The photoluminescence of the QDs with an emission wavelength at 620 nm in a PMMA matrix is enhanced by immobilized Au-NPs. By considering the lifetime and excitation dependent photoluminescence we realized that the emission and excitation rate enhancements both contributed to the total photoluminescence enhancement. PL measurements were carried out for different sizes of Au-NPs to find out their influences on the emission of QDs. The largest enhancement is achieved by applying 80 nm Au-NPs. Silanization method gives us the opportunity easily to prepare samples with different concentrations of Au-NPs. It is revealed that increasing the concentration of the Au-NPs layer provides higher scattering cross section which contributes in PL enhancement.

  20. Non-pointSource Pollution Control Policy under the Perspective of Experimental Economics:A Review%实验经济学视角下的非点源污染控制政策研究:一个文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Zhang weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become an important source of water pollution for many countries including China. Used for the design and evaluation of non-point pollution control policy recently,experimental economics has made remarkable achievements in this field. In contrast,related research has not been published in China so far. This paper tries to anatomize and conclude the experimental economics on non-point source control policy by summarizing it as two categories,that is,individual -performance -based and collective -performance -based, from which some enlightenment are obtained and some preliminary research ideas are put forward.

  1. Effects of TiO2 NPs on Silkworm Growth and Feed Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YangYang; Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Zhao, XiaoMing; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Wang, BinBin; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) (B. mori) is an economically important insect and a model species for Lepidoptera. It has been reported that feeding of low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can improve feed efficiency and increase cocoon mass, cocoon shell mass, and the ratio of cocoon shell. However, high concentrations of TiO2 NPs are toxic. In this study, we fed B. mori with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L) and investigated B. mori growth, feed efficiency, and cocoon quality. We found that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5 and 10 mg/L) were more effective for weight gains, with significant weight gain being obtained at 72 h (P TiO2 NPs at 20 mg/L or higher had certain inhibitory effects, with significant inhibition to B. mori growth being observed at 48 h. The feed efficiency was significantly improved at low concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L for 14.6 and 13.1 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs showed increased cocoon mass and cocoon shell mass; at 5 and 10 mg/L TiO2 NPs, cocoon mass was significantly increased by 8.29 and 9.39 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs promoted B. mori growth and development, improved feed efficiency, and increased cocoon production, while high concentrations (20 mg/L or higher) of TiO2 NPs showed inhibitory effect to the B. mori. Consecutive feeding of high concentrations of TiO2 NPs led to some degrees of adaptability. This study provides a reference for the research on TiO2 NPs toxicity and the basis for the development of TiO2 NPs as a feed additive for B. mori.

  2. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2008: Summary of Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    officers, enlisted) and, where relevant, comparisons to previous NPS results. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Ms . Evangeline Clewis with the...integration, and organizational commitment. Past NPS and the related Navy Quality of Life ( QOL ) surveys have consistently found that the quality of...psychometric analysis of the 2005 NPS (Bann, Whittam, Barnett- Walker, 2006), in which scales were pared down to their essential questions. In this way, burden

  3. GENERAL REGULARITIES ON NPS CONSTRUCTION CONCRETE CORROSION PROCESSES AND THEIR SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering material science has accumulated a great amount of scientific data on corrosive processes occurring in the NPS concrete structures (including the Bushehr NPS, Islamic Republic of Iran due to environmental conditions.This practical material creates appropriate prerequisites for generalizations, presentation of results in the form of mathematical models permitting to make calculations on durability of the NPS concrete and reinforced concrete  structures with the required accuracy. 

  4. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J; Maidment, Andrew D A

    2010-12-01

    One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., "white") difference in their NPS exists such that NPS(PC) > or = NPS(EI) and hence DQE(PC) function given as zero or unity everywhere. In analyzing the model detector with Gaussian blurring

  5. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  6. Nonpoint Symmetry and Reduction of Nonlinear Evolution and Wave Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tsyfra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the symmetry reduction of nonlinear partial differential equations with two independent variables. We propose new ansätze reducing nonlinear evolution equations to system of ordinary differential equations. The ansätze are constructed by using operators of nonpoint classical and conditional symmetry. Then we find solution to nonlinear heat equation which cannot be obtained in the framework of the classical Lie approach. By using operators of Lie-Bäcklund symmetries we construct the solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic equations depending on arbitrary smooth function of one variable too.

  7. 78 FR 9729 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and... Submission, Exhibitor, Annual Review, and Amendment Forms) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use... collection is currently in use without an OMB Control Number. Title: NPS Institutional Animal Care and...

  8. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  9. University Provost Leonard Ferrari Outlines State of NPS During Latest SGL

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Leonard Ferrari, NPS Executive Vice President and Provost, offers the State of NPS address to students, staff and faculty on Jan. 18 in King Hall. He spoke of the School’s achievements in 2010 and expressed hope for 2011.

  10. A critical first assessment of the new pre-market approval regime for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand has recently attempted to address the underlying drivers of the escalating new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') problem by establishing the world's first pre-market approval regulatory regime for NPS. NPS products which can be shown with clinical trial data to pose a 'low risk' of harm will be approved for legal manufacture and sale. This paper critically assesses the new regime, drawing on experience of the pharmaceutical sector and legal BZP market. A number of characteristics of the recreational use of NPS may not be well addressed by standard medical clinical trials, including binge use, polydrug use, use by vulnerable groups and high-risk modes of administration. The overt advertising and covert promotion of approved NPS products on the internet may make them fairly visible to young people. The black market for unapproved NPS may be difficult to suppress given that unapproved NPS will be physically identical to approved NPS. If the legal market for NPS encourages the use of NPS, alcohol and other drugs there may be an increase in drug-related harm. Alternatively, if the legal NPS market reduces the use of more harmful drugs, there may be a considerable public health benefit. The clinical trials required for NPS products should address the characteristics of recreational NPS use. Enforcement resources and technical solutions are required to clearly distinguish legal NPS products. The impact the new NPS regime has on other drug use is a key issue and demands further study. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  12. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  13. 城市化进程中武昌沙湖流域面源污染负荷时空分布模拟%Simulation of spatial temporal distribution of NPS loadings in Shahu Lake watershed during process of urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆慧; 庄艳华; 洪松

    2012-01-01

    The paper uses TM remote sensing data to classify the land use type of Shahu Lake watershed and uses cellular automata model to forecast the transformation of land use type from 2011 to 2015;and then conbining combine the forecast results with non-point source pollution model to simulate temporal variation and spatial distribution of NPS Loadings of Shahu Lake in 2015.The results are as follows: During 2003-2010,urban area was expanding continuously,other types of land use were decreasing at a speed of: farmland 56.8%,greenland 35.1%,water area 23.9%,barren land 8.9.During 2011-2015,the other types of land use have the trend to transform into urban area.From the volume dose variation of NPS pollutants we can see that: compared with 2003,the volume dose of these three pollutants had increased substantially by 2015;the increasing speed are: TN 30.11%,TP 17.32%,BOD 43.38%.From the spatial distribution of NPS pollutants loadings we can see that: in 2003,the spatial distribution of TN was urban area greenland farmland barren land,while in 2015,the regularity of distribution becomes urban area barren land farmland greenland;in 2015,the spatial distribution of TP and BOD are the same with 2003;the regularity of distribution are urban area barren land farmland greenland.%利用遥感影像图进行武昌沙湖流域的土地利用分类,利用元胞自动机(CA)模型预测2011-2015年的土地利用变化,将CA预测结果与面源模型相结合,预测2015年沙湖流域面源污染物总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、生化需氧量(BOD)负荷的时空分布.研究结果表明2003-2010年间,建设用地面积不断扩展,其他地类向建设用地转变速度依次为:农田56.8%、绿地35.1%、水域23.9%、未利用地8.9%.2011-2015年间各用地类型均有继续向建设用地转变的趋势.从污染物负荷总量的变化情况上看,2015年3种污染物的负荷总量较2003年均有较大幅度增长,其中:TN增长30.11%,TP增长17.32%,BOD

  14. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of phytosynthesized CeO2 NPs using Moringa oleifera peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthetic methods are alternative approaches which are much safer than the normal techniques (physical and chemical) used for the methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The benefits are sample as it is economic and environment friendly. Herein present investigation, we have reported a microwave mediated eco-friendly synthetic approach for preparing cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. Here, we used Moringa oleifera peel as the stabilizing and reducing agent towards synthesize of Ce2O NPs via microwave irradiation. The NPs were further characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR, XRD and HR-TEM techniques. The FTIR analysis confirmed the phytochemical involvement in NPs stabilization. The crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles are well demonstrated through X-ray Diffraction and HR-TEM. The TEM images reveal the spherical shape of the CeO2 NPs having an average size of 45nm. Additionally, these CeO2 NPs were used successfully as a catalyst in the degradation of the dye, crystal violet. Also the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CeO2 NPs was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria). CeO2 NPs showed better activity on E. coli than S. aureus. We have demonstrated an eco-friendly preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles, a good photocatalyst and having better antibacterial properties.

  15. Study on Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Ag NPs/GO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using graphene oxide as substrate and stabilizer for the silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (Ag NPs/GO composites with different Ag loading were synthesized through a facile solution-phase method. During the synthesis process, AgNO3 on GO matrix was directly reduced by NaBH4. The structure characterization was studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results show that Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs with the sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm are highly dispersed on the surfaces of GO sheets. The shape and size of the Ag NPs are decided by the volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO. The antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites were investigated and the result shows that all the produced composites exhibit good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative (G− bacterial strain Escherichia coli (E. coli and Gram-positive (G+ strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites gradually increased with the increasing of volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO and this improvement of the antibacterial activities results from the combined action of size effect and concentration effect of Ag NPs in Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites.

  16. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  17. Design of NPS61000SHEV Extended Range Electric Bus%NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本祥

    2011-01-01

    Through the power matching, generator-set matching, battery capacity calculation and control strategy analyzing of NPS6100SHEV extended range electric bus, the author puts forward the overall design requirement and general design method of the extended range electric bus.%通过对NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车的动力匹配、发电机组匹配、电池容量计算和控制策略分析,提出增程式电动客车的总体设计要求和一般设计方法。

  18. Rapid multiplexed molecular phenotyping of ex vivo and in vivo tissues with targeted SERS NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Khan, Altaz; Som, Madhura; Leigh, Steven Y.; Wang, Danni; Chen, Ye; McVeigh, Patrick; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing a miniature fiber-optic spectral-detection device and topical-staining protocol to rapidly detect multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) targeted to cell-surface biomarkers in fresh tissues. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed to optimize our strategy for the rapid detection of multiple cell-surface biomarkers following a brief (5 min) topical application of SERS NPs on tissues. The simultaneous detection and ratiometric quantification of targeted and nontargeted NPs allows for an unambiguous assessment of molecular expression that is insensitive to nonspecific variations in NP concentrations, potentially enabling point-of-care surgical guidance or early disease detection.

  19. Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS) is the primary tool for management and oversight of EPA's Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control Program. GRTS pulls...

  20. Synthesis and optical properties study of nanocomposites based on AuNPs and AgNPs obtained by laser ablation in liquid monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulina, Natalia A.; Pavlovetc, Ilia M.; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Kaliabin, Viacheslav O.; Denisyuk, Igor Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Ag and Au nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) stable colloid solution were prepared by laser ablation of chemically pure silver rod and gold film in liquid monomer isodecyl acrylate (IDA). Sizes of obtained nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscope and vary from 30 to 130 nm. Nanocomposites films were prepared from obtained stable colloid solution by photocuring. To prepare solid film based on aliphatic polymer IDA long molecules cross-linking, 1,6-Hexandiol diacrylate was used. Obtained films were transparent, homogenous and colored in brown for AgNPs and purple for AuNPs-filled nanocomposites. Prepared nanomaterials exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical responses under CW laser irradiation at 532 nm, which was estimated by using z-scan technique performed with open and close aperture. The real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of the studied nanocomposites were found to be up to Reχ (3) = 1.31 × 10-5 (esu) and Imχ (3) = 7.64 × 10-5 (esu), for samples negative nonlinear refractive index was obtained, which corresponds to self-defocusing effect.

  1. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  2. Key Player in Maersk Alabama Hostage Rescue Addresses NPS Students During Guest Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    Renowned Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) alumnus and former USS Bainbridge (DDG-96) commander, U.S. Navy Capt. Frank Castellano, recently addressed students and faculty at NPS’ King Auditorium, Oct. 16.

  3. Effect of silver NPs plasmon on optical properties of fluorescein dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Alaa EL-din E. A.; Gadallah, A.; Mohamed, Mona B.; Azzouz, I. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we studied the effect of silver nanoparticles "AgNPs" on the optical properties of fluoretain-->rescein dye. Fluorescein dye solutions have been mixed with different concentrations of colloidal AgNPs. Absorption and fluorescence enhancement of fluorescein dye molecules was detected in the presence of AgNPs. Fluorescence enhancement of the dye molecules was observed with a maximal enhancement factor of about 3-fold. Enhancement of the rate of radiative transition was also detected. The enhancement mechanisms are attributed to a modification of the local density of electromagnetic modes in the vicinity of AgNPs at energies resonant with surface Plasmon. The ability of fluorophore-metal mixture to actively enhance the dye's luminescence could leads to new opportunities for technological development of light emitting and photonic devices. It also may have applications in the fields of bio-technology and medical diagnostics as new class of fluorescence based sensing.

  4. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neishaboorynejad, T. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arsalani, S. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of morphologically tuned Bi2S3 NPs in the degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arpita; Ghosh, Abhisek Brata; Saha, Namrata; Srivastava, Divesh N; Paul, Parimal; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2016-12-01

    Here in, morphologically tuned Bi2S3 NPs were successfully synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Bi(ACDA)3] [HACDA=2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid] by decomposing in various solvents using a simple solvothermal method. The as-obtained products were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Structural analyses revealed that the as-prepared Bi2S3 NPs can be tuned to different morphologies by varying various solvents and surfactants. The interplay of factors that influenced the size and morphology of the nanomaterials has been studied. Moreover, mastery over the morphology of nanoparticles enables control of their properties and enhancement of their usefulness for a given application. These materials emerged as a highly active visible light-driven photocatalyst towards degradation of methylene blue dye and the efficiencies are dependent on size and surface area of the NPs. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of highly toxic dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was studied using synthesized Bi2S3 NPs as catalyst and the rate of degradation has been found to be much better compared to that exhibited by commercial WO3. We believe that this new synthesis approach can be extended to the synthesis of other metal sulfide nanostructures and open new opportunities for device applications.

  6. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres ((131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of (131)I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to (131)I alone, (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.

  7. Change of antioxidant enzymes activity of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells by AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mitra; Ghanati, Faezeh; Rezaei, Ayatollah; Bemani, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    Elicitation effect of silver nano particles (AgNPs) and triggering of defence system by production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a signaling molecule in the regulation of the activity of stress-related enzymes and production of Taxol was evaluated in suspension- cultured hazel cells (Corylus avellana L.). The cells were treated with different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm), in their logarithmic growth phase (d7) and were harvested after 1 week. Treatment of hazel cells with AgNPs decreased the viability of the cells. Also the results showed that while the activity of certain radical scavenging enzymes in particular of catalase and peroxidase increased by 2.5 and 5 ppm AgNPs, the activity of superoxide dismutase decreased in these treatments. The highest activity of ascorbate peroxidase was observed in 10 ppm AgNPs treatments. This treatment also showed the highest contents of H2O2 and phenolic compounds, as well as the highest activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase. According to the results, 5 ppm AgNPs was the best concentration for elicitation of hazel cells to produce efficient amounts of H2O2 in order for stimulation of antioxidant defence system, production of Taxol at the highest capacity of the cells, meanwhile reserving their viability.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  9. Lexical Link Analysis for the Haiti Earthquake Relief Operation Using Open Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Information Systems Experimentation ( DISE ) Group Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 yzhao@nps.edu, spgallup@nps.edu, djmackin@nps.edu...Using Open Data Sources Dr. Ying Zhao, Dr. Shelley P. Gallup, and Dr. Douglas J. MacKinnon Distributed Information Systems Experimentation ( DISE ...Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Acquisition Research Program. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. DISE Distributed Information Systems

  10. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF):A green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; SUN Ke-jun; WANG De-han; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas(N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs,the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  11. Histopathological effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs in liver after dermal exposure during wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Heydarnejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: With the advent of nanotechnology, significant progress has been made in the area of nanoscale materials such as nanosilver (Ag-Nps. These nanoparticles have a wide range of applications and been used for antimicrobial purposes for more than a century. However, little attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanosilver wound dressing. This study was designed to investigate the possible histopathological toxicity of Ag-NPs in liver of mice during wound healing.     Materials and Methods:   A group of 50 female BALB/c mice of about 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: Ag-NPs and control groups (n=25. After creating similar wound on the backs of all animals, the wound bed was treated in Ag-NPs group, with a volume of 50 microliters of the nanosilver solution (10ppm ,and in control group, with the same amount of distilled water. The experiment lasted for 14 days. Histopathaological samplings of liver were conducted on days 2, 7 and 14 of the experiment.   Results: Histopathological studies demonstrated time-dependent changes in mice liver treated with Ag-NPs compared to control group. Some changes include dilation in central venous, hyperemia, cell swelling, increase of Kupffer and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of nanosilver for wound healing may cause a mild toxicity, as indicated by time-dependent toxic responses in liver tissue. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  12. Green technology for durable finishing of viscose fibers via self-formation of AuNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Hossam E; El-Hawary, Nancy S; Ahmed, Hanan B

    2017-03-01

    Sensitivity of dyes' colors to the surrounding environment causes lower durability and stability of color, which reflects the importance of durable finishing treatment. Current technique offered antimicrobial/durable finishing of viscose fibers through direct formation of AuNPs inside fibers macromolecules without using any external agents. By using the reducing properties of cellulose in viscose, Au(+3) was reduced to AuNPs and CHO/OH of cellulose subsequently were oxidized to COOH. For comparison, two different media were used; aqueous and alkaline. Increasing the reactivity and accessibility of cellulose macromolecules in alkali leaded to enlargement of the reduction process and more incorporation of AuNPs. Size of AuNPs inside fiber was recorded to be in range of 22-112nm and 14-100nm, in case of using aqueous and alkaline medium, respectively. Structure and properties of fibers were not changed by treatment according to XRD and ATR-FTIR data. The treated fibers were acquired durable violet color by the action of LSPR for AuNPs and darker color obtained using higher Au(+3) concentration. The treated fibers exhibited good inhibition against different pathogenic microbes including bacteria and fungi. One-pot, quite simple, inexpensive, green and industrial viable are the significant advantages of the current technique for viscose finishing (pigmentation and antimicrobial action). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Interactions between ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs and α-Linolenic Acid (LNA Complexed to BSA Did Not Influence the Toxicity of ZnO NPs on HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanoparticles (NPs entering the biological environment could interact with biomolecules, but little is known about the interaction between unsaturated fatty acids (UFA and NPs. Methods: This study used α-linolenic acid (LNA complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA for UFA and HepG2 cells for hepatocytes. The interactions between BSA or LNA and ZnO NPs were studied. Results: The presence of BSA or LNA affected the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and synchronous fluorescence spectra of ZnO NPs, which indicated an interaction between BSA or LNA and NPs. Exposure to ZnO NPs with the presence of BSA significantly induced the damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in HepG2 cells, associated with an increase of intracellular Zn ions, but not intracellular superoxide. Paradoxically, the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 was decreased, which indicated the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnO NPs when BSA was present. The presence of LNA did not significantly affect all of these endpoints in HepG2 cells exposed to ZnO NPs and BSA. Conclusions: the results from the present study indicated that BSA-complexed LNA might modestly interact with ZnO NPs, but did not significantly affect ZnO NPs and BSA-induced biological effects in HepG2 cells.

  14. TEA controllable preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with excellent magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengliang; Zhu, Dejie; Wu, Hanzhao; Li, Yao; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Kunhong

    2016-06-01

    A fast and controllable synthesis method for superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) was developed in Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) solution. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the magnetic particles were pure Fe3O4 with mean sizes of approximately 10 nm. The used TEA has key effects on the formation of well dispersing Fe3O4 NPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) result indicated that the as-obtained Fe3O4 NPs exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization (Ms) was about 70 emu/g, which had potential applications in magnetic science and technology.

  15. Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; Hudson, Samuel M; Rojas, Orlando J

    2014-01-16

    Novel hybrid nanomaterials have been developed for antimicrobial applications. Here we introduce a green route to produce antibacterial nanofiber mats loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, 25 nm diameter) enveloped in chitosan after reduction with glucose. The nanofiber mats were obtained from colloidal dispersions of chitosan-based Ag-NPs blended with polyvinyl alcohol. Nanofibers (150 nm average diameter and narrow size distribution) were obtained by electrospinning and cross-linked with glutaraldhyde. The effect of crosslinking on the release of silver was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity was studied by the viable cell-counting; mats loaded with silver and control samples (chitosan/PVA) with different degrees of cross-linking were compared for their effectiveness in reducing or halting the growth of aerobic bacteria. The results showed superior properties and synergistic antibacterial effects by combining chitosan with Ag-NPs.

  16. Bifunctional Nanoparticle-SILP Catalysts (NPs@SILP) for the Selective Deoxygenation of Biomass Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luska, Kylie L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Julis, Jennifer [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany); Stavitski, Eli [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zakharov, Dmitri N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, Alina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Leitner, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Coal Research, Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-08-27

    We immobilized ruthenium nanoparticles onto an acidic supported ionic liquid phase (RuNPs@SILP) in the development of bifunctional catalysts for the selective deoxygenation of biomass substrates. RuNPs@SILPs possessed high catalytic activities, selectivities and recyclabilities in the hydrogenolytic deoxygenation and ring opening of C8- and C9-substrates derived from furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetone. When we tailor the acidity of the SILP through the ionic liquid loading provided a molecular parameter by which the catalytic activity and selectivity of the RuNPs@SILPs were controlled to provide a flexible catalyst system toward the formation of different classes of value-added products: cyclic ethers, primary alcohols or aliphatic ethers.

  17. Concentration-dependent, size-independent toxicity of citrate capped AuNPs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vecchio

    Full Text Available The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment of the physical/chemical factors responsible for their toxic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of monodisperse citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of different sizes (5, 15, 40, and 80 nm in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, upon ingestion. To properly evaluate and distinguish the possible dose- and/or size-dependent toxicity of the AuNPs, we performed a thorough assessment of their biological effects, using two different dose-metrics. In the first approach, we kept constant the total surface area of the differently sized AuNPs (Total Exposed Surface area approach, TES, while, in the second approach, we used the same number concentration of the four different sizes of AuNPs (Total Number of Nanoparticles approach, TNN. We observed a significant AuNPs-induced toxicity in vivo, namely a strong reduction of Drosophila lifespan and fertility performance, presence of DNA fragmentation, as well as a significant modification in the expression levels of genes involved in stress responses, DNA damage recognition and apoptosis pathway. Interestingly, we found that, within the investigated experimental conditions, the toxic effects in the exposed organisms were directly related to the concentration of the AuNPs administered, irrespective of their size.

  18. Green Synthesis of AgNPs Stabilized with biowaste and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v at different NaOH concentration (5 mL. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 g/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 µg/mL, 38 µg/mL, 35 µg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin.

  19. Facile fabrication of AgNPs/(PVA/PEI) nanofibers: high electrochemical efficiency and durability for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Wang, LiNa; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2013-11-15

    A novel, facile and green approach for the fabrication of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and glucose detection biosensor using water-stable PVA and PVA/PEI nanofibers decorated with AgNPs by combining an in situ reduction approach and electrospinning technique has been demonstrated. Small, uniform and well-dispersed AgNPs embedded in the PVA nanofibers and immobilized on functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers indicate the highly sensitive detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of 5 μM and exhibit a fast response, broad linear range, low detection limit and excellent stability and reusability.

  20. NPS State Vector Analysis and Relative Motion Plotting Software for STS-51. Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    vector *’tans -in, State -vector ftans-out, * double tans buf, int fbi, int point num, Perturbations *P) *This filter, created by Lou Zyla is designed to...main menu; ups menu displayWntO; return YES; static void ups display graphics(int graph mode) void upsdisplay~ grphics (int graph mode) if (nps ub~plot...in~graphics mode = YES; else if (ups graphics info.in graphics-mode = = NO) return; closegrapho; ups graphics info. in~ grphics mode =NO; void nps

  1. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Furey, John S.; Kelley Betts; Indest, Karl J.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST) of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Ent...

  2. Anthropogenic point-source and non-point-source nitrogen inputs into Huai River basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point-source and point-source nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River basin of China, a water-shed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98 % of total N input, and only 2 % of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River basin (69 % of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20 %), N fixation in croplands (7 %), and N content of imported food and feed (2 %). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point-source N input, and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams may influence the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from both point sources and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  3. Influence of particle coating and matrix constituents on the cloud point extraction efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and application for monitoring the formation of Ag-NPs from Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Baumgartner, Tanja; Schuster, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For the quantification of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in environmental samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) for selective enrichment, surface modification of the Ag-NPs and matrix effects can play a key role. In this work we validate CPE with respect to the influence of different coatings and naturally occurring matrix components. The Ag-NPs tested were functionalized with inorganic and organic compounds as well as with biomolecules. Commercially available NPs and NPs synthesized according to methods published in the literature were used. We found that CPE can extract almost all Ag-NPs tested with very good efficiencies (82-105%). Only Ag-NPs functionalized with BSA (bovine serum albumin), which is a protein with the function to keep colloids in solution, cannot be extracted. No or little effect of environmentally relevant salts, organic matter, and inorganic colloids on the CPE of AgNPs was found. Additionally we used CPE to observe the in situ formation of Ag-NPs produced by the reduction of Ag(+) with natural organic matter (NOM).

  4. Green synthesis of AuNPs for eco-friendly functionalization of cellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabil A.; Eid, Basma M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using marine bacterial isolates (Streptomyces sp.) as a reducing/capping/stabilizing bio-agent and chlolauric acid (HAuCl4) as a precursor has been investigated. Surface modification of cotton and viscose knitted fabrics using O2-plasma followed by subsequent treatment with bio-synthesized AuNPs alone and in combination with TiO2NPs or ZnONPs to impart new functional properties namely antibacterial and UV-blocking were studied. The results show that loading of nominated nanomaterials onto the activated fabric samples results in a significant improvement in antibacterial activity against both G+ve (S. aureus) and G-ve (E. coli) along with a remarkable enhancement in the UV-protection functionality of the treated fabrics. The highest antibacterial and anti-UV values were obtained when O2-plasma treated fabrics were loaded with AuNPs/ZnONPs combination, irrespective of the used substrate. The imparted functional properties demonstrated remarkable retention even after 15 washings.

  5. 76 FR 62090 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Education. 4. Climate Change Research. b. Subsistence Manager. c. Resource Management. 1. Wildlife (Musk Ox, Brown Bear, Sheep). 2. NPS Research/Studies. 3. Ranger Report (Education, Outreach and Visitor Protection). 9. Federal Subsistence Board Update. 10. Alaska Board of Game Update. 11. Old Business....

  6. New Tools for Characterizing Metallic Nanoparticles: AgNPs, A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuenzalida, Rodrigo A; Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Molins-Legua, Carmen; Parada-Artigues, Vanesa; Verdú-Andrés, Jorge; Campins-Falcó, Pilar

    2016-01-19

    Currently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the main technique for estimating the sizes of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and through them, their concentrations. This paper demonstrates for the first time that C18 reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (Cap-LC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) has the potential to estimate mean concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and thereby determine their average size. Direct injection of the sample without previous extraction or separation steps is carried out. Only a unique standard with a known AgNP size is needed for the calibration. In a first approach, the new method has been tested over silver nanoparticles, produced using different methods of synthesis, and their water dilutions. Good results were achieved: relative errors ranged up to 5% compared with TEM. Also stability and functionality-related NP properties, as well as nonspherical AgNPs, can be studied using this method. Moreover, by coupling online in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) to Cap-LC-DAD, the effect of the dilution can be studied as particles distribute by polarity in two groups, a distribution that responds to average particle size of not only AgNPs, but also gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In such a distribution, the average particle size is correlated with the peak area ratio. Additionally, besides higher sensitivity and concentration-dependent signals, IT-SPME-Cap-LC responds to changes in the particle's hydrodynamic diameter allowing, for instance, the detection of cationic surfactants. Size-exclusion and hydrophobic effects are the mechanisms involved to explain this behavior.

  7. Modification of Thin Film Composite (TFC) Membrane by Incorporation with Copper Nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chen

    Membrane biofouling has been a challenging problem restricting the application of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Copper is known for its antimicrobial properties and is easily available with low cost. In this paper, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) with a mean diameter of 15nm were synthesized by the reduction of copper (II) chloride with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3) 3Br, CTAB) as a capping agent. After purification of Cu-NPs by dialysis, the particles were successfully immobilized onto the surface of thin film composite (TFC) membranes via either electrostatic interactions or by covalent bonding with cysteamine as a linker. The electrostatic method was simply to immerse the newly made TFC membranes to the Cu-NPs suspension. Since the CTAB had formed cationic bilayer outside the Cu-NPs, the Cu-NPs was not only adsorbed on the membranes but also attached to the surface because of the electrostatic effect with the negatively charged membrane surface. The covalent bonding method utilized cysteamine (C4H12N2S 2) to activate the thin film layer with thiol functional groups first and then incorporated the metallic copper nanoparticles to form the stable covalent chemical bonding in between. The resulting membranes by these two methods were labeled as TFC-CuNPs and TFC-S-CuNPs, respectively, in this study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and associated energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed that large amounts of Cu-NPs existed on both types of membranes. Surface hydrophilicity of the membranes was enhanced by the presence of Cu-NPs, as indicated by the measured contact angle of 63.25 +/- 0.75 for TFC, 38.63 +/- 2.16 for TFC-CuNPs, and 58.00 +/- 3.39 for TFC-S-CuNPs. Consistently, the water flux obtained from the RO desalination system was increased from 47.07 +/- 0.84 for TFC, 49.10 +/- 0.22 for TFC-CuNPs, and 69.13 +/- 1.43 for TFC-S-CuNPs, with this increase in hydrophilicity. The salt

  8. Study of fungicidal properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on trout egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to have bactericidal and fungicidal effects. Since, there is few information available on the interaction of colloidal nanosilver with fish pathogens. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of colloidal AgNPs on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp.. Before the experiments, various important properties of AgNPs were well-characterized. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was then evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using two-fold serial dilutions of colloidal nanosilver in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22ºC. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the AgNPs agar treatments was compared to that of nanosilver-free agar as controls. The results showed that AgNPs have an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The MIC of AgNPs for Saprolegnia sp. was calculated at 1800 mg/L, which is equal to 0.18 percent. It seems that AgNPs could be a proper replacement for teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green. In addition, the indirect use of AgNPs could be a useful method for providing new antifungal activity in aquaculture systems.

  9. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  10. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  11. Molecular control of TiO₂-NPs toxicity formation at predicted environmental relevant concentrations by Mn-SODs proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available With growing concerns of the safety of nanotechnology, the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs at environmental relevant concentrations has drawn increasing attentions. We investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of titanium nanoparticles (Ti-NPs in the induction of toxicity at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In nematodes, small sizes (4 nm and 10 nm of TiO₂-NPs induced more severe toxicities than large sizes (60 nm and 90 nm of TiO₂-NPs on animals using lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production as endpoints. Locomotion behaviors could be significantly decreased by exposure to 4-nm and 10-nm TiO₂-NPs at concentration of 1 ng/L in nematodes. Among genes required for the control of oxidative stress, only the expression patterns of sod-2 and sod-3 genes encoding Mn-SODs in animals exposed to small sizes TiO₂-NPs were significantly different from those in animals exposed to large sizes of TiO₂-NPs. sod-2 and sod-3 gene expressions were closely correlated with lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and ROS production in TiO₂-NPs-exposed animals. Ectopically expression of human and nematode Mn-SODs genes effectively prevented the induction of ROS production and the development of toxicity of TiO₂-NPs. Therefore, the altered expression patterns of Mn-SODs may explain the toxicity formation for different sizes of TiO₂-NPs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In addition, we demonstrated here a strategy to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to NPs upon humans by generating transgenic strains in nematodes for specific human genes.

  12. Dynorphin-dependent reduction of excitability and attenuation of inhibitory afferents of NPS neurons in the pericoerulear region of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eJuengling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR, modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus (pericoerulear, periLC region are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL, of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR ligand precursor prodynorphin. This study aims to identify the effect of the dynorphinergic system on NPS neurons in the periLC via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Using electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices, we provide evidence that NPS neurons in the periLC region are directly inhibited by dynorphin A via activation of κ-opioid receptor 1 (KOR1 and a subsequent increase of potassium conductances. Thus, the dynorphinergic system is suited to inactivate NPS neurons in the periLC. In addition to this direct, somatic effect, dynorphin A reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses on NPS neurons via KOR1 and KOR2. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the interaction of the NPS and the kappa opioid system in the periLC. Therefore, the endogenous opioid dynorphin is suited to inhibit NPS neurons with a subsequent decrease in NPS release in putative target regions leading to a variety of physiological consequences such as increased anxiety or vulnerability to stress exposure.

  13. Identification and characterization of another 4-nitrophenol degradation gene cluster, nps, in Rhodococcus sp. strain PN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Nishimura, Munehiro; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2011-06-01

    4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is a toxic compound formed in soil by the hydrolysis of organophosphorous pesticides, such as parathion. We previously reported the presence of the 4-NP degradation gene cluster (nphRA1A2) in Rhodococcus sp. strain PN1, which encodes a two-component 4-NP hydroxylase system that oxidizes 4-NP into 4-nitrocatechol. In the current study, another gene cluster (npsC and npsRA2A1B) encoding a similar 4-NP hydroxylase system was cloned from strain PN1. The enzymes from this 4-NP hydroxylase system (NpsA1 and NpsA2) were purified as histidine-tagged (His-) proteins and then characterized. His-NpsA2 showed NADH/FAD oxidoreductase activity, and His-NpsA1 showed 4-NP oxidizing activity in the presence of His-NpsA2. In the 4-NP oxidation using the reconstituted enzyme system (His-NpsA1 and His-NpsA2), hydroquinone (35% of 4-NP disappeared) and hydroxyquinol (59% of 4-NP disappeared) were detected in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing reagent, suggesting that, without the reducing reagent, 4-NP was converted into their oxidized forms, 1,4-benzoquinone and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone. In addition, in the cell extract of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing npsB, a typical spectral change showing conversion of hydroxyquinol into maleylacetate was observed. These results indicate that this nps gene cluster, in addition to the nph gene cluster, is also involved in 4-NP degradation in strain PN1.

  14. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S

    2016-08-20

    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications.

  15. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833134; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with dat

  16. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with

  17. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with dat

  18. The Information Revolution Planning for Institutional Change, The NPS Information Technology Strategic Plan / FY 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Vision of NPS outlines the future goals for the institution within the context of national priorities and defines academic goals through excellence in scholarly accomplishment and peer recognition. It requires that our faculty and staff are experienced in using modern technologies for teaching and learning. We must nurture and sustain efforts in high performance computing, multi-media technology, educational technology, and the technology of distance education.

  19. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing of the NPS/NASA Ames Mach 6 Optimized Waverider

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    Specifically, thanks to Prof. Richard M. Howard for providing wind tunnel equipment and guidance necessary to run the tests. Thanks to Mr. Jack King for...tuft in the column. However, each tuft was mounted perpendicular to the centerline. Professor Richard Howard, NPS Department of Aeronautical and...axial.arrayl(), sone.arrmyl() COMMON SHARF .? stwo.Arrayl(), rm.arraylf() 72 DECLARE S"P volt (nonol, nftwn, axisa], sonel, Rtwol, rml) SCREEN 9, 0 CAIIPRATION

  20. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution, fate and reactive oxygen species generation of polymer brush engineered CeO2-x NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuan; Rojas, Elena; Murray, Richard A.; Irigoyen, Joseba; Gregurec, Danijela; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Fledderman, Jana; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Donath, Edwin; Moya, Sergio E.

    2015-04-01

    Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell endosomes and lysosomes after 24 h of incubation. They also show higher co-localisation with lipid bodies when compared to unmodified CeO2-x NPs. The brush coating does not prevent CeO2-x NPs from displaying antioxidant properties.Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell

  1. Photocurrent Enhancement of P3HT:PCBM Organic Solar Cell with Cylindrical Ag-NPs by EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gye-Choon

    2015-08-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells(SCs) with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on ITO is studied, and the optical absorption of the SCs with a cylindrical Ag-NPs model is investigated. The fabricated device structure is simulated with a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. This cylindrical Ag-NPs model is able to explain the photocurrent enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. Compared with the SCs without Ag-NPs, an increase in the PCE of the plasmonic solar cell was accurately identified. The photocurrent-voltage characteristic of the examined solar cells reveals higher efficiency of 2.75% compared with the reference cells which show 1.67%.

  2. Chronic ZnO-NPs exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations results in metabolic and locomotive toxicities in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Li, Shang-Wei; Hsiu-Chuan Liao, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are emerging contaminants that raise the concerns of potential risk in the aquatic environment. It has been estimated that the environmental ZnO-NPs concentration is 76 μg/l in the aquatic environment. Our aim was to determine the aquatic toxicity of ZnO-NPs with chronic exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two simulated environmentally relevant mediums-moderately hard reconstituted water (EPA water) and simulated soil pore water (SSPW)-were used to represent surface water and pore water in sediment, respectively. The results showed that the ZnO-NPs in EPA water has a much smaller hydrodynamic diameter than that in SSPW. Although the ionic release of Zn ions increased time-dependently in both mediums, the Zn ions concentrations in EPA water increased two-fold more than that in SSPW at 48 h and 72 h. The ZnO-NPs did not induce growth defects or decrease head thrashes in C. elegans in either media. However, chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs caused a significant reduction in C. elegans body bends in EPA water even with a relatively low concentration (0.05 μg/l); similar results were not observed in SSPW. Moreover, at the same concentrations (50 and 500 μg/l), body bends in C. elegans were reduced more severely in ZnO-NPs than in ZnCl2 in EPA water. The ATP levels were consistently and significantly decreased, and ROS was induced after ZnO-NPs exposure (50 and 500 μg/l) in EPA water. Our results provide evidences that chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs under environmentally relevant concentrations causes metabolic and locomotive toxicities implicating the potential ecotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at low concentrations in aquatic environments.

  3. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  4. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  5. n vivo retention of ingested Au NPs by Daphnia magna: No evidence for trans-epithelial alimentary uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Kennaway, Gabrielle M.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Smith, Brian D.; Nogueira, António J.A.; Rainbow, Philip S.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies with Daphnia magna remain inconclusive as to whether engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are internalized into tissues after ingestion. Here we used a three-pronged approach to study the in vivo retention and efflux kinetics of 20 nm citrate stabilized Au NPs ingested by this key aquatic species. Daphnids were exposed to suspended particles (600 μg L−1) for 5 h after which they were depurated for 24 h in clean water containing algae. Light microscopy was used to follow the passage of Au NPs through the gastrointestinal tract, Au body burdens were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the presence and distribution of Au NPs in tissues. Results revealed that the elimination of Au NPs was bi-phasic. The fast elimination phase lasted −1 (±SE) which accounted for ∼75% of the ingested Au. The remaining ∼25% of the ingested Au NPs was eliminated at a 100-fold slower rate. TEM analysis revealed that Au NPs in the midgut were in close proximity to the peritrophic membrane after 1 and 24 h of depuration. There were no observations of Au NP uptake at the microvilli. Thus, although Au NPs were retained in the gut lumen, there was no observable internalization into the gut epithelial cells. Similar to carbon nanotubes and CuO NPs, our findings indicate that in daphnids the in vivo retention of Au NPs does not necessarily result in their internalization.

  6. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  7. Use of LANDSAT for Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Ecosystems of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data results show for the first time Landsat-based land use maps of both the terrestrial and benthic habitats of the U. S. Virgin Islands, spanning a period of...

  8. A combined microscopic and macroscopic approach to modeling the transport of pathogenic microorganisms from nonpoint sources of pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeghiazarian, L.L.; Walker, M.J.; Binning, Philip John

    2006-01-01

    is important for accurate risk assessment and prediction of water contamination events. This paper presents a stochastic Markov model of microorganism transport, with distinct states of microorganism behavior capturing the microbial partitioning between solid and aqueous phases in runoff and soil surface......, including the partitioning among soil particles of various sizes. A connection between the soil sediment and microbial transport is established through the incorporation of an erosion model (WEPP) into the microorganism transport model. Probability distribution functions of microorganism occurrence in time...... results show that areas with clay soils are more likely than sandy soils to contribute to contamination events and that the most influential transport parameters are the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and topographic slope....

  9. A repeated-measures study of recreational water exposure, non-point source pollution, and risk of illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discharge of stormwater runoff onto beaches is a major cause of beach closings and advisories in the United States. Prospective studies of recreational water quality and health have often been limited to two time points (baseline and follow-up). Little is known about the risk of ...

  10. HYPOXIA IN THE GULF OF MEXICO: ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Hypoxia is the condition in which dissolved oxygen levels are below that necessary to sustain most animal life. The largest zone of oxygen depletion in U.S. coastal waters is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) on the Louisiana/Texas continental shelf. In response to...

  11. HYPOXIA IN THE GULF OF MEXICO: ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISKS FROM NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Hypoxia is the condition in which dissolved oxygen levels are below that necessary to sustain most animal life. The largest zone of oxygen depletion in U.S. coastal waters is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) on the Louisiana/Texas continental shelf. In response to...

  12. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  13. WA - Impacts of non-point source pollution on the health of salmonids in urban and urbanizing watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — By the Services conducting this off-refuge EC investigation and jointly publishing the results in the two aforementioned manuscripts [see notes section of ProCite...

  14. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  15. Study on the Effect of γ-Irradiation on Gadolinium Oxysulfide Nanophosphors (Gd2O2S-NPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hassyakirin Hasim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gadolinium oxysulfide nanophosphors (Gd2O2S-NPs have been successfully synthesized using γ-irradiation and hydrogenation treatment. The primary stage of Gd2O2S-NPs synthesis was carried out using various doses of γ-irradiation to form diverse sizes of Gd2(SO43 precursor, followed by hydrogenation treatment at 900°C for 2 hours to form Gd2O2S-NPs. Then, the nanophosphors were characterized for the structure, morphology, and luminescence properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and photoluminescence spectrometer (PL. Pure hexagonal phase of Gd2O2S-NPs was obtained with high crystallinity and without any impurities. The morphologies were observed from grain-like nanostructures transformed to spherical shape as the irradiation dose reached 40 kGy. Besides, Gd2O2S-NPs which were prepared at highest irradiation dose of 40 kGy show highest intensity of emission peak at 548 nm and corresponded to Stark level transition from the GJ6 state of Gd3+ ion. It can be emphasized that the different doses of γ-irradiation influenced the nucleation event of Gd2(SO43 precursor thus affecting the morphology and size particles of Gd2O2S-NPs. Hence, from the results, it can be suggested that Gd2O2S-NPs can be a promising host for optical applications.

  16. Structural, chemical and optical properties of SnO2 NPs obtained by three different synthesis routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Depciuch, Joanna; Budziak, Andrzej; Kowal, Andrzej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Polyol (P), chemical precipitation (C) and microwave-assisted (M) syntheses were chosen to produce SnO2 nanoparticles with uniform size and minimum agglomeration. Their structural, chemical and optical properties were investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) using the Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. STEM observations showed that the SnO2(P) and SnO2(C) nanoparticles (NPs) are combined into larger agglomerates with heterogeneous thickness, while the microwave-assisted NPs form a uniform thin layer across the TEM grid. The strongest agglomeration of the SnO2(C) NPs, observed by DLS, STEM and UV-Vis is explained by the very moderate amount of water present on the surface of the NPs identified by FTIR spectroscopy. High resolution STEM combined with SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the crystalline character of the NPs. In the nanoparticles from polyol synthesis, chlorine from the remains of metal precursors during reduction was detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contrary to the NPs obtained by the chemical precipitation and microwave-assisted methods. All three syntheses routes lead to small, 2-10 nm SnO2 NPs, which were the result of the low concentration of Cl ions in the solutions.

  17. Ratiometric fluorescence detection of superoxide anion based on AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP nanoscale coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Hao, Juan; Cai, Keying; Zeng, Mulan; Huang, Zhenzhong; Chen, Lili; Peng, Bingxian; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2017-08-03

    A novel ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for superoxide anion (O2(•-) ) detection was designed with gold nanoparticles-bovine serum albumin (AuNPs-BSA)@terbium/guanosine monophosphate disodium (Tb/GMP) nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) (AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCPs). The abundant hydroxyl and amino groups of AuNPs-BSA acted as binding points for the self-assembly of Tb(3+) and GMP to form core-shell AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCP nanosensors. The obtained probe exhibited the characteristic fluorescence emission of both AuNPs-BSA and Tb/GMP NCPs. The AuNPs-BSA not only acted as a template to accelerate the growth of Tb/GMP NCPs, but also could be used as the reference fluorescence for the detection of O2(•-) . The resulting AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCP ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the detection of O2(•-) demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity with a wide linear response range (14 nM-10 μM) and a low detection limit (4.7 nM). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on proliferation and apoptosis of in ovo cultured glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Kaja; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciej; Sysa, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provide a unique approach to the treatment of tumors, especially those of neuroepithelial origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells cultured in an in ovo model. Human GBM cells, line U-87, were placed on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. After 8 days, the tumors were divided into three groups: control (non-treated), treated with colloidal AgNPs (40 μg/ml), and placebo (tumors supplemented with vehicle only). At the end of the experiment, all tumors were isolated. Assessment of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis was estimated by histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results show that AgNPs can influence GBM growth. AgNPs inhibit proliferation of GBM cells and seem to have proapoptotic properties. Although there were statistically significant differences between control and AgNP groups in the AI and the levels of active caspase 9 and active caspase 3, the level of these proteins in GBM cells treated with AgNPs seems to be on the border between the spontaneous apoptosis and the induced. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative properties of silver nanoparticles overwhelm proapoptotic ones. Further research focused on the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on tumor and normal cells should be conducted.

  19. Investigations of spherical Cu NPs in sodium lauryl sulphate with Tb{sup 3+} ions dispersed in PVA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gagandeep_bhu@yahoo.com; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cu NPs were prepared in SDS using 1064 nm laser radiation at fluence 37, 64 and 88 J/cm{sup 2}. • Spherical Cu NPs with average diameter varying between 10 and 50 nm atdifferent fluence. • PL of Tb3+ ions in PVA polymer film is maximum with Cu NPS at fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}. • PVA films of Cu NPs displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity. • These copper NPs embedded PVA films can be used as novel, low-cost sensor materials. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in SDS solution using 1064 nm laser radiation at different fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}, 64 J/cm{sup 2} and 88 J/cm{sup 2} and structurally characterized. The TEM measurements reveal the presence of nanoparticles of spherical shape with different size. The size of the nanoparticles and their concentration increases with the increase of fluence.The effect of these Cu nanoparticles on the emissive properties of Tb{sup 3+} ion in polymer films has been studied. It is found that emission intensity of Tb{sup 3+} first increases and then deceases both with concentration of Cu NPs as well as with sizes. The PL intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ions is minimum for Cu NPs prepared with highest fluence. It has been explained in term of local field effect. This was also verified by life time measurements. These thin PVA films of copper nanoparticles displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity with sensitivity at least comparable to commercial materials which suggest the use of these copper NPs embedded PVA films as novel, low-cost sensor materials.

  20. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety.

  1. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  3. Influence of HCl on the NPs-CdSe synthesis prepared by the colloidal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarmiento Arellano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide nanoparticles (NPs-CdSe were synthesized by colloidal route at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using cadmium chloride (CdCl2·2.5 hydrate and elemental selenium (Se as precursors. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4 was used as reducing agent to obtain Se2− ions and an aqueous solution with a NaOH and Penta sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP was used to protect Cd2+ ions. To remove the by-products generated during the chemical reaction and to promote the precipitation of NPs-CdSe, a cleaning process with an aqueous solution of HCl was performed. The HCl volume was varied from 0.2 to 1.2 ml during the cleaning process to study its effects on CdSe synthesis. The crystalline structure was analyzed by inspection of the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. This analysis showed that crystals of CdSe exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (FCC. The calculated crystallite size is 3.5 nm and increases to 4.5 nm as the HCl volume increases. The morphologies of the products were observed by SEM and TEM techniques. HRTEM images showed that NPs-CdSe synthetized to 0.8 ml are composed of a great number of homogeneous and smooth nanospheres which are not appreciable in SEM but are observable in TEM. By contrast, 0.2 and 1.2 ml HCl samples are comprised of a great deal of rods of compounds of Se mixed with CdSe spheres nanostructures. This work, which did not require the use of surfactants complexes or specials environment, is considered to have advantages over other works.

  4. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-06-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV-visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A650nm/A520nm) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.5 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0-101 % and 100-103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  5. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With the effective control of point source (PS) pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which inclu...

  6. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Graphic Presentation of Results for Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    CHILDRE N’S S EJADEOT TIME TO MOVING LENGTH OF NEW AW/T0oITH f- o 10 20 30 40 s0 0 70 0 90 100 Percent NPS-92 MULTIPLE RESPONSE QUESTION 014 REASON WHY...Sexual harassment is a form of sex " relationship.. which Is unduly familiar and discrimination that involves unwelcome - does not respect differences...harassment, both women M subordinate supervisory relationship exists. and men can be sexual harassers; people M can sexually harass persons of their own sex

  7. Connecting the dots: a collaborative USGS-NPS effort to expand the utility of monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Schweiger, E. William; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    The Natural Resource Challenge (National Park Service 1999) was a call to action. It constituted a mandate for monitoring based on the twin premises that (1) natural resources in national parks require active management and stewardship if we are to protect them from gradual degradation, and (2) we cannot protect what we do not understand. The intent of the challenge was embodied in its original description: We must expand existing inventory programs and develop efficient ways to monitor the vital signs of natural systems. We must enlist others in the scientific community to help, and also facilitate their inquiry. Managers must have and apply this information to preserve our natural resources. In this article, we report on ongoing collaborative work between the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) that seeks to add to our scientific understanding of the ecological processes operating behind vital signs monitoring data. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide insights that can facilitate an understanding of the systems and identify potential opportunities for active stewardship by NPS managers (Bennetts et al. 2007; Mitchell et al. 2014). The bulk of the work thus far has involved Acadia and Rocky Mountain national parks, but there are plans for extending the work to additional parks. Our story stats with work designed to consider ways of assessing the status and condition of natural resources and the potential for historical or ongoing influences of human activities. In the 1990s, the concept of "biotic integrity" began to take hold as an aspiration for developing quantitative indices describing how closely the conditions at a site resemble those found at pristine, unimpacted sites. Quantitative methods for developing indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) and elaborations of that idea (e.g., ecological integrity) have received considerable attention and application of these methods to natural resources has become widespread (Karr 1991

  8. Spectroscopic probe to contribution of physicochemical transformations in the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to Chlorella vulgaris: new insight into the variation of toxicity of ZnO NPs under aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Qing; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the most abundantly applied nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based industries and they may cause unexpected environmental and health risks with their physicochemical transformations in the environment. Currently, there is still a lack of the in-depth understanding of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to aquatic organisms, particularly demanding quantitative analysis of the physicochemical transformations to distinguish their contributions in the toxicity assessment. For this purpose, therefore, we initiated the study of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to the model aquatic microalga, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris, and with the aid of spectroscopic tools for characterization and quantification of the physicochemical transformations, we scrutinized the toxicity variations for ZnO NPs with different aging times. As a result, we found that the toxicity altered in an abnormal manner with the aging time, i.e. the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs for 30 days showed the higher toxicity to the green alga than the fresh ZnO NPs or the ZnO NPs aged for longer time (e.g. 120 and 210 days). Through spectroscopic tools such as XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, we made both the qualitative and quantitative assessments of the physicochemical changes of the ZnO NPs, and confirmed that in the early stage, the toxicity mainly stemmed from the release of zinc ions, but with longer aging time, the neoformation of the nanoparticles played the critical role, leading to the overall reduced toxicity due to the less toxic hydrozincite and zinc hydroxide in the transformed compounds.

  9. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  10. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  11. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  12. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment.

  13. Surface-Renewable AgNPs/CNT/rGO Nanocomposites as Bifunctional Impedimetric Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Azadbakht; Amir Reza Abbasi; Zohreh Derikvand; Ziba Karimi; Mahmoud Roushani

    2017-01-01

    In this study, glassy carbon electrode modified by silver nanoparticles/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/CNT/rGO) composite has been utilized as a platform to immobilize cis-dioxomolybdenum (VI)–salicylaldehyde-histidine (MoO2/Sal-His). The modified electrode shows two reversible redox couples for MoO2/Sal-His. Electrocatalytic oxidation of cysteine (CySH) and electrocatalytic reduction of iodate on the surface of the modified electrode were investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The presence of MoO2/Sal-His on AgNPs/CNT/rGO shifted the catalytic current of iodate reduction to a more positive potential and the catalytic current of cysteine oxidation to a more negative potential. The change of interfacial charge transfer resistance (Rct) recorded by the modified electrode was monitored for sensitive quantitative detection of CySH and iodate. Moreover, the sensor has a good stability, and it can be renewed easily and repeatedly through a mechanical or electrochemical process.

  14. Enhance antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanomaterial's (QDs and NPs) and their analytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Lutfullah; Singh, R. B.; Khan, Asif

    2014-08-01

    The small scale nanomaterial's such as quantum dots and nanoparticles, which have unique properties studied under varying conditions. Various techniques were used in order to best understand the structure of ZnO nanoparticles and quantum dots, which inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria under dose dependent manner. The results of obtained datas were confirmed with statistical analytical methods. The linear regressive equation data obtained from UV-visible spectra, which give satisfactory results and allows to quickly and easily calculate statistical datas such as: concentration range of analytes, mean, standard deviation, variance and standard analytical error, relative standard deviation, coefficient of correlation, variance of regression line errors in the slope and the intercept, confidence limit for the slope and the intercept. Instead, validation is an important trait measure by any methods due to near to the quality of results. The proposed method validated by specificity, precision, accuracy, limit detection and quantitation. The absorption spectra of sample solution were recorded maximum absorbance for both nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) at ʎmax 600 nm, this wavelength was suitable and selected for all operational analytical measurements. The size and shape of the prepared NPs and QDs were examined with sophisticated instruments such as FESEM and TEM, whereas crystallinity of the prepared materials was analyzed with X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD).

  15. NPS: A Tested Platform for Political Transformation Against Anger & Apathy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Nawaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Political inaction is a major ‘Barrier’ to the progress of democratic values and systems in a society. It is more critical in the developing countries like Pakistan. A huge body of research on political apathy and anger in Pakistan is reporting over and over on the causes and consequences of this pathetic psychology. All that is true however, rays of hope are always there provided nations continue searching for the opportunities through scientific and rigorous research accompanied with sincerity and sense of responsibility at all the decision making levels of the state. This paper postulates a solution model for the issue in the perspectives of Pakistan by capitalizing on the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the Instant Political Transformation of the developing countries like Egypt & Lybia. The New Public Sphere (NPS is populated with Global Civil Society (GCS where International Citizens are connected together 24/7 from any corner of the Global Village and involved in use of ICT for Social Activism. Pakistan now has millions of Internet and Cell-users who are the part of GCS and waiting for a ‘Trigger’ to switch from the ‘Informal Activism to Formal & Political Activism’ through NPS.

  16. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  17. Development of a LIDAR for integration with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    OpenAIRE

    Regush, Murray Michael

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A lidar was designed and manufactured at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, to provide range information to atmospheric features, such as clouds. It is further planned to integrate the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD system at some future date. The NPS-IRSTD uses two vertical linear focal plane arrays for target detection and target direction can be determined very accurately but the system does not provide any useful range informa...

  18. A Whole City Response to the Use of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) by Young People in Newcastle-upon-Tyne

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) (otherwise known as ‘legal highs’) have posed an increasingly significant problem for practitioners and policy makers due to their widespread availability, largely unknown chemical composition and negative effects on health and wellbeing. Young people (aged 10-25) seem to be at particular risk of using NPS and experiencing the associated harms. As such, the Department of Social Sciences and Languages at Northumbria University were commissio...

  19. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.

  20. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonist NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis though intrinsic pathway following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoliang; Song, Zhengfei; Wan, Yingfeng; Wang, Kun; Mo, Lianjie; Wang, Yirong

    2017-04-29

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex cascade of neurochemical and signaling changes that leads to neuronal apoptosis, which contributes to poor outcomes for patients with TBI. Previous study indicates that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation contributes to neuron death in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice, however, its role in neuronal apoptosis after TBI is not well-established. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the present study was designed to determine the effect of CaSR inhibitor NPS2390 upon neuronal apoptosis after TBI. Rats were randomly distributed into three groups undergoing the sham surgery or TBI procedure, and NPS2390 (1.5 mg/kg) was infused subcutaneously at 30 min and 120 min after TBI. All rats were sacrificed at 24 h after TBI. Our data indicated that NPS2390 significantly reduced the brain edema and improved the neurological function after TBI. In addition, NPS2390 decreased caspase-3 levels and the number of apoptotic neurons. Furthermore, NPS2390 up-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and down-regulated pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and reduced subsequent release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In summary, this study indicated that inhibition of CaSR by NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis after TBI, in part, through modulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile biosynthesis of Ag-NPs using Otostegia limbata plant extract: Physical characterization and auspicious biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Rizwan; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Maqbool, Qaisar; Naz, Sania; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Hussain, Talib; Younas, Umer; Shams, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesized through reduction by Otostegia limbata green extract are, hereby, reported for the first time. It is very interesting to observe that in this case, O. limbata plant extract acts as a strong chelating agent in Ag-NPs formation through AgNO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies expose that Ag-NPs formation is highly homogenous and spherical with mean particle size of 32 ±0.8 nm. A typical Ag absorption peak has been observed at 419 nm by ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopy which have endorsed the successful formation of single phase Ag-NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) examination further validates the crystalline pure phase structure of Ag-NPs. Promising results have been recorded against protein kinase inhibition assay and antibacterial assay having prominent pathogenic strains. Our present study explores that biosynthesized eco-friendly Ag-NPs have great potential, in the future, for anticancer drug development with wide range pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Distribution and Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Kansas Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Kansas is primarily an agricultural state. Irrigation water and fertilizer use data show long- term increasing trends. Similarly, nitrate-N concentrations in groundwater show long-term increases and exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 mg/l in many areas. A statistical analysis of nitrate-N data collected for local and regional studies in Kansas from 1990 to 1998 (747 samples found significant relationships between nitrate-N concentration with depth, age, and geographic location of wells. Sources of nitrate-N have been identified for 297 water samples by using nitrogen stable isotopes. Of these samples, 48% showed fertilizer sources (+2 to +8 and 34% showed either animal waste sources (+10 to +15 with nitrate-N greater than 10 mg/l or indication that enrichment processes had occurred (+10 or above with variable nitrate-N or both. Ultimate sources for nitrate include nonpoint sources associated with past farming and fertilization practices, and point sources such as animal feed lots, septic systems, and commercial fertilizer storage units. Detection of nitrate from various sources in aquifers of different depths in geographically varied areas of the state indicates that nonpoint and point sources currently impact and will continue to impact groundwater under current land uses.

  3. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT.

  4. Specimens: "most of" generic NPs in a contextually flexible type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to compute the meanings associated to sentences with generic NPs corresponding to the most of generalized quantifier. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can be thereafter interpreted in your favorite models. We rather depart from the dominant Fregean single untyped universe and go for type theory with hints from Hilbert epsilon calculus and from medieval philosophy. Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with on going work in lexical semantics. Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class (or a generic element of this class) which is provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, if one adopts a type theoretical view, terms encode the purely semantic meaning component while their typing is pragmatically determined.

  5. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples.

  6. Neuropharmacology of new psychoactive substances (NPS: focus on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cannabimimetics and amphetamine-like stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, dark net as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2014; EMCDDA, European Drug Report 2014: Trends and developments. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazine, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%(WDR, 2014. Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and MDMA analogues. Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ9-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of

  7. Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS): Focus on the Rewarding and Reinforcing Properties of Cannabimimetics and Amphetamine-Like Stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliano, Cristina; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Rimondo, Claudia; Mereu, Maddalena; Marti, Matteo; De Luca, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, "dark net") as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society [EMCDDA (European Drug Report), 2014; UNODC, 2014b; Trends and developments]. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazines, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids) of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant) help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%) (UNODC, 2014b). Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series) and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, and MDMA analogs). Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ(9)-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of dependence associated

  8. Green synthesis of ZnO NPs from various parts of Azhadirachta indica (neem) plant as biotemplates for anti-bacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Oudhia, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    A green and cost effective method of production of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was developed using extracts from different parts of Neem plant (e.g. leaf, seed, and stem) as bio templates. ZnO NPs obtained through these bio-templates exhibit different structures, morphologies and optical properties, showing potential of the present method in preparing NPs with desired properties, FTIR and XRD techniques were used for characterization. A comparison of antibacterial activities of ZnO NPs show decreasing zone of inhibition with increasing particle sizes. The as prepared ZnO NPs functionalized with various materials to make them bio compatible. It was observed that natural tri-peptide GSH was most effective capping agents for controlling the toxicity of ZnO NPs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the variation in growth patterns and properties of ZnO NPs obtained from the aforementioned bio-templates.

  9. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10-15 M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  10. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menka Khoobchandani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases.

  11. A ratiometric nanosensor based on conjugated polyelectrolyte-stabilized AgNPs for ultrasensitive fluorescent and colorimetric sensing of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xixi; Xiao, Yi; Jiang, Xiaoying; Li, Jiahui; Qin, Hongling; Huang, Hongmei; Zhang, Youyu; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-05-01

    A new ratiometric nanosensor is developed for selective and ultrasensitive detection of melamine based on conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (P1-AgNPs) by perfectly combining the advantages of CPE and AgNPs. P1 featuring a π-delocalized backbone bearing pyridinyl groups can act as an excellent dual-emission fluorescent probe as well as a polymer localizer for AgNPs. In the presence of melamine, the fluorescence intensity at 386nm increases owing to the turn-on of the fluorescence of P1, whereas FL intensity at 488nm decreases due to the melamine-induced aggregation and subsequent aggregation-enhanced emission quenching of P1-AgNPs, therefore leading to the ratiometric fluorescent sensing of analyte. Moreover, analyte-induced aggregation of P1-AgNPs also allows the ratiometric colorimetric measurement of melamine. Under the optimum conditions, this facile ratiometric nanosensor favors the fluorescent and colorimetric determination of melamine in liquid milk products with the detection limit as low as 0.1 and 0.45nM, respectively.

  12. Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene and MWCNT Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with AuNPs for Laccase Biosensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Favero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on nanoparticles. Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL was immobilized over MWCNTs and GPH previously modified with AuNPs (of 5 and 10 nm. The characterization of the modified electrode surface has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the use of AuNPs for modification of both graphene and MWCNTs screen-printed electrode surfaces would increase the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. MWCNTs showed better results than GPH in terms of higher electroactive area formation after modification with AuNPs. The two modified nanostructured electrodes were successively proven to efficiently immobilize the TvL; the electrochemical sensing properties of the GPH- and MWCNT-based AuNPs-TvL biosensors were investigated by choosing 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid diammonium salt (ABTS, catechol and caffeic acid as laccase mediators; and the kinetic parameters of the laccase biosensor were carefully evaluated.

  13. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-07

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10(-15) M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  14. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Hefang, E-mail: whf0618@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Nian, E-mail: funian3678@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology of Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO{sub 2} reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO{sub 2} enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO{sub 2} and meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs.

  15. Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution through Developing Organic Agriculture%发展有机农业 控制农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪兵; 席运官; 肖兴基

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the current status of agricultural nonpoint pollution in China, the feasibility of controlling agricultural nonpoint pollution through developing organic agriculture was evaluated. Several countermeasures were suggested to promote the environmental strategy of developing organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, including making up national action plan of development of organic agriculture, enacting economic policies to extend organic agriculture, reinforcing scientific research on organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, creating key organic agricultural production technology relying on innovation of science and technology, boosting organic agriculture development through rural environment protection projects, and strengthening domestic market of organic food.%文章针对我国农业面源污染的现状,分析了发展有机农业,控制农业面源污染的可行性,并提出了推动有机农业控制农业面源污染的环境战略,包括制订有机农业发展的国家行动计划;建立激励有机农业发展的经济机制;加大对有机农业控制农业面源污染的科学研究;依靠科技创新建立有机农业生产关键技术;以农村环境保护工作为突破口,推动有机农业的发展;加大对国内有机食品市场的培育等。

  16. Antibacterial and antifouling activities of chitosan/TiO2/Ag NPs nanocomposite films against packaged drinking water bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Saravanan; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Lakshmi, D Shanthana; Mrudula, P; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    TiO2 and Ag NPs are widely used as antibacterial agents against many bacterial pathogens. Chitosan (polymer) itself acts as a strong antibacterial agent. Hence, chitosan/TiO2/Ag NPs incorporated nanocomposite film was prepared against packed drinking water bacterial strains. A concentration-dependent increase in the reduction of cell viability was observed in all the isolates under UV-C and dark exposure conditions. The bacteria consortium showed greater resistance against antibacterial effects of chitosan/TiO2/Ag nanocomposite as compared to single isolates. Glycocalyx test and mass assessment conclude the effective antibacterial activity by inhibiting bacterial adhesion on the film surface. The release of LDH and generation of ROS act as the predominant antibacterial mechanism induced by TiO2/Ag NPs. Surface characterization of chitosan/TiO2/Ag nanocomposite was studied by FTIR and XRD analyses and SEM analysis after interaction with the bacteria.

  17. Gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica: origin of high activity and role of Au NPs in selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingping; Bai, Peng; Yan, Zifeng; Zhao, George X. S.

    2016-01-01

    Homogeneous immobilization of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on mesoporous silica has been achieved by using a one-pot synthesis method in the presence of organosilane mercapto-propyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The resultant Au NPs exhibited an excellent catalytic activity in the solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane using molecular oxygen. By establishing the structure-performance relationship, the origin of the high activity of mesoporous supported Au catalyst was identified to be due to the presence of low-coordinated Au (0) sites with high dispersion. Au NPs were confirmed to play a critical role in the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane by promoting the activation of O2 molecules and accelerating the formation of surface-active oxygen species.

  18. Examining trends in general fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers at non-point source impacted Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Chicago area, treated wastewater and storm water flow through the engineered Chicago River system to the Mississippi River, with the goal to protect Lake Michigan from urban discharges. Therefore, under dry weather conditions, nearby Lake Michigan recreational beaches shou...

  19. The effect of CuO NPs on reactive oxygen species and cell cycle gene expression in roots of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuling; Liu, Hanzhu; Zhang, Yuxi; Xin, Hua

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on root growth, root reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the expression of 2 genes (OsCDC2 and OsCYCD) associated with root growth of Oryza sativa (rice), rice roots were treated with 5 mg/L CuO NP suspension, 5 mg/L CuO bulk particle suspension, and 0.27 mg/L CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, with distilled water as control. The results indicated that CuO NPs and Cu(2+) severely inhibited the elongation and biomass of rice roots after 72-h exposure. Dyeing with 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) showed that in all 3 treatment groups, the fluorescence was primarily located in the meristem zone, demonstrating that the meristem zone was where ROS were primarily generated. In addition, a significant increase in ROS was detected in the meristem zone of roots treated with the CuO NP suspension and the CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, both of which greatly influenced the expression level of OsCDC2 and OsCYCD. The impact of Cu(2+) on these 2 genes was smaller than that of CuO NPs. The Cu content in roots of rice after treatment with CuO NPs was much higher than that found after the other treatments, which indicated that CuO NPs may have been absorbed into root tissue. Collectively, these data suggest that growth inhibition, higher ROS production, and gene expression inhibition may be caused not only by the ions themselves, but also the NPs. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Optimization of ZnO-NPs to Investigate Their Safe Application by Assessing Their Effect on Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Vishwakarma, Ashutosh; Yadav, Shweta

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly receiving attention due to their widespread application in cosmetics, pigments and coatings. This has raised concerns in the public and scientific communities regarding their unexpected health effects. Toxicity effect of ZnO-NPs on the environment was assessed in the present study using Caenorhabditis elegans. Multiple toxicity end points including their mortality, behaviour, reproduction, in vitro distribution and expression of stress response mtl-1 and sod-1 genes were observed to evaluate safe application of ZnO-NPs. C. elegans were exposed to 10, 50, and 100 nm ZnO-NPs (0.1 to 2.0 g/l). Application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l adversely affects the survivability of worms and was significantly not affected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l. However, reproduction was affected at much low concentration as compared to their survivability. LC50 was recorded 1.0 ± 0.06 (g/l) for 100 nm, 0.90 ± 0.60 for 50 nm and 0.620 ± 0.08 for 10 nm. Expression of mtl-1 and sod-1 was significantly increased with application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l and significantly unaffected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm at the same concentration. ZnO-NPs (10 nm) had shown even distribution extended nearly the entire length of the body. The distribution pattern of ZnO-NPs indicates that the intestine is the major target tissues for NP toxicity. Study demonstrates that small-sized (10 nm) ZnO-NPs ≥0.7g/l is more toxic than larger-sized particles. This may be suggested on the basis of available data; application of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l ZnO-NPs may be used to the environment as this shows no significant toxicity. However, further calibration is warranted to explore safe dose on soil compartments prior to their field application.

  1. Optimization of ZnO-NPs to Investigate Their Safe Application by Assessing Their Effect on Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Vishwakarma, Ashutosh; Yadav, Shweta

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly receiving attention due to their widespread application in cosmetics, pigments and coatings. This has raised concerns in the public and scientific communities regarding their unexpected health effects. Toxicity effect of ZnO-NPs on the environment was assessed in the present study using Caenorhabditis elegans. Multiple toxicity end points including their mortality, behaviour, reproduction, in vitro distribution and expression of stress response mtl-1 and sod-1 genes were observed to evaluate safe application of ZnO-NPs. C. elegans were exposed to 10, 50, and 100 nm ZnO-NPs (0.1 to 2.0 g/l). Application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l adversely affects the survivability of worms and was significantly not affected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l. However, reproduction was affected at much low concentration as compared to their survivability. LC50 was recorded 1.0 ± 0.06 (g/l) for 100 nm, 0.90 ± 0.60 for 50 nm and 0.620 ± 0.08 for 10 nm. Expression of mtl-1 and sod-1 was significantly increased with application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l and significantly unaffected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm at the same concentration. ZnO-NPs (10 nm) had shown even distribution extended nearly the entire length of the body. The distribution pattern of ZnO-NPs indicates that the intestine is the major target tissues for NP toxicity. Study demonstrates that small-sized (10 nm) ZnO-NPs ≥0.7g/l is more toxic than larger-sized particles. This may be suggested on the basis of available data; application of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l ZnO-NPs may be used to the environment as this shows no significant toxicity. However, further calibration is warranted to explore safe dose on soil compartments prior to their field application.

  2. Unraveling the complex behavior of AgNPs driving NP-Cell interactions and toxicity to algal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malysheva, Anzhela; Voelcker, Nicolas; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2016-01-01

    toxicity test. In particular, we investigated NP aggregation and dissolution by time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ultrafiltration and performed mass balance measurements to study the distribution of Ag in the test system. We also determined the amount of extra......- and intracellular Ag by chemically etching AgNPs on the surface of algal cells and used dark field microscopy for their imaging. We observed that positively charged branched polyethilenimine (bPEI)-coated AgNPs tend to aggregate in the presence of algae and interact with test vessels and algal cells, while citrate...

  3. Antioxidant enzyme activities as biomarkers of fluvial biofilm to ZnO NPs ecotoxicity and the Integrated Biomarker Responses (IBR) assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Dai, Shanshan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    The presence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in natural waters has raised concerns about their environmental impacts, but the potential influences of ZnO NPs on fluvial biofilm have not been reported. In this study, the utility of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of fluvial biofilm to ZnO NPs toxicity and a method that combines AEA into an index of "Integrated Biomarker Responses (IBR)" were studied. Compared with the absence of ZnO NPs, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that a large amount of ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto biofilm and these NPs exerted adverse effects on the viability of bacteria in biofilm. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high concentrations (30 and 100mg/L) of ZnO NPs exposure reached to 184% and 244% of the control, while no cell leakage and membrane damage were observed. After exposure to ZnO NPs for 0.25 and 3 days, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly increased, respectively. At the end of exposure period (21 days), the AEA with the presence of 1mg/L ZnO NPs exposure were comparable to the control, while most of those in high concentrations of ZnO NPs were decreased. The results of IBR showed that the biofilm can adapt to 1mg/L ZnO NPs exposure, while be seriously damaged by 30 and 100mg/L ZnO NPs after 3 and 0.25 days. IBR can be used as an appropriate evaluation system of the toxicity effects of ZnO NPs on fluvial biofim.

  4. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    . Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  5. Antimicrobial kinetics of Alstonia scholaris bark extract-mediated AgNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, E.; Giridhara Krishna, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nanobiotechnology is considered as one of the important branches of nanotechnology, and research on synthesis of nanoscale materials, silver in particular, using plant and plant parts has been progressing rapidly. Herein, we used bark extract of Alstonia scholaris one of the most important medicinal plants to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipes. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by treating 90 mL of 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution with 10 mL of 5 % bark extract. As-prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized using the biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the measurement of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. The kinetics of the antimicrobial activity against PVC biofilm of prepared silver nanoparticles were done using comparative solution suspension time-killing assessments and which are evidenced in Epi-fluorescent microscopic observations.

  6. Lignin-AuNPs liquid marble for remotely-controllable detection of Pb2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guocheng; Wang, Xiaoying; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli; Sun, Runcang

    2016-12-01

    This work reported the green and facile fabrication of a versatile lignin-AuNP composite, which was readily and remotely encapsulated to form novel liquid marbles. The marbles can stay suspended in water, and show excellent photothermal conversion properties, as well as visual detection and adsorption towards Pb2+. More importantly, the marbles can simultaneously remotely detect and adsorb Pb2+ via co-precipitation by simply controlling the near infrared (NIR) irradiation. It is believed that the remotely-controllable NIR-responsive lignin-AuNPs liquid marble can be used in Pb2+-related reactions. The liquid marble can be placed in the system at the very beginning of the reaction and stably stays on the surface until the reaction has ended. After reacting, upon remote NIR irradiation, the liquid marble bursts to adsorb Pb2+, and the residual Pb2+ can be collected. This facile manipulation strategy does not use complicated nanostructures or sophisticated equipment, so it has potential applications for channel-free microfluidics, smart microreactors, microengines, and so on.

  7. 78 FR 14589 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Stat. 770), the NPS is hereby giving notice that the Gates of the Arctic National Park Subsistence... the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will... School in Ambler, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather...

  8. 77 FR 14828 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will meet in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska... the Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on NPS subsistence...

  9. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  10. 75 FR 65377 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... subsistence hunting program recommendations and other related subsistence management issues. The NPS SRC... Station Hotel, 1717 University Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99709, (907) 479-3650. The meeting may end early if... Manager's Report 10. Park Staff Reports a. Resource Management Update b. Ranger Division Update c...

  11. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Different Concentrations of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs on Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been introduced as a suitable alternative in many in vivo bioapplications. The risks of utilizing nanoparticles continue to be an ongoing research. Furthermore, the various chemicals used in their synthesis influence the cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles. We have investigated the cytotoxicity of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs on cancer cell lines PC-3, PC-3ML, and MDA-MB-231 and the normal cell line PNT1A. Cell proliferation for the different cells in the presence of different concentrations of the PHAuNPs was assessed after 24 hours and 72 hours of incubation using MTT assay. The study also included the cytotoxic evaluation of pegylated PHAuNPs. Identical cell seeding densities, particle concentrations, and incubation times were employed for these two types of Au nanoparticles. Our results indicated that (1 impact on cell proliferation was concentration dependent and was different for the different cell types without cellular necrosis and (b cellular proliferation might be impacted more based on the cell line.

  12. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 浅析NPS顾客忠诚度测评法%Analysis of NPS Customer Loyalty Evaluation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑琴

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile Internet, great changes have taken place in consumer behavior, coupled with the homogenization of products and the market is relatively saturated, how to improve customer loyalty in front of the operator. This paper introduces the NPS system, understand the advantages of NPS and NPS, combining with the practical work, the operator NPS promotion strategy, to improve customer loyalty, and promote the healthy development of enterprises.%面对移动互联网的飞速发展,用户消费行为发生了巨大的变化,加之产品同质化与市场相对饱和,如何提升客户忠诚度摆在了运营商的面前。文章通过介绍NPS体系,了解NPS的优点,并将NPS与实际工作相结合,提出运营商NPS提升策略,以提高客户忠诚度,促进企业良性发展。

  14. Application of the PJ and NPS evaporation duct models over the South China Sea (SCS) in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaobo; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Chao; He, Xin; Zhong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The detection of duct height has a significant effect on marine radar or wireless apparatus applications. The paper presents two models to verify the adaptation of evaporation duct models in the SCS in winter. A meteorological gradient instrument used to measure evaporation ducts was fabricated using hydrological and meteorological sensors at different heights. An experiment on the adaptive characteristics of evaporation duct models was carried out over the SCS. The heights of the evaporation ducts were measured by means of log-linear fit, Paulus-Jeske (PJ) and Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) models. The results showed that NPS model offered significant advantages in stability compared with the PJ model. According the collected data computed by the NPS model, the mean deviation (MD) was -1.7 m, and the Standard Deviation (STD) of the MD was 0.8 m compared with the true value. The NPS model may be more suitable for estimating the evaporation duct height in the SCS in winter due to its simpler system characteristics compared with meteorological gradient instruments.

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis of New Trp(Nps-Containing Dipeptide Derivatives as TRPV1 Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario González-Muñiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trp(Nps-Lys-NH2 derivatives, bearing alkyl or guanidine groups either at the N–terminus or on the Lys side-chain or at both positions were conveniently prepared on solid-phase and evaluated as TRPV1 channel antagonists.

  16. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes.

  17. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO2/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong; Wang, Hefang; Fu, Nian

    2016-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO2/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO2 and meso-TiO2/AuNPs.

  18. Evaluation of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and DNA mutation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Farrokh; Dabbagh, Somayyeh; Alizadeh, Sina; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-08-01

    The bactericidal effects of silver nanoparticles have been demonstrated in the past years. Recently, the new antimicrobial compounds of silver nanoparticles with different formulations have been developed. In this work, AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL as a new compound of Ag nanoparticles, was synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. The antibacterial activity and the molecular mechanism effects of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles (SNPs) on Escherichia coli DH5α cells were investigated by analyzing the growth inhibitory, H2O2 level, catalase activity, DNA mutation, and plasmid copy number following treatment with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles. In experimental results, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed in 75 μg/ml and the antibacterial efficacy (ABE) in CFU analysis was estimated 95.3 %. In bacterial cells treated with 75 and 100 μg/ml, H2O2 level significantly increased and catalase activity decreased compared with control. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the effect of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles in DNA damages and mutation in E. coli genome. RADP-PCR results indicated different banding patterns including appearance or disappearance of bands and differences in their intensity. Cluster analysis of the RAPD-PCR results based on genetic similarity showed genetic difference between E. coli cells treated with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, and control and phylogenetic tree were divided to two clusters. Plasmid copy number analysis indicated that after 8 h incubation of E. coli cells with 50, 75, and 100 μg/ml AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, copy number of pET21a (+) significantly decreased compared with control which indicating DNA replication inhibition by Ag nanoparticles. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles can be used as an effective bactericidal agent against bacterial cells.

  19. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  20. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  1. The Neutrophil-Platelet Score (NPS Predicts Survival in Primary Operable Colorectal Cancer and a Variety of Common Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Watt

    Full Text Available Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that a critical checkpoint early in the inflammatory process involves the interaction between neutrophils and platelets. This confirms the importance of the innate immune system in the elaboration of the systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a combination of the neutrophil and platelet counts were predictive of survival in patients with cancer.Patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who underwent potentially curative resection at a single centre between March 1999 and May 2013 (n = 796 and patients with cancer from the Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study, who had a blood sample taken between January 2000 and December 2007 (n = 9649 were included in the analysis.In the colorectal cancer cohort, there were 173 cancer and 135 non-cancer deaths. In patients undergoing elective surgery, cancer-specific survival (CSS at 5 years ranged from 97% in patients with TNM I disease and NPS = 0 to 57% in patients with TNM III disease and NPS = 2 (p = 0.019 and in patients undergoing elective surgery for node-negative colon cancer from 98% (TNM I, NPS = 0 to 65% (TNM II, NPS = 2 (p = 0.004. In those with a variety of common cancers there were 5218 cancer and 929 non-cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and sex and stratified by tumour site, incremental increase in the NPS was significantly associated with poorer CSS (p<0.001.The neutrophil-platelet score predicted survival in a variety of common cancers and highlights the importance of the innate immune system in patients with cancer.

  2. [Source apportionment of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in soil of the modern Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cui, Zhao-jie; Fan, Guo-lan; Xu, Hong-yu

    2007-12-01

    The concentrations of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in twenty two soil samples collected from modern Yellow River Delta were determined by dual capillary GC-ECD associated with GC-MS. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied in analysing the dioxin-like PCBs data to obtain types, sources, percentages of source contribution and the congener composition of PCBs in the Delta on the congener level. The results indicated that four types of PCBs contamination sources affecting the PCBs distribution pattern were apportioned in the Delta. The first source was water runoff (non-point source), which was from the industrial production and use by the enterprises along the Yellow River, and it contributed 49.6% of the total contamination burden in the Delta, its dioxin-like PCBs profile was similar to native PCBs and Aroclorl221; the second and third types of PCBs sources were point sources, whose percentages of contribution were 15.0% and 10.1% respectively, the composition of the second source was similar to that of Aroclor1221 and Aroclor1242, the composition of the third source was similar to that of Aroclor1260; the fourth source is believed to be non-point source which was from the atmospheric dry and wet precipitation, it contributed 8.4%, its profile have similarity composition of the integration of Aroclor1242, Aroclor1248 and Aroclor1260.

  3. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    in the effort to reduce agricultural P runoff. Continued application of P in excess of crop requirements causes P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment through surface runoff and erosion and through leaching via the soil matrix or macropores...... of transporting and applying manure to fields means that increasing mineral-fertilizer prices does not generate a sufficient incentive for farmers to reallocate all P surpluses generated by livestock between farms and fields. The aim of the thesis is to increase the understanding of the long-term impacts....... Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  4. The non-point output of different agriculture landuse types in Zhexi hydraulic region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHengpeng; LIUXiaomei; HUANGWenyu

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes Zhexi hydraulic region in Taihu Basin as a study area. On the basis of hydraulic analysis function of Arcgis8.3, the drainages were delineated by selecting the monitoring points and discharge stations as outlets. The landuse map were finished by denoting the TM/ETM image. The precipitation map was finished by spatial interpolation according to the rainfall monitoring records. Overlaying the drainage boundary, landuse map and precipitation map, the rainfall, different landuse type area, and runoff pollution concentration and runoff were calculated. Based on these data in different sub-watersheds, by Origin7.0 regression tool, an equation is established to predict runoff using the relationships between runoff, precipitation depth and land use patterns in each of the sub-watersheds. Selecting the sub-watershed which is mainly composed of forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentration (MRC) from sub-watershed has been estimated. The mean runoff concentration of farmland has been estimated by the same methods after the contribution of forestlanduse type was removed. The results are" for the forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentrationsof COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 2.95 mg/l, 1.080 mg/l, 0.715 mg/l, and 0.039 mg/l,respectively; for the farmland, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 5.721 rag/l, 3.097 rag/l, 2.092 rag/l, and 0.166 rag/l, respectively. By using these results, the agriculture non-point pollution loads have been assessed. The loads of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P in Zhexi region are 14,631.69 t/a, 6401.93 t/a, 4281.753 t/a and 287.67 t/a, respectively.

  5. Electrochemical preparation of Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode and its application%Au-PtNPs/SWNT复合材料修饰电极的电化学制备及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春兰; 朱效华; 朱旭; 徐茂田

    2013-01-01

    The Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode was prepared by an electrochemical method at room temperature. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was measured by AFM and the results indicate that there are dispersions and high loadings of Au-Pt nanoparticles on SWNT. Under the optimal modification conditions(Electrodeposition of SWNT for 30 s,soaking in H2PtO6 for 10 minutes,multi-step deposition of gold nanoparticles for 45 cycles(glucose) or 30 cycles( methanol) ) ,glucose and methanol can be electrocatalytically oxidized on the surface of Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode in alkaline environment Thus,the Au-Pt-NPs/SWNT/GCE is expected to be applied as a nonenzymatic glucose sensor or in the filed of methanol fuel cells.%在室温条件下,利用恒电位吸附法和多电位阶跃法制备了金-铂纳米粒子(Au-PtNPs)/单壁碳纳米管(SWNT)复合材料修饰电极,并利用电化学方法和原子力显微镜(AFM)对其进行了表征.结果表明:Au-Pt-NPs可很好的结合在SWNT表面,在该电极的最佳修饰条件下(SWNT分散液中电沉积30 s,H2PtO6中浸泡10min,循环阶跃沉积金纳米粒子45次(葡萄糖)或30次(甲醇))可以较好的电催化氧化碱性环境中的葡萄糖及甲醇,有望在葡萄糖无酶传感器及甲醇燃料电池中得到应用.

  6. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  7. Nata de coco (NDC) hydrogel as nanoreactors for preparation iron nanoparticles (FeNps) from ferrocenium reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarini, Mellissa; Lazim, Azwan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study focuses on hydrogel as nano template to produce iron nanoparticles (FeNps). Radical polymerization was used to synthesize the hydrogel from nata de coco (NDC-g-PAA). Ferrocenium (FcCL) with 1 × 10{sup −4} g/ml has successfully incorporated with NDC-g-PAA hydrogel system and reduce using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at different concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result demonstrates that the size of FeNps produced was about 5 – 20 nm. Morphological analysis of hydrogel is carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-EDEX is used to determine percentage of iron (Fe) in hydrogel. The results offer a wide range of application in various areas, especially the use of hydrogel system as a responsive template.

  8. Long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial community and enzymatic activity of activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Ma, Bingrui; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Dong; Zhao, Yangguo; Jin, Chunji; Wang, Xuejiao; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of activated sludge were investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance had no evident change at 0-10 mg/L CuO NPs, whereas the CuO NPs concentration at 30-60 mg/L affected the COD, NH4(+)-N and soluble orthophosphate (SOP) removal, nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate and microbial enzymatic activity of activated sludge. Some CuO NPs might be absorbed on the surface of activated sludge or penetrate the microbial cytomembrane into the microbial cell interior of activated sludge. Compared to 0 mg/L CuO NPs, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased by 43.6% and 56.4% at 60 mg/L CuO NPs, respectively. The variations of ROS production and LDH release demonstrated that CuO NPs could induce the toxicity towards the microorganisms and destroy the integrity of microbial cytomembrane in the activated sludge. High throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA indicated that CuO NPs could evidently impact on the microbial richness, diversity and composition of activated sludge in the SBR.

  9. Aminated polyethersulfone-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-APES) composite membranes with controlled silver ion release for antibacterial and water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Salman; Shao, Godlisten N; Imran, S M; Park, Sung Soo; Abbas, Nadir; Tahir, M Suleman; Hussain, Manwar; Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Hee Taik

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports the antibacterial disinfection properties of a series of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) immobilized membranes. Initially, polyethersulfone (PES) was functionalized through the introduction of amino groups to form aminated polyethersulfone (NH2-PES, APES). AgNPs were then coordinately immobilized on the surface of the APES composite membrane to form AgNPs-APES. The properties of the obtained membrane were examined by FT-IR, XPS, XRD, TGA, ICP-OES and SEM-EDAX analyses. These structural characterizations revealed that AgNPs ranging from 5 to 40 nm were immobilized on the surface of the polymer membrane. Antibacterial tests of the samples showed that the AgNPs-APES exhibited higher activity than the AgNPs-PES un-functionalized membrane. Generally, the AgNPs-APES 1 cm × 3 cm strip revealed a four times longer life than the un-functionalized AgNPs polymer membranes. The evaluation of the Ag(+) leaching properties of the obtained samples indicated that approximately 30% of the AgNPs could be retained, even after 12 days of operation. Further analysis indicated that silver ion release can be sustained for approximately 25 days. The present study provides a systematic and novel approach to synthesize water treatment membranes with controlled and improved silver (Ag(+)) release to enhance the lifetime of the membranes.

  10. NPS comparison of anatomical noise characteristics in mammography, tomosynthesis, and breast CT images using power law metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Boone, John M.; Nosratieh, Anita; Abbey, Craig K.

    2011-03-01

    Digital mammography is the current standard for breast cancer screening, however breast tomosynthesis and breast CT (bCT) have been studied in clinical trials. At our institution, 30 women (BIRADS 4 and 5) underwent IRB-approved imaging by mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and bCT on the same day. Twenty three data sets were used for analysis. The 2D noise power spectrum (NPS) was computed and averaged for each data set. The NPS was computed for different slice thicknesses of dx × N, where dx ~ 0.3 mm and N=1-64, on the bCT data. Each 2D NPS was radially averaged, and the 1D data were fit using a power law function as proposed by Burgess: NPS(f) = αf-β. The value of β was determined over a range of frequencies corresponding to anatomical noise, for each patient and each modality. Averaged over the 30 women (26 for bCT, 28 for tomosynthesis, 28 for mammography), for mammography β=3.06 (0.25), for CC tomosynthesis β=2.91 (0.35), and for axial bCT β=1.72 (0.47). For sagittal bCT β=1.77 (0.36) and for coronal bCT, β=1.88 (0.45). The computation of β versus slice thickness on the coronal bCT data set led to β~1.7 for N=1, asymptotically reaching β ~ 3 for larger slice thickness. These results suggest that there is a fundamental difference in breast anatomic noise as characterized by β, between thin slices (<2 mm) and thicker slices. Tomosynthesis was found to have anatomic noise properties closer to mammography than breast CT, most likely due to the relatively thick slice sensitivity profile of tomosynthesis.

  11. Design, simulation, and experimental verification of a computer model and enhanced position estimator for the NPS AUV II

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, David C.

    1991-01-01

    A full six-degree-of-freedom computer model of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (NPS AUV II) is developed. Hydrodynamic Coefficients are determined by geometric similarity with an existing swimmer delivery vehicle and analysis of initial open loop AUV II trials. Comparisons between simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the model and the techniques used. A reduced order observer of lateral velocity was produced to provide an input for an enha...

  12. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic...

  13. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND THE INNER REGION OF NPS/LOOP 1 WITH SHADOW OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MBM36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Liu, W., E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu [Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33155 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data from a shadow observation of the high density molecular cloud MBM36 (l ∼ 4°, b ∼ 35°) with Suzaku. MBM36 is located in a region that emits relatively weakly in the 3/4 keV band compared to the surrounding North Polar Spur (NPS)/Loop 1 structure and the Galactic Bulge (GB). The contrast between high and low density targets in the MBM36 area allows one to separate the local and distant contributors to the soft diffuse X-ray background, providing a much better characterization of the individual components compared to single pointing observations. We identify two non-local thermal components, one at kT ≈ 0.12 keV and one at kT ≈ 0.29 keV. The colder component matches well with models of emission from the higher latitude region of the GB. The emission of the warmer component is in agreement with models predicting that the NPS is due to a hypershell from the center of the Milky Way. Geometrical and pressure calculations rule out a nearby bubble as responsible for the emission associated with the NPS. Any Galactic Halo/circumgalactic halo emission, if present, is outshined by the other components. We also report an excess emission around 0.9 keV, likely due to an overabundance of Ne ix.

  14. Development of a lidar for integration with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regush, Murray M.

    1993-06-01

    A lidar was designed and manufactured at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, to provide range information to atmospheric features, such as clouds. It is further planned to integrate the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD system at some future date. The NPS-IRSTD uses two vertical linear focal plane arrays for target detection and target direction can be determined very accurately but the system does not provide any useful range information. The lidar was proposed as the solution for this shortcoming. The lidar used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser which had an energy output of 2 millijoules. The laser beam was expanded to 17.75 inches using a Dall-Kirkham telescope to operate within laser safety limitations. The theoretical analysis of the 'Klett' method for the inversion of lidar returns was derived and a MATLAB program was written to demonstrate the process. A daytime and nighttime maximum range equation for the lidar was developed. The considerations for integrating the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD were listed and a solution was proposed to obtain the mean extinction coefficient along the path in the infrared spectrum using the lidar inversion extinction coefficient profile at 532 nanometers.

  15. BIOSYNTHESIS OF AgNPs WITH THREE WIDESPREAD LOAM FUNGI VIA ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS, FUSARIUM SPP. RHIZOPUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SHIVAKUMAR SINGH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium spp. and Rhizopus spp. for the potential synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Methods: The standard techniques have been followed for the AgNPs synthesis characterizations. Spectral analysis of UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Results: The hurried decline of silver (Ag+ ions was monitored using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and showed the formation of silver nanoparticles within 28 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are varied from 15-50 nm and have the varying in shapes like round, rod, uneven. Further, the XRD analysis confirms the nano-crystalline phase of the silver structure. FTIR examinations confirm the Silver particles. The present study, it reveals the increasing broth concentration increases the rate of reduction and decreases the particle size. Conclusion: The AgNPs were biologically synthesized using isolated fungal species biomass from the soil of loam. The cell filtrate of fungi was challenged with 1mm Silver nitrate, change of mixture from colorless to orange-brown indicates the synthesis of AgNPs in the reaction mixture. The isolated fungi are an important producer of Silver nanoparticles.

  16. Studying the Interstellar Medium and the inner region of NPS/Loop 1 with shadow observations toward MBM36

    CERN Document Server

    Ursino, E; Liu, W

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from a shadow observation of the high density molecular cloud MBM36 (l~4{\\deg}, b~35{\\deg}) with Suzaku. MBM36 is located in a region that emits relatively weakly in the 3/4~keV band, compared to the surrounding NPS/Loop 1 structure and the Galactic Bulge. The contrast between a high and low density targets in the MBM36 area allows one to separate the local and distant contributors to the Soft Diffuse X-ray Background, providing a much better characterization of the individual components compared to single pointing observations. We identify two non-local thermal components, one at kT~0.12 keV and one at kT~0.29keV. The colder component matches well with models of emission from the higher latitude region of the Galactic Bulge. The emission of the warmer component is in agreement with models predicting that the NPS is due to a hypershell from the center of the Milky Way. Geometrical and pressure calculations rule out a nearby bubble as responsible for the emission associate with the NPS. Any Ga...

  17. Fluorescence turn-on recognition of chiral amino acids using dye incorporated β-CD functionalized AuNPs assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswathy, B., E-mail: aswathybv@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An assembly of dye incorporated β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized AuNPs for the fluorescent probing of chiral amino acids is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing a high extinction coefficient function can be used as excellent fluorescent quenchers in AuNP–fluorophore system. Inclusion of fluorescein (FL) into β-cyclodextrin (βCD) makes energy transfer to occur through the donor and quencher nearby. This energy transfer switches off by virtue of the analyte induced release of FL from β-CD cavity, which results in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched dye. Analysis suggests that the assembly of AuNPs–βCDs–FL is effective as a turn-on fluorescent probe for the chiroselective optical discrimination between D,L-tryptophan, D,L-phenyl alanine and D,L-tyrosine. The detection limits for analyzing L-tryptophan, L-phenyl alanine and L-tyrosine were found to be 0.59, 1.2 and 1.5 μM respectively. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching AuNP–βCD–dye assembly via energy transfer. • Energy transfer from dye to AuNPs is a SET process. • Fluorescence turn-on detec