WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpoint agricultural sources

  1. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  2. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  3. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  4. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  5. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  6. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  8. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  9. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  10. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  11. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction I: a geographical allocation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Nowak, Peter J; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  12. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  13. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to estimate loads from nonpoint source ground water inputs.Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source

  14. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  15. Management of unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources through water quality trading market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoobi, Emad; Sarang, Amin; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) could be an innovative policy to incentivize farmers to implement best management practices (BMPs) for their activities. This study focused on assessment of involving unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources (NPS) into the WQT market in Gharesoo watershed in the west of Iran. It also proposes a methodology to determine location-based trading ratios as well as environmental penalty cost to achieve a more well-designed market structure. Trading activities in different scenarios were described by trading volume (TV), participation rate (PR), total exchanged value (TEV), and other market parameters in order to achieve a better comparison of market performance. Results showed that, by applying NPS to the Gharesoo watershed, total phosphorous (TP) trading market could increase TV, PR, and TEV up to 11, 1.7 and 7.5 times, respectively, depending on which level of BMPs are implemented by them. Additionally, it could save 29% of the total cost of implementing a TP total maximum daily load in this watershed compared to the 'command and control' approach. Furthermore, the agricultural sector could profit by $5.49 million (or $75/ha) by choosing solutions such as terrace systems and filter strips to register into the market. This profit can be allocated to the development of new agricultural technologies.

  16. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  17. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  19. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  20. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Robertson, Dale M; Han, Seungbong; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km(2)) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale.

  1. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  2. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  3. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  4. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay( WTP ) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Yongyan; ZUO

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution,and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore,this investigation and study choose rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our sample,respectively make interview survey with the WTP(money or voluntary work) of farmers for improving local water and soil quality. Based on the statistical analysis of survey data,this study also takes empirical test and analysis with the influence factors on the WTP of farmers for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. The analysis and conclusions of this research provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing farmers’ behavior,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  5. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun RONG; Jiqiang ZHANG; Yang SHI

    2016-01-01

    The SWAT model was applied to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of non-point source pollution loads and the difference of pollution loads of different land use types in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin. The results showed that both yearly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads were evenly distributed during 1973 to 1979,the annual TN pollution from non-point source was 1530 t,or 6. 3 kg / ha,and the annual TP pollution from non-point source was 270 t,or 1. 1 kg / ha during 1973 to 1979 in the watershed. Considerable differences were identified on both monthly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads. The TN and TP pollution loads during the flood season( from April to September) accounted for 76. 2% and 75. 8% of the annual load respectively. There were great differences in both TN and TP pollution loads of different land use types in the study area,and the pollution load of both farmland and orchard was higher than that of the other land use types. TN and TP pollution loads of farmland accounted for 66% and 83% of total watershed. There was a great spatial difference in the nonpoint source pollution load of the study area. The critical source areas of non-point source pollution are mainly located at Guanqiao Town,Longmen Town,Changkeng Town,Shangqing Town and Dapu Town,where the efforts of controlling pollution should be made.

  7. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  8. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  9. Study on Control Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Lakeside Belt of Poyang Lake——Taking Duchang Section in the Lower Reaches of Poyang Lake as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point source pollution in lakeside belt of Poyang Lake.[Method] The current situation of water quality of Poyang Lake was analyzed firstly,then the causes of agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake were studied,finally corresponding control countermeasures were put forward.[Result] Agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake was mainly related to the rapid developm...

  10. 农业非点源污染研究进展和趋势%The Progress and Trends of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 李强坤

    2014-01-01

    根据国内外农业非点源污染研究现状,本文在探讨农业非点源污染内涵及其特征的基础上,简要总结了农业非点源污染负荷的估算模型,列举区域农业非点源污染风险评估的手段和方法,从不同角度归纳了农业非点源污染的控制技术,并提出了近期农业非点源污染急需研究的热点和趋势,以期为进一步的农业非点源污染管理和控制提供参考。%According to the current research on agricultural non-point source pollution at home and abroad, the connotation and feature of a-gricultural non-point source pollution were explored in this paper, and then the estimating model of pollution load was concluded briefly. Meanwhile, the paper also listed the means and methods of risk assessment of regional agricultural non-point source pollution and summed up the control technologies from different angles. Finally, the recent much-needed research hotspots and trends were put forward in order to provide reference for further management and control of agricultural non-point source pollution.

  11. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation.

  12. Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Countermeasures in Yunnan%云南省农业面源污染及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱成

    2014-01-01

    云南省主要农业环境污染问题包括:化肥使用量不断增加;地膜使用量及其覆盖面积不断增加;农药使用量不断增加;畜禽粪便污染日益加重。分析了问题产生的原因,提出了防治农业污染的建议。%Environmental problems are emerging due to agricultural non -point source pollution in Yunnan.The most serious problems are as follows:an increasing usage of chemical fertilizers and plastics in farm field,a rising release of pesticide,and a growing amount of waste from livestock and poultry.Agricultural non-point sources in Yunnan were identified.Suggestions were put forward to control agricultural pollution.

  13. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  14. Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Owen, Jeffrey S; Kim, Bomchul

    2016-12-01

    Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.

  15. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  16. 基于农业面源污染控制的三峡库区种植业结构优化%Planting structure optimization based on agricultural non-point source pollution control in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 谢德体; 何丙辉; 魏朝富; 倪九派

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution has gradually become a major pollution source of lake eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in recent years. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is both an important sensitive eco-economy area and a typical poverty-stricken mountain area. However, its unique geographical location, its irrational agricultural structure and its increasing serious agricultural non-point source pollution problems challenge the environment in this region. Hence, it is a necessity to take controlling agricultural non-point source pollution from the source as one of the most effective approaches. In current research, agricultural non-point source pollution control excessively depends on engineering and technology. Anyhow, the roles of agricultural planting structure adjustment and agricultural cleaner production which can reduce non-point source pollution should not be ignored. Promoting the adjustment of planting structure, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and adopting agricultural cleaner production technologies not only help improve the land production capacity and agricultural products quality, but also effectively reduce the agricultural non-point source pollution. By these important measures for energy saving and emission reduction can be realized in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Based on the dual goals of the optimal agricultural economic benefits and non-point source pollution emission reduction, the linear programming model was used to optimize the planting structure and clean agricultural production in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The optimization results showed that the optimal paths to maximize the crop net income were as follows: The land area for grain production should cover 119.16×104hm2but cleaner production area of rice-wheat, corn, soybean and tuber crops needs 31.91×104, 18.69×104, 6.79×104and 19.55×104 hm2; the land area for vegetables planting should be 33.25×104hm2 and its cleaner

  17. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangxi Province%江西省农业面源污染空间分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文东; 许仕; 庐俊

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural non-point source pollution is becoming an increasingly important eco-envjonrmental problem, il is difficult lo control due lo its dispersive and extensive characteristics. Jiangxi Province is still at ihe initial stage ai agricultural modernization, bul its agricultural non-point source pollution is exacerbating. According to the investigation on the pollution sources of planting, animal husbandry and aq-uaculture in Jiangs i Province, the ArcGIS software was adopted to analyze the spatial and digital features of agricultural non-point source pollution. As indicated by the results, the principal pollution source is animal husbandry, then followed by planting, ihe pollution from aquarulture is becoming more and more serious. The study provided scientific basis for the evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution in Jiangxi Province.%农业面源污染正成为生态环境的主要问题,但其分散性、广泛性等特点又决定了其治理难度较大.江西目前仍处于农业现代化的起点阶段,农业面源污染日益严重:该研究通过对江西省农业的种植业、畜禽业和水产养殖业的污染源进行调查,利用ArcGIS软件,对江西省农业面源污染进行了空间化和数字化处理.结果表明,江西省农业污染源主要是畜禽养殖业,其次是种植业,水产养殖业污染日趋严重.该研究为江西省农业面源污染评估提供了科学依据.

  18. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  19. Status of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollu-tion in China and Com-prehensive Treatment%我国农业面源污染现状及综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓俐

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is worsening in China, mainly due to excessive and irrational use of pesticides, excessive use of fertil-izers, plastic sheeting pollution, straw pollution, intensive breeding farms pol-lution,etc. Agricultural non-point source pollution is harmful to water, atmosphere and soil,so the comprehensive treatment measures were put forward.%我国农业面源污染日益严重,主要原因是过量且不合理地使用农药,过量使用化肥,农膜污染、秸秆污染、集约化养殖场污染等。农业面源污染对水体、大气、土壤等造成严重危害,故提出综合治理措施。

  20. 缓冲带在农业面源污染防治上的应用%Study on pollution control of agricultural nonpoint source by means of buffer strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 刘赢男; 焉志远; 黎叩晨; 倪红伟

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has become one of the m ost important threats to water environment safety. To ensure security of water environment, it is necessary to prevent and control agricultural non-point source pollution. Riparian buffer zone, which could effectively prevent and control agricultural non-point source pollution, has been widely recognized, and it also has a certain application on the source of water prevention. Based on the introduction of definition of buffer zone, structure of macro and microscopic, mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus losing and research of different countries and regions of agricultural non-point pollution, the protection of riparian buffer strips in the water environment was proposed.%农业面源污染已经成为威胁水环境安全的一个重要因素,为了保证水质安全,对进入水体的农业面源污染进行防治是十分必要的。缓冲带在防治农业面源污染上的功效已经得到了广泛的认可,并在水污染治理上有一定的应用前景。通过对缓冲带的定义、宏观和微观结构、氮磷元素流失机理以及不同国家和地区应用缓冲带去除农业面源污染方面的研究,提出了我国缓冲带在水环境保护中的应用前景。

  1. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  2. Research Progress on Guangdong Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control-Conservation Agriculture Project%广东农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小平; 区颖刚; 杨丹彤; 唐湘如; 胡建广

    2015-01-01

    广东省属于农业大省,近年来随着人口增加和农村经济快速发展,农业面源污染形势十分严峻.广东省承担的世界银行农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目,通过在省内的项目示范区域进行水稻和甜玉米的示范试验,探索保护性耕作减少农业面源污染源的作用和方法.项目组设计了免耕和少耕插秧、免耕和少耕直播4种主要模式,投入了50多台套农业机械,经过4个试验点1年的试验,初步结果表明,南方高温潮湿地区水稻和甜玉米生产采用保护性耕作技术是有效果的,所选的农机具大多数是适用的,部分北方旱地机械还需要改进.讨论了广东保护性耕作存在的问题和改进的意见.%Guangdong province is an important agricultural province. The agricultural non-point source pollution situation is very grim in recent years as the population increases and the rural economy grows rapidly. Explo-ration, supported by the world bank agriculture non-point source pollution control-conservation tillage project, has been undertaken in Guangdong province to discover the roles and methods for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution by conservation tillage. The project is conducted in four paddy rice and sweet corn demonstration and experimental sites in the province. Four main models, the no-till and less-till transplanting, no-till and less-till direct seeding, have been designed by the project team. More than 50 sets of agricultural machines have been put into the experiments. After one year's experiments conducted in four sites, prelimi-nary results show that the conservation tillage technology is effective in the paddy rice and sweet corn produc-tion in southern area with high temperature and wet conditions. Most of the selected farm machines are appli-cable. Some of the northern dryland machines need to be improved. The paper discussed the problems and im-provement opinions existing in the Guangdong conservation

  3. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  4. Assessment and Strategies for Watershed Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control%集水区农业非点源污染之评估及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昭远; 陈键鑫; 颜正平

    2001-01-01

    Improper agricultural activities accelerate soil loss and water pollution. An assessment system for agricultural non-point source pollution estimation was developed in this study. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) couples with non-point source pollution models were applied in the system to discuss the efficiency of non-point pollution control in a watershed. Concepts of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and placement of riparian buffer strips couples with the analysis of topography and hydrology for the watersheds of interest to classify the sensitive zone could effectively monitor and control watershed agricultural non-point-source pollution.%集水区内不当之农业活动,加速集水区土壤流失及水库水质恶化。本研究利用数值地形模型(Digital Elevation Model, DEM)、配合遥感探测 (Remote Sensing, RS)与地理信息系统(Geographic Information Systems, GIS)等技术,撰写程序建立集水区农业非点源污染评估系统,探讨集水区农业非点源污染控制之成效。利用泥砂递移率与植生缓冲带区位检视集水区内之农业非点源污染源,划定集水区环境敏感区位,针对敏感区回收造林,可有效控制集水区农业非点源污染。

  5. Present Situation and Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Wuhan City%武汉市农业面源污染现状及治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪坤乾; 张凯; 苏斌; 夏杏明; 汤少云

    2014-01-01

    从化肥施用、农药使用、农膜使用现状3个方面阐述了武汉市农业面源污染现状和为害性,分析了武汉市农业面源污染产生的原因,提出了建立政府主导的农业面源污染治理机制、应用化肥减量化技术、应用农药减量化和残留控制技术、推广可降解地膜等治理面源污染的对策。%We pointed out the status and harmfulness of agricultural non-point source pollution in Wuhan from the three aspects, including the application of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film, and analyzed the factors that caused the problem, in addition, we put forward related countermeasures, including establishing the government leading mechanism to control agricultural non-point source pollution, using chemical fertilizer reduction technology, applying pesticide reduction and residue control technology, and using biodegradable plastic film.

  6. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  7. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution:Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Jue; PENG

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution.Therefore,this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples,our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects:farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution concept,farmers’ cognition to rural environment satisfaction,farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution in agricultural production and farmers’ cognition on the consequences of agricultural non-point source pollution and the effects on ecological environment.The analysis and conclusions of farmers’ consciousness cognition on agricultural non-point source pollution,provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing the behavior of farmers,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  8. Investigation on Present Xingtai Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Preventive Countermeasures%邢台市农业面源污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈计兵

    2014-01-01

    Xingtai has a large population, with a serious contradiction between demand for food and land supply. The development of agriculture has brought about some pollution, and agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control is the basic guarantee to realize agricultural sustainable development. Xingtai agricultural non-point source pollution is serious. The pollutants mainly include chemical fertilizer, chemical pesticide, agricultural plastic films, livestock and poultry breeding wastes and life wastes. The pollution has caused the decrease of the farmland quality, the degradation of the quality of agricultural products and water, the damage of the ecological balance. The countermeasures include technical measures, management measures, publicity and education measures, etc.%邢台市人口数量大、粮食需求、土地供给矛盾突出,在农业发展中,产生了一些不可忽视的污染现象,而农业面源污染的防治是实现农业可持续发展的基本保障。邢台市农业面源污染比较严重,污染源主要包括化学肥料污染、化学农药污染、农膜污染、畜禽养殖业污染和生活废弃物污染;污染带来耕地质量下降、农产品和水质质量变差、破坏生态平衡等危害;防治对策包括技术措施、管理措施及宣传教育措施等。

  9. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  10. 英国农业面源污染防控对我国的启示%Prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollutions in UK and suggestions to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 任天志; 吴文良; 孟凡乔; Jessica Bellarby; Laurence Smith

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environ-mental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prevention and control technology, technology extension systems and related policy measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in UK. We then proposed the promotion of preven-tion and control of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. Considering the current agricultural resources and environment counter-measures of“one control”(control over the total quantity of the agricultural water and agricultural water environment pollution),“two re-duction”(reduction in quantities of fertilizers and pesticides), and “three basic countermeasures”(resource utilization, recycling, and disharm treatment of livestock and poultry wastes, agricultural plastic films and crop straws), we suggested that in the near future source control and process prevention should be technical priorities. Optimzation and reduction of chemical fertilizer, combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, land utilization management, agricultural sector adjustment and integration of crop production with animal husbandry should be the key technologies. The role of non-governmental technical service should be promoted. Government subsidies, ecological com-pensations and other forms of economic means could be used to encourage famers actively participate in the prevention and control of nitro-gen and phosphorus losses and pollution in soil and water systems. Related technical documents and regulations should be more specific, clear, and practical. Collection, transmission and analysis of

  11. Nonpoint-Source Pollution Issues. January 1990-November 1994. QB 95-01. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Joe

    Citations in this bibliography are intended to be a substantial resource for recent investigations (January 1990-November 1994) on nonpoint source pollution and were obtained from a search of the National Agriculture Library's AGRICOLA database. The 196 citations are indexed by author and subject. A representation of the search strategy is…

  12. SWAT模型在洱海流域面源污染评价中的应用%Application of SWAT Model in Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Investigation in Lake Erhai Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玥; 尚晓; 沈剑; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    重点污染区域和污染因子的识别是面源污染控制的基础.通过将物理过程模拟及排污系数法计算进行整合,建立了SWAT模型,以描述农业生产活动与污染入湖量之间的关联关系,并以云南洱海流域总氮污染为例,使用验证后的SWAT模型模拟计算不同空间单元和不同农业生产活动对入湖TN的污染贡献系数,定量分析流域内各区域的农业面源污染源结构,识别洱海流域重点农业污染源和农业污染村镇.结果表明,奶牛养殖、生猪养殖和大蒜种植是目前洱海流域内入湖TN污染的最重要农业污染源,占流域总污染负荷的66.12%.对入湖TN污染贡献最大的6个村镇为江尾、右所、三营、玉湖、凤仪和喜洲,占流域总污染负荷的63.41%.%The identification of key polluted areas and factors is the basis of non-point source pollution control. Based on physical processes simulation and the discharge coefficient method, the SWAT model was established to describe the relationship between agricultural production activities and pollution load into a lake. Lake Erhai watershed in Yunnan province was selected as the research area, and TN variation in the lake was calculated. The contribution coefficients of TN nonpoint source pollution to the lake by different spatial areas and different agricultural production activities were calculated with the verified SWAT model, and the pollution source composition in each spatial unit was calculated quantitatively. The key pollution sources and Bpatial units ( administrative village in this study) were identified. The results showed that dairy cattle breeding, pig farming and garlic planting were the major agricultural pollution sources, contributing 66.12% of TN load to the lake. Six villages - Jiangwei, Yousuo, Sanying, Yuhu, Fengyi and Xizhou - contributed most to TN pollution in the lake, accounting for 63.41% of the watershed total pollution load.

  13. 我国农业面源污染现状及其对策研究%Review of the current situation and control countermeasures in agricultural non-point source pollution control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自林

    2013-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展,农业面源污染已成为我国环境污染的主要原因之一。农业面源污染制约农业可持续发展,已成为亟待解决的环境问题。目前,造成农业面源污染的原因主要是化肥农药的过量施用和流失,畜禽和水产养殖业污染,水土流失,作物秸秆大量废弃以及农膜污染。农业面源污染具有分散性、广泛性、随机性等特征,对土壤、水体、大气造成负面影响。本文针对农业面源污染问题,从生物、物理、化学以及农业管理等角度提出了相应的防治对策及措施,以期有效治理农业面源污染,保护环境,促进农业可持续发展。%Agricultural non-point source pollution is the main factor to the environmental pollution in rural China now with the development of economy in China .It has gained the attention of the government and scientist in the country , and also is the main factor to restrain the agricultural sustainable development .At present ,the reasons are list as follow :chemical fertilizer and pesticide and excessive application ;Livestock and aquatic products pollution ;soil erosion ;a ma-jority of strews abandoned ;agricultural plastic film pollution .It has the characteristics of dispensability ,universality and randomness ,which have negative effects on soil ,water and air .In terms of biological chemistry and physics and agricul-tural management ,this paper proposes countermeasures to control agricultural non -point source pollution ,protect the environment ,and promote the sustainable development of agriculture .

  14. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  15. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution: prevention and estimate methods; L'inquinamento di origine agricola: quali strumenti di prevenzione e stima?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Rapagnani, M.R.; Triolo, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Non point source pollutants, such as pesticides and fertilizers derived from agricultural activities, are recognized as an important threat to environment and human health. To prevent the adverse effects of these agrochemicals it is necessary to provide growers and decision makers with easy-to-use information. Attempts have been made to put information on pesticides environmental and health effects into a formula that could summarize, in a single number, these effects. However a single number could be misleading because of the lack of information on chemical-physical parameters and the difficulty to evaluate the relative importance of various environmental and health effects. As an alternative it is here proposed an approach based on schedule containing information, for each pesticides, such as short and long term effects on human health, environmental fate and degradation time, capacity to bio accumulate, toxicity of degradation products. Using information in the schedule, decision makers could make more circumstantiate choices and could program the best agricultural actions under particular environmental circumstances with less impact on man and environment. [Italian] L'inquinamento diffuso derivante dall'uso dei fertilizzanti e dei pesticidi in agricoltura, rappresenta un rischio rilevante per l'ambiente e la salute umana. Al fine di prevenire tale rischio e' necessario fornire a coloro che gestiscono e pianificano le attivita' agricole informazioni facilmente comprensibili, mirate a ridurre o eliminare gli effetti indesiderati derivanti dai prodotti agrochimici. Tentativi sono stati fatti per sviluppare metodologie che sintetizzino queste informazioni in un indice numerico in modo da stilare una graduatoria di pericolosita' dei singoli prodotti. Si propone, in questo lavoro, un approccio basato sulla elaborazione di schede, per ogni principio attivo, che contengono una serie di informazioni quali gli effetti a breve e lungo termine

  16. An interdisciplinary assessment of regional-scale nonpoint source ground-water vulnerability; theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Dinitz, Laura B.; Loague, Keith

    2001-01-01

    An integrated earth science-economics model, developed within a geographic information system (GIS), combines a regional-scale nonpoint source vulnerability assessment with a specific remediation measure to avoid unnecessary agricultural production costs associated with the use of agrochemicals in the Pearl Harbor basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This approach forms the core of a risk-based regulation for the application of agrochemicals and estimates the benefits of an information-based approach to decisionmaking.

  17. 苏州市农业面源污染现状与控制研究%Current situation and control recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵龙; 秦伟; 管永祥; 邱丹; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of national survey of pollution sources, the production and emission characteristics of pollutants from agricultural activities and the major control measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou along the Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Yangchenghu Lake were analyzed and demonstrated. The results showed that among the non-point source pollutants, the totalamount of nitrogen and phosphorus emitted were 11 878.9 and 1 343.8 t respectively, pesticides loss was 28.0 t, plastic membrane residual was 203.9 t, the volume of straw burned was 214 000 t, total amount of COD emitted by livestock breeding, aquaculture and rural community was 92 360.3 t; The emission amount of nitrogen and phosphorus along the Yangtze River was the largest followed by Taihu Lake, along the Yangcbenghu Lake the lowest. According to the analysis of the total amount of N and P emitted, the ranking of pollutant resource was as below: rural community > livestock breeding >aquaculture > planting; The pollution intensity caused by the four sources were different. The three watershed, the pollution intensity of farming, animal husbandry and rural communities was greater in the Yangtze River, but the pollution intensity of aquaculture was greater in Taihu Lake Therefore,in guiding concept for the prevention and control of no point source pollution, the government should pay close attention to the Yangtze River, give more weight to domestic pollution sources. In view of the above -mentioned facts,to control agricultural non-point source pollution. Some proposals were offered as follows, concentrating superior resources to dispose rural sewage, optimizing the agricultural industry structure, strengthening the ecological construction, comprehensively treating livestock pollution, promoting the utilization of crop straw resources,and reasonably planning aquaculture etc.%利用提供的区城产排污系数,对苏州市沿长江、太湖和阳澄湖流域农业面

  18. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  19. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  20. Yield calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in Huntai River Basin based on SWAT model%基于SWAT模型的浑太河流域农业面源污染物产生量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 臧文斌; 董飞; 付敏; 张剑

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of non-point source pollutants output load model under the mode of rainfall-runoff and land use, the analog calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in the process of migration and transformation, and the systematic analysis of non-point source pollutants discharge quantity, distribution and composition characteristics are based on actual monitoring data, calibration and validation model, in consideration of underlying surface, hydrology and meteorology, and physical features of Huntai River basin. The areas 1 km away from each side of master stream Huntai River, Taizihe River and Daliaohe River and 5 km away from reservoir were defined as buffer zone, where the mode of land use was transformed so as to restore the natural ecosystem. The process of pollutant migration and conversion was simulated based on the calibration of key hydrological parameters, and the causes as well as the migratory features of non-point source pollution were investigated. The primary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of the mainstreams of Huntai River. The point-source pollutant was mainly related to the distribution of industry and the amount of discharged wastewater. The risk of non-point pollution was mainly related to the pattern of agricultural plantation and farmland utilization. The secondary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of tributaries. Therefore, the situation of pollutant production corresponding to the intra-regional regulation of industrial structure, land utilization pattern surrounding the water channel should be highlighted. The non-point pollution in Huntai watershed was dominated by farmland pollution, and the main indices of pollutants were total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P). The contribution rate of pollutants was farmland runoff > livestock and poultry breeding > urban runoff > water and soil erosion

  1. Review on super absorbent polymer application for improving fertilizer efficiency and controlling agricultural non-point source pollutions%高吸水树脂保水剂提高肥效及减少农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖人宽; 杨培岭; 任树梅

    2012-01-01

    Super absorbent polymer (SAP) is a new type of multifunctional material in drought resistant and pollution control. SAP can quickly absorb water and fertilizer for increasing soil crumb structure and porosity, restraining soil evaporation, promoting crop physiological function and reducing fertilizer loss, so as to result in significant improvement of water and fertilizer use efficiency and marked reduction in fertilizer pollution. In recent years, SAP has been widely used in agricultural nonpoint source pollution control as a chemical product of absorbing and storing water and fertilizer. The paper expounds its acting mechanism and efficiency in controlling pollution, introduces the researches on its main antifouling function, and emphatically summarizes the researches of SAP application in agricultural production and the development of agricultural antifouling absorbent agent. In the end, the problems existing in the field are discussed and the future research fields are proposed.%高吸水树脂(保水剂)是一种新型多功能抗旱、防污材料,能够快速吸持水肥,增加土壤团粒结构和孔隙度,抑制土面蒸发,提升作物生理机能,减少养分淋失,从而达到提高水肥利用效率和减少肥料污染的作用.近年来,保水剂在农业面源污染防治方面得到了越来越广泛的应用.该文阐述了保水剂的防污作用机理及效能,介绍了保水剂主要防污作用方面的研究,重点对保水剂在农业生产上的防污应用及农用防污型保水剂的研制进行了综述,最后分析了保水剂在农业防污应用和研究过程中存在的问题,提出了保水剂未来进行防污应用的研究方向.

  2. Study on the Control Model of Rural Non-point Source Pollution——Taking Ninghe County in Tianjin as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control model of rural non-point source pollution.[Method] Taking Ninghe County(a typical agricultural county in Tianjin) as an example,the current development of local economy and society and characteristics of rural non-point source pollution were studied firstly,then the control model of rural non-point source pollution suitable for Ninghe County was constructed,and its environmental and economic benefits were analyzed finally.[Result] According to the sources of non-...

  3. “双重失灵”视角下我国农业面源污染的法律规制%Legal Regulation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in the Perspective of “Double Failure”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝创杰

    2016-01-01

    来自化肥、农药、农膜、畜禽养殖等污染源的农业面源污染已经成为我国水污染的最大污染源。现行立法对农业面源污染的规制在指导思想、具体内容和立法技术等方面仍存在一些不足,而这些不足又是忽略或缺乏经济法的思维方式所致。我国农业面源污染恶化是市场失灵和政府失灵共同作用的结果。克服“双重失灵”,有效规制面源污染,可以通过完善环境税收体系,增设生态税、建立排污权交易制度等经济法的调整手段实现。%The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution (ANPSP),which is caused by pollution source like chemical fertilizers,pesticides,agricultural film and livestock breeding,has already be-come the largest source of pollution of our country's water pollution.The regulation of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution given by current legislation still has some deficiencies in guiding ideology, concrete content and legislative technique.This is caused by neglecting or lacking the thinking mode of economic law.The root cause of the deterioration of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in China is the combined action of market failure and government failure.The task of overcoming “double failure”and controlling The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution can be finished by using adjust-ment methods of economic law.The methods may include improving the environmental tax system, adding ecological taxation and establishing emission trading system.

  4. The Roles of Countrywomen in Controlling Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Zhou Yuanfang; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The main causes of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake are the improper ways of crop production, animal husbandry, and daily runoff. The paper discusses the relationship between countrywomen and non-point source pollution control by 731 questionnaires in Weidu village and 466 questionnaires in Dapu Town. The roles of countrywomen have changed in families and they have close relationship with non-point source pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility and methods of organizing countrywomen in non-point source pollution control.

  5. Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest and historically most productive estuary in the United States. It is approximately 200 miles long and 35 mile wide at it broadest point. The Bay's watershed includes parts of six states (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the entire District of Columbia. This area encompasses 64,000 square-miles, 150 major rivers and s...

  6. 林带对太湖地区农业非点源的控制效应研究%Controlling effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands in Taihu Lake area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金林; 侍璐璐; 张爱国

    2002-01-01

    in water, crops and underground of forest, the transfer and loss of N and P (main water pollutants) in faming ecosystem were studied, and the effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands was analyzed. The results indicated that the transfer and loss of N and P vary with means of rotation, types of crops and the amount of fertilizer application. Buffering forest belts betweens farmlands and ditches can effectively stop and purify such elements as N and P in soil runoffs, thus controlling non-point source pollution of agricultural lands. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 100 to 40, 50.05% losing N, 29.37% losing P can be absorbed by forest under rape-rice rotation and 30.98% N, 86.73% P can be absorbed by forest under wheat-rice rotation. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 150 to 40, 33.37% losing N, 19.58% losing P can be absorbed by the forest under rape-rice rotation, and under wheat-rice rotation 20.65% lost N and 57.82% lost P can be absorbed. There is only some purification effect when the width ration of farmland to forest belt is 200 to 40. Based on model of buffering forest belts, the width ratio of farmland to forest is determined between 100 to 40 and 150 to 40, because it not only can purify water, but also occupy less farmland. It is suggested that Poplars, with the characteristics of fast-growing and high value, are suitable to be planted as shelter-forest in Taihu Lake Watershed.

  7. Nanomaterials for environmental burden reduction, waste treatment, and nonpoint source pollution control: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobin SHAN; Rao Y. SURAMPALLI; Rajeshwar D. TYAGI; Tian C. ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials are applicable in the areas of reduction of environmental burden, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. First, environmental burden reduction involves green process and engineering, emis-sions control, desulfurization/denitrification of nonrenew-able energy sources, and improvement of agriculture and food systems. Second, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes involves converting wastes into products, groundwater remediation, adsorption, delaying photocatalysis, and nanomembranes. Third, NPS pollution control involves controlling water pollution. Nanomater-ials alter physical properties on a nanoscale due to their high specific surface area to volume ratio. They are used as catalysts, adsorbents, membranes, and additives to increase activity and capability due to their high specific surface areas and nano-sized effects. Thus, nanomaterials are more effective at treating environmental wastes because they reduce the amount of material needed.

  8. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...

  9. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  10. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  11. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....

  12. Global Pollution of Surface Waters from Point and Nonpoint Sources of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van Drecht

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Global 0.5- by 0.5-degree resolution estimates are presented on the fate of nitrogen (N stemming from point and nonpoint sources, including plant uptake, denitrification, leaching from the rooting zone, rapid flow through shallow groundwater, and slow flow through deep groundwater to riverine systems. Historical N inputs are used to describe the N flows in groundwater. For nonpoint N sources (agricultural and natural ecosystems, calculations are based on local hydrology, climate, geology, soils, climate and land use combined with data for 1995 on crop production, N inputs from N fertilizers and animal manure, and estimates for ammonia emissions, biological N fixation, and N deposition. For point sources, our estimates are based on population densities and human N emissions, sanitation, and treatment. The results provide a first insight into the magnitude of the N losses from soil-plant systems and point sources in various parts of the world, and the fate of N during transport in atmosphere, groundwater, and surface water. The contribution to the river N load by anthropogenic N pollution is dominant in many river basins in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Our model results explain much of the variation in measured N export from different world river basins.

  13. Mitigation of nonpoint source pollution in rural areas: From control to synergies of multi ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Shen, Renfang; Fu, Bojie

    2017-12-31

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution produced by human activities in rural areas has induced excessive nutrient input into surface waters and the decline of water quality. The essence of NPS pollution is the transport of nutrients between soil and water. Traditional NPS pollution control strategies, however, are mainly based on the solid and liquid phases, with little focus on the bio-phase between water and soil. The pollutants produced from NPS can be regarded as a resource if recycled or reused in an appropriate way in the agricultural ecosystem. This mini review proposes novel strategies for NPS pollution control based on three phases (liquid, solid and bio-phase) and highlights the regulating services of an agricultural ecosystem by optimizing land use/cover types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial-temporal Variation of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Based on GIS Technology in Guangdong Province, China%基于GIS的广东省农业面源污染的时空分异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶延琼; 章家恩; 李逸勉; 李韵; 吴睿珊

    2013-01-01

    近年来,广东省化肥、农药等农用化学品的投入量大增,农业面源污染问题日趋严重.采用历年统计数据以及GIS技术,对广东省农业面源污染的时空分异性进行了分析.结果表明,全省化肥、农药使用量均呈逐年增加态势,化肥使用量由1990年的162.41万t增加到2010年的237.29万t,农药由1990年的7.95万t增加到2010年的10.44万t.畜禽粪尿排放量则由2000年的339.34亿t减少到2010年的222.08亿t;在空间分布上,全省化肥投入强度超过400 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的35个增加到2010年的61个,粤西、粤东全部,珠三角大部以及粤北部分地区均属化肥严重污染区,其原因主要在于对农作物产量增加的追求.农药投入强度超过30 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的10个增加到2010年的27个,这主要是由于广东的气候条件及种植结构改变造成的.畜禽粪尿排放污染情况相对较好,但因粤西的雷州半岛地区以水稻生产为主,大牲畜牛的养殖规模较大,因此畜禽粪尿重度污染主要集中在这一地区.GIS空间分析的运用,能直观地反映各地区农业面源污染的时空动态变化情况,为有针对性地开展污染治理提供依据.%Agriculture non-point source pollution (ANSP) is becoming a serious environmental concern in Guangdong Province due to the increased applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in recent years. This study investigated the spatial-temporal variation of ANSP using the historical statistical data and GIS technology. Results showed that the fertilizer, pesticide and other agrochemical applications in Guangdong Province were increased and reached quite a high level in order to secure food supply. The total amount of chemical fertilizer application increased from 1.62x1061 in 1990 to 2.73x1061 in 2010 and the total amount of pesticide application elevated from 7.95X1041 to 10.04X1041, while the total amount of animal manure

  15. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  16. Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Projects Grants (Section 319) - 2008 active projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The California Nonpoint Source (NPS) Program allocates about $4.5 million of CWA Section 319 funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annually to...

  17. EPA Office of Water (OW): Nonpoint Source Projects NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GRTS locational data for nonpoint source projects. GRTS locations are coded onto NHDPlus v2.1 flowline features to create point and line events or coded onto NHDPlus...

  18. Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures - Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to assist state, regional, and local environmental professionals in tracking the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) used to control nonpoint source pollution generated by forestry practices.

  19. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  20. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  1. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  2. Mapping the scientific research on non-point source pollution: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei; Huang, Kai; Sun, Dezhi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to examine the progress and future research trends of non-point source (NPS) pollution during the years 1991-2015 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WoS). The publications referencing NPS pollution were analyzed including the following aspects: document type, publication language, publication output and characteristics, subject category, source journal, distribution of country and institution, author keywords, etc. The results indicate that the study of NPS pollution demonstrated a sharply increasing trend since 1991. Article and English were the most commonly used document type and language. Environmental sciences and ecology, water resources, and engineering were the top three subject categories. Water science and technology ranked first in distribution of journal, followed by Science of the total environment and Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The USA took a leading position in both quantity and quality, playing an important role in the research field of NPS pollution, followed by the UK and China. The most productive institution was the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Acad Sci), followed by Beijing Normal University and US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS). The analysis of author keywords indicates that the major hotspots of NPS pollution from 1991 to 2015 contained "water," "model," "agriculture," "nitrogen," "phosphorus," etc. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of NPS pollution research and help readers to establish the future research directions.

  3. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianchao; YU; Limeng; GU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City,this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides,which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with whether farmers have participated in agricultural technology training,that is,the farmers having participated in agricultural technology training have stronger ability to scientifically apply pesticides,and in-depth understanding of advanced agricultural production technology and positive and negative effects of pesticides,so they often choose to reduce the application rate of pesticide; the cognitive factor on the role of pesticides in better promoting the growth of crops is significant,which requires the government and relevant departments to carry out concrete publicity of effectiveness and negative impact of different pesticides during the popularization of agricultural science knowledge,to prompt farmers to have a systematic and in-depth understanding of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution caused by pesticides.

  4. 非点源污染负荷模型的研究进展%Research Progress of Non-point Source Pollution Models in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞华; 王东; 赵越; 张晶

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-point source load model research at home and abroad, in accordance of the agriculture, urban and mixed non-point source models, the main conditions for the application model were summarized, and the development of non-point source model was prospected.%基于国内外非点源负荷污染模型的研究现状,针对农业、城市和混合三种类型非点源模型,总结并梳理了主要模型的适用条件,并对非点源模型的发展趋势进行了展望.

  5. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  6. The Empirical Analysis of EKC on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in Chongqing%重庆市农业面源污染源的 EKC实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志欣; 邵景安; 李阳兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory and the data from 2000-2012 of Chongqing , five indexes ,w hich are related to the agricultural non‐point source pollution ,are selected as variances and the Environmental Kuznets Curve model are established to analyze the relationship between agricultural non‐point source pollution and the agricultural economic growth .Meanwhile ,use the software of Eviews 7 .0 and SPSS 17 .0 to estimate the parameters .The conclusions can be drawn as follows :1) The chemical fertilizer application level ,the pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues exhibited typical inverted‐U shaped curve relations with the per capita agricultural net income of farmers .And the chemical fertilizer application level ,pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues have reduced with the agricultural economic grow th .2) During the study period ,the agricultural films ap‐plication level exhibited liner relations with the per capita agriculture net income of farmers .With the grow th of agricultural economy ,the environmental pressure caused by agricultural films will be further in‐creased .3) The pig droppings equivalent emission density of livestock and poultry manure with the per ca‐pita agricultural net income of farmers exhibited “N”shaped curve characteristics ,the curve exists two in‐flection points .Currently it’s on the right side of the second inflection point and it indicates that the envi‐ronmental pressure caused by livestock and poultry manure pollution will deteriorate again with the devel‐opment of agricultural economy .The government should take effective measures to strengthen the agricul‐tural non‐point source pollution control .%基于环境库兹涅茨曲线理论,根据重庆市2000-2012年的时序数据,选取5个与农业面源污染有关的指标作为污染变量,分析农业面源污染与农业经济增长的关系,并利用EVIEWS7.0

  7. Tracking Nonpoint Source Nitrogen and Carbon in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Duan, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered nitrogen and carbon cycles in rivers regionally with important impacts on coastal ecosystems. Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is a leading contributor to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Shifts in sources of carbon impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants in coastal zones. We used a combination of stable isotopes and optical tracers to investigate fate and transport of nitrogen and carbon sources in tributaries of the largest estuary in the U.S., the Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed isotopic composition of water samples from major tributaries including the Potomac River, Susquehanna River, Patuxent River, and Choptank River during routine and storm event sampling over multiple years. A positive correlation between δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in the Potomac River above Washington D.C. suggested denitrification or biological uptake in the watershed was removing agriculturally-derived N during summer months. In contrast, the Patuxent River in Maryland showed elevated δ15N-NO3- (5 - 12 per mil) with no relationship to δ18O-NO3- suggesting the importance of wastewater sources. From the perspective of carbon sources, there were distinct isotopic values of the δ13C-POM of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMS) for rivers influenced by their dominant watershed land use. EEMS showed that there were increases in the humic and fulvic fractions of dissolved organic matter during spring floods, particularly in the Potomac River. Stable isotopic values of δ13C-POM also showed rapid depletion suggesting terrestrial carbon "pulses" in the Potomac River each spring. The δ15N-POM peaked to 10 - 15 per mil each spring suggested a potential manure source or result of biological processing within the watershed. Overall, there were considerable changes in sources and transformations of nitrogen and carbon that varied across rivers and that contribute to nitrogen and carbon loads

  8. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  9. [Impacts of the urbanization on waters non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-11-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the prominent source of water pollution in many countries, included America and China, of the world. Urban NPS pollution was attached little importance for long, compared with agriculture NPS pollution. While urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, the hydrology, other physical properties of watersheds as well as their NPS pollution potential at present. The formation of urban NPS pollution of water could be described by "source-process-sink". Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution. A review was conducted on the international researches of urbanization impacts on NPS pollution in urban water environment from the point of view of "describe-predict and evaluation-application". The studies of urbanization impacts on urban NPS pollution were focused on modeling the process of urban NPS pollution by hydrologic model, predicting the pollutants load of NPS pollution. It is a fresh methodology that the relationship between urbanization and urban NPS pollution of water was analyzed by the method of landscape change and ecological process. The research on temporal-spatial comprehensive impacts of landscape pattern changes, led by urbanization, on the urban NPS pollution will be one of the hotspots.

  10. 农业面源污染治理的政策效用评估以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥推广为例%Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Controlling Policy's Utility Evaluation Based on Environmental Cost:A Case Study of Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation Technology in Hai'an County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为衡量农业面源污染治理政策的作用效果,文章基于环境成本的视角,探索了农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般方法与步骤。首先,结合农业化肥的环境污染特点,利用输出系数模型以实现对区域内农业化肥造成的总氮TN、总磷TP排放量的合理测算。然后,建立了基于能值分析法的环境成本估计模型,并结合经济成本和经济收益,构建了基于成本-收益分析的农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般模型。最后,以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥技术的推广为例,对海安县测土配方施肥节本增收效果进行综合评价,并探索了江苏省实现测土配方施肥全覆盖时的总体效果,为面源污染治理政策的评估提供思路。%In order to assess the policy effect of controlling agricultural non-point source pollution ,this paper ,based on the perspec‐tive of environmental cost ,explores the general methods and steps for utility evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution's treatment measures .First of all ,combined with the characteristics of environmental pollution caused by agricultural fertilizer ,this paper chooses a rational export coefficient model to calculate total nitrogen (TN) ,total phosphorus (TP) emissions caused by agri‐cultural fertilizer in the region .Then ,targeted at soil testing and fertilizer recommendation technology ,this paper constructs envi‐ronmental cost estimation model based on energy analysis and general utility evaluation model based on cost-benefit analysis .Finally , this paper takes Hai'an County's promotion of soil testing and fertilizer recommendation in Jiangsu Province for example ,the synthe‐sized evaluation of the technology is achieved in saving costs and increasing income .Further ,this paper explores the beneficial se‐quence when the technology is spread to the whole Jiangsu Province ,which will provide ways to better choose

  11. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NITROGEN EMISSION FROM AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN THE MIDDLE-LOWER YANGTZE RIVER BELT%长江中下游城市群农业面源污染氮排放评价及调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖敏; 王伟力; 郭灵辉

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important component of protein and essential element for the growth of aquatic biomass. Excessive nitrogen input to natural water bodies leads to huge ecological pressure and environmental pollutions such as eutrophication. As point source pollution got effective control in the socio-economic system, agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main cause of eutrophication. Quantifying and regulating the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions throughout the entire socio-economic system is crucial to mitigate or avoid pro-ducing water pollution. Based on the inventory analysis method and emission coefficient method, this paper calcu-lated the nitrogen emission from the agricultural non-point source for the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt. The results showed that the total nitrogen emission from the agricultural non -point source in the whole area was 128. 27 × 104 t in 2011, of which agricultural emission accounted for 58. 92%, and e-mission from livestock and poultry was 33 . 53%. The sensitivity analysis method and scenario analysis method were then applied to simulate the emission situation during 2011 to 2020 and 2020 to 2030 . Some conclusions were drawn as follows:Under scenario 1, if more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the nitrogen e-mission from the agricultural non-point source would increase 16 . 29% during 2011 to 2020 , and 18 . 78% during 2020 to 2030. Under scenario 2 and scenario 3, by contrast, the total nitrogen emission of the four urban agglomer-ations would be 15% fewer in 2020 than in 2011 , and 25% fewer in 2030 than in 2011 . The nitrogen emission re-duction effect in scenario 2 was better than that in scenario 3;Scenario 3 was considered to be more conducive to couple the relationship between regional economic growth and environmental protection. Finally, some recommen-dations were put forward to regional emission reduction, including reducing

  12. Advances on agricultural non-point source pollution and the control in regions around Hung-tse Lake%环洪泽湖区域农业面源污染特征及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇峰; 陈子鹏; 吴翼; 朱咏莉; 李萍萍

    2016-01-01

    Hung⁃tse Lake, located in the northwest of Jiangsu Province, is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. It is also one of the key hinge lakes in the east route of the south⁃to⁃north water transfer project. However, the water quality for the lake was worse than grade Ⅴ according to the Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water of the People�s Republic of China. Non⁃point source pollution around the lake was considered one of the main reasons. In the present study, the feature, sources, inducement, control and management of agricultural non⁃point pollution around the lake were reviewed. We held that the unreasonable application of chemical fertilizer was the largest source of the pollution. Aquaculture pollution was substantially increasing due to the facts of the ineffective management to enclosure culture and the abuse of exogenous diets. In addition, the emissions of livestock and poultry breeding, rural sewage and unordered waste management were the main contributors of the pollution. Therefore, the control strategies for the agricultural non⁃point source pollution in the regions should focused on ① developing ecological agriculture with reasonable applications of fertilizer and pesticides,②integrating and optimizing the aquaculture,③improving the treatment of rural sewage and recycling of agricultural wastes,④ reducing pollution by enhancing the land use among farmlands, woodlands and wet⁃lands.%洪泽湖是位于江苏省西北部的我国第四大淡水湖泊,同时是南水北调东线工程的重要节点湖泊。然而,目前洪泽湖水质总体状况仍呈下降趋势,其中面源污染是重要原因之一。笔者对环洪泽湖地区农业面源污染的特点、来源与诱因以及控制技术等进行系统评述,分析认为:不合理的化肥施用是该区域第一大面源污染来源;围网养殖区无序规划及大量外源性饵料的投加,使得水产养殖的污染排放呈现增加趋

  13. Estimation of Non-point Source Pollution Loads Under Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruzhong

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of uncertainties are involved, such as random, fuzzy, grey, unascertained property and so on, in soil erosion process. To exactly predict the non-point source pollution loads, some uncertainties should be taken into consideration. Aiming at the deficiency of present blind number theory being helpless for fuzziness, a novel blind number, i.e. extended-blind number, was introduced by substituting a set of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), ex-pressed as α-cuts, for interval values in present blind number, and the expected value of extended-blind number was also brought forward by referring to the current blind number theory. On the basis of denoting the parameters of Uni-versal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) as extended-blind parameters, a novel USLE model was established for quantita-tively evaluating soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads. As a case, the uncertain USLE was employed for predicting the soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads of absorbed nitrogen and phosphorus in a dis-trict in the Hangbu-Fengle River basin, in the upstream of Chaohu Lake watershed. The results show that it is feasible in theory to extend blind number into fuzzy environment and reliable on conclusion to apply extended-blind number theory for predicting non-point source pollution loads.

  14. Introducing nonpoint source transferable quotas in nitrogen trading: The effects of transaction costs and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuru; Ye, Weili; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Transaction costs and uncertainty are considered to be significant obstacles in the emissions trading market, especially for including nonpoint source in water quality trading. This study develops a nonlinear programming model to simulate how uncertainty and transaction costs affect the performance of point/nonpoint source (PS/NPS) water quality trading in the Lake Tai watershed, China. The results demonstrate that PS/NPS water quality trading is a highly cost-effective instrument for emissions abatement in the Lake Tai watershed, which can save 89.33% on pollution abatement costs compared to trading only between nonpoint sources. However, uncertainty can significantly reduce the cost-effectiveness by reducing trading volume. In addition, transaction costs from bargaining and decision making raise total pollution abatement costs directly and cause the offset system to deviate from the optimal state. While proper investment in monitoring and measuring of nonpoint emissions can decrease uncertainty and save on the total abatement costs. Finally, we show that the dispersed ownership of China's farmland will bring high uncertainty and transaction costs into the PS/NPS offset system, even if the pollution abatement cost is lower than for point sources.

  15. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, N.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hyp

  16. Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution and Water Environmental Quality Variation Trends in the Nansi Lake Basin from 2002 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data analysis of economic development and the water environmental quality from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake Basin in China, the correlation between economic development and the water environmental quality was researched. Analysis shows that the GDP of the Nansi Lake Basin had an average annual growth of 7.3% in 2012, and the COD and CODMn had the average annual decrease of 7.69% and 6.79%, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water environmental quality overall improved, reaching Class III of the “Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002.” The pollution of the water environment was analyzed from three aspects: agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, livestock, and aquaculture. Results indicated that the water pollution of the Nansi Lake Basin mainly came from nonpoint source pollution, accounting for more than 80% of the overall pollution. The contributions of both agricultural fertilizers and pesticides account for more than 85% of the overall nonpoint source, followed by livestock and aquaculture. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake Basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected, to solve the pollution problem of the Nansi Lake Basin.

  17. Model AVSWAT apropos of simulating non-point source pollution in Taihu lake basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Ying-Xu; Jilani, Ghulam; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Yu, Qiao-Gang

    2010-02-15

    Accelerated eutrophication and nutrient loads in the lakes are of major concern for human health and environment. This study was undertaken for modeling the non-point source pollution of Taihu lake basin in eastern China. The SWAT model having an interface in ArcView GIS was employed. Model sensitive parameters related to hydrology and water quality were obtained by sensitivity analysis, and then calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions with field data. The GIS showed good potential for parameterization of hill-slopes, channels, and representative slope profiles for SWAT model simulations. In a monthly and daily time step, the model's Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) indicated that values of simulated runoff, NH(4)(+)-N and total phosphorus were acceptably closer to the measured data. Surface water parameters especially CN, Soil-AWC and ESCO were the most sensitive and had more recognition in the model. It is concluded that runoff carrying N and P nutrients from chemical fertilizer inputs in agricultural areas is the major contributor to NPSP in the lake basin. So, decrease in excessive use of N and P fertilizers and their synergism with organic manures is recommended that would significantly reduce nutrient pollution in the lake ecosystem.

  18. Source apportionment and spatial heterogeneity of agricultural non-point source pollution based on water environmental function zoning%基于水环境功能区划的农业面源污染源解析及其空间异质性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓雍; 沈根祥; 郭春霞; 顾海蓉; 朱英; 王振旗

    2011-01-01

    Taking township as basic unit, the inventory analysis method and equivalent standard method were conducted to determine the discharge amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from different types of agricultural non-point sources, including chemical fertilizer application, animal manure application, crop straws, animal husbandry, aquaculture and rural sewage. The impact of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) on water environment and its spatial heterogeneity were analyzed based on water environmental function zoning at the scales of county and town. The results indicated that, the absolute discharge amount of COD, TN and TP from ANPSP were 4.42× 104,1.13× 104, 0.44× 104 t/a respectively, and the discharge amount in equivalent standard were 0.16× 104, 0.93 × 104, 1.65× 104 m3/a respectively. The primary pollution source was animal husbandry, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 66.31%, and the primary pollutant was TP, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 60.32%. Discharge concentration of COD, TN and TP caused by ANPSP in different districts were in the range of 4.16-40.91, 1.30-8.71, 0.23-4.94 mg/L respectively, while the average water quality index ranged from 0.67 to 5.91. From the point view of town-based pollution stress, the pollution extent of the towns in South Shanghai and Chongming Island was much higher, which had greater agriculture productive value and located near the water conservation area with stricter water quality standards.%通过清单分析方法和等标污染负荷法,以乡镇为单元研究了上海市化肥施用、有机肥施用、农作物秸秆、畜禽养殖、水产养殖、农村生活污水等农业面源污染来源化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等污染物的排放量及其贡献率,并根据各区域水环境功能区划分别在区县尺度和乡镇尺度分析了农业面源污染程度及其区域分布.结果表明,上

  19. Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution through Developing Organic Agriculture%发展有机农业 控制农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪兵; 席运官; 肖兴基

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the current status of agricultural nonpoint pollution in China, the feasibility of controlling agricultural nonpoint pollution through developing organic agriculture was evaluated. Several countermeasures were suggested to promote the environmental strategy of developing organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, including making up national action plan of development of organic agriculture, enacting economic policies to extend organic agriculture, reinforcing scientific research on organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, creating key organic agricultural production technology relying on innovation of science and technology, boosting organic agriculture development through rural environment protection projects, and strengthening domestic market of organic food.%文章针对我国农业面源污染的现状,分析了发展有机农业,控制农业面源污染的可行性,并提出了推动有机农业控制农业面源污染的环境战略,包括制订有机农业发展的国家行动计划;建立激励有机农业发展的经济机制;加大对有机农业控制农业面源污染的科学研究;依靠科技创新建立有机农业生产关键技术;以农村环境保护工作为突破口,推动有机农业的发展;加大对国内有机食品市场的培育等。

  20. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  1. Can We Manage Nonpoint-Source Pollution Using Nutrient Concentrations during Seasonal Baseflow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCarty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nationwide, a substantial amount of resources has been targeted toward improving water quality, particularly focused on nonpoint-source pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between nutrient concentrations observed during baseflow and runoff conditions from 56 sites across five watersheds in Arkansas. Baseflow and stormflow concentrations for each site were summarized using geometric mean and then evaluated for directional association. A significant, positive correlation was found for NO–N, total N, soluble reactive P, and total P, indicating that sites with high baseflow concentrations also had elevated runoff concentrations. Those landscape factors that influence nutrient concentrations in streams also likely result in increased runoff, suggesting that high baseflow concentrations may reflect elevated loads from the watershed. The results highlight that it may be possible to collect water-quality data during baseflow to help define where to target nonpoint-source pollution best management practices within a watershed.

  2. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF):A green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; SUN Ke-jun; WANG De-han; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas(N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs,the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  3. Percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination of recently recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4...

  4. FY1995 contaminant study proposal : CO-nonpoint source pollution on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution to water bodies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Arsenal). The Service will...

  5. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Chul Lee; In-Hyeok Park; Byung Sik Kim; and Sung Ryong Ha

    2015-01-01

    In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC) which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs) as a non-point source (NPS) pollution indicator and the green factor (GF) as a low impact development (LID) land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated wit...

  6. THE METHOD OF CAR HEADLIGHTS LUMINOUS INTENSITY MEASURING FOR NON-POINT SOURCES OF LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the measurements of luminous intensity of car headlights luminous intensity for non-point sources have pecularities. A simplified method for correction the luminous intensity at various distances is developed. The applicability of the given method with possible measurement errors is studied. The results were obtained, using a stand of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Metroligy”.

  7. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  8. Modeling nonpoint source nitrate contamination and associated uncertainty in groundwater of U.S. regional aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Lujan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater is spatially variable and can result in elevated nitrate concentrations that threaten drinking-water quality in many aquifers of the United States. Improved modeling approaches are needed to quantify the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination and the associated uncertainty of predictive models. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, logistic regression models were developed to predict nitrate concentrations greater than background in recently recharged (less than 50 years) groundwater in selected regional aquifer systems of the United States; including the Central Valley, California Coastal Basins, Basin and Range, Floridan, Glacial, Coastal Lowlands, Denver Basin, High Plains, North Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Piedmont aquifer systems. The models were used to evaluate the spatial controls of climate, soils, land use, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water-quality conditions on nitrate contamination. The novel model Raster Error Propagation Tool (REPTool) was used to estimate error propagation and prediction uncertainty in the predictive nitrate models and to determine an approach to reduce uncertainty in future model development. REPTool consists of public-domain, Python-based packages that implement Latin Hypercube sampling within a probabilistic framework to track error propagation in geospatial models and quantitatively estimate the prediction uncertainty of the model output. The presented nitrate models, maps, and uncertainty analysis provide important tools for water-resource managers of regional groundwater systems to identify likely areas and the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater.

  9. A Study on the Mechanism of Emission Trading between Industrial Point Pollution and Agriculture Non-Point Pollution%工业点源-农业面源排污权交易的机制创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 王会; 陈海丹; 詹贤达

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture non-point pollution has been one of the most important sources of the water pollution in China.Compared with industrial point pollution, the emission reduction cost of agriculture non-point pollution is lower, which make the emission trade feasible. First, the characteristics of agriculture non-point pollution were recognized as that agriculture non-point pollution had many sources, uncertainty in occurring, difficulty to supervise. Then, two emission trade mechanisms had been built, one of which was that farmers changed production behavior uniformly and the other was that industrial point pollution built public pollution eliminating infrastructures. Finally, some key problem in the emission trading between industrial point pollution and agriculture non-point pollution were discussed.%当前,农业面源污染已经成为我国水环境污染的主要来源.相比较于大型工业点源,农业面源污染减排成本较低的状况为二者进行排污权交易提供了有利条件.在分析面源污染具有涉及个体多、发生不确定性强、减排结果监测困难等特征的基础上,提出了工业点源与农业面源排污权交易的两种机制:基于污染产生的"农户统一行动交易机制"和基于污染治理的"农业公共治理设施建设交易机制".最后,针对工业点源-农业面源排污权交易中存在的一些问题进行了初步探讨.

  10. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  11. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs as a non-point source (NPS pollution indicator and the green factor (GF as a low impact development (LID land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated with storm factors whereas they showed significant differences according to the land use types. The calculated REMCs for BOD, COD, TSS, TN, and TP showed negative correlations with the GFs. However, even though the GFs of the agricultural area were concentrated in values of 80 like the green areas, the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were especially high. There were few differences in REMC runoff characteristics according to the GFs such as recreational facilities areas in suburbs and highways and trunk roads that connect to major roads between major cities. Except for those areas, the REMCs for BOD and COD were significantly related to the GFs. The REMCs for BOD and COD decreased when the rate of natural green area increased. On the other hand, some of the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were still high where the catchments encountered mixed land use patterns, especially public facility areas with bare ground and artificial grassland areas. The GF could therefore be used as a major planning indicator when establishing land use planning aimed at sustainable development with NPS management in urban areas if the weighted GF values will be improved.

  12. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  13. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger.

  14. A simple laboratory project for introducing nonpoint source pollution concept to students of environmental and agricultural related courses Uma experiência laboratorial simples para introduzir o conceito de poluição disseminada a estudantes das áreas do ambiente e agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a simple laboratory project to introduce students to the nonpoint source pollution, which may be an issue of great interest to both undergraduate and graduate students of environmental or agricultural chemistry courses. The aim of this work is introduce to the students the concepts and techniques such as the polymericbased controlled release system of an agrochemical, theory of diffusion (first Fick law and spectrophotometric analysis. Thus, this laboratory project includes three experimental modules to be conducted during three weeks. Programmatic contents are described in this proceeding. Students must be aware that dissemination of nutrients and pesticides is prone to occur by both surface runoff and groundwater leaching, causing damages on all neighboring land. To demonstrate dissemination of such pollutants, we have chosen inorganic phosphorus as example of a common agrochemical. Students are invited to follow the eventual movement of the inorganic P into the groundwater. With this purpose, gelatin gels containing inorganic P were prepared to obtain a continuous release of inorganic P at a controlled rate. The slow release of P allows fewer applications and less active ingredient needed, helping to prevent leaching, with consequent reduction of groundwater contamination. At this point, students are able to compare the advantages of slow release inorganic P vs. its application by conventional methods.Este trabalho descreve uma experiência laboratorial simples para introduzir o conceito de poluição disseminada (nonpoint source pollution a estudantes do Ensino Secundário e Universitário das áreas de Ambiente e de Agricultura. O objectivo deste trabalho é introduzir aos estudantes conceitos e técnicas, tais como os sistemas de libertação controlada, a teoria da difusão (1ª lei de Fick e a análise espectrofotomética. Este projecto laboratorial inclui três módulos experimentais a serem efectuados durante 3

  15. 基于排水过程分析的水稻灌区农田面源污染模拟%Simulation of agricultural non-point source pollution from paddy rice irrigation district based on analyses of drainage processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会; 王康; 周祖昊

    2012-01-01

    对前郭灌区主要面源污染物迁移、转化及汇集过程开展了2a的系统试验与监测,模拟了灌区面源污染水质水量过程,分析了灌区农田面源污染形成机制.水均衡测定结果表明,灌区排水主要由灌溉退水、稻田地表弃水和稻田渗流排水3部分组成,采用马斯京根法和连续分段马斯京根法能够有效地模拟各级排水沟道的排水过程.主要面源污染物随水体发生迁移及掺混,采用一级动力学方法描述污染物转化过程,模拟的灌区水质水量过程与实际过程符合较好,稻田地表退水主要影响水稻抽穗前的面源污染入河过程,而渗流排水则在抽穗后灌区排水水质中起主要作用.结果表明水稻灌区中地表排水和稻田渗漏排水对于面源污染过程起主要作用.%The transport and transformation processes of non-point source pollutions form paddy rice field to the main drainage canal through lateral and branch drainage canals were monitored in the Qianguo irrigation district during the rice growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. Water balance were measured in lateral canal in the controlled irrigation region. Results showed that the drainage water were composed of the rice field surface returned water, the irrigation returned water and the seepage from rice field to the drainage canals. Drainage processes in branch and main canal were simulated using the Muskingum method and the Muskingum segmentation flow routing method, respectively. The transport processes of chemical concentrations were determined by the mix and convection of water flow and the transformation processes were described using the first order kinetic equation. Drainage processes and contaminant concentration simulated showed good agreements with the measured values. The returned water and seepage from rice field played key roles in the process of agricultural non point pollution into the river. This research suggested the surface drainage and seepage

  16. 基于“压力-响应”机制的江苏省农业面源污染源解析及其空间特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Origin of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangsu Province Based on Pressure-response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆尤尤; 胡清宇; 段华平; 卞新民

    2012-01-01

    运用清单分析、等标负荷和聚类分析等方法,对江苏省农业面源污染源、影响因子、空间分布特征等进行了分析与评价.结果表明:江苏省农业面源污染化学需氧量(COD)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)绝对实物排放量分别为155.23×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、9.05×104t/a,相应的绝对等标排放量分别为7.76×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、45.23×104t/a.农业面源污染造成的COD、TN、TP的平均排放浓度分别为6.25 mg/L、2.53mg/L、0.36 mg/L,排放浓度地区差异显示苏北>苏中>苏南.农业面源污染综合水质指数显示,江苏省均值为2.10,达到中度污染水平.其中徐州、连云港、宿迁处于严重污染状态;淮安、盐城、泰州处于中度污染状态;南通、扬州处于轻度污染状态;南京处于警戒状态;无锡、常州、苏州、镇江处于安全状态.主要污染物依次是TN、TP,其贡献率分别为54.71%和38.86%;主要污染源依次是化肥施用、畜禽养殖、人粪尿、水产养殖,其贡献率分别为30.75%、24.94%、16.85%、15.28%;在国土面积、农业产值和农村人口几大因子中,农业产值是与污染物排放量相关性程度最高的因子.通过对”压力-响应”的表征量进行聚类分析得出江苏省农业面源污染的空间分布特征,其压力和响应基本一致.%The primary source, influence factors, and spatial distribution characteristics of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPSP) in Jiangsu Province were analyzed by inventory analysis, equivalent standard load, and cluster analysis methods. Results showed that the absolute real emissions of COD, TN and TP from NPSP were 155.23× 104t/a, 62.34×l04t/a and 9.05×l04t/a respectively. And the related standard emissions were 7.76×104 t/a, 62.34×104t/a and 45.23×104 t/a. The average concentrations of COD, TN and TP emitted from NPSP were 6.25 mg/L, 2.53 mg/L, 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of these

  17. 拉萨河流域非点源污染输出风险评估%Risk assessment of non-point source pollution export in Lasahe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方广玲; 香宝; 杜加强; 王宝良; 张立坤; 胡钰; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the high risk area of non-point source pollution has important practical significance to control non-point source pollution and improve the water environment quality. Lasahe River basin located in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China is important drinking-water source for Lhasa City, Linzhou County and Dangxiong County. Because the underdevelopment of industry and the less discharge of industrial pollutants in this area, non-point source pollution is the most important contributing factor for water pollution. Lhasa River basin is the region of agricultural production base with the densest population in the Tibet Autonomous Region. This study built the output risk model that includes rainfall, topography, and fertilization influence factor, identification the output risk region unit from basin non-point source pollution at all levels object. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was classed into five levels: lowest, lower, moderate, higher and highest. Data used in this study were mainly from remote sensing image, statistical yearbook, and the parameters in output risk model were collected from the literatures. The results showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution output in 1996 and 2010 was 50%and 46.3%respectively. 17.5%in 1996 and 12.6%in 2010 of the study area showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution was more than 70%. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was spatially heterogeneous, corresponding with the attributes of land use types. The areas with highest risk of non-point source pollution were concentrated in farmland, where agricultural activities strengthened, and concentrated in unused land with great ecological vulnerability and sensitivity to external interference. Areas with lowest and lower risk of non-point source pollution mainly distributed in grassland, which has relative stability and robustness. Our study also found that risk probability of non-point source pollution

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie; YANG; Huanghuang; ZENG; Budan; CHEN; Fang; CHEN; Shikai; WU

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution.[Method]By investigating the park water environment,analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate,setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying.The COD of lakes and river outside the park and ammonia mean concentration belong to grade III.The total nitrogen of lake belongs to grade III.The total phosphorus belongs to grade IV.The total nitrogen of river is the worst.The total phosphorus is grade V.[Conclusion] The lake water quality is highly affected by the point and non-point source pollution,the quality of the river is worse than that of the lake in the park,and it needs powerful governance.

  19. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  20. Response of non-point source pollutant loads to climate change in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wenxi; An, Yonglei; Li, Di; Gong, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment are predicted by combining a general circulation model (HadCM3) with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A statistical downscaling model was used to generate future local scenarios of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation. Then, the downscaled meteorological variables were used as input to the SWAT hydrological model calibrated and validated with observations, and the corresponding changes of future streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment were simulated and analyzed. Results show that daily temperature increases in three future periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) relative to a baseline of 1961-1990, and the rate of increase is 0.63°C per decade. Annual precipitation also shows an apparent increase of 11 mm per decade. The calibration and validation results showed that the SWAT model was able to simulate well the streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads, with a coefficient of determination of 0.7 and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of about 0.7 for both the calibration and validation periods. The future climate change has a significant impact on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads. The annual streamflow shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2010 to 2099, with an increase rate of 1.1 m(3) s(-1) per decade, and a significant upward trend in summer, with an increase rate of 1.32 m(3) s(-1) per decade. The increase in summer contributes the most to the increase of annual load compared with other seasons. The annual NH (4) (+) -N load into Shitoukoumen reservoir shows a significant downward trend with a decrease rate of 40.6 t per decade. The annual TP load shows an insignificant increasing trend, and its change rate is 3.77 t per decade. The results of this analysis provide a scientific basis for effective support of decision

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  2. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  3. The removal of nutrients from non-point source wastewater by a hybrid bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Graham, Bruce; Kerr, Philip G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing nutrients from non-point source wastewater. The proposal involves a hybrid bioreactor comprised of sequential anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic (A(2)/O) processes and an eco-ditch being constructed and applied in a suburban area, Kunming, south-western China, where wastewater was discharged from an industrial park and suburban communities. The results show that the hybrid bioreactor fosters heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms. When the hydraulic load is 200 m(3) per day with the running mode in 12h cycles, the removal efficiencies of the nutrients were 81% for TP, 74% for TDP, 82% for TN, 79% for NO(3)-N and 86% for NH(4)-N. The improved bacterial community structure and bacterial habitats further implied enhanced water quality and indicates that the easily-deployed, affordable and environmentally-friendly hybrid bioreactor is a promising bio-measure for removing high loadings of nutrients from non-point source wastewater.

  4. Effects of Grass Hedges and No-tillage Practice Oil the Removing of Typical Agricultural Non-point Source Pollutants from Runoff%免耕和草篱措施对径流中典型农业面源污染物的去除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 陶梅; 肖波; 王庆海; 陈建平

    2011-01-01

    Chemical fertilizer and herbicide are widely used in agricultural production. These chemical substances not only significantly increase crop yields but also result in serious water pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three practices (no-tillage, grass hedges, no-tillage and grass hedges) on the loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff. The results showed that no-tillage and grass hedges significantly reduced agricultural non-point source pollution. As compared to the control, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and atrazine loss in the plots with no-tillage were decreased by 53%, 51% and 56%, respectively; reductions by the grass hedges were 68%, 61% and 90%, respectively; the decreases due to no-tillage and grass hedges were 77%, 76% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the regression results showed that the losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff were positively correlated to the surface runoff. From these results could be concluded that both of no-tillage and grass hedges could significantly reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine loss with runoff, and the integration of these two practices was proved to be much more effective than their individual effects.%大量施用农业化学物质在提高作物产量的同时,也导致了严重的水体污染.在北京地区不同坡度的径流小区上,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究免耕、草篱、以及免耕与草篱复合3种措施对农田径流中氮、磷、阿特拉津3种典型农业面源污染物的去除效果.结果表明:免耕措施可减少53%的总氮、51%的总磷和56%的阿特拉津流失;草篱措施可减少68%的总氮、61%的总磷和90%的阿特拉津流失;而免耕与草篱复合措施可减少77%的总氮、76%的总磷和92%的阿特拉津流失.另外,总氯、总磷和阿特拉津流失量均与径流量呈显著的线性正相关关系.本研究证实,免耕和草篱措施均能有效防止氮、磷以及阿特拉津随农

  5. Assessment of nonpoint-source contamination of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, John O.; Stullken, Lloyd E.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in a 5,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer in south-central Kansas that is susceptible to nonpoint-source contamination from agricultural and petroleum-production activities. Of particular interest was the presence of agricultural chemicals and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons that might have been associated with brines that formerly were disposed into unlined ponds. Random sampling of ground water was done within a framework of discrete land-use areas (irrigated cropland, petroleum-production land containing former brine-disposal ponds, and undeveloped rangeland) of 3-10 square miles. Although true baseline water-quality conditions probably are rare, in this region they are represented most closely by ground water in areas of undeveloped rangeland. The sampling design enabled statistical hypothesis testing, using nonparametric procedures, of the effects of land use, unsaturated-zone lithology, and type of well sampled. Results indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by prevailing land-use activities, as shown by increased concentrations of several inorganic constituents. Ground water beneath irrigated cropland was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluofide, and nitrite plus nitrate than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Few nondegraded pesticides were detected in the aquifer, probably because of degradation and sorption. Atrazine was the most common, but only in small concentrations. round water beneath petroleum-production land was characterized by significantly larger concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride than was water beneath undeveloped rangeland. Nonpoint-source contamination by oil-derived hydrocarbons was not discernible. The occurrences of trace organic compounds were similar between petroleum-production land and undeveloped rangeland, which indicates a natural origin

  6. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  7. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  8. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  9. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  10. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  11. Modified Weighting for Calculating the Average Concentration of Non-Point Source Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of runoff depends upon that of soil loss and the latter is assumed to be linear to the value of EI that equals the product of total storm energy E times the maximum 30-min intensity I30 for a given rainstorm. Usually, the maximum accumulative amount of rain for a rainstorm might bring on the maximum amount of runoff, but it does not equal the maximum erosion and not always lead the maximum concentration. Thus, the average concentration weighted by amount of runoff is somewhat unreasonable. An improvement for the calculation method of non-point source pollution load put forward by professor Li Huaien is proposed. In replacement of the weight of runoff, EI value of a single rainstorm is introduced as a new weight. An example of Fujing River watershed shows that its application is effective.

  12. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  13. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  14. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  15. Assessment of Non-Point Source Total Phosphorus Pollution from Different Land Use and Soil Types in a Mid-High Latitude Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport characteristics of phosphorus in soil and the assessment of its environmental risk have become hot topics in the environmental and agricultural fields. The Sanjiang Plain is an important grain production base in China, and it is characterised by serious land use change caused by large-scale agricultural exploitation. Agricultural inputs and tillage management have destroyed the soil nutrient balance formed over long-term conditions. There are few studies on non-point source phosphorus pollution in the Sanjiang Plain, which is the largest swampy low plain in a mid-high-latitude region in China. Most studies have focused on the water quality of rivers in marsh areas, or the export mechanism of phosphorus from specific land uses. They were conducted using experimental methods or empirical models, and need further development towards mechanism models and the macro-scale. The question is how to find a way to couple processes in phosphorus cycling and a distributed hydrological model considering local hydrological features. In this study, we report an attempt to use a distributed phosphorus transport model to analyse non-point source total phosphorus pollution from different land uses and soil types on the Sanjiang Plain. The total phosphorus concentration generally shows an annually increasing trend in the study area. The total phosphorus load intensity is heterogeneous in different land use types and different soil types. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different land use types can be ranked in descending order from paddy field, dry land, wetlands, grassland, and forestland. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different soil types can be ranked in descending order: paddy soil, bog soil, planosol, meadow soil, black soil, and dark brown earth. The dry land and paddy fields account for the majority of total phosphorus load in the study area. This is mainly caused by extensive use of phosphate fertilizer on the

  16. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  17. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    in the effort to reduce agricultural P runoff. Continued application of P in excess of crop requirements causes P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment through surface runoff and erosion and through leaching via the soil matrix or macropores...... of transporting and applying manure to fields means that increasing mineral-fertilizer prices does not generate a sufficient incentive for farmers to reallocate all P surpluses generated by livestock between farms and fields. The aim of the thesis is to increase the understanding of the long-term impacts....... Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  18. Study on Management and Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Surface Runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Keliang; Zhu Xiaodong; Wang Xianghua; Ma Yan

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, hydrology, physical properties of watersheds and their nonpoint source (NPS) pollution potential at present. Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution, especially raised the pollution load of urban runoff NPS in receiving water. Urban runoff pollution is a hot spot of research on NPS. This paper analyzed type,source and harm of the NPS pollutants of urban runoff and its influence on the receiving water. Through estimating NPS pollution load of urban runoff and summarizing the law and characteristics of urban runoff NPS systemically, study on management and control of urban runoff NPS pollution was focused on the application of BMPs (best management practices). It is a fresh methodology that management and control on NPS pollution from urban surface runoff was analyzed by methods of landscape ecology,environmental economics and environmental management. The paper provided a scientific reference for mitigating urban water environment pressure and an effective method for management and control of NPS pollution from urban surface runoff..

  19. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  20. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  1. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL EROSION AND NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION BASED ON GIS IN ERLONG LAKE WATERSHED, JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Hong-yan; WANG Hui-lian; ZHANG Zheng-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Data collection, factor composition, nappe analysis and integrative simulation of natural geographical factors in Erlong Lake watershed have been carried out based on GIS. The risk areas where non-point source pollution may occur were compartmentalized and assessed, and the total soil erosion and the runoffs of N and P with rainfall in this valley were worked out by experiment and GIS mapping. The study indicated that the main type of soil in dry land with variable slope east of the lake and the middle-south parts of steep slope mountainous region (erosion source pollution (NSP) of nitrogen and phosphorus loss was corresponded with the soil erosion. Spatial distribution and the reasons of the distribution difference have been presented and it was emphasized that the human activities among the influence factors was the most important. It surely offers a scientific basis to control and prevent non-point source pollution in the watershed.

  2. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  3. Loss coefficient of nitrogenous non-point source pollution under various precipitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,calibrations of non-point source (NPS) pollution models are performed based on Black River basin historical real-time runoff data,sedimentation record data,and NPS sources survey information.The concept of NPS loss coefficient for the watershed or the loss coefficients (LC) for simplicity is brought up by examining NPS build-up and migration processes along riverbanks in natural river systems.The historical data is used for determining the nitrogenous NPS loss coefficient for five land use types including farmland,urban land,grassland,shrub land,and forest under different precipitation conditions.The comparison of outputs from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and coefficient export method showed that both methods could obtain reasonable LC.The high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.94722) between those two sets of calculation results justified the consistency of those two models.Another result in the study is that different combinations of precipitation condition and land use types could significantly affect the calculated loss coefficient.As for the adsorptive nitrogen,the order of impact on LC for different land use types can be sorted as:farm land > urban land > grassland > shrub land > forest while the order was farmland > grass land > shrub land > forest > urban land for soluble nitrogen.

  4. Uncertainty analysis for an effluent trading system in a typical nonpoint-sources-polluted watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Wang, Guobo; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-07-01

    Conventional effluent trading systems (ETSs) between point sources (PSs) and nonpoint sources (NPSs) are often unreliable because of the uncertain characteristics of NPSs. In this study, a new framework was established for PS-NPS ETSs, and a comprehensive analysis was conducted by quantifying the impacts of the uncertainties associated with the water assimilative capacity (WAC), NPS emissions, and measurement effectiveness. On the basis of these results, the uncertain characteristics of NPSs would result in a less cost-effective PS-NPS ETS during most hydrological periods, and there exists a clear transition occurs from the WAC constraint to the water quality constraint if these stochastic factors are considered. Specifically, the emission uncertainty had a greater impact on PSs, but an increase in the emission or abatement uncertainty caused the abatement efforts to shift from NPSs toward PSs. Moreover, the error transitivity from the WAC to conventional ETS approaches is more obvious than that to the WEFZ-based ETS. When NPSs emissions are relatively high, structural BMPs should be considered for trading, and vice versa. These results are critical to understand the impacts of uncertainty on the functionality of PS-NPS ETSs and to provide a trade-off between the confidence level and abatement efforts.

  5. Uncertainty analysis for an effluent trading system in a typical nonpoint-sources-polluted watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Wang, Guobo; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-07-11

    Conventional effluent trading systems (ETSs) between point sources (PSs) and nonpoint sources (NPSs) are often unreliable because of the uncertain characteristics of NPSs. In this study, a new framework was established for PS-NPS ETSs, and a comprehensive analysis was conducted by quantifying the impacts of the uncertainties associated with the water assimilative capacity (WAC), NPS emissions, and measurement effectiveness. On the basis of these results, the uncertain characteristics of NPSs would result in a less cost-effective PS-NPS ETS during most hydrological periods, and there exists a clear transition occurs from the WAC constraint to the water quality constraint if these stochastic factors are considered. Specifically, the emission uncertainty had a greater impact on PSs, but an increase in the emission or abatement uncertainty caused the abatement efforts to shift from NPSs toward PSs. Moreover, the error transitivity from the WAC to conventional ETS approaches is more obvious than that to the WEFZ-based ETS. When NPSs emissions are relatively high, structural BMPs should be considered for trading, and vice versa. These results are critical to understand the impacts of uncertainty on the functionality of PS-NPS ETSs and to provide a trade-off between the confidence level and abatement efforts.

  6. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  7. Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2002-01-01

    The search for solutions to the problem of non-point source pollution (NSP) includes alternatives based on theories associated with the use of tradable pollution permits. Tradable permit programs have received significant support as a promising policy for the reduction of effluent discharges but programs in practice have not been regarded as successful. The lack of success is ascribed to the design of the programs. However, this may be a design problem which is insurmountable due to the nature of the NSP problem. Tradable permit solutions are based on an assumption that the assignation of quantifiable rights to both point and nonpoint sources, based on some predetermined ambient water quality measure, is possible. The conclusion here is that there are significant features particular to NSP that hinder the introduction of rights and significantly decrease the utility of tradable permit solutions.

  8. The non-point source (NPS) information system based on remote sensing and GIS and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-point source information system (NPSIS) has been constructed by use of remote sensing and GIS technology, and a construction method of NPSlS introduced with Shenzhen as an example. With the remote sensing land-using images as an environment unit, the analysis modules based on NPSIS are built through combining the NPS model with NPSIS, and the preliminary NPS calculation and analysis performed.

  9. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  10. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  11. Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

    2010-03-15

    Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed.

  12. Event-based nonpoint source pollution prediction in a scarce data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying the rainfall-runoff-pollutant (R-R-P) process is key to regulating non-point source (NPS) pollution; however, the impacts of scarce measured data on R-R-P simulations have not yet been reported. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of scarce data that addressed both rainfall-runoff and runoff-pollutant processes, whereby the impacts of data scarcity on two commonly used methods, including Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Loads Estimator (LOADEST), were quantified. A case study was performed in a typical small catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. Based on our results, the classification of rainfall patterns should be carried out first when analyzing modeling results. Compared to data based on a missing rate and a missing location, key information generates more impacts on the simulated flow and NPS loads. When the scarcity rate exceeds a certain threshold (20% in this study), measured data scarcity level has clear impacts on the model's accuracy. As the model of total nitrogen (TN) always performs better under different data scarcity conditions, researchers are encouraged to pay more attention to continuous the monitoring of total phosphorus (TP) for better NPS-TP predictions. The results of this study serve as baseline information for hydrologic forecasting and for the further control of NPS pollutants.

  13. Regional-scale assessment of non-point source groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Corwin, Dennis L.

    1998-05-01

    Predictive assessments of non-point source (NPS) pollution can have great utility for environmentally focused land use decisions related to both the remediation of existing groundwater contamination and the regulation of current (and future) agrochemical use. At the regional scales associated with NPS agrochemical applications there are staggering data management problems in assessing potential groundwater vulnerability. Geographical information system (GIS) technology is a timely tool that greatly facilitates the organized characterization of regional-scale variability. In this paper we review the recently reported (Loague et al., 1998a,b) simulations of NPS groundwater vulnerability, resulting from historical applications of the agrochemical DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), for east-central Fresno County (California). The Fresno case study helps to illustrate the data requirements associated with process-based three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid flow and solute transport in the unsaturated/saturated subsurface at a regional scale. The strengths and weaknesses of using GIS in regional-scale vulnerability assessments, such as the Fresno case study, and the critical problem of estimating the uncertainties in these assessments (owing to both data and model errors) are discussed. A regional GIS-driven integrated assessment approach is proposed, which is based upon cost-benefit analysis, and incorporates both physical and economic factors that can be used in a regulatory decision process.

  14. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement.

  15. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  16. Pollution of surface waters by metalaxyl and nitrate from non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Álvarez-Enjo, Manuel Ali; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the contaminant chemical and the properties of the soil. In order to explore these relationships, the district of A Limia (Galicia, NW Spain) was selected as the study area--a cropland devoted to growing potatoes, where the soil had been managed intensively over the last 50 years. The soil was characterised by low slopes with the water table located very close to the soil surface. Our aim was to study the influence of high and intensive crop production on the water bodies and non-point source contamination, with a particular focus on metalaxyl and nitrate. The highest concentrations of metalaxyl occurred when rainfalls were low and in zones of the study area where natural hydrology was significantly altered by numerous drainage canals. The spatial and temporal distributions of the nitrate also showed a high variability, with the interaction between seasons and sampling area being the most significant factor in explaining the levels found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  18. Using site-specific soil samples as a substitution for improved hydrological and nonpoint source predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Zhao, Xin; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-08-01

    Soil databases are one of the most important inputs for watershed models, and the quality of soil properties affects how well a model performs. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the sensitivity of model outputs to soil properties and to (2) use site-specific soil properties as a substitution for more accurate hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) predictions. Soil samples were collected from a typical mountainous watershed in China, and the impacts of soil sample parameters on H/NPS predictions were quantified using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The most sensitive parameters related to predicting flow, sediment, and total phosphorus (TP) mainly were the soil hydrological, the channel erosion processes, and the initial soil chemical environment, respectively. When the site-specific soil properties were used, the uncertainties (coefficient of variation) related to predicting the hydrology, sediment and TP decreased by 75∼80 %, 75∼84 %, and 46∼61 %, respectively. Based on changes in the Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, the model performance improved by 4.9 and 19.45 % for the hydrological and sediment model, accordingly. However, site-specific soil properties did not contribute to better TP predictions because of the high spatial variability of the soil P concentrations across the large watershed. Thus, although site-specific soil samples can be used to obtain more accurate H/NPS predictions, more sampling sites are required to apply this method in large watersheds.

  19. Evaluating the impacts of soil data on hydrological and nonpoint source pollution prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-01

    Soil data are one key input for most hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) models, and quantifying the error transmission from soil data to H/NPS predictions is of great importance. In this study, two typical soil datasets were compared using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a typical mountainous watershed, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Besides, the effects of soil data resolution were evaluated, and the error transmission from soil data to watershed management strategy was assessed. The results indicate that model outputs are not sensitive to changes of soil data resolution but the choice of soil data greatly impacts the application of watershed models, in terms of the goodness-of-fit indicator, predicted data and related uncertainty. This soil data-induced error would be inevitably magnified from the flow simulation to the NPS prediction stage. This study could indicate that the choice of soil data will lead to significant differences in management schemes for specific pollution periods. These results provide information on the impacts of soil data on the functionality of watershed models and valuable information for the appropriateness of each soil database.

  20. Development of type transfer functions for regional-scale nonpoint source groundwater vulnerability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Loague, Keith

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessments of nonpoint source agrochemical contamination at regional scales are either qualitative in nature or require prohibitively costly computational efforts. By contrast, the type transfer function (TTF) modeling approach for vadose zone pesticide leaching presented here estimates solute concentrations at a depth of interest, only uses available soil survey, climatic, and irrigation information, and requires minimal computational cost for application. TTFs are soil texture based travel time probability density functions that describe a characteristic leaching behavior for soil profiles with similar soil hydraulic properties. Seven sets of TTFs, representing different levels of upscaling, were developed for six loam soil textural classes with the aid of simulated breakthrough curves from synthetic data sets. For each TTF set, TTFs were determined from a group or subgroup of breakthrough curves for each soil texture by identifying the effective parameters of the function that described the average leaching behavior of the group. The grouping of the breakthrough curves was based on the TTF index, a measure of the magnitude of the peak concentration, the peak arrival time, and the concentration spread. Comparison to process-based simulations show that the TTFs perform well with respect to mass balance, concentration magnitude, and the timing of concentration peaks. Sets of TTFs based on individual soil textures perform better for all the evaluation criteria than sets that span all textures. As prediction accuracy and computational cost increase with the number of TTFs in a set, the selection of a TTF set is determined by a given application.

  1. A distributed non-point source pollution model: calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Zhang, Xue-song; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model--SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database, which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998--1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  2. Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution Through Collaboration: Policies and Programs Across the U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Scott D.; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than 204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act’s Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  3. [Analysis on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed based on L-THIA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zeng, Fan-Tang; Fang, Huai-Yang; Lin, Shu

    2013-11-01

    Based on the Long-term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model, the effect of land use and rainfall change on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed was analyzed. The parameters in L-THIA model were revised according to the data recorded in the scene of runoff plots, which were set up in the watershed. The results showed that the distribution of areas with high pollution load was mainly concentrated in agricultural land and urban land. Agricultural land was the biggest contributor to nitrogen and phosphorus load. From 1995 to 2010, the load of major pollutants, namely TN and TP, showed an obviously increasing trend with increase rates of 17.91% and 25.30%, respectively. With the urbanization in the watershed, urban land increased rapidly and its area proportion reached 43.94%. The contribution of urban land to nitrogen and phosphorus load was over 40% in 2010. This was the main reason why pollution load still increased obviously while the agricultural land decreased greatly in the past 15 years. The rainfall occurred in the watershed was mainly concentrated in the flood season, so the nitrogen and phosphorus load of the flood season was far higher than that of the non-flood season and the proportion accounting for the whole year was over 85%. Pearson regression analysis between pollution load and the frequency of different patterns of rainfall demonstrated that rainfall exceeding 20 mm in a day was the main rainfall type causing non-point source pollution.

  4. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  5. Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  6. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  7. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  8. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  9. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from the agricultural sector has, in recent decades, caused eutrophication of streams and lakes across Europe and North America. Intensive and increasing livestock production generates manure P well in excess of crop requirements. These areas are therefore key elements in t...

  10. Estimating the susceptibility of surface water in Texas to nonpoint-source contamination by use of logistic regression modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Ulery, Randy L.; Winterstein, Thomas; Welborn, Toby

    2003-01-01

    In the State of Texas, surface water (streams, canals, and reservoirs) and ground water are used as sources of public water supply. Surface-water sources of public water supply are susceptible to contamination from point and nonpoint sources. To help protect sources of drinking water and to aid water managers in designing protective yet cost-effective and risk-mitigated monitoring strategies, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey developed procedures to assess the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters in Texas to the occurrence of 227 contaminants. One component of the assessments is the determination of susceptibility of surface-water sources to nonpoint-source contamination. To accomplish this, water-quality data at 323 monitoring sites were matched with geographic information system-derived watershed- characteristic data for the watersheds upstream from the sites. Logistic regression models then were developed to estimate the probability that a particular contaminant will exceed a threshold concentration specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Logistic regression models were developed for 63 of the 227 contaminants. Of the remaining contaminants, 106 were not modeled because monitoring data were available at less than 10 percent of the monitoring sites; 29 were not modeled because there were less than 15 percent detections of the contaminant in the monitoring data; 27 were not modeled because of the lack of any monitoring data; and 2 were not modeled because threshold values were not specified.

  11. [Bivariate statistical model for calculating phosphorus input loads to the river from point and nonpoint sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-Jiang; Sun, Si-Yang; Jia, Ying-Na; Chen, Jia-Bo; Lü, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the hydrological difference between the point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution processes and the major influencing mechanism of in-stream retention processes, a bivariate statistical model was developed for relating river phosphorus load to river water flow rate and temperature. Using the calibrated and validated four model coefficients from in-stream monitoring data, monthly phosphorus input loads to the river from PS and NPS can be easily determined by the model. Compared to current hydrologica methods, this model takes the in-stream retention process and the upstream inflow term into consideration; thus it improves the knowledge on phosphorus pollution processes and can meet the requirements of both the district-based and watershed-based wate quality management patterns. Using this model, total phosphorus (TP) input load to the Changle River in Zhejiang Province was calculated. Results indicated that annual total TP input load was (54.6 +/- 11.9) t x a(-1) in 2004-2009, with upstream water inflow, PS and NPS contributing to 5% +/- 1%, 12% +/- 3% and 83% +/- 3%, respectively. The cumulative NPS TP input load during the high flow periods (i. e. , June, July, August and September) in summer accounted for 50% +/- 9% of the annual amount, increasing the alga blooming risk in downstream water bodies. Annual in-stream TP retention load was (4.5 +/- 0.1) t x a(-1) and occupied 9% +/- 2% of the total input load. The cumulative in-stream TP retention load during the summer periods (i. e. , June-September) accounted for 55% +/- 2% of the annual amount, indicating that in-stream retention function plays an important role in seasonal TP transport and transformation processes. This bivariate statistical model only requires commonly available in-stream monitoring data (i. e. , river phosphorus load, water flow rate and temperature) with no requirement of special software knowledge; thus it offers researchers an managers with a cost-effective tool for

  12. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  13. The non-point output of different agriculture landuse types in Zhexi hydraulic region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHengpeng; LIUXiaomei; HUANGWenyu

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes Zhexi hydraulic region in Taihu Basin as a study area. On the basis of hydraulic analysis function of Arcgis8.3, the drainages were delineated by selecting the monitoring points and discharge stations as outlets. The landuse map were finished by denoting the TM/ETM image. The precipitation map was finished by spatial interpolation according to the rainfall monitoring records. Overlaying the drainage boundary, landuse map and precipitation map, the rainfall, different landuse type area, and runoff pollution concentration and runoff were calculated. Based on these data in different sub-watersheds, by Origin7.0 regression tool, an equation is established to predict runoff using the relationships between runoff, precipitation depth and land use patterns in each of the sub-watersheds. Selecting the sub-watershed which is mainly composed of forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentration (MRC) from sub-watershed has been estimated. The mean runoff concentration of farmland has been estimated by the same methods after the contribution of forestlanduse type was removed. The results are" for the forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentrationsof COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 2.95 mg/l, 1.080 mg/l, 0.715 mg/l, and 0.039 mg/l,respectively; for the farmland, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 5.721 rag/l, 3.097 rag/l, 2.092 rag/l, and 0.166 rag/l, respectively. By using these results, the agriculture non-point pollution loads have been assessed. The loads of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P in Zhexi region are 14,631.69 t/a, 6401.93 t/a, 4281.753 t/a and 287.67 t/a, respectively.

  14. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pohlert; J. A. Huisman; L. Breuer; Frede, H.-G.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993) and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003). The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002) and validati...

  15. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    . Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  16. 兰州农村面源污染现状及防治对策分析%The Analysis of the Rural Non-point Source Pollution Situation and Countermeasures in Lan Zhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂洪杰; 赵军平; 杜海霞; 张君弟; 刘佳

    2011-01-01

    文中在兰州统计年鉴的基础上,根据面源污染来源,分析了农业、畜牧业、生产和生活活动的危害,初步估算了主要面源污染物的流失量。并根据兰州市农村具体情况提出了相应的保护和控制措施,旨在为解决农村面源污染问题和保护农村生态环境提供借鉴。%In this paper,on the basis of Lan Zhou statistical yearbook,We analyzed the dangers of agriculture,animal husbandry,production activities and life activities according to the sources of rural non-point pollution,and then,we preliminary estimate the loss of the main non-point pollutant.In order to Provide reference for solving the problem of non-point pollution and the rural ecological environment protection,we put forward the corresponding protection and control measures,according to the specific situation of Lan Zhou countryside.

  17. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pohlert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993 and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003. The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002 and validation period (April 2002 to January 2003, respectively. However, the model efficiency for daily loads is low (0.15, which cannot only be attributed to the quality of input data of point source effluents. An analysis of the internal fluxes and cycles of nitrogen pointed out considerable weaknesses in the models conceptualisation of the nitrogen modules which will be improved in future research.

  18. A West Virginia case study: does erosion differ between streambanks clustered by the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby L. McQueen; Nicolas P. Zegre; Danny L. Welsch

    2013-01-01

    The integration of factors and processes responsible for streambank erosion is complex. To explore the influence of physical variables on streambank erosion, parameters for the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model were collected on a 1-km reach of Horseshoe Run in Tucker County, West Virginia. Cluster analysis was used to establish...

  19. The impact of information on behavior under an ambient-based policy for regulating nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haoran; Fooks, Jacob R.; Guilfoos, Todd; Messer, Kent D.; Pradhanang, Soni M.; Suter, Jordan F.; Trandafir, Simona; Uchida, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Stemming from Segerson [1988], literature on nonpoint source pollution shows that ambient-based regulatory policies can induce polluters in a common watershed to comply with an exogenously determined pollution standard. This study uses laboratory economic experiments in a spatially heterogeneous setting to test the effectiveness of an ambient tax/subsidy policy in a setting with realistic in-stream nutrient transport dynamics when varying levels of sensor information on ambient pollution are available to the agents and the regulator. We find that increasing the frequency of ambient monitoring improves the spatial allocation of emissions reductions. In particular, with more frequent monitoring, the ambient-based policy induces firms further from the monitoring point to reduce emissions significantly more than downstream firms. Overall, the results suggest that enhanced temporal resolution of monitoring leads to efficiency gains.

  20. NASA-Modified Precipitation Products to Improve EPA Nonpoint Source Water Quality Modeling for the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. Ninety percent of the impairments are typically caused by nonpoint sources. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires States to monitor the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted", for any watershed in the U.S.. In response to this mandate, the EPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a Decision Support Tool (DST) for assessing pollution and to guide the decision making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program -- Fortran (HSPF), computes daily stream flow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, stream flow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better stream flow statistics and, ultimately, in improved water quality assessment.

  1. A review on Non-point Source Nutrient Pollution of Irrigation Plain Areas%平原灌区农田养分非点源污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    平原灌区作为农业规模化生产的基地,在农业乃至经济社会发展中起到了重要作用,但是随着农业的发展,平原灌区农田非点源污染问题日益严重,研究平原灌区农田非点源污染具有重要意义。文章以平原灌区污染物随水文循环迁移过程为基础对平原灌区养分非点源污染研究进行综述。(1)平原灌区农田非点源污染的主要来源是过量的化肥施用,农药和农膜,秸秆等农作物的降解,牲畜粪便,污水灌溉,灌溉引起的盐渍化以及大气的干湿沉降等;产生及影响因素主要有土壤的理化性质,水分的输入方式和人为管理措施等。(2)降雨径流及灌溉排水条件下污染物在多级渠系中的迁移规律和灌区地表水与地下水的交互耦合作用决定了平原灌区农田非点源污染的输送途径与特征。(3)在监测资料比较缺乏时,采用输出系数法进行负荷估算;在监测资料充足情况下,采用针对灌区特殊的水文特征而改进的经典水文模型对平原灌区农田非点源污染的负荷进行估算。(4)新型肥料、配方施肥、合理的耕作措施及生态沟渠的设置有利于平原灌区农田非点源污染的控制,TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Loads)为平原灌区农田非点源污染控制提供可靠的依据。针对平原灌区非点源污染研究现状,提出了中国开展平原灌区农田非点源污染研究的重点,包括养分污染物在多级沟渠中的迁移,灌区地表与地下水水量水质耦合模型的建立,分级控制单元与TMDL的制定以及多模型结合模拟等,可望在控制农业非点源污染方面起到指导作用。%Plain irrigation areas as the basis of agricultural large-scale production played an important role in agricultural, economic and social development. However, the seriousness of non-point source pollution in plain irrigation areas is increasing with the

  2. Estimation of contribution from non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants in a river by using boron as a wastewater tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The contribution of non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in a river was evaluated by estimating their fluxes and by using boron (B) as a tracer. The utility of PFSs/B as an indicator for evaluating the impact of non-point sources was demonstrated. River water samples were collected from the Iruma River, upstream of the intake of drinking water treatment plants in Tokyo, during dry weather and wet weather, and 13 PFSs, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and B were analyzed. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) were detected on all sampling dates. The concentrations and fluxes of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, e.g. PFOA and PFNA) were higher during wet weather, but those of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs, e.g. PFHxS and PFOS) were not. The wet/dry ratios of PFSs/B (ratios of PFSs/B during wet weather to those during dry weather) agreed well with those of PFS fluxes (ratios of PFS fluxes during wet weather to those during dry weather), indicating that PFSs/B is useful for evaluating the contribution from non-point sources to PFSs in rivers. The wet/dry ratios of PFOA and PFNA were higher than those of other PFSs, DOC, and TN, showing that non-point sources contributed greatly to PFOA and PFNA in the water. This is the first study to use B as a wastewater tracer to estimate the contribution of non-point sources to PFSs in a river.

  3. Relations of nonpoint-source nitrate and atrazine concentrations in the High Plains aquifer to selected explanatory variables in six Nebraska study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druliner, A.D.; Chen, H.H.; McGrath, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical techniques were used to relate nonpoint-source ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine to a variety of explanatory variables for six study areas in Nebraska. Water samples were collected from 268 wells in 12 counties from 1984 through 1987 and were analyzed for nitrate concentrations; water samples from 210 of the wells were analyzed for atrazine. A number of hydrochemical, climatic, hydrologic, soil, and land-use explanatory variables, which were believed to affect the contamination of ground water by agricultural chemicals, were identified and quantified for each of the 268 wells. Multiple regression methods were used to determine which explanatory variables were statistically related to ground-water concentrations of nitrate and atrazine. Regression models predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations were produced that explained from about 50 to 68 percent of the variation in the dependent variables. Geographic- information-system methods were used to produce maps predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations in ground water for one study area using selected regression and logistic models. The results of this study indicate that multiple regression techniques coupled with geographic information systems can be an effective means of identifying areas of potential ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine.

  4. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  5. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON NONPOINT SOURCE NUTRIENT OUTPUT FROM XIANGXI BASIN IN THREE GORGES RESERVOIR%三峡库区香溪河流域非点源营养盐输出变化的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋林旭; 刘德富; 肖尚斌

    2011-01-01

    综合三峡库区香溪河流域土地利用结构和水系特点,在三大支流出口处设置常规水质监测断面,于干流响滩处设置水文控制断面,通过断面水质水量监测,利用数字滤波法解析径流多源和污染多源,研究上游来流点源和非点源营养盐输出负荷变化。结果表明:受农业非点源污染影响,TN是高岚河(0.788mg/L)〉古夫河(0.712mg/L)〉南阳河(0.567mg/L);南阳河受磷矿企业点源输入的影响,TP是南阳河(0.323mg/L)〉高岚河(0.074mg/L)〉古夫河(0.053mg/L);断面流量与降雨量的相关系数R2=0.%In order to study non-point source nutrient from Xiangxi River,considering the characteristics of the land use and the basin network,establishing the regular quality monitoring and hydrographic control section respectively in 3 major branches and upstream main channel.According to the water quality and quantity monitoring data,studying the spatial and temporal variation of the water quality from the upstream and the flux output process during raining,distinguishing the contribution of nonpoint and point source pollution load by digital filtering technology.The results demonstrate:controlled by agriculture nonpoint source pollution,TN is in GLGFNY,because of the point source pollution from P enterprise,TP is in NYGLGF;the correlation coefficient of flow and rainfall is 0.720 2;annual load ratio of TN and TP is 61% and 40%,during raining,the TN and TP contribution from nonpoint source pollution is 75.2% and 70.9%;the pollution load is decided by the runoff,the correlation of TN/TP load and runoff is that TN is 0.963 6,and TP is 0.978 9.

  7. 基于博弈论的非点源污染控制模型探讨%Modeling Nonpoint Source Pollution Control from the View of Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蔚文; 刘飞; 王新艳

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing ability to deal with point source pollution, such as industrial and urban life sewage, the impact of agricultural non-point source pollution on water quality environment has become more and more apparent. Compared with point source pollution, non-point source pollution occurs at an uncertain time, in an uncertain way and with uncertain quantity, which brings much more difficulties to the making of some relevant control policies. Beginning with the famous phenomenon of the Tragedy of Commons, this paper analyzes the game situation among the non-point pollution makers based on the marketing game model and the government supervision game model, and then proposes a way to manage and control non-point pollution in the form of "collective performance". Premising with the target of decreasing pollutant discharge, marketing game model proves that it is feasible and efficient to do the trade on point-nonpoint source pollution on the basis of the principle of Optimal Cost, while the results of the government supervision game model show that; a reasonable environment subsidy and punishment mechanism, and government's attaching importance to the self-reputation and public image will play a positive role in promoting non-point source pollution control.%随着对工业和城市生活污水等点源污染治理能力的不断增强,农业非点源污染对水质环境的影响日益凸现.相对于点源污染,非点源污染发生的不确定时间、不确定途径、不确定量等特点给治理政策的制定带来很大难度.本文从著名的公地悲剧现象出发,着力从市场博弈及政府监督博弈两个模型分析非点源污染制造者之间的博弈格局,并提出以“集体表现”的形式对非点源污染进行管理和控制.市场博弈模型中以一定的排污削减目标为前提,确定以成本最优的原则进行点源-非点源排污权交易是可行且有效率的;而政府监督博弈模型的结果显示:合理的

  8. Assessment of the impacts of land use changes on nonpoint source pollution inputs upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huicai; Wang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yan; Xue, Baolin; Wu, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, land use upstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has changed significantly because of the TGR project. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was examined for its ability to assess relationships between land use changes and nonpoint pollutant indexes upstream of the TGR. Results indicated that the SWAT model, calibrated with the adjusted parameters, could successfully reproduce the nonpoint indexes at the water quality monitoring sites in the two rivers. The different land use change types were shown to be sensitive to nonpoint pollutants in the study area. The land use change type from upland to water was the strongest influence on changes in total nitrogen and total phosphorus. An empirical regression equation between nonpoint indexes and different land use change types was developed for the study area by partial least squares regression (PLSR) as follows: Y = b 0 + ∑ i=1 (m) b i X i. This regression equation was useful for evaluating the influence of land use change types on changes in nonpoint pollutants over a long time period. The results from this study may be useful for the TGR management and may help to reduce nonpoint pollutant loads into downstream water bodies.

  9. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  10. 宁夏黄河灌区农业非点源污染损失估算%Economic loss caused by non-point source pollution ——A case study of Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨引禄; 冯永忠; 杨世琦; 曹艳春; 刘强; 杨改河

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution have become more and more serious and brought enormous danger to water environment in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, so it has important significance for ecological security to esti-mate the economic value of losses of pollution load in this area. In this paper, according to the JOHNES export coefficient method, calculation is made of non-point source pollution load in'Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, and the methoddology of enxironmental economics is used to reckon quantitatively economic loss caused by agricultural non-point source pollution. The results showed that the livestock breeding pollution contributed 41.27% to the pollution load of the area, and 37.25 % to the TN and 4.03 % to the TP pollution load of the area. The planting was the second and the rural domestic waste was the lowest proportion in non-point source pollution load, which was 34.54% and 24.2% to the pollution load of the area. The economic loss caused by the regional non-point source pollution was calculated at about 548.741 million RMB in total, of which about 40.97% was coutributed by livestock breeding pollution, while the planting and the rural areaa domestic waste respectively 35.6% and 23.4% to the all economic loss. This results illuminate that only the control of livestock breeding pollution can reduce economic loss caused by agricultural ono-point source pollution in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District.%以宁夏黄河灌区为研究区,在充分利用JOHNES输出系数法计算灌区非点源污染负荷的基础上,应用环境经济学中的恢复防护费用法对灌区农业非点源污染产生的负荷转化为经济损失进行估算.结果表明:宁夏黄河灌区禽畜养殖产生的污染负荷最高,占灌区污染负荷的41.27%,其中全氮排放占整个区域污染负荷的37.25%,全磷排放占整个区域污染负荷的4.03%,种植业产生的氮磷污染负荷次之,居民生活

  11. NASA-modified precipitation products to improve USEPA nonpoint source water quality modeling for the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The USEPA has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires states to monitor the total maximum daily load, or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted," for any watershed in the United States (Copeland, 2005). In response to this mandate, the USEPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a decision support tool for assessing pollution and to guide the decision-making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), computes continuous streamflow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events, especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA-modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, streamflow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better streamflow statistics and, potentially, in improved water quality assessment.

  12. A distributed non-point source pollution model:calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-bua; ZHANG Xue-song; YANG Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model-SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database,which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998-1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  13. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  15. Water and nonpoint source pollution estimation in the watershed with limited data availability based on hydrological simulation and regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiliang, Wang; Zening, Wu; Caihong, Hu; Xinzhong, Du

    2015-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered as the main reason for water quality deterioration; thus, to quantify the NPS loads reliably is the key to implement watershed management practices. In this study, water quality and NPS loads from a watershed with limited data availability were studied in a mountainous area in China. Instantaneous water discharge was measured through the velocity-area method, and samples were taken for water quality analysis in both flood and nonflood days in 2010. The streamflow simulated by Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) from 1995 to 2013 and a regression model were used to estimate total annual loads of various water quality parameters. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were much higher during the flood seasons, but the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) were lower during the flood seasons. Nevertheless, only TP concentration was positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed was significant. Statistical results indicated the significant contribution of pollutant fluxes during flood seasons to annual fluxes. The loads of TP, TN, NH3-N, and NO3-N in the flood seasons were accounted for 58-85, 60-82, 63-88, 64-81% of the total annual loads, respectively. This study presented a new method for estimation of the water and NPS loads in the watershed with limited data availability, which simplified data collection to watershed model and overcame the scale problem of field experiment method.

  16. Enabling and Enacting `Practical Action' in Catchments: Responding to the `Wicked Problem' of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Subtropical Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J.; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting `practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to `wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on `enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other `wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  17. Enabling and enacting 'practical action' in catchments: responding to the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source pollution in coastal subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    Enabling and enacting 'practical action' (i.e., purposeful and concerted collective action) in catchments is a key challenge in responding to a wide range of pressing catchment and natural resource management (NRM) issues. It is particularly a challenge in responding to 'wicked problems,' where generating action is not straightforward and cannot be brought about solely by any single actor, policy or intervention. This paper responds to the critical need to better understand how practical action can be generated in catchments, by conducting an in-depth empirical case study of efforts to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. SEQ has seen substantial concerted efforts to manage waterway and catchment issues over two decades, yet NPS pollution remains a major problem for waterway health. A novel framework was applied to empirically analyze practical action in three local catchment cases embedded within the broader SEQ region. The analysis focuses on 'enabling capacities' underpinning practical action in catchments. Findings reveal that capacities manifested in different ways in different cases, yet many commonalities also occurred across cases. Interplay between capacities was critical to the emergence of adaptive and contextual forms of practical action in all cases. These findings imply that in order to enable and enact practical action in catchments, it is vital to recognize and support a diversity of enabling capacities across both local and regional levels of decision making and action. This is likely to have relevance for other 'wicked' catchment and NRM problems requiring local responses within broader multiscalar regional problem situations.

  18. Distributed Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution in Ashi River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ma; Xiaofeng Jiang; Li Wang; Zhe Li; Xiongwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of non⁃point source pollution, it is essential to examine its temporal and spatial distribution. A physically⁃based distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool ( SWAT) , was used in this research, to quantitatively estimate the NPS load and analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of NPS pollution in Ashi River Basin. The results indicated that SWAT was suitable to simulate stream⁃flow and water quality in Ashi River Basin. Total Nitrogen which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TN) accounted for 32�47%-62�61%, and Total Phosphorus which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TP) accounted for 22�30%-57�85% of the total load respectively. In inter⁃annual timescale, both NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were influenced by stream⁃flow and fertilizer. However, when compared with fertilizer, NPS pollution was more directly affected by stream⁃flow. In annual timescale, NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP mainly occurred in flood season (from May to September). In the aspect of space, spatial differences of NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were extremely significant. The spatial variations of NPS pollution were mainly influenced by land use, precipitation, soil and slope.

  19. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkosky, M; Hernández-Delgado, E A; Sandoz, B; Robledo, I E; Norat-Ramírez, J; Mattei, H

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source fecal contamination across the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Inshore waters were highly turbid, consistently receiving fecal pollution from variable sources, and showing the highest frequency of positive molecular marker signals. Signals were also detected at offshore waters in compliance with existing microbiological quality regulations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most isolates were of human fecal origin. The geographic extent of non-point source fecal pollution was large and impacted extensive coral reef systems. This could have deleterious long-term impacts on public health, local fisheries and in tourism potential if not adequately addressed.

  20. 植草沟技术在面源污染控制中的研究进展%Advance on Grassed Swales Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 尹炜; 叶闽; 雷阿林; 李思敏

    2011-01-01

    Current research advances of non-point source pollution, especially urban non-point source pollution were introduced. Research advances and applications of grassed swales technology in non-point source pollution control were expounded. Main problems and application prospects of grassed swales technology in actual engineering were discussed as well. Coupling of grassed swales technology and other non-point source pollution control technology are proposed to be considered as a development direction in urban non-point source pollution control.%文章介绍了面源污染,尤其是城市面源污染的现状及其控制技术研究进展,并论述了植草沟技术的国内外研究进展及应用现状,讨论了其在工程中需解决的问题及应用前景,提出了植草沟技术与其他面源污染控制单项技术有机耦合是城市面源污染控制的一个发展方向.

  1. SWAT: Agricultural water and nonpoint source pollution management at a watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global change and demographic changes increasingly cause water, food, and health problems in many areas of the world. In addition, the growth in bioenergy production leads to land-use change and associated environmental impacts. The lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads...

  2. A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

    2014-05-01

    In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

  3. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xeyang@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  4. 河流污染的点源和非点源负荷分割研究%The Segmentation of the Point Source and Non-point Source Pollution Load of Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔继平; 代俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become the major source of pollution of water environment .Point source pollution and non-point source pollution of river water environmental monitoring to distinguish sections is very necessary .This paper mainly intro‐duces the research progress at home and abroad about non point source pollution .This paper focuses on the pollution load partition of Nanliu River Basin in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone .The segmentation of point source pollution and non-point source pollution of potassium permanganate index ,total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen are made based on the hydrological estimation method and the digital filtering method .The hydrological estimation method results show that three indexes of non-point source pollution the to‐tal pollution load ratio is 0 .77 ,0 .74 and 0 .76 .And the digital filtering method results show that they are 0 .59 ,0 .64 and 0 .66 .Di‐viding two methods of non-point source is close to the result ,Nanliu River Basin is more serious .%非点源污染已经成为水环境的主要污染源,区分河流水环境监测断面的点源污染与非点源污染显得十分必要。以广西入海河流南流江为研究背景,采用数字滤波法和水文估算法进行点源与非点源污染负荷的分割。分析结果显示,基于水文估算法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.77、0.74、0.76;采用数字滤波法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.59、0.64、0.66。结果表明,两种方法分割的非点源结果的变幅趋势相同,南流江的非点源污染在总污染负荷中的比例较高。

  5. Optimization of Policy and Management Service System on Control of Rural Non-Point Source Pollution-A Case Study of the Rural Area of Shanghai%农村面源污染治理的政策与管理服务体系优化——以上海郊区农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 沈哲

    2012-01-01

    It is a common view that control of rural non-point source pollution is not only a technology issue, but also a management system issue. So hard currently it has become a hot spot and a hard nut as well to probe and consummate the policy, management and service system for control of rural non-point source pollution. Selecting the rural suburbs of Shanghai for case study, the status quo of the rural non-point source pollution and its management have been analyzed and summarized. While affirming the effect of the current work on pollution management, the limitations of the work are discerned and it was pointed out that inharmony between the agriculture development policy and the environmental protection policy and the lag of the management mechanism and service system behind the change in the rural development model are the basic causes. To counter the major contributors of the rural non-point source pollution, i. e. chemical fertilizers, pesticides , livestock excretes and rural domestic sewage, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for management of the pollution from the aspects of modification of the agricultural subsidization system, reconfiguration and implementation of the rural multi-value system and consummation of agricultural production service system.%农村面源污染控制不仅是技术问题,也是管理体制与机制问题,探讨并完善农村面源污染治理的政策、管理与服务体系已成为当前研究的热点与难点.以上海郊区农村为例,梳理总结农村面源污染及其控制现状;在肯定当前治理效果的同时,识别其局限性,指出农业政策与环境保护政策的不协调、农村发展模式转变下制度与服务体系的相对滞后是根本原因;针对当前农村面源污染重要的贡献者——化肥、农药、畜禽粪便以及农村生活污水,分别从改革农业补贴制度、重构实现农村多重价值的制度以及完善农业生产服务体系等方面给出了治理的对策与建议.

  6. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  7. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin management:Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG; Brian; WINDOLF; JФrgen; GRANT; Ruth; ANDERSEN; Hans; E; THODSEN; Hans; OVESEN; Niels; B; LARSEN; SФren; E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to follow the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment. Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources. Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen removal in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  8. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin man-agement: Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG Brian; WINDOLF J(φ)rgen; GRANT Ruth; ANDERSEN Hans E; THODSEN Hans; OVESEN Niels B; LARSEN S(φ)ren E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to fol-low the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment.Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources.Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen re-moval in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  9. Assessing the Hydrologic Performance of the EPA's Nonpoint Source Water Quality Assessment Decision Support Tool Using North American Land Data Assimilation System (Products)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Ni-Meister, W.; Toll, D.; Nigro, J.; Guiterrez-Magness, A.; Engman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of streamflow predictions in the EPA's BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources) decision support tool is affected by the sparse meteorological data contained in BASINS. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data with high spatial and temporal resolutions provide an alternative to the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s station data. This study assessed the improvement of streamflow prediction of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model contained within BASINS using the NLDAS 118 degree hourly precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates in seven watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Our results demonstrated consistent improvements of daily streamflow predictions in five of the seven watersheds when NLDAS precipitation and evapotranspiration data was incorporated into BASINS. The improvement of using the NLDAS data is significant when watershed's meteorological station is either far away or not in a similar climatic region. When the station is nearby, using the NLDAS data produces similar results. The correlation coefficients of the analyses using the NLDAS data were greater than 0.8, the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model fit efficiency greater than 0.6, and the error in the water balance was less than 5%. Our analyses also showed that the streamflow improvements were mainly contributed by the NLDAS's precipitation data and that the improvement from using NLDAS's evapotranspiration data was not significant; partially due to the constraints of current BASINS-HSPF settings. However, NLDAS's evapotranspiration data did improve the baseflow prediction. This study demonstrates the NLDAS data has the potential to improve stream flow predictions, thus aid the water quality assessment in the EPA nonpoint water quality assessment decision tool.

  10. Zonation for nonpoint source pollution control in Hongfenghu reservoir watershed%红枫湖流域非点源污染控制区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿润哲; 殷培红; 原庆丹

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus is degrading surface water quality throughout the world. Sources of nutrients include over-fertilized agriculture lands, urban areas with excessive usage of herbicides and insecticides, and eroded soils. Due to the variation of nutrient export over the area and time, it is difficult to identify, assess and control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The prevention and mitigation of NPS pollution have become priority tasks in water monitoring and restoration programs in many countries. The interaction of human activities with the inherent variations in soil type, climate, topography and hydrology gives rise to large spatial and temporal variation in nutrient concentrations in surface runoff. Many research efforts are made to explore the processes and spatial characteristics of NPS pollution for prevention and mitigation measures. Major pollutants, particularly from agricultural activities, which include nitrogen, phosphorus nutrients and sediment that have been released into aquatic environments, have caused problems in the Hongfenghu Reservoir watershed, Guiyang. It is necessary to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of NPS pollutants and the highly polluted areas for the purpose of watershed management.In this paper, GIS technology, ArcSWAT model, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and CA (Cluster analysis) were used to identify the zonation of NPS sources and control in Yangchanghe river watershed which is one of the main tributaries in northwest of Hongfenghu Reservoir watershed, with relative strong intensive agricultural activities. The results showed that the spatial distribution of NPS pollution load in Yangchanghe river watershed was of great heterogeneity, the agricultural land at higher elevation had the highest NPS pollution loads, and the Liu Guang, Huang La, Jiu Zhou and Bai Yun towns were identified as the critical towns for NPS pollution control. In addition, the most important

  11. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  12. 模拟排水沟渠非点源溶质氮迁移实验研究%Transformation of Non-point Source Soluble Nitrogen in Simulated Drainage Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强坤; 宋常吉; 胡亚伟; 彭聪; 马强; 姜正曦; 琚艺萌

    2016-01-01

    The drainage ditch has a compound ecosystem structure consisting of water, sediment and plants. Migration and transformation of the non-point source solute is important to study interception, control and management of agricultural non-point source pollution in the drainage ditch. Based on the experiment on static simulation of drainage ditches, the article used typical non-point source soluble nitrogen as an example to analyze the changing process of nitrogen content in water, sediment and reeds, and to study the effects of the sediment adsorption and desorption, reeds growth and death in different periods on nitrogen concentration in water. The article discussed nitrogen migration in water-sediment- reeds compound ecosystem and its influence on nitrogen concentration in water. The results showed that both adsorption and desorption in sediment and absorption and assimilation of reeds growth had effect on nitrogen concentration in water. The effect before October was reducing the nitrogen concentration in water, which was the process of nitrogen purification in water. After October, the nitrogen concentration in water increased and made it easy to form secondary nitrogen pollution. Meanwhile, the migration in the water-sediment-seeds ecosystem in simulated drainage ditch had close ties, any migration and transformation of nitrogen in a single medium or between different mediums would cause adjustment of nitrogen concentration in water.%农田排水沟渠是由水-底泥-植物组成的复合生态结构,其间非点源溶质的迁移转化对研究沟渠拦截、控制和管理农业非点源污染具有重要意义。本研究以模拟排水沟渠静态实验为基础,以典型非点源溶质氮素为例,分析了实验期内水体、底泥及芦苇不同介质内氮含量变化过程,分析了底泥吸附与解析、芦苇生长与衰败等年内不同时期对水体中氮素浓度的影响,探讨了水-底泥-芦苇复合生态体内氮迁移及对水体中氮

  13. A Method for Source-load Allocation of Nutrients in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M. R.; James, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    Identification of pollutant sources is critical to solving water resource contamination problems. Non-point sources of agricultural pollution provide substantial challenges to quantifying and allocating the sources of contaminants to streams. A method is presented for identifying the spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus sources and allocating proportional responsibility for source-reduction. The method is applied to data at scales ranging from hydrologic regions (2-digit hydrologic accounting units) of the Mississippi drainage basin to the public land survey grid in two small (14-digit) watersheds. A mass balance of nutrient sources and losses is estimated using georeferenced data derived from national to local digital data bases. Nitrogen excess is estimated by balancing sources associated with inorganic fertilizer, manure, crop fixation, mineralization of organic matter, and atmospheric redeposition of ammonia with losses from crop harvest, plant senescence, denitrification, and volatilization of manure and inorganic fertilizer. Phosphorus sources from inorganic fertilizer and manure are balanced with losses due to crop harvest. Allocation in regional units allows targeting of major pollutant source areas while smaller aggregation areas define greater ranges of source-loads useful for specific allocation. Manure sources control the distribution of excess nutrients at many scales, particularly in watersheds with uniform cropping systems. Absolute values of excess N sources provide substantially different allocation patterns than proportional values of total source-loads. Selection of aggregation scale is critical to source-load allocation needed to define TMDLs, monitor loads, and establish water-quality remediation strategies. >http://www.nstl.gov/pubs/burkart/trends/index.html

  14. Trends of nitrogen and phosphorus input into Lake Neusiedl from wastewater treatment plants and non-point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Paul; Heiss, Gerhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Lake Neusiedl (Austria) is a mesotrophic to eutrophic shallow steppe lake. Due to its low water volume and the lack of a natural outflow, excessive nutrient input is a special risk for this lake. In recent years, improved waste water treatment technologies have reduced the N and P loads of the inflows although all municipalities surrounding Lake Neusiedl (with one exception) and the cities and municipalities within the catchment area of the river Wulka discharge their (treated) wastewater into Lake Neusiedl. The amount of wastewater in 2010 was more than 22 x 106 m3. Although the amount of wastewater increased by more than 70 % in the last 30 years, it was possible to reduce the ammonium load from 38 t/a to 8 t/a (as NH4-N), the nitrate load from 83 t/a to 34 t/a (as NO3-N), the phosphate load from 8 t/a to 3 t/a (as PO4-P) and the total phosphorus load from 11 t/a to 6 t/a (comparison of the average annual loads of 1982 and 2010). Another environmental risk for Lake Neusiedl is the nitrogen input due to agricultural activities. Therefore a pilot action within the EULAKES-project focused on the nitrate levels during annual cycles (2011-2012) in groundwater as well as in selected rivers, channels and ditches discharging into Lake Neusiedl. The monitoring programme demonstrated clearly that the major contribution of the total nitrogen load discharged by surface water into Lake Neusiedl originated from River Wulka. For a general assessment of the influence of surface water discharge into Lake Neusiedl it is necessary to investigate the data of River Wulka for a longer period. Therefore data at the monitoring station Schützen were analysed for the period 1992-2010. Evaluation of the monitoring data showed that due to the higher nitrogen concentrations at higher average annual discharges the inorganic nitrogen load was about 6.5 times higher in 2010 (average discharge of Wulka 2.1 m3/s) than in the year 2001 (average discharge of Wulka 0.56 m3/s). The total inorganic

  15. Past leaded gasoline emissions as a nonpoint source tracer in riparian systems: A study of river inputs to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C.E.; Bouse, R.; Flegal, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of lead in 1995-1998 river waters flowing into San Francisco Bay trace the washout of lead deposited in the drainage basin from leaded gasoline combustion. At the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers where they enter the Bay, the isotopic compositions of lead in the waters define a linear trend away from the measured historical compositions of leaded gas in California. The river waters are shifted away from leaded gasoline values and toward an isotopic composition similar to Sierra Nevadan inputs which became the predominant source of sedimentation in San Francisco Bay following the onset of hydraulic gold mining in 1853. Using lead isotopic compositions of hydraulic mine sediments and average leaded gasoline as mixing end members, we calculate that more than 50% of the lead in the present river water originated from leaded gasoline combustion. The strong adsorption of lead (log K(d) > 7.4) to particulates appears to limit the flushing of gasoline lead from the drainage basin, and the removal of that lead from the system may have reached an asymptotic limit. Consequently, gasoline lead isotopes should prove to be a useful nonpoint source tracer of the environmental distribution of particle- reactive anthropogenic metals in freshwater systems.

  16. Spatial-temporal characteristics of phosphorus in non-point source pollution with grid-based export coefficient model and geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Dong, Guangxia; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiujuan; He, Mengchang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes and trends in non-point source (NPS) total phosphorus (TP) pollution were analyzed by land and non-land uses in the Songliao River Basin from 1986 to 2000 (14 years). A grid-based export coefficient model was used in the process of analysis based on to a geographic information system. The Songliao Basin is divided in four regions: Liaoning province, Jilin province (JL), Heilongjiang province and the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Region. Results indicated that the NPS phosphorus load caused by land use and non-land use increased steadily from 3.11×10(4) tons in 1986 to 3.49×10(4) tons in 2000. The southeastern region of the Songliao Plain was the most important NPS pollution contributor of all the districts. Although the TP load caused by land use decreased during the studied period in the Songliao River Basin, the contribution of land use to the TP load was dominant compared to non-land uses. The NPS pollution caused by non-land use steadily increased over the studied period. The IM Autonomous Region and JL province had the largest mean annual rate of change among all districts (more than 30%). In this area, livestock and poultry breeding had become one of the most important NPS pollution sources. These areas will need close attention in the future.

  17. Using SWAT to Assess the Critical Areas and Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction Best Management Practices in Lam Takong River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netnapa Pongpetch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are essential tools for water resource and nonpoint source pollution management. This study aimed to evaluate critical areas and best management practices (BMPs of sediment and nutrient loads in Lam Takong River basin, Northeastern Thailand, using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was calibrated and validated using daily data of streamflow, sediment, NO3-N and TP in Lam Takong River from 2007-2008 and 2009, respectively. In general, the simulated streamflow and sediment were in reasonable agreement with the measured values with coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE greater than 0.50 and the percent bias (PBIAS less than 25%. Additionally, nutrient loads showed a fair relationship between observation and simulation with R2 values more than 0.6 and PBIAS values less than 25%. From simulation, September was the month with the highest sediment, NO3-N and TP yields while January and December were the lowest months. From the model, SWAT identified 1 severe and 1 high soil erosion subbasins. Two subbasins were classified into medium loading for NO3-N. However, 9 subbasins were classified into high loading rate of TP. For BMPs, the 30-mwide filter strip was the best scenario reducing 100% of both sediment and TP, and 97.27% of NO3-N. These results could be a useful tool for water resources managements and soil conservation planning in Lam Takong River basin.

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of non-point sources in a water quality model applied to a dammed low-flow-reach river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nayana G M; von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Downstream of Capim Branco I hydroelectric dam (Minas Gerais state, Brazil), there is the need of keeping a minimum flow of 7 m3/s. This low flow reach (LFR) has a length of 9 km. In order to raise the water level in the low flow reach, the construction of intermediate dikes along the river bed was decided. The LFR has a tributary that receives the discharge of treated wastewater. As part of this study, water quality of the low-flow reach was modelled, in order to gain insight into its possible behaviour under different scenarios (without and with intermediate dikes). QUAL2E equations were implemented in FORTRAN code. The model takes into account point-source pollution and diffuse pollution. Uncertainty analysis was performed, presenting probabilistic results and allowing identification of the more important coefficients in the LFR water-quality model. The simulated results indicate, in general, very good conditions for most of the water quality parameters The variables of more influence found in the sensitivity analysis were the conversion coefficients (without and with dikes), the initial conditions in the reach (without dikes), the non-point incremental contributions (without dikes) and the hydraulic characteristics of the reach (with dikes).

  20. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  1. 宁夏农村面源污染现状调查分析结果初报%Preliminary Report on Investigation and Analysis Result of Current Situation of Rural Non-point Source Pol ution in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 靳军良; 王金保

    2014-01-01

    通过调查监测,宁夏农村面源污染的主要来源集中体现在化肥污染、农药污染、畜禽粪便污染、农膜污染及农村生活污染5个方面,但其影响和污染主要表现在对水环境和土壤环境的污染上。其中,对水环境的污染形式则是通过地表径流和地下淋溶把过剩的氮、磷、有机农药、无机盐等带到地表水和地下水中,致使地表水富营养化,破环水生态环境,鱼虾难以生存。对土壤环境的污染形式是通过农业投入品超量施入,在改变土壤物理性状、破环土壤通透性、造成土壤板结、粘结的同时,造成重金属离子和病原菌的积累,给农产品质量安全带来危害。%Based on an investigation and monitoring,the main sources of Ningxia rural non-point source pollution includes the five aspects of chemical fertilizer pollution, pesticide pollution, livestock and poultry manure pollution, agricultural plastic film pollution and rural domestic pollution. But the impact and pollution were mainly manifested in the pollution of water envi-ronment and soil environment. The form of pollution of the water environment was bringing excess nitrogen, phosphorus, or-ganic pesticides and inorganic salt to the surface water and underground water by the surface runoff and underground leach-ing,it caused the surface water eutrophication,the destruction of the aquatic ecological environment and made the fish and shrimp hard to survive. The form of pollution of the soil environment was changing the soil physical characteristic, destroying the soil permeability, causing soil compaction and bond,and causing the accumulation of heavy metal ions and pathogenic bacteria by excessive application of agricultural inputs, and it brought harms to the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  2. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  3. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  4. Effects of nonpoint and selected point contaminant sources on stream-water quality and relation to land use in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, October 2002 through June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Mau, D.P.; Rasmussen, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 12 watersheds in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, to determine the effects of nonpoint and selected point contaminant sources on stream-water quality and their relation to varying land use. The streams studied were located in urban areas of the county (Brush, Dykes Branch, Indian, Tomahawk, and Turkey Creeks), developing areas of the county (Blue River and Mill Creek), and in more rural areas of the county (Big Bull, Captain, Cedar, Kill, and Little Bull Creeks). Two base-flow synoptic surveys (73 total samples) were conducted in 11 watersheds, a minimum of three stormflow samples were collected in each of six watersheds, and 15 streambed-sediment sites were sampled in nine watersheds from October 2002 through June 2004. Discharge from seven wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) were sampled during base-flow synoptic surveys. Discharge from these facilities comprised greater than 50 percent of streamflow at the farthest downstream sampling site in six of the seven watersheds during base-flow conditions. Nutrients, organic wastewater-indicator compounds, and prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical compounds generally were found in the largest concentrations during base-flow conditions at sites at, or immediately downstream from, point-source discharges from WWTFs. Downstream from WWTF discharges streamflow conditions were generally stable, whereas nutrient and wastewater-indicator compound concentrations decreased in samples from sites farther downstream. During base-flow conditions, sites upstream from WWTF discharges had significantly larger fecal coliform and Escherichia coli densities than downstream sites. Stormflow samples had the largest suspended-sediment concentrations and indicator bacteria densities. Other than in samples from sites in proximity to WWTF discharges, stormflow samples generally had the largest nutrient concentrations in Johnson County streams. Discharge

  5. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  6. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  7. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  8. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  9. Information sources and constraints under national agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    sharing amongst PSPs and with public extension staff, and translating the information. Key words: ... deterioration in service quality as a result of contracted services is ... technical information used for farmer training and to rate each source in ...

  10. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  11. SWAT模型在大洋河流域非点源污染模拟中的运用研究%The application of the SWAT model in a non-point source pollution in the Dayang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓哲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the SWAT model to Ocean River watershed for the study, quantitative modeling of the ocean River 2000 - -2010 Pollution, the results show that non-point source: SWAT model is appropriate for non-point source pollu-tion ocean river basin model parameters of periodic and verification simulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus relative er-ror is less than 30%, the simulation uncertainty factor of 0. 5 or more, to meet the non-point source pollution simulation ac-curacy; total nitrogen and total phosphorus peak ocean River mainly 7 - September. Research for Ocean River water environ-mental protection and governance provide a reference value.%基于SWAT模型,以大洋河流域为研究流域,定量模拟了大洋河流域2000 -2010 年非点源污染,研究结果表明:SWAT模型适合于大洋河流域的非点源污染模拟,模型在参数率定期和验证模拟总氮和总磷相对误差均小于30%,模拟确定性系数达到0. 5 以上,满足流域非点源污染模拟精度要求;大洋河流域总氮和总磷峰值主要集中在7 -9 月份. 研究成果对于大洋河流域水环境保护和治理提供参考价值.

  12. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  13. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye; Silitonga, M.; Tadesse, W

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal element...

  15. The urban atmosphere as a non-point source for the transport of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCS) to shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J.F.; Thomson, N.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Baehr, A.L.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    all no- net recharge cases. The mechanism responsible for this effect was the dispersion acting on each downward infiltration event, and also on the ET-induced flow. The ability of MTBE to reach groundwater in cases 2-5 is taken as evidence of the potential importance of urban air as a non-point source for VOCs in shallow urban groundwater. Two subcases were run for both case 4 and case 5: subcase a (water and VOCs move with ET) and subcase b (water only moves with ET).Numerical simulations were conducted using a 1-D model domain set in medium sand to provide a test of whether methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other atmospheric volatile organic compounds could move to shallow groundwater within the 10-15 y time frame over which MTBE was used in large amounts. The gasoline additive MTBE is of special interest because of its: current levels in some urban air; strong partitioning from air into water; resistance to degradation; use as an octane-booster since the 1970s; rapidly increasing use in the 1990s to reduce CO and O3 in urban air; and its frequent detection at low microgram per liter levels in shallow urban groundwater.

  16. Bioethanol from different Finnish agricultural carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautola, H.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Tokeensuu, L.; Alatalo, T. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Caerdenas, R. (Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad Ciencias Quimicas, Escuela de Quimica, Av. America. Ciudadela Universitaria, Quito (Ecuador)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Bioethanol in fuel and its domestic production has become a great issue in Finland during the last few years. There has been discussion about what kind of raw materials should be used and are there any local priorities. In the years 2004-2007 local farmers in Haem e , in southern part of Finland, started to find alternative use for sugar beet due to drastic reduction of domestic sugar production in the near future. This was also the start of the experimental studies on bi oethanol production. The aim of the study was to find out how the change of carbon source will effect on bi oethanol yield. The bioethanol production was studied in laboratory scale using carbon sources of saccharose, glucose, sugar beet juice, sugar beet mash and barley hydrolysates pretreated with amylases, (beta-glucanase and xylanase). The yeast used was Saccharomyces sp. The pre experiments were performed in 250 mL flasks to optimize carbon, nitrogen and salts contents in production medium, also comparing different carbon sources and mixtures. The production was then studied in a 30 liter fermenter running for 36 hours. The preliminary studies showed that barley hydrolysate gave the best result 2,4% in bioethanol concentration during the performed fermentations, and saccharose was the best substrate in shake flask fermentations with a 9,6% bioethanol concentration. (orig.)

  17. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  18. CREDIT AS THE FINANCIAL SOURCE OF THE SERBIAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the role of credit as a source financing agriculture in the Republic of Serbia in the recent period, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the use of this financial instrument for financing agricultural production. Agriculture, given its specific production is not capable self-financing. And that they it needs to be informed by proper financing models. In the Republic of Serbia in the recent period there was not an adequate funding model was...

  19. Review: Agricultural Wastes as a Source of Silica Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Permatasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silica is the most abundant components in the earth's crust and is made by way of synthesis for use in the application of technology. Silica are generally found commercially as alkoxysilane compounds (i.e such as tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, sodium silicate, and tetramethylorthosilicat. However, these compounds can have a negative impact on health. Thus, further approaches to find the source of silica that is safer, cheaper, and more environmentally friendly is inevitable. However, not all summary journals are thoroughly discussed the silica sources. Further, method of isolation and application of the silica from agricultural waste is limited. This paper reported studied several sources of silica derived from agricultural waste, such as rice husk, rice straw, corn cobs, and bagasse. In addition, this paper discussed also about the method of isolation of silica from agricultural waste, and its application as a catalyst.

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of methane emissions from agricultural sources in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural activities contribute significantly to the global methane budget. Agricultural sources of methane are influenced by land-use change, including changes in agricultural area, livestock keeping and agricultural management practices. A spatially explicit inventory of methane emissions from

  1. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, W; Silitonga, M.; I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a resu...

  3. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  4. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  5. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    Non-point source contamination with agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest sources of pollution in stream ecosystems, and surface runoff is an important transport route. Consequently, maximum pesticide concentrations occur briefly during heavy precipitation events....... According to the WFD, member states are obliged to obtain good ecosystem quality in natural surface waters in 2015. Mitigating the risk of non-point source contamination by agricultural pesticides is therefore an essential management task in river basins. Recently, the SPEAR index was introduced for German...... to the SPEAR index and estimate a minimum BSW required to mitigate effects of pesticide contamination in lowland streams in rural areas....

  6. 重庆市四面山4种森林群落面源污染控制功能分析%The non-point source pollution control function of four forest communities in Simian Mountains, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣文卓; 张洪江; 杜仕才; 程金花; 王伟; 李根平; 古德洪

    2009-01-01

    Selecting canopy interception rate, capillary porosity,non-capillary porosity and soil anti-erosion coefficient as analysis indices, the function of non-point source pollution control of four forest communities in Simian Mountains of Chongqing were ana-lyzed by Grey Relational Grade Analiysis. The results show that the grey correlation degree of natural Phyllostachys pubescens for-est is 0.887 7, hgher than other three communities, which means that the function of non-point source pollution control of Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest is the best. In the planatations types, the grey correlation degree of broadleaf forest is the highest, 0.779 4, followed by mixed broadleaf-conifer forest (0.699 2). The grey correlation degree of coniferous forest is the lowest, 0.636 1. Which means it has the lowest function for non-point source pollution control.%以重庆市四面山4种森林群落为研究对象,选取林冠截留率、林地土壤毛管孔隙度、林地土壤非毛管孔隙度和林地0~20 cm土壤抗冲刷系数为分析指标,运用灰色关联度法对4种森林群落的面源污染控制功能进行研究.结果表明:在4种森林群落中作为天然林的楠竹林灰关联度值最大为0.887 7,面源污染控制功能最好,其次是人工阔叶林(0.7794)和人工混交林(0.6992),人工针叶林(0.636 1)面源污染防控能力相对较弱.在人工林方面,阔叶林灰关联度值最大为0.7794,面源污染防控能力最好,其次是针阔混交林(0.699 2),针叶林灰关联度值最低为0.636 1,其面源污染防控能力较弱.

  7. 东江源山地果畜结合区面源污染生态化控制模式与效果分析%Study on ecological control mode of non-point source pollution from the system of orchard linked with animal husbandry in the valley of Dongjiang River Headwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席运官; 刘明庆; 王磊; 汪贞; 李德波; 王宏燕

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the structure and functions of pig-biogas-fruit-fish eco-agricultural mode in the headwater of Dongjiang River based on the Xinglin farm in Dingnan County, analyzed the controlling effect in quality and quantity to the water pollution nutrition through source controlling, drainage reducing and cleaning, and tested the draining water of Xinglin farm showing that draining water quality was better than the Ⅳ level standard of surface water. It proved that this model had the features of opearational, extentional and low input, and could be the important mode for controlling the non-point source pollution in the headwater of Dongjiang River.%  分析东江源山地果畜结合区“猪-沼-果-鱼”生态农业模式的结构与功能,定性和定量分析农庄采用生态化技术对水体污染物控源、减排、净化的效果,跟踪采样分析农庄排水水质,结果表明,农庄排水全年优于地表水Ⅳ类水标准,该模式兼具可操作、可推广、低投入特性,是东江源控制农业面源污染的重要模式。

  8. Hydrogeology and Water Quality of the Pepacton Reservoir Watershed in Southeastern New York. Part 3. Responses of Stream Base-Flow Chemistry to Hydrogeologic Factors and Nonpoint-Sources of Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    Base-flow samples were collected seasonally from 20 small streams in the 372-square-mile Pepacton Reservoir watershed to evaluate the effects of hydrogeologic factors and nonpoint sources of contamination on the chemical composition of ground-water discharge. The reservoir provides part of New York City?s water supply. The subbasins represented one of three general types of land use, each with at least 45 percent forested area (mostly on the hillsides): farmed (dairy) land, formerly farmed land with low-density residential development, or forested land with little or no development. The subbasin areas ranged from 0.38 to 10.23 square miles. All streams were sampled in December 2000 and in May, July, and October 2001. Three of the sites were designated as landuse- index sites and were sampled as many as five additional times during the study. No samples exceeded state or federal drinking-water standards for chloride, sodium, nitrate, orthophosphate, herbicides, or herbicide degradates. The chemical composition of base-flow samples was classified into major-ion water types, which were broadly defined as naturally occurring and road-salt-affected water types. About one-third of the base-flow samples were roadsalt- affected types. Natural water types were differentiated as dilute or evolved. Dilute waters have bicarbonate and sulfate as dominant anions and evolved waters have only bicarbonate as a dominant anion. Dilute water types indicate relatively short ground-water residence times or contact with unreactive aquifer material. Evolved waters have either longer ground-water residence time or contact with more reactive aquifer material than dilute ground waters. The larger subbasins with wider valley-bottom areas were more likely to have evolved water types than small subbasins with little floodplain development. Positive correlations between selected constituents and the intensity of nonpoint sources emphasize the connection between land use, shallow ground

  9. A Review of the Research on Eco-Technologies for Control of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution%城市面源污染生态控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬

    2011-01-01

    快速城市化导致了土地利用类型的迅速变化,由此引起的城市面源污染已成为威胁城市水体健康的主要因素。根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从净化机理、运行效能、影响因素及评价方法等方面详细介绍了缓冲带、绿色屋顶、植草沟等面源生态控制技术的应用研究情况。各类研究指出,在确保适宜的宽度和坡度、连续植被覆盖的植被缓冲带对消减径流和清除沉积物是极其有效的;绿色屋顶对径流污染消减能力受屋面介质厚度、屋顶坡度、降雨强度、植物类型、土壤层湿度等因素的影响明显;植草沟对于沉积物和重金属去除效率高,而对于易引起水体富营养化的溶解性营养盐的去除效能有待改善,构建介质优化是关键。指出充分发挥各种生态技术的优势、构建城市面源污染生态控制网络是消除城市面源污染毒性、维护健康城市水环境的重要途径。%Land use type has been changed rapidly because of the speeding urbanization,and urban nonpoint source pollution has become the prominent reason of urban waters' deterioration.According to researches in recent years,studies about nonpoint source eco-control technologies such as buffer zones,green roofs and bioswales were introduced in detail in purification mechanism,operating performance,affecting factors,evaluation methods,and other aspects.Buffer zones were very effective in reducing runoff and removing sediment as long as appropriate width and slope,and continuous vegetation covering were ensured.Ability of green roofs in controlling runoff pollution was correlated greatly with medium thickness,roof slope,rainfall intensity,plant type,soil moisture levels and other factors. The efficiencies for removal of TSS and heavy metals by bioswales were very high,however,the ability to control soluble nutrition was still needed to be improved whilst the construction media were the key factor

  10. 国内外遥感技术在非点源污染模拟中的应用%Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天培

    2011-01-01

    综述了遥感技术在土壤类型和性质、植被类型和性质、水文气象以及土地利用等直接影响非点源污染产生的因素中的应用,以期为模型模拟与遥感技术联合研究非点源污染提供借鉴.%The application of remote sensing technology on the main factors, including soil types and properties, characteristics of vegetation,hydrological process, meteorological information, land use and so on were discussed in this paper so as to provide references for using modelsimulation and remote sensing technology to study the non-point source pollution.

  11. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  12. Nitrogen Non-Point Source Pollution Identification Based on ArcSWAT in Changle River%基于ArcSWAT模型的长乐江流域非点源氮素污染源识别和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欧平; 孙嗣旸; 吕军

    2013-01-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source ( NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35% , 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.%本研究以我国东南沿海地区的典型农业流域——长乐江流域为对象,通过实地调查、数据收集和分析,

  13. Source Apportionment of Non-point Source Nitrogen Pollution in Ashi River Basin Usingδ15N Technique%阿什河流域非点源氮污染的δ15N源解析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钰; 王业耀; 滕彦国; 香宝; 马广文; 方广玲

    2015-01-01

    crop farming on water nitro-gen pollution were dependent on river water seasonal periods and farming cycles. During the normal water period, non-point nitrogen pollu-tion by crop farming occurred mainly in the midstream and downstream sections, with δ15N value ranging from 0.46%to 0.77%. The pollu-tion sources were primarily artificial chemical fertilizers and farmland water recession. During the high water period, the pollution from non-point nitrogen extended to the upstream area, withδ15N range of 0.19%~0.4%. The main pollution source was artificial chemical fertilizers in the upstream area, while it was soil organic nitrogen via soil erosion caused by rainfall and irrigation in the midstream and downstream. Dur-ing the low water period, however, artificial chemical fertilizers were still the main contributor of non-point nitrogen pollution, with δ15N val-ues of 0.11%to 0.39%. This was resulted from the feedback of the nitrite-nitrogen from artificial chemical fertilizers that were applied and infiltrated in the ground during the monsoon.

  14. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piniewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC, which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated against daily discharges (10 gauges, NO3-N and TP loads (7 gauges. Overall, the model generally performed well during the calibration period but not during the validation period for simulating discharge and loading of NO3-N and TP. Diffuse agricultural sources appeared to be the main contributors to the elevated NO3-N and TP loads in the streams. The existing, default representation of buffer zones in SWAT uses a VFS sub-model that only affects the contaminants present in surface runoff. The results of an extensive monitoring program carried out in 2011–2013 in the SRC suggest that buffer zones are highly efficient for reducing NO3-N and TP concentrations in shallow groundwater. On average, reductions of 56% and 76% were observed, respectively. An improved simulation of buffer zones in SWAT was achieved through empirical upscaling of the measurement results. The mean values of the sub-basin level reductions are 0.16 kg NO3/ha (5.9% and 0.03 kg TP/ha (19.4%. The buffer zones simulated using this approach contributed 24% for NO3-N and 54% for TP to the total achieved mean reduction at the sub-basin level. This result suggests that additional measures are needed to achieve acceptable water quality status in all water bodies of the SRC, despite the fact that the buffer zones have a high potential for reducing contaminant emissions.

  15. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  16. Agricultural phosphorus and water quality: sources, transport and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHARPLEY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P. To identify critical sources of P export from agricultural catchments we investigated hydrological and chemical factors controlling P export from a mixed land use (30% wooded, 50% cultivated, 20% pasture 39.5-ha catchment in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Mehlich-3 extractable soil P, determined on a 30-m grid over the catchment, ranged from 7 to 788 mg kg-1. Generally, soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (

  17. Research progress in erosion-type nonpoint source poLLution process simuLationof the Loess PLateau%黄土高原水土流失型非点源污染过程模拟研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊; 马孝义

    2015-01-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil and water loss area of the Loess Plateau not only reduces the utilization rate of fertilizer,but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments.This study takes the typicality of soil and nutrient loss in the Lo-ess Plateau Region as a starting point to deeply analyse and systematically summarize the basic status of the Loss Plateau,the re-search progress of hydrological process,soil erosion,erosion-type nonpoint source pollution and its control strategies of the Loess Plateau.Aiming at the few existing studies on the Loess Plateau,the key research directions of nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau for the future were proposed,such as the loss mechanism of nonpoint source pollution,the load estimation method of nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau,the coupled model of water,sediment and pollution in the Loess Plateau,the combined application of 3S technology and control strategies of erosion-type nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau etc.This re-sult may provide reference for studying the modeling process of erosion-type nonpoint source pollution in the Loess Plateau.%黄土高原严重的水土流失造成了土壤氮磷流失,不仅降低了化肥的利用率,而且对水环境造成了潜在威胁。从黄土高原区水土与养分流失的典型性入手,剖析和总结了黄土高原区基本概况、水文过程、土壤侵蚀、水土流失型非点源污染过程模拟及防控策略等的研究进展。针对目前黄土高原区尤其是黄土丘陵沟壑区非点源污染研究较少,提出了未来黄土高原地区非点源污染的研究方向与建议:黄土区非点源污染物流失机理,非点源污染负荷估算方法,流域水、沙、污染物耦合模型以及3S 技术与流域非点源污染防控决策耦合应用等。

  18. SIMULATION OF NON-POINT POLLUTANTS EVOLUTION IN COASTAL PLAIN ISLAND-A CASE STUDY OF CHONGMING ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-long; JIANG Wen-yan; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    The coastal plain region usually shows the agricultural dominated industry mode, so more and more attention is paid to non-point pollutants discharge. In this study, the method for assessing the influence of non-point pollutants discharge on river water quality is probed which is concluded as follows: (1) Considering the costal plain island is characterized as nearly even elevation, the conventional gravitational runoff confluence method based on eight-point gravitational flowing directions (D8) is unable to compute the runoff confluence received by the surrounding rivers, so a new method of triangular confluence based on three-points of grid center and the river segments is presented. Further the equations of non-point pollutants loads estimation and non-point pollutants confluence on rivers are presented. (2) The integration mode of non-point pollutants model and river water quality model is presented so as to further assess the non-point pollutants contribution to river water quality. (3) With the Chongming Island, the third largest island in China, as an example, the above-mentioned equations are specified. For this island, the non-point pollutants loads are estimated and linked to the developed water quality model of the river network in the island, and further the non-point pollution evolution in river network is simulated. In this scenario, the non-point pollution contribution to river water quality over the whole island is clearly displayed, and the area where the river water quality is seriously influenced by non-point pollutants discharge is distinctly depicted. This scenario also shows the water quality contribution ratio of non-point pollution to point pollution can be in the range of 55.5% to 44.5% which proves the importance of non-point pollution control in costal plain islands.

  19. Review of green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution%绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely adopted abroad that green roof is an effective mode in controlling Urban Non-point Source Pollution(UNSP),which still belongs to new research fields in China.Based on studies in recent years home and abroad,highlight is given about green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution from three aspects(i.e.,the reduction and retention of runoff volume,water quality from green roof and the installation method of green roof).Results show that further study is needed for a long time in order to establish the function between stormwater runoff reduction volume and influencing factors;the physical and chemical properties of plants growth media is the key problem affecting runoff water quality.It should follow a wide rang of purposes to install green roofs at home,and the design guidance for green roofs should also be made according to domestic environmental background.The plants growth substrate and the choice of plants are primary problems to be ascertained.%应用绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染在欧美国家已得到广泛认同和应用,但在国内尚处于起步阶段.根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从绿色屋顶消减暴雨径流、绿色屋顶径流水质、绿色屋顶构建方法等方面详细介绍了绿色屋顶技术在控制城市面源污染中的应用研究情况.研究结果表明,建立绿色屋顶暴雨径流消减量与影响因子的映射关系仍需要大量的、长期的研究;植物生长介质的理化性质是影响绿色屋顶径流水质的关键.在国内构建绿色屋顶,应遵循构建目的多元化的原则,逐步建立起适合国内国情的新的绿色屋顶构建导则,其中,植物生长基质搭配方式和植物选取是需要重点明确的问题.

  20. Application of SWMM in the Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution Load in Urban Residential Area%SWMM模型应用于城市住宅区非点源污染负荷模拟计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 朱元励; 梅琨; 张艳军; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on the non-point source pollution loading in a typical urban residential area in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the SWMM principle, parameters from the literature and field experiments were integrated, and a non-point source pollution calibration model was constructed. Four different rainfall scenarios were designed to analyze the pollution loads and the accumulation process of total suspended solids (TSS) , chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus ( TP). The results showed that the simulated data matched the field-monitored data satisfactorily. The relative errors between the simulated and the true values of all the four parameters were less than 10%. Under' the four rainfall conditions: 1) the highest concentrations of the pollutants were observed within 30-40 minutes; the heavier the rain, the earlier their highest concentrations appeared; 2) higher-intensity rainfall caused more serious pollution to the receiving water bodies than the low-intensity rainfall did.%以温州市典型住宅区非点源污染为对象,基于SWMM(storm water management model)模型的模拟机理,借鉴国内外相关研究的模型参数,结合降雨径流实测数据率定模型参数,将模型“本地化”,构建了基于SWMM模型的研究区非点源污染负荷计算模型,并设计了4种不同降雨情景,分析在不同降雨条件下研究区非点源污染固体悬浮物(TSS)、CODCr、TN和TP的污染负荷量及其累积变化过程.结果表明,构建的SWMM模型的模拟值可以较好地与实测值相吻合,4种污染物模拟的相对误差均小于10%.在设计的4种降雨情景下:①污染物浓度峰值出现在降雨30~40 min内,降雨强度越大,出现浓度峰值的时间越早;②高强度降雨较低强度降雨可对受纳水体造成更大的污染.

  1. Comparing compensation mussel production costs and traditional agricultural farmers willingness to pay to reduce nutrient loads in the Limfjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hasler, Berit; Hoff, Ayoe

    Nitrogen non-point pollution from agriculture is the dominating source of eutrophication of Danish fjords. Long-line mussel production is an alternative measure to costly agricultural measures to achieve good ecological status of fjords. This paper investigates farmers’ economic incentives to buy......-quotas between mussel farms and agriculture provides a potential for cost-effective mitigation of eutrophication in this type of fjords....

  2. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning.

  3. 流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析%Remote sensing parsing on non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern in river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 程熙; 李万庆; 罗雷

    2014-01-01

    流域非点源污染景观源汇格局解析是流域水质污染物产生、输运机理认知与有效防治措施制定的重要科学理论基础。该文以充分挖掘流域遥感数据多时空尺度的特征与优势为目标,制定了流域非点源污染景观源汇类型界定方案,提出了像元级、亚像元级以及时序更新的流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析方法。在此基础上,以福建省九龙江流域为例,对不透水面这一典型流域非点源污染“源”景观2010年空间格局进行了信息提取,并对2000、2005年对应信息进行了时序更新与空间特征分析,结果显示2000-2010年间九龙江流域内不透水面覆盖面积增长了33.38%。该研究可为中国流域非点源污染研究、生态管理与建设提供参考。%The non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern of a river basin and its spatio-temporal process analysis are the scientific theoretical bases for studying the pollution, production, transport, prevention, and policy of river water. In this paper, to mine the spatio-temporal character and advantages of remote sensing data, the definition schedule of the landscape of the river basin non-point pollution source and assembly was introduced. The first types of landscape in the river basin included the impervious surface area (ISA) and the pervious surface area. The second types of landscapes in the river basin consisted of 14 different types, including woodland, orchard, road, rural area, town, and paddy field, etc. The river basin non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern remote sensing parsing method was subsequently presented at the pixel, sub-pixel, and time-renewing levels. (1) A “globe-local” coupling information extraction model for ISA at the pixel level was established. Through the mining and integration of the spatial information in a local image area, the spectral instability of the whole scale was optimized. The

  4. 潮河流域非点源污染关键区识别及其管理措施研究%IDENTIFICATION OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN THE CHAO RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳芳; 徐宗学; 徐华山

    2012-01-01

    选取SWAT模型,对潮河流域径流、泥沙及非点源污染过程进行模拟.在对模型进行率定和验证的基础上,参照土壤侵蚀模数与国家地表水环境质量标准对土壤侵蚀及总氮污染关键区进行识别.最后分别在土壤侵蚀和总氮污染关键区设置污染控制情景,对控制措施成效进行模拟和评价.结果表明,SWAT模型可以较好地模拟潮河流域水文过程和污染物迁移转化过程;流域20.9%的区域为轻度土壤侵蚀区,39.8%的区域为总氮风险区;梯田、等高耕作、退耕还林还草和减少化肥施用量等措施都不同程度地对非点源污染负荷起到一定的削减效果.%Chao River basin is one of the most important surface water sources for drinking water in Beijing.In recent years,the Chao River basin is facing water scarcity and water quality problem due to the impact of human activities,development of local economy and climate change.The Chao River basin was selected as the study area in this investigation.SWAT model was applied to simulate hydrological cycle and process of nutrient movements and transformation in the Chao River basin.Then critical source areas of soil erosion were identified according to soil erosion modulus,and critical source areas of TN concentration were identified based on the National Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.Finally,several scenarios to control non-point source pollution on critical source areas of soil erosion and TN concentration were proposed.Data showed that the performance of calibration and validation for runoff,sediments and nutrients were satisfactory.Mild soil erosion area was 1260.657 km2,accounting for 20.9% of the total basin area,while critical source area of TN was 2405.1 km2,accounting for 39.8% of the total area.Data also showed that the measures including terraces,contour farming,turning farm into forest and grasslands and fertilizer reduction played different reduction role on controlling

  5. Bio-Economic Strategy to Combat Non-Point Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yong-Ping; CHEN De-Li; B.DAVIDSON; R.E.WHITE

    2005-01-01

    While non-point pollution from agriculture has become an increasingly serious problem in China, some progress has been made in studying the causal biophysical processes. However, few studies have assessed the economic consequences of non-point pollution in China or the policy options that could be employed to combat it. In this work a sustainable strategy to control non-point pollution from crop production, which involved taxing excessive inputs of irrigation water and fertilizer, was proposed. The approach taken to assess these measures combined biophysical and economic models,having a trade-off between economic returns and an improved environment. A proven and practical spatially referenced water and nutrient management model was used to determine the quantities of excessive irrigation water and fertilizer for specific soil and land use. Also, a set of indicators were proposed for evaluating the effects of agricultural economic output and agricultural practices on the environment.

  6. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive, member states are obliged to ensure that all surface water bodies achieve at least good ecological status and to identify major anthropogenic stressors. Non-point source contamination of agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one of ...

  7. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive, member states are obliged to ensure that all surface water bodies achieve at least good ecological status and to identify major anthropogenic stressors. Non-point source contamination of agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one of ...

  8. Strong soil source of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Seibt, U.; Berry, J. A.; Billesbach, D. P.; Campbell, J.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A promising new approach to constrain biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange is the use of carbonyl sulfide (COS). COS is taken up by leaves via the same pathway as CO2, leading to a close coupling of vegetation COS and CO2 fluxes during photosynthesis. Therefore it has been proposed that the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. A necessary requirement for this approach at ecosystem and continental scales are estimates of soil COS fluxes. Soil is largely considered a sink for COS, but our knowledge of in situ soil COS fluxes remains very limited. We measured soil COS fluxes in a wheat field in Oklahoma from April to June 2012, using a novel combination of an automated soil chamber coupled to a COS laser analyzer. We provide the first continuous record of soil COS fluxes under natural conditions, and report on a phenomenon that has not been observed before. In contrast to the majority of published results, we found that the agricultural soil was a strong source of COS under most conditions during the campaign. The COS flux over the study period was highly correlated with soil temperature. Up to a soil temperature of around 15°C, the soil acted as a COS sink. Above 15°C, it acted a source of COS, with fluxes of up to 25 pmol m-2 s-1. To locate the source of the COS production, we investigated different soil components. Wheat roots were found to be emitting COS under all conditions. Root-free soil was a COS sink up to a soil temperature of around 25°C, but turned into a COS source at higher soil temperatures. We also observed COS production from the roots of several other species, indicating that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Using eddy covariance data of COS and CO2 that was collected concurrently with the soil measurements, we also demonstrate how the soil COS source can be taken into account when partitioning net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration.

  9. [Nonpoint pollution control for rural areas of China with ecological engineering technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengqing; Mao, Zhanpo

    2002-02-01

    Nonpoint pollution from rural areas is the results of the ecosystem degradation, and ecological engineering technologies are good ways for the restoration of watershed and enhancing material cycling. There are two types of treatment strategies: to control the polluted runoff and to reduce the pollutants from the sources. Six control technologies are introduced and they are multipond systems, grassed filter trips, wetland systems, eco-agriculture, slope ecological engineering, ecological treatment of wastewater and solid waste. These technologies need to be combined systematically in order to form a watershed ecological engineering. In the control program, it is important to use countermeasure suitable to the local conditions. In addition, the input of sufficient investment, management and education is necessary.

  10. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  11. Development and application of a coupled bio-geochmical and hydrological model for point and non-point source river water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlert, T.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present recent developments of an integrated water- and N-balance model for the assessment of land use changes on water and N-fluxes for meso-scale river catchments. The semi-distributed water-balance model SWAT was coupled with algorithms of the bio-geochemical model DNDC as well as the model CropSyst. The new model that is further denoted as SWAT-N was tested with leaching data from a long- term lysimeter experiment as well as results from a 5-years sampling campaign that was conducted at the outlet of the meso-scale catchment of the River Dill (Germany). The model efficiency for N-load as well as the spatial representation of N-load along the river channel that was tested with results taken from longitudinal profiles show that the accuracy of the model has improved due to the integration of the aforementioned process-oriented models. After model development and model testing, SWAT-N was then used for the assessment of the EU agricultural policy (CAP reform) on land use change and consequent changes on N-fluxes within the Dill Catchment. giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2007/4531/

  12. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  13. 考虑面源污染的中国苹果全要素生产率及其空间集聚特征分析%Total factor productivity of apple industry in China considering non-point source pollution and its spatial concentration analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓龙; 霍学喜

    2015-01-01

    Apple industry has become a major industry of rural economy in most of the north region in China, which plays an important role on the adjustment of agricultural structure, the increase of farmer’s income and the export. But overall, the development of apple industry still has belonged to the traditional production style depending on fertilizer and pesticide; on one side it has brought high economic benefits for farmers, and on the other side it has been the main reason to agricultural non-point source pollution. There is no doubt that this production style has exacerbated the contradiction between the development of apple industry and the ecological environment in China. Therefore, in order to achieve the sustainable development of apple industry, the transformation of the development mode of apple industry, the improvement of resource use efficiency and the effective control of non-point source pollution in apple production should be taken into account urgently. And to achieve these goals are closely dependent on the contribution of apple total factor productivity to industry development, the reasonable estimation of apple total factor productivity, and thus the guide of the correct policy. Using the unit investigation and evaluation model, this paper calculates the non-point source pollution from apple industry, which is taken as non-ideal output and integrated into the model of total factor productivity, then analyzes the total factor productivity of apple industry under the constraint of environment of 21 provinces in China from 1994 to 2013 by applying the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, and finally tests the spatial autocorrelation of total factor productivity of apple industry by using Moran’s index. The results show as follows: 1) Apple total factor productivity index under the constraint of environment is lower than that without this constraint, implying that environment pollution has obvious negative effects on apple productivity in China

  14. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented.

  15. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively.

  16. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, H. Robert

    This document is a bibliographic guide of over 2,400 titles in science, engineering, medicine and agriculture. This book is intended for use by librarians for reference updates, researchers and students who need to access information but who are unfamiliar with the particular discipline, and for information science students learning about the…

  17. Identifying Sources of Bias in Agricultural News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, B. Kathryn; Dyer, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Articles from 1987-1996 issues of Farm Journal, Progressive Farmer, Successful Farming, Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report were analyzed, revealing lack of depth in reporting environmental and food safety issues and few presentation differences between agricultural and news publications. However, news magazines' artwork often conveyed…

  18. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  19. Reduction rate of nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution under different riparian buffer restoring strategies%不同河岸带修复策略对氮磷非点源污染的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 胡艳芳; 林峻宇

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted along Liuxi River watershed, a main branch of Beijiang River, in Guangdong Province. Based on the non-point source (NPS) pollution and riparian buffer’s reduction in current situations of the Liuxi River Basin, the differences of NPS pollution reduction improvement of different restoration strategies were investigated by scenario simulations. In order to compare the efficiency of different restoration strategies, the relationships between the improvement of NPS reduction rate and the increase of buffer area were interpreted by benefit-cost index. The results showed the NPS reduction rate performed remarkable spatial variation. Each scenario had improved the NPS reduction rates to varying degrees (TN: 23.36%~30.72%; TP: 27.19%~39.86%). The relationships between buffer areas and NPS reduction rate of each scenario were fitted well by the logarithmic function (P<0.05). The strategy with restoring the sub-basins of prior riparian buffer restoration, which integrated NPS loading and riparian buffers conditions, could reach the best benefit-cost index (1.19%).%选择北江的重要支流流溪河流域为研究对象,基于现有河岸带对非点源污染削减作用的模拟结果,采用情景分析法,预测不同河岸带修复策略对非点源污染的削减作用,使用效益-成本指数表征 TN 和 TP 削减率提高幅度与增加河岸带面积的关系,比较不同河岸带修复策略的效率.结果表明:河岸带对TN和TP的削减能力具有较大的空间差异性.各修复情景都在不同程度上提高了河岸带对TN和TP的削减率(TN:23.36%~30.72%;TP:27.19%~39.86%),河岸带增加总面积与削减率呈现对数增长关系(P<0.05).选择综合考虑了流域非点源负荷量以及河岸带状况的优先修复子流域进行河岸带修复时,效益-成本指数达最高为1.19%.

  20. Estimation of nonpoint-source loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins, Michigan, by use of the PLOAD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project partners planned a 3-year assessment study of the surface water in the Lake St. Clair drainage basins in Michigan. This study included water-quality monitoring and analysis, collection of discrete (grab) and automatic water-quality samples, monitoring of bacteria, and the creation of a database to store all relevant data collected from past and future field-data-collection programs. In cooperation with the Lake St. Clair Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed nonpoint-source loads of nutrients and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins. The principal tool for the assessment study was the USEPA’s PLOAD model, a simplified GIS-based numerical program that generates gross estimates of pollutant loads. In this study, annual loads were computed for each watershed using the USEPA’s Simple Method, which is based on scientific studies showing a correlation between different land-use types and loading rates. The two land-use data sets used in the study (representing 1992 and 2001) show a maximum of 0.02-percent change in any of the 15 land use categories between the two timeframes. This small change in land use is reflected in the PLOAD results of the study area between the two time periods. PLOAD model results for the 2001 land-use data include total-nitrogen loads from the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins of approximately 495,599 lb/yr, 156,561 lb/yr, and 121,212 lb/yr, respectively; total-phosphorus loads of 80,777 lb/yr, 25,493 lb/yr, and 19,655 lb/yr, respectively; and total-suspended-solids loads of 5,613,282 lb/yr, 1,831,045 lb/yr, and 1,480,352 lb/yr, respectively. The subbasins in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basin with comparatively high loads are characterized by comparatively high percentages of industrial, commercial, transportation, or residential land use. The results from the PLOAD model provide useful information about the approximate average annual loading

  1. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  2. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  3. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  4. 苏州市东山镇池塘养蟹面源污染现状及控制%Current status and control strategies of non-point source pollution from pond aquaculture in Dongshan town of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学宏; 郭培红; 孙丽萍; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    结合全国污染源普查活动,以苏州市养殖老区东山镇养殖池塘为典型,调查其现行养殖模式、经济效益、养殖污染状况.调查结果显示,东山镇现有养殖面积为2253.33hm2,主养品种为河蟹.1个养殖周期中,养殖池塘通过沟渠排入外界的TN、TP含量分别平均为21.25kg/hm2、2.34kg/hm2;密度为9000只/hm2的低密度养殖池外排的TN含量为16.79kg/hm2,而无TP排出.分析苏州地区池塘养殖产生水环境污染的主要原因,从池塘管理体制改革、科学生态养殖技术及养殖尾水处理等方面探讨池塘养殖污水零排放技术,为苏州市养殖业面源污染的控制提供对策和措施.%Combining with national census of pollution sources and using large-scale pond aquaculture in Dongshan town in Suzhou as a case study, the current cultural modes, economic benefits, and aquaculture pollution were surveyed. The results showed that there were 2 253.33 hm2 of aquaculture in Dongshan town, and the Chinese mitten crab was the main specie. In a single aquaculture period, the discharged total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from pounds to outside through canals and ditches were on average 21.25 kg/hm2 and 2.34 kg/hm2 respectively. However, in a lowdensity crab raising pond of 9000 ind/hm2, the discharged TN was 16.79 kg/hm2, and no TP was found to be discharged.Based on the case study, the main reasons for the water environment pollution by pond aquaculture were analyzed, and the zero discharge technologies for the waste water of pond aquaculture were discussed from aspects of the management system reform for pond, the scientific and ecological raising technique, and the aquaculture wastewater treatment. The possible strategies and countermeasures for controlling the aquacultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou were also provided.

  5. Potash—A vital agricultural nutrient sourced from geologic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-11-15

    This report summarizes the primary sources of potash in the United States. Potash is an essential nutrient that, along with phosphorus and nitrogen, is used as fertilizer for growing crops. Plants require sufficient potash to activate enzymes, which in turn catalyze chemical reactions important for water uptake and photosynthesis. When potassium is available in quantities necessary for healthy plant growth, disease resistance and physical quality are improved and crop yield and shelf life are increased. Potash is a water-soluble compound of potassium formed by geologic and hydrologic processes. The principal potash sources discussed are the large, stratiform deposits that formed during retreat and evaporation of intracontinental seas. The Paradox, Delaware, Holbrook, Michigan, and Williston sedimentary basins in the United States are examples where extensive potash beds were deposited. Ancient marine-type potash deposits that are close to the surface can be mined using conventional underground mining methods. In situ solution mining can be used where beds are too deep, making underground mining cost-prohibitive, or where underground mines are converted to in situ solution mines. Quaternary brine is another source of potash that is recovered by solar evaporation in manmade ponds. Groundwater from Pleistocene Lake Bonneville (Wendover, Utah) and the present-day Great Salt Lake in Utah are sources of potashbearing brine. Brine from these sources pumped to solar ponds is evaporated and potash concentrated for harvesting, processing, and refinement. Although there is sufficient potash to meet near-term demand, the large marine-type deposits are either geographically restricted to a few areas or are too deep to easily mine. Other regions lack sources of potash brine from groundwater or surface water. Thus, some areas of the world rely heavily on potash imports. Political, economic, and global population pressures may limit the ability of some countries from securing

  6. Effects of Forest Ecosystems on Non-point Pollution Control%森林生态系统对非点源污染的控制机理与效果及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿强; 张彪; 李文华; 杨艳刚; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, particularly agricultural non-point source pollution, has become a major contributor of water pollution in many countries during recent years. Major lakes and rivers in China have suffered from serious eutrophication problems, e.g., five lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Taihu Lake, Hongze Lake, and Chaohu Lake), the Three Gorges Reservoir,Baiyangdian Lake, Nansi Lake, and Yilong Lake. The contribution rate of non-point pollution to eutrophication has been found to be much higher than point source pollution. Although tremendous efforts have been made to control non-point pollution, they seem to be far from effective due to uncertain emissions of the non-point pollutants. As such, people are resorting to purifying natural ecosystems, e.g., forest riparian buffer has been recommended as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) for non-point source pollutant control in the United States. The authors comprehensively summarized studies associated with the effects of forest ecosystems on non-point source pollution control. Forest ecosystems have been shown to be of the capacity to adsorb and purify non-point source pollutants mainly through plants, canopy, ground litter, and soil layers.Plant uptake is one of important mechanisms of nutrients control. Part of pollutions carried by rainfall can be intercepted by canopy, while the nutrient content will increase because of eluviations. However, the non-point pollution can be greatly reduced after runoff flow through ground cover and soil layer. Numerous studies show that forests could reduce about 60~90% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus from upper farming areas. Non-point source pollution control is generally affected by many factors. The forest belt width has an impact on the effect of non-point source pollution reduction, and therefore the width needs to be adjusted appropriately. Different tree species show varying absorption capacities of non-point source pollutants; therefore the

  7. Critical source times for nutrient loss in agricultural catchment streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger; Murphy, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2014-05-01

    Identifying periods of the year when there is a high risk of incidental nutrient loss from farms via runoff to streams underpins current nutrient management legislation in Europe. This research explored high-temporal resolution nutrient transfer patterns relative to the time that manure and fertiliser are prohibited from being spread (the mandatory spreading 'closed' period) in five Irish agricultural catchments. Catchment nutrient losses during the 12 week closed periods in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 were compared with losses during the remainder of the year, and with losses in the two week 'shoulder' periods immediately before and after the closed period. The closed period losses were assumed to be residual from soil nutrient stores and the 'shoulder' periods were considered to also include incidental losses. Nutrient loss was measured at sub-hourly frequency as total phosphorus (P) and total oxidised nitrogen (mostly nitrate-N) fluxes in streamflow. The streamflow fluxes showed that the proportion of the annual nitrate-N loss occurring during the closed periods (33-61%) was high compared with the remainder of the year. Six to ten times more nitrate-N loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These two week 'shoulder' period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 2.5 kg nitrate-N/ha and 9% of total annual nitrate-N loss in streamflow. On average, 40-53% of the annual P loss occurred during the closed periods but in a runoff-prone catchment in a year with a wet summer, the closed period was the less risky period. Similar to nitrate-N, two to twenty times more P loss occurred in the two weeks after, compared with the two weeks before, the closed period. These shoulder period losses were, on average, less than or equal to 0.027 kg/ha and 4.2% of total annual P loss in streamflow. The proportion of the shoulder period loss that could be attributed to recently spread nutrients was not known but can be

  8. Comparison Of Energy Sources Grown On Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jureková Zuzana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare biomass production of energy plants and selected crops grown on arable land in the south-western Slovakia in 2007–2014, its energy value and the influence of decisive climatic factors on the size of the production. The data on yields of dominant crops grown in the agricultural farm were obtained from the statistical data of the farm. Aboveground biomass of willows and poplars was harvested at the end of the harvest cycle. Aboveground biomass of Miscanthus sinensis was harvested in 2010–2014, always in early spring period of the following year. Winter wheat, spring barley and maize grown for silage during the period 2007–2014 provided the lowest yields in 2010 and the highest in 2011 and 2014. The highest energy value was obtained from maize in 2014 (400.66 GJ ha−1. The short rotation coppice poplars of Italian provenance yielded biomass with energy value of 951.68 GJ ha−1 year−1 at the end of the first three-year harvest cycle in 2012. The analysis of variance confirmed that there are highly significant statistical differences in the poplar biomass yield among the varieties and individual experimental years. The fast growing willows of Swedish provenance provided aboveground biomass energy value of 868.88 GJ ha−1 year−1 at the end of the first four-year harvest cycle in 2011. The biomass production of the perennial grass Miscanthus sinensis, depending on the growing period, can be expressed by a polynomial trend function. The highest biomass production was obtained in the third growing period (2012. At the end of the fifth growing period (2014, the yield amounted to 28.60 t ha−1 of the dry aboveground biomass. The energy value of the aboveground biomass of Miscanthus reached 486.20 GJ ha−1 in 2014. Differences in the biomass yield of the Miscanthus genotypes are statistically highly significant in each of the monitored growing periods. The growth and production process of the selected energy

  9. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  10. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  11. Managing agricultural phosphorus to minimize water quality impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sharpley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eutrophication of surface waters remains a major use-impairment in many countries, which, in fresh waters, is accelerated by phosphorus (P inputs from both point (e.g., municipal waste water treatment plants and nonpoint sources (e.g., urban and agricultural runoff. As point sources tend to be easier to identify and control, greater attention has recently focused on reducing nonpoint sources of P. In Brazil, agricultural productivity has increased tremendously over the last decade as a consequence, to a large extent, of increases in the use of fertilizer and improved land management. For instance, adoption of the “4R” approach (i.e., right rate, right time, right source, and right placement of P to fertilizer management can decrease P runoff. Additionally, practices that lessen the risk of runoff and erosion, such as reduced tillage and cover crops will also lessen P runoff. Despite these measures P can still be released from soil and fluvial sediment stores as a result of the prior 10 to 20 years’ management. These legacy sources can mask the water quality benefits of present-day conservation efforts. Future remedial efforts should focus on developing risk assessment indices and nonpoint source models to identify and target conservation measures and to estimate their relative effectiveness. New fertilizer formulations may more closely tailor the timing of nutrient release to plant needs and potentially decrease P runoff. Even so, it must be remembered that appropriate and timely inputs of fertilizers are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and in some cases, financial support might also be required to help offset the costs of expensive conservation measures.

  12. 太湖流域浙西区不同农业土地类型的面源污染产出%The non-point output of different agriculture landuse types in Zhexi hydraulic region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒鹏; 刘晓玫; 黄文钰

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes Zhexi hydraulic region in Taihu Basin as a study area. On the basis of hydraulic analysis function of Arcgis8.3, the drainages were delineated by selecting the monitoring points and discharge stations as outlets. The landuse map were finished by denoting the TM/ETM image. The precipitation map was finished by spatial interpolation according to the rainfall monitoring records. Overlaying the drainage boundary, landuse map and precipitation map, the rainfall, different landuse type area, and runoff pollution concentration and runoff were calculated. Based on these data in different sub-watersheds, by Origin7.0 regression tool, an equation is established to predict runoff using the relationships between runoff, precipitation depth and land use patterns in each of the sub-watersheds. Selecting the sub-watershed which is mainly composed of forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentration (MRC) from sub-watershed has been estimated. The mean runoff concentration of farmland has been estimated by the same methods after the contribution of forest landuse type was removed. The results are: for the forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 2.95 mg/1, 1.080 mg/1, 0.715 mg/1, and 0.039 mg/l,respectively; for the farmland, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 5.721 mg/1, 3.097 mg/1, 2.092 mg/l, and 0.166 mg/l, respectively. By using these results, the agriculture non-point pollution loads have been assessed. The loads of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P in Zhexi region are 14,631.69 t/a, 6401.93 t/a, 4281.753 t/a and 287.67 t/a, respectively.

  13. 基于改进USLE模型的北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分析%Potential Sensitive Areas Analysis of Non-Point Source Pollution in North Canal Basin based on Improved USLE Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳美珠; 张晓惠; 袁雪竹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the universal soil loss equation (USLE), the model of demarcation of sensitive areas of the non-point pollution in North Canal basin is developed. With the database of TM remote sensing images, digital elevation model (DEM), and the map of soil use type in research area in 2009, distribution map of sensitive areas of non-point source in North Canal basin is produced by the model. Base on the simulation, the three risk areas (high, medium and low) and safe areas are identified. Results show that improved model can be effectively used in the analysis of sensitive areas of non-point source pollution.%基于通用土壤流失方程(USLE)建立北运河流域非点源污染敏感区的划分模型,以2009年研究区域TM遥感影像、数字高程模型(DEM)、研究区土壤利用类型图等为数据基础,在GIS9.3和ERDAS9.2平台上通过对各模型因子进行栅格运算生成北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分布图,在此基础上划分了高、中、低三个风险区以及安全区.鉴于我国与美国不同的自然条件,以及土壤流失与固体垃圾的扩散之间所存在的差异,在引进和应用该模型时,对方程中各因子的算法和参数做了一定的调整和改进,结果表明改进后的模型可以有效的运用于非点源污染敏感区的分析.

  14. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the U...

  15. A VSA-based strategy for placing conservation buffers in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2003-09-01

    Conservation buffers have the potential to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution and improve terrestrial wildlife habitat, landscape biodiversity, flood control, recreation, and aesthetics. Conservation buffers, streamside areas and riparian wetlands are being used or have been proposed to control agricultural nonpoint source pollution. This paper proposes an innovative strategy for placing conservation buffers based on the able source area (VSA) hydrology. VSAs are small, variable but predictable portion of a watershed that regularly contributes to runoff generation. The VSA-based strategy involves the following three steps: first, identifying VSAs in landscapes based on natural characteristics such as hydrology, land use/cover, topography and soils; second, targeting areas within VSAs for conservation buffers; third, refining the size and location of conservation buffers based on other factors such as weather, environmental objectives, available funding and other best management practices. Building conservation buffers in VSAs allows agricultural runoff to more uniformly enter buffers and stay there longer, which increases the buffer's capacity to remove sediments and nutrients. A field-scale example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the within-VSA conservation buffer scenario relative to a typical edge-of-field buffer scenario. The results enhance the understanding of hydrological processes and interactions between agricultural lands and conservation buffers in agricultural landscapes, and provide practical guidance for land resource managers and conservationists who use conservation buffers to improve water quality and amenity values of agricultural landscape.

  16. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  17. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  18. Contamination, source, and input route of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Hong-Bo; Long, Jin-Lin; Cai, Chao; Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural topsoil (0-5 cm) and the contribution of groundwater irrigation and atmospheric deposition to soil PAHs were studied in a typical agricultural region, i.e. Hunpu region, Liaoning, China. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 0.43 to 2.64 mg kg⁻¹ in topsoil, being lower than those found in other wastewater-irrigated areas. The levels of PAHs in soil declined as the distance from a water source increased. Concentrations of individual PAHs were generally higher in upland than in paddy topsoils. The calculated nemerow composite index showed that agricultural soil in the region was "polluted" by PAHs. A human health risk assessment based on the total toxic equivalent concentration showed that the presence of elevated concentrations of PAHs in the soil might pose a great threat to the health of local residents. Ratios of pairs of PAHs and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that pyrogenesis, such as coal combustion, was the main source of PAHs, while petroleum, to some extent, also had a strong influence on PAHs contamination in upland soil. The distribution patterns of individual PAHs and composition of PAHs differed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil, but were similar between atmospheric deposition and topsoil. There were significant linear correlations (r = 0.90; p soils, while no significant relationships were observed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil in levels of PAHs. These suggested that PAHs in agricultural soils were mainly introduced from atmospheric deposition, rather than from groundwater irrigation after the phasing out of wastewater irrigation in the region since 2002. This study provides a reference to ensure agricultural product safety, pollution control, and proper soil management.

  19. Wetlands and Agriculture in Africa: Major Sources of N2O?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa are rapidly being converted to agricultural production in an effort to increase food security. This conversion is often seasonal, with wetlands being used for grazing and crop production of maize, sugarcane, and rice during dry seasons, and flooding occurring during wet seasons. An important question with respect to greenhouse gas production is whether wetland conversion to agriculture increases N2O fluxes. This trend has been shown in temperate regions where increased N2O fluxes are positively related to low soil C:N ratios, especially when soil moisture content remains high. In order to examine whether denitrification contributes to N2O flux, we measured potential denitrification rates (PDR by acetylene block method) in intact papyrus wetlands and agricultural converted wetlands in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda, and also performed multivariate analysis to relate soil characteristics to PDR. Agricultural land-cover types included maize, sugarcane, rice, and grazing. Results showed that intact wetlands are potentially important sources of N2O, as PDR in papyrus vegetation were consistently the highest (price fields (2.3 - 303 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1), and intermediate in maize and sugarcane (6.5 - 75 μmg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 and 5 - 30 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 respectively). PDR across all sites was inversely related to soil C:N ratio, with nitrate consistently limiting PDR in the wetland sites while soil carbon limited PDR in agricultural sites. This is seemingly in contrast with other findings that show that lower C:N ratios result in high N2O fluxes from drained wetland sites. However, flux measurements along with more realistic process-based measurements of denitrification are urgently needed to more fully understand the effect of agricultural conversion of wetlands in East Africa.

  20. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  1. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  2. Bacterial symbionts in agricultural systems provide a strategic source for antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R; Beemelmanns, Christine; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2014-01-01

    As increased antibiotic resistance erodes the efficacy of currently used drugs, the need for new candidates with therapeutic potential grows. Although the majority of antibiotics in clinical use originated from natural products, mostly from environmental actinomycetes, high rediscovery rates, among other factors, have diminished the enthusiasm for continued exploration of this historically important source. Several well-studied insect agricultural systems have bacterial symbionts that have evolved to produce small molecules that suppress environmental pathogens. These molecules represent an underexplored reservoir of potentially useful antibiotics. This report describes the multilateral symbioses common to insect agricultural systems, the general strategy used for antibiotic discovery and pertinent examples from three farming systems: fungus-farming ants, southern pine beetles (SPBs) and fungus-growing termites.

  3. Stream sediment sources in midwest agricultural basins with land retirement along channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Richardson, William B.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Gellis, Allen C.; Kieta, K. A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting the effects of agricultural land retirement on stream-sediment sources is critical to identifying management practices that improve water quality and aquatic habitat. Particularly difficult to quantify are the effects from conservation easements that commonly are discontinuous along channelized streams and ditches throughout the agricultural midwestern United States. Our hypotheses were that sediment from cropland, retired land, stream banks, and roads would be discernible using isotopic and elemental concentrations and that source contributions would vary with land retirement distribution along tributaries of West Fork Beaver Creek in Minnesota. Channel-bed and suspended sediment were sampled at nine locations and compared with local source samples by using linear discriminant analysis and a four-source mixing model that evaluated seven tracers: In, P, total C, Be, Tl, Th, and Ti. The proportion of sediment sources differed significantly between suspended and channel-bed sediment. Retired land contributed to channel-bed sediment but was not discernible as a source of suspended sediment, suggesting that retired-land material was not mobilized during high-flow conditions. Stream banks were a large contributor to suspended sediment; however, the percentage of stream-bank sediment in the channel bed was lower in basins with more continuous retired land along the riparian corridor. Cropland sediments had the highest P concentrations; basins with the highest cropland-sediment contributions also had the highest P concentrations. Along stream reaches with retired land, there was a lower proportion of cropland material in suspended sediment relative to sites that had almost no land retirement, indicating less movement of nutrients and sediment from cropland to the channel as a result of land retirement.

  4. Evaluating Urbanization Impacts from Non-Point Stormwater Runoff using Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovich, B. R.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments, nutrients and other chemical impairments caused by urbanization continue to deteriorate natural ecosystem processes, resulting in the current degraded state of urban surface waters. Understanding non-point source impacts on these natural ecosystems has become a prevalent topic in sustainable urban infrastructure design as efforts to restore the urban hydrologic regime continue to drive engineers, planners, and environmentalists to develop optimal design practices for rapidly expanding built environments. To best understand how and where these impairments are received, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other organizations have adopted urban runoff programs to identify contributions from non-point sources. This presentation provides a geospatial analysis method for identifying non-point source watersheds, and associated sub-basins, that contribute the highest loads of pollutants to receiving urban streams and lakes. This method, using a form of linear matrix inversion, is an area-averaged weighting method for non-point pollutants that corresponds to a geospatial land cover analysis. This two-phase analysis can be used to aid all parties in understanding how different land use types affect urban stream systems and processes. Optimal locations for water quality features (i.e., best management practices) can be evaluated in order to reduce, capture, and treat stormwater runoff as close to the source as possible. These best management practices have the ability to operate most effectively when located properly, because their ability to act as a minor treatment and prevention system is of great important for the restoration of the urban hydrologic regime.

  5. GEMAS: Mercury in European agricultural and grazing land soils - sources and environmental risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tore Ottesen, Rolf; Birke, Manfred; Gosar, Mateja; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural (Ap, Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) and grasing land soil samples (Gr, 0-10 cm) were collected from a large part of Europe (33 countries, 5.6 million km2) at an average density of 1 sample site/2500 km2. The resulting more than 2 x 2000 soil samples were air dried, sieved to extraction. Median concentrations for Hg are 0.030 mg/kg (range: organic material. Typical anthropogenic sources like coal fired power plants, chlor-alkaline factories, metal smelters and urban agglomerations are hardly visible at the continental scale but can have a major impact at the local scale.

  6. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TRAINING NEEDS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PALKOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes, the greenhouse gas emissions and reduced sources of traditional fossil fuels are one of themost serious environmental problems of present time. This fact was the starting point for Directive 2009/28/EC,which defined two objectives in the area of RES, the mandatory 20% share of RES in gross final energyconsumption in the European Community and the mandatory 10% share of RES in transport, which all MemberStates must achieve by 2020. In 2011 was the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production in theEuropean Union 13%. Promoting the use of renewable sources for electricity, heat, hot water, as well as promotingthe use of biomass energy and construction of energy efficient buildings brings, in addition to environmentalaspects, the development of innovative technologies, the transition to an energy-efficient economy and increaseemployment opportunities. Development in clean technologies becomes a strategic not only in terms of ecology, buthas a significant impact on economic development and employment. This paper presents an analysis of trainingneeds in clean technologies and renewable energy sources and through the Leonardo da Vincis’ projects – AVARESand C-TEST – supported by European Commission to show how to increase the attractiveness and accessibility ofvocational education and training for employees in agricultural sector in the European Union.

  8. Basic biogenic aerosol precursors: Agricultural source attribution of volatile amines revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, U.; Sintermann, J.; Spirig, C.; Jocher, M.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2011-08-01

    Despite recent evidence on an important role of volatile amines in the nucleation of particulate matter, very scarce information is available on their atmospheric abundance and source distribution. Previous measurements in animal housings had identified livestock husbandry as the main amine source, with trimethylamine (TMA) being the key component. This has led to the assumption that the agricultural sources for amines are similar as for ammonia, emitted throughout the cascade of animal excretion, storage and application in the field. In this study, we present the first micrometeorological flux measurements as well as dynamic enclosure experiments showing that the amine source strength from stored slurry is negligible, implying significant consequences for the global amine emission inventory. In the case of cattle, amine production is attributed to the animal's rumination activity and exhalation is suggested to be an important emission pathway, similar to the greenhouse gas methane. Fodder like hay and silage also emits volatile amines, potentially assigning these alkaloid compounds a key function in enhancing particle formation in remote areas.

  9. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  10. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  11. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  12. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF.

  13. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to

  14. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  15. Source and transport factors influencing storm phosphorus losses in agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; kelly-quinn, Mary; Wall, David; Murphy, Paul; Melland, Alice

    2014-05-01

    The relative risk of diffuse phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land was assessed in a well-drained arable catchment and a poorly-drained grassland catchment and in two nested basins within each catchment. This research investigated the relative control of hydrology and soil P on P losses between basins. Quick flow (QF) P losses (defined here as both concentrations and loads), monitored in stream flow during four storm events, were compared with a dynamic metric of transport risk (QF magnitude) and a static metric of critical source area (CSA) risk (extent of highly-connected poorly-drained soils with excess plant-available soil P). The potential for static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class, to predict relative QF magnitudes and P losses between basins was also investigated. In basins with similar CSA risk but with contrasting QF magnitudes, mean TRP (total molybdate-reactive P) losses were consistently higher in the basins which had the highest QF magnitudes. This suggests that basin hydrology, rather than hydrology of high-P soils only, determined relative TRP losses between hydrologically contrasting basins. Furthermore, static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class reliably discerned relative QF magnitudes and TRP losses between these basins. However, for two of the storm events (both occurring during the hydrologically active season), PP (particulate P) concentrations were frequently higher in basins which had the lowest QF magnitudes and may be attributed to a higher proportion of bare soil in these basins at these times as a result of their predominantly arable nature. In basins with similar hydrology, relative TRP and PP losses did not reflect trends in CSA risk or QF magnitude. The dynamics of TRP and PP losses and QF magnitude between these basins varied across storms, thus could not be predicted using static metrics. Where differences in hydrological dynamics were large, storm TRP losses were well

  16. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  17. On the applicability of SWAT model to the nonpoint source pollution in the watershed of the three-gorge reservoir%SWAT模型在三峡库区流域非点源污染模拟的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛; 郭秀锐; 程水源; 王征; 秦翠红; 陆瑾; 高继军

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to study the applicability of SWAT model to the non-point Source pollution in the watershed of the Three-Gorge Reservoir. The so-called SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a model we have developed in hoping to be applied and adapted to the macro-scale watershed, in the TGR area as a case study. The said model has been established under the support of the Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) as well as the spatial dataset such as DEM(digital elevation model), land-use map and so on. In our research, we have studied the data of hydrolngical and water quality in the TGR area from 2002 to 2008 for simulated calibration and validation. On the whole, our simulation proves to be successful, for the indicator ENS ( Nash-Suttclife efficiency) for stream flow in most cases was above 0.9, whereas the Ens for sediment was from 0.46 to 0.9 though the ENS for nutrient in some individual cases was less than 0.36. We have also studied the correlation between the precipitation and the surface runoff, sediment load, nutrient load in the TGR area, too. The results of our simulated investigation have shown that the surface runoff and sediment load were both closely related with the precipitation, except that the peak of sediment load took place earlier than that of surface runoff in April or May occasionally. The reason for the sediment situation is perhaps that it is because of the large amounts of the soil loss caused by the tillage and precipitation activities during the season. As to the nutrient load, especially, the TP, the consequence seems also relevant to the sediment load in comparison with the surface runoff. And, finally, we have also analyzed the pollution loads generated by the different landuse types in the area. When we worked out the order of the average pollution load for different landuse situations, we have found that the most serious non-point sources of pollution are the crop fileds in the TGR area. So it is urgent to improve the

  18. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; GOU Xin; WANG Gang; ZHANG Qiang; SU Qiong; XIAO Guoju

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) were measured in arid agricultural and irrigated agricultural soils collected in Daba Village, Shajiawuan Village, Gangou Village and Sifangwu Village, located in central Gansu Province, China. Concentrations except Hg and Pb were lower than the background values in grey calcareous soil in the selected arid agricultural soils. Pb concentration exceeded the threshold of arid agricultural soils in China by 72. 46%. These results showed that there was indeed serious pollution with Pb, a slight pollution problem for other selected metals in the irrigated agricultural soils in Daba Village. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the soil data, applying varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The result showed that the irrigated factor, agricultural factor and anthropogenic factor all contributed to the relations between selected chemical properties. The main factor of accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As was lithological factor in arid agricultural areas. There is a striking dissimilarity of origin of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As in agricultural soil between the irrigate agriculture and arid agriculture.

  19. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Y. Habteselassie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control, dairy waste compost (DC, liquid dairy waste (LW, and ammonium sulfate (AS treatments at approximately 100 and 200 kg available N ha-1 over 6 years. The N treatment affected the quantity of ammonia oxidizers based on estimates of amoA by real-time PCR. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB were higher in soils from the AS200, AS100, and LW200 treatments (2.5 x107, 2.5x107, and 2.1 x107 copies g-1 soil, respectively than in the control (8.1x106copies/g while the abundance of amoA encoding archaea (AOA was not significantly affected by treatment (3.8x107copies g-1 soil, average. The ratio of AOA/AOB was higher in the control and compost treated soils, both treatments have the majority of their ammonium supplied through mineralization of organic nitrogen. Clone libraries of partial amoA sequences indicated AOB related to Nitrosospira multiformis and AOA related to uncultured Nitrososphaera similar to those described by soil fosmid 54d9 were prevalent. Profiles of the amoC-amoA intergenic region indicated that both Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-type AOB were present in all soils examined. In contrast to the intergenic amoC-amoA profile results, Nitrosomonas-like clones were recovered only in the LW200 treated soil-DNA. The impact of six years of contrasting nitrogen sources applications caused changes in ammonia oxidizer abundance while the community composition remained relatively stable for both AOB and AOA.

  20. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  1. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98% of total N input and only 2% of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River Basin (69% of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20%), N fixation in croplands (7%), and N content of imported food and feed (2%). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point N input and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams influenced the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from point and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  2. Modelling of Efficiency Change as a Source of Economic Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezat-Jarzębowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the subject of economic growth in agriculture was raised. One of the determinants of this process, namely an efficiency change was under the assessment. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the changes of efficiency in the Polish agriculture. In the study, a stochastic parametric production function was used.

  3. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  4. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  5. Distribution and Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Kansas Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Kansas is primarily an agricultural state. Irrigation water and fertilizer use data show long- term increasing trends. Similarly, nitrate-N concentrations in groundwater show long-term increases and exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 mg/l in many areas. A statistical analysis of nitrate-N data collected for local and regional studies in Kansas from 1990 to 1998 (747 samples found significant relationships between nitrate-N concentration with depth, age, and geographic location of wells. Sources of nitrate-N have been identified for 297 water samples by using nitrogen stable isotopes. Of these samples, 48% showed fertilizer sources (+2 to +8 and 34% showed either animal waste sources (+10 to +15 with nitrate-N greater than 10 mg/l or indication that enrichment processes had occurred (+10 or above with variable nitrate-N or both. Ultimate sources for nitrate include nonpoint sources associated with past farming and fertilization practices, and point sources such as animal feed lots, septic systems, and commercial fertilizer storage units. Detection of nitrate from various sources in aquifers of different depths in geographically varied areas of the state indicates that nonpoint and point sources currently impact and will continue to impact groundwater under current land uses.

  6. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    with a. temporary seeding. b. permanent seeding. c. mulching. d. sod, trees, shrubs, vines , and ground cover. 35. Dikes and bermns or level spreaders...tree pruning . Maintenance inspe~ctionts should be used to aiXentify any routine maintenance requirements. Nonroutine maintenance practices involve the...sediments from the inlets could be done manually or hy a vacuum pump. Tree Pruning . The trees adjacent to any infiltration trench may need to be

  7. Reconnaissance survey of nonpoint source pesticides in Maryland surface waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of the Chesapeake Bay Agreement, the "Maryland Toxics Reduction Strategy for the Chesapeake Bay and its Tributaries" committed the State to identify the most...

  8. Nonpoint Source Pollution Taxes and Excessive Tax Burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, L. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, 207 Giannini Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    If a regulator is unable to measure firms individual emissions, an ambient tax can be used to achieve the socially desired level of pollution. With this tax, each firm pays a unit tax on aggregate emissions. In order for the tax to be effective, firms must recognize that their decisions affect aggregate emissions. When firms behave strategically with respect to the tax-setting regulator, under plausible circumstances their tax burden is lower under an ambient tax, relative to the tax which charges firms on the basis of individual emissions. Firms may prefer the case where the regulator is unable to observe individual firm emissions, even if this asymmetric information causes the regulator to tax each firm on the basis of aggregate emissions.

  9. MODELING OF SEDIMENT AND NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANT YIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai'en LI; Xiaokang Hong; Bing SHEN

    2001-01-01

    For water and soil conservation and water pollution control, it is very important to simulate and predict the load of sediment and pollutant during storm-runoff. On the basis of analyzing the simultaneous measurements of flow, sediment and pollutants observed at watershed outlet, a practical sediment yield model is developed by standardizing the load rate. The results show that the standardized pollutant yield equals effective rainfall and the process of effective load yield is the same as effective rainfall hyetograph. Comparison with measured data show that this model is applicable to various pollutants.

  10. Literature Review: Computer Aided Assessment Techniques for Nonpoint Source Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Equilibrium Metals Speciation Model ( MINTEQ ) is a highly specialized model for metals only. It produces highly precise results, but requires a high level of...dynamic model that can be used for evaluating the behavior of syn- thetic organic chemicals in lakes, rivers and estuaries. 5. MINTEQ : The...conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters," Part I and Part 2, EPA-600/685/002a,b, Washington, DC, 1985. (1987a). " MINTEQAl : An equilibrium

  11. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  13. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Megan M. Mayzelle; Viers, Joshua H.; Josué Medellín-Azuara; Thomas Harter

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viabi...

  14. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  15. Comparing source of agricultural contact water and the presence of fecal indicator organisms on the surface of 'juliet' grape tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Donna M; Telias, Adriana; Newell, Michael; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) has been implicated as the cause of several foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, most notably in cases of salmonellosis. How the levels of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in water relate to the counts of these microorganisms on the tomato fruit surface is unknown, although microbial water quality standards exist for agricultural use. This study utilized four types of FIOs currently and historically used in microbial water quality standards (Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli) to monitor the water quality of two surface ponds and a groundwater source. The groundwater tested contained significantly lower counts of all FIOs than the two surface water sources (P tomatoes treated with overhead applications of the different water sources over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. The type of water source and time of year significantly affected the populations of FIOs in irrigation water (P E. coli between the water sources, there was little difference in the populations measured in washes taken from tomato fruits. This lack of association between the aforementioned FIOs present in the water samples and on the tomato fruit surface demonstrates the difficulty in developing reliable metrics needed for testing of agricultural water to ensure the effectiveness of food safety programs.

  16. Sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment: A composite fingerprinting approach based on the selection of potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiping; Chang, Weina; Zhang, Longjiang

    2016-08-01

    Fingerprinting techniques have been widely used as a reasonable and reliable means for investigating sediment sources, especially in relatively large catchments in which there are significant differences in surface materials. However, the discrimination power of fingerprint properties for small catchments, in which the surface materials are relatively homogeneous and human interference is marked, may be affected by fragmentary or confused source information. Using fingerprinting techniques can be difficult, and there is still a need for further studies to verify the effectiveness of such techniques in these small catchments. A composite fingerprinting approach was used in this study to investigate the main sources of sediment output, as well as their relative contributions, from a small catchment (30 km2) with high levels of farming and mining activities. The impact of the selection of different potential sediment sources on the derivation of composite fingerprints and its discrimination power were also investigated by comparing the results from different combinations of potential source types. The initial source types and several samples that could cause confusion were adjusted. These adjustments improved the discrimination power of the composite fingerprints. The results showed that the composite fingerprinting approach used in this study had a discriminatory efficiency of 89.2% for different sediment sources and that the model had a mean goodness of fit of 0.90. Cultivated lands were the main sediment source. The sediment contribution of the studied cultivated lands ranged from 39.9% to 87.8%, with a mean of 76.6%, for multiple deposited sediment samples. The mean contribution of woodlands was 21.7%. Overall, the sediment contribution from mining and road areas was relatively low. The selection of potential sources is an important factor in the application of fingerprinting techniques and warrants more attention in future studies, as is the case with other

  17. Using lidar to characterize particles from point and diffuse sources in an agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. Aglite is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Energy Dynamics Laboratory (EDL) to measure the spati...

  18. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to biomethan

  19. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to biomethan

  20. The source of productivity growth in Dutch agriculture: a perspective from finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In corporate finance, the impact of capital structure on firm performance has been widely studied. This article extends the capital structure study to the situation in agriculture, explicitly addressing the difference between family farms and corporate firms. We use the Malmquist productivity growth

  1. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  2. Interactively Improving Agricultural Field Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa with Crowd-Sourcing and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    As satellite imagery becomes increasingly available, management of large image databases becomes more important for efficient image processing. We have developed a computer vision-based classification algorithm to distinguish smallholder agricultural land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a group of high-resolution images from South Africa as a case study. For supervised classification, smallholder agriculture, with ambiguous patterns of small, irregular fields, requires a wide range of training data samples to adequately describe the variability in appearance. We employ crowd-sourcing to obtain new training data to expand the geographic range of our algorithm. A crowd-sourcing user is asked to hand-digitize the boundaries of agricultural fields in an assigned 1 km2 image. Yet random assignment of images to users could result in a highly redundant training data set with limited discriminative power. Furthermore, larger training data sets require a greater number of users to hand-digitize fields, which increases costs through crowd-sourcing engines like Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as longer algorithm training times, which increases computing costs. Therefore, we employ an active learning approach to interactively select the most informative images to be hand-digitized for training data by crowd-sourcing users, based on changes in algorithm accuracy. We investigate the use of various image similarity measures used in content-based image retrieval systems, which quantify the distance, such as Euclidean distance or Manhattan distance, between a variety of extracted feature spaces to determine how similar the content of two images are. We determine the minimum training data set needed to maximize algorithm accuracy, as well as automate the selection of additional training images to classify a new target image that expands the geographic range of our algorithm.

  3. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: the Brighouse Bay study, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Aitken, M; Crowther, J; Dickson, I; Edwards, A C; Francis, C; Hopkins, M; Jeffrey, W; Kay, C; McDonald, A T; McDonald, D; Stapleton, C M; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J; Wyer, M D

    2007-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission.

  4. Green synthesis of bacterial cellulose via acetic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zheng; Yang, Rendang; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by acetobacter xylinum via organic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source. Acetic acid was applied to pretreat the corn stalk, then, the prehydrolysate was detoxified by sequential steps of activated carbon and ion exchange resin treatment prior to use as carbon source to cultivate acetobacter xylinum. Moreover, the recovery of acetic acid was achieved for facilitating the reduction of cost. The results revealed that the combination method of detoxification treatment was very effective for synthesis of BC, yield could be up to 2.86g/L. SEM analysis showed that the diameter size of BC between 20 and 70mm. In summary, the process that bacterial cellulose was biosynthesized via prehydrolysate from agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source is feasible, and the ability to recover organic acid make it economical, sustainable and green, which fits well into the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  6. Demonstration and Effects of Best Management Practices Applied to Control of Rural Non-point Source Pollution in Poyang Lake Area%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染控制中最佳管理措施示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万金保; 孙蕾; 刘峰; 汤爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Water environment security in rural areas around Poyang Lake has been threatened by increasingly severe non-point source pollution(NPS pollution).Combined with the features of NPS pollution in the areas,the structural best management practices(BMPs) are established in the demonstration area of Xingzi County to control the rural NPS pollution.Monitoring results show that in the monitoring period,the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN by the BMPs are 568.25,3.06 and 26.90 kg,respectively.Constructed wetland maintains the better and more stable pollutant removal capability and the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN per unit area are about 40,0.4 and 3.0 g/m2,respectively.The removal amounts of the pollutants per unit area by ecological ditch vary greatly.Ecological ditch has better removal ability per unit area than constructed wetland,but has poor stability.In consideration of the advantages of ecological ditch and tri-class surface flow constructed wetland(3-SFW),the plants suitable to ecological ditch are recommended to improve its stability in pollutant removal.%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染问题日益严峻,已威胁到湖泊的水环境安全。结合该区域农村面源污染自身的变化特征,在星子县示范区内构建结构性最佳管理措施BMPs(best management practices)系统对区域内农村面源污染进行控制。结果表明,在监测期间该BMPs系统对COD,TP和TN的削减量分别为568.25,3.06和26.90kg。其中人工湿地对COD,TP和TN的单位面积削减量约达40,0.4和3.0g/m2,有较稳定的污染物去除能力;生态沟渠对各污染物单位面积削减量变化较大,与人工湿地相比虽有更强的污染物削减能力,但稳定性较弱。结合生态沟渠和三级表面流人工湿地的特点,建议通过引入适宜的植物至生态沟渠提高其处理污染物的稳定性。

  7. Downstream mixing of sediment and tracers in agricultural catchments: Evidence of changing sediment sources and fluvial processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Timothy; Wethered, Adam; Smith, Hugh; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Land clearance, soil tillage and grazing in agricultural catchments have liberated sediment and altered hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and channels, leading to increased sediment availability, mobilisation and delivery to rivers. The type and amount of sediment supplied to rivers is critical for fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecosystem health. Contemporary sediment dynamics are routinely investigated using environmental radionuclides such as caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex), which can provide information regarding sediment source types and fluvial processes if sediment sources can be distinguished from one another and mixing models applied to representative samples. However, downstream transport, mixing and dilution of radionuclide-labelled sediment (especially from sources with low initial concentrations) can obliterate the tracer signal; sometimes before anything of geomorphological importance happens in the catchment. Can these findings be used as evidence of sediment source variations and fluvial processes when the limits of detection (of Cs-137 in particular) are being exceeded so rapidly downstream? Sediment sources and downstream sediment dynamics were investigated in Coolbaggie Creek, a major supplier of sediment to the Macquarie River in an agricultural catchment with temperate to semi-arid climate in Australia. Radionuclides were used to discriminate between the banks and gullies (Cs-137 1.45 +/- 0.47 Bq/kg; Pb-210ex 4.67 +/- 1.93 Bq/kg). Within the trunk stream, suspended sediment, organic matter and Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentrations declined downstream. Results from a mixing model suggest that agricultural topsoils account for 95% of fine sediment entering the channel in the upper reach (200 m2) downstream, with channel expansion and gullies contributing fine sediment to the system. A lack of topsoil being supplied to the channel suggests minimal lateral connectivity between the catchment and the trunk stream in all

  8. SOURCES OF GROWTH IN SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURE – A CORPORATE FINANCE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The capital structure theory has been applied extensively in corporate fi rms with mixed results. This article examines the role of capital structure on the performance of fi rms in South Africa’s agricultural sector following the pecking order theory. Survey data was collected from smallholder farmers in Mpumalanga and North West provinces during 2013. A total of 500 respondents were included in the survey using the multi-stage sampling technique of which 362 responses were received. Using the structural equation modeling approach, the study observes a positive and signifi cant relationship between capital structure and the performance of smallholder farmers. Both short-term and long-term debt contributes to improved productivity through the purchase of working capital requirements and the acquisition of capital equipment. Furthermore, the study reveals that land size has a positive infl uence on agricultural output. These empirical results suggest that channelling debt capital to farmers will improve their productivity. All models fi t indices applied con- fi rm the model was a good fi t to the data.

  9. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  10. Source dynamics of radiocesium-contaminated particulate matter deposited in an agricultural water reservoir after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Sylvain; Hayashi, Seiji; Laceby, J Patrick; Tsuji, Hideki; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2017-09-06

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the deposition of radiocesium over forested and rural landscapes northwest of the power plant. Although there have been several investigations into the dynamics of contaminated river sediment, less attention has been paid to the sources of deposited particulate matter in dams and reservoirs. In the Fukushima Prefecture, there are 10 significant dams and over a 1000 reservoirs for both agricultural and surface water management. These reservoirs may have trapped a significant volume of radiocesium-contaminated sediment. Therefore, characterizing the sources of contaminated particulate matter is important for the ongoing management of contamination in the region. Accordingly, the composition of particulate matter deposited in the Mano Dam reservoir, approximately 40km northwest of the power plant, was investigated with the analyses and modelling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Four sediment cores, with lengths ranging 29-41cm, were sampled in the Mano Dam. Source samples from 46 forest soils, 28 cultivated soils and 25 subsoils were used to determine the source contributions of particulate matter. Carbon and nitrogen parameters were analyzed on all samples and a concentration-dependent distribution modelling approach was used to apportion source contributions. Three of the four cores sampled in the Mano Dam reservoir had distinct radiocesium peaks representative of the initial post-accident wash-off phase. Cultivated sources were responsible for 48±7% of the deposited fine particulate matter whereas forests were modelled to contribute 27±6% and subsoil sources 25±4%. Ongoing decontamination of cultivated sources in the Fukushima region should result in a decrease of contaminated matter deposition in reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Hydrology Driving Shifts in Sources of Nitrate in an Agricultural Dominant Semi-arid Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon Nielsen, L. G.; Orr, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the South Fork Palouse River in the semi-arid region of Eastern Washington State, surface water hydrology is driven by seasonal variation in precipitation, with peak surface water flow and highest Nitrate values observed from January to April, and lowest surface flows and corresponding lower Nitrate concentrations observed from June to August. Land-use in the watershed is predominantly non-irrigated cropland (82%) fertilized by synthetic fertilizer, with an additional 8% of land in urban areas. Due to the prevalence of anthropogenically influenced land in the watershed, Nitrate concentrations measured in streams here are chronically elevated above natural levels. Typically in an area that is dominated by agriculture, the source of Nitrate in surface waters draining agricultural land would be predicted to be synthetic fertilizer. However it is important to consider the impacts seasonal hydrological conditions can have upon Nitrate sources and flow paths. We investigated how Nitrate sources in Palouse streams and rivers changed seasonally to address the hypothesis that seasonal variation in precipitation shifts the dominant sources of Nitrate in surface waters. We based our determination of nitrogen source on the results from dual stable isotope analysis of Nitrate using the denitrifier method. Sampling was done at 7 locations of increasing catchment area along the South Fork Palouse River and tributary streams. Sampling site catchment area varied one order of magnitude from 70.9 to 717.4 km2. Surface waters at yearly low flow during the summer season indicated δ15N-Nitrate and δ18O-Nitrate ranging within generally accepted values to indicate Nitrate derived from animal and human waste. These can be attributed to waste water discharge from the urban areas in the watershed. Yearly hydrologic data suggests that during the winter season, increased precipitation causes a shift in δ15N-Nitrate and δ18O-Nitrate to values typically observed in sources derived from

  12. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  13. Role of Diffusion in Attributing the Source of Nitrous Oxide Production in the Upper Meter of an Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbak, I.; Robertson, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is a major anthropogenic source of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Distribution of subsurface sources of N2O in agricultural soils is not well understood. We examined N2O production at different soil depths to 1 meter in order to quantify by depth the total flux produced and the factors responsible for production. We measured subsurface N2O concentrations and surface N2O flux in three experiments: 1) duplicated tilled and no-tillage plots planted to corn, 2) rainfed and irrigated plots planted to corn at six N fertilizer levels, and 3) different replicated treatments of KBS LTER site - corn/soybean/wheat under conventional tillage, no-tillage, reduced input, and organic management, poplar trees, alfalfa, and early- and mid-successional communities. We measured diffusivity by injecting an inert tracer (SF6) and high concentrations of nitrous oxide to different depths to validate a diffusivity model. We developed a production function from experiments studying the effects of tillage, fertilization, and irrigation and applied it to treatments of KBS LTER. We attributed specific portions of N2O produced at different soil depths, with lower fluxes produced at depth despite surprisingly high N2O concentrations to 1m. Major seasonal fluxes were produced in the top 25 cm.

  14. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  15. Organic matter source and degradation as revealed by molecular biomarkers in agricultural soils of Yuanyang terrace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaolei; Li, Hao; Liao, Shaohua; Ghaffar, Abdul; Peng, Hongbo; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-06-01

    Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation. Two soils (TD and TP) with human activities showed more diverse of chemicals in both free lipids and CuO oxidation products than the one (NS) without human activities. Branched alkanoic acids only accounted for less than 5% of lipids, indicating limited microbial inputs in all three investigated soils. The degradation of lignin in NS and TD was relatively higher than TP, probably because of the chemical degradation, most likely UV light-involved photodegradation. Lignin parameters obtained from CuO oxidation products confirmed that woody gymnosperm tissue (such as pine trees) may be the main source for NS, while angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP. Analysis of BPCAs illustrated that BC in NS may be mainly originated from soot or other fossil carbon sources, whereas BC in TD and TP may be produced during corn stalk and straw burning. BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP. The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Agricultural Runoff and Soil Erosion Using Mathematical Modeling: Applications in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.

    2002-09-01

    Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.

  17. Understanding Multifunctional Agricultural Land by Using Low Cost and Open Source Solutions to Quantify Ecosystem Function and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsmoo, Joel; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard; Macleod, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to advance our understanding of how the spatial structure of farmed landscapes contributes to the provision of functions and services. Agricultural land is of critical importance in NW Europe, covering large parts of NW Europe's temperate land. Moreover, these agricultural areas are primarily intensively managed, with a focus on maximizing food and fibre production. Such landscapes therefore can provide a wealth of ecosystem goods and services (ESs) including regulation of climate, erosion regulation, hydrology, water quality, nutrient cycling and biodiversity conservation. However, it has been shown they are key sources of sediment, phosphorous, nitrogen and storm runoff contributing to flooding, and therefore it is likely that most agricultural landscapes do not maximize the services or benefits that they might provide. The focus of this study is the spatio-temporal assessment of carbon sequestration (particularly through proxies such as above-ground biomass) and hydrological processes on agricultural land. Understanding and quantifying both of these is important to (a) inform payments for ecosystem services frameworks, (b) evaluate and improve carbon sequestration models, (c) manage the flood risk, (d) downstream water security and (e) water quality. Quantifying both of these ESs is dependent on data describing the fine spatial and temporal structure and function of the landscape. Common practice has been to use remote sensing techniques, e.g. satellites, providing coarse spatial resolution (around 30cm at 20° off nadir) and/or temporal resolution (around 5 days revisit time at UAVs) can be used to generate structure from motion (SFM) products describing the very fine detailed (UAVs). We furthermore draw attention to the influence post-processing solutions have on the accuracy of the final product, the digital surface model (DSM), by using recently acquired data. Specifically, when applied in a structurally complex field site with irregular

  18. Are agricultural and natural sources of bio-products important for modern regenerative medicine? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Maciej; Nowacka, Katarzyna; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Tyloch, Dominik; Rasmus, Marta; Warda, Karolina; Drewa, Tomasz

    2017-05-11

    [b] Abstract Introduction and objectives[/b]. As tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have continued to evolve within the field of biomedicine, the fundamental importance of bio-products has become increasingly apparent. This true not only in cases where they are derived directly from the natural environment, but also when animals and plants are specially bred and cultivated for their production. [b]Objective.[/b] The study aims to present and assess the global influence and importance of selected bio-products in current regenerative medicine via a broad review of the existing literature. In particular, attention is paid to the matrices, substances and grafts created from plants and animals which could potentially be used in experimental and clinical regeneration, or in reconstructive procedures. [b]Summary.[/b] Evolving trends in agriculture are likely to play a key role in the future development of a number of systemic and local medical procedures within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This is in addition to the use of bio-products derived from the natural environment which are found to deliver positive results in the treatment of prospective patients.

  19. Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Ball Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.

  20. Assessment of nitrate leakage and N2O emission from five environmental-friendly agricultural practices using fuzzy logic method and empirical formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  2. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  3. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mayzelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  4. Using Bayesian hierarchical models to better understand nitrate sources and sinks in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan N; Jordan, Thomas E; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-11-15

    Export coefficient models (ECMs) are often used to predict nutrient sources and sinks in watersheds because ECMs can flexibly incorporate processes and have minimal data requirements. However, ECMs do not quantify uncertainties in model structure, parameters, or predictions; nor do they account for spatial and temporal variability in land characteristics, weather, and management practices. We applied Bayesian hierarchical methods to address these problems in ECMs used to predict nitrate concentration in streams. We compared four model formulations, a basic ECM and three models with additional terms to represent competing hypotheses about the sources of error in ECMs and about spatial and temporal variability of coefficients: an ADditive Error Model (ADEM), a SpatioTemporal Parameter Model (STPM), and a Dynamic Parameter Model (DPM). The DPM incorporates a first-order random walk to represent spatial correlation among parameters and a dynamic linear model to accommodate temporal correlation. We tested the modeling approach in a proof of concept using watershed characteristics and nitrate export measurements from watersheds in the Coastal Plain physiographic province of the Chesapeake Bay drainage. Among the four models, the DPM was the best--it had the lowest mean error, explained the most variability (R(2) = 0.99), had the narrowest prediction intervals, and provided the most effective tradeoff between fit complexity (its deviance information criterion, DIC, was 45.6 units lower than any other model, indicating overwhelming support for the DPM). The superiority of the DPM supports its underlying hypothesis that the main source of error in ECMs is their failure to account for parameter variability rather than structural error. Analysis of the fitted DPM coefficients for cropland export and instream retention revealed some of the factors controlling nitrate concentration: cropland nitrate exports were positively related to stream flow and watershed average slope

  5. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens.

  6. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Flotats, Xavier; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2016-04-15

    In the present study an overlay method to assess groundwater vulnerability is proposed. This new method based on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed and validated using an appropriate case study in Aragon area (NE Spain). The Vulnerability Index to Nitrates from Agricultural Sources (VINAS) incorporates a novel Logic Scoring of Preferences (LSP) approach, and it has been developed using public geographic information from the European Union. VINAS-LSP identifies areas with five categories of vulnerability, taking into account the hydrogeological and environmental characteristics of the territory as a whole. The resulting LSP map is a regional screening tool that can provide guidance on the potential risk of nitrate pollution, as well as highlight areas where specific research and farming planning policies are required.

  8. Main types of technical facilities used in poland agricultural sector for obtaining energy from renewable sources of various nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Kalinichenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main ways of heat and electric energy supply of farms in Poland, using energy from renewable sources. Particular attention is paid to the relevant requirements for technical support of energy supply processes. It is assumed that in agriculture production and rural areas in Poland soon the number of used conventional fuels, including natural gas and coal, will change significantly, for the use of biomass, solar, geothermal and wind energy. Devices that are designed for use almost unlimited supply of renewable energy are: heat pumps, solar panels, photo-electric elements, wind and hydrostations. The main effect is as traditional energy saving and reduction of technogenic impact on the environment, and increasing of energy security level, creating new workplaces and promote regional development

  9. Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Dammgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Air pollution in Europe has been regarded as a severe problem for several decades, the adverse effects being: the influence on the physical properties of the atmosphere itself, in particular its energy balance (global warming), and visibility; the influence on atmospheric chemistry (formation and destruction of both ground level and stratospheric ozone); the input of chemicals into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems causing acidification and eutrophication leading to forest decline as well as changes in ecosystem structure and function; the effects on human health and welfare (the respiratory system). Since the sulfur dioxide problem seems to have been solved to a large extent in most countries in Western Europe, atmospheric nitrogen compounds are considered a major source of acidification. As most natural and near-natural ecosystems have developed with nitrogen as a limiting factor, increased inputs of reactive atmospheric nitrogen cause changes in their structure, function and nutrient dynamics. These effects are attributed to surplus nutrition (eutrophication) of the respective systems as the result of increased nitrogen inputs. At first it seemed logical to connect them with sources similar to those for sulfur (power plants, combustion engines, domestic heating); however, it soon became clear that reduced nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium in particulates) also plays a major role. This review is to collate the present state of knowledge with regard to ammonia emissions, its atmospheric transport and chemistry as well as its deposition and the resulting effects. It restricts itself to a description of the situation in Europe.

  10. From deposition to erosion: spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport in a small agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Pellerin, B.A.; Oh, N.H.; Ohara, N.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.; Kavvas, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport were investigated in a small agricultural watershed draining the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley in central California. Results of field, laboratory, and historical data analysis in the Willow Slough fluvial system document changes that transformed a transport-limited depositional system to an effective erosion and transport system, despite a large sediment supply. These changes were caused by a combination of factors: (i) an increase in transport capacity, and (ii) hydrologic alteration. Alteration of the riparian zone and drainage network pattern during the past ~ 150 years included a twofold increase in straightened channel segments along with a baselevel change from excavation that increased slope, and increased sediment transport capacity by ~ 7%. Hydrologic alteration from irrigation water contributions also increased transport capacity, by extending the period with potential for sediment transport and erosion by ~ 6 months/year. Field measurements document Quaternary Alluvium as a modern source of fine sediment with grain size distributions characterized by 5 to 40% fine material. About 60% of an upland and 30% of a lowland study reach incised into this deposit exhibit bank erosion. During this study, the wet 2006 and relatively dry 2007 water years exhibited a range of total annual suspended sediment load spanning two orders of magnitude: ~ 108,500 kg/km2/year during 2006 and 5,950 kg/km2/year during 2007, only 5% of that during the previous year. Regional implications of this work are illustrated by the potential for a small tributary such as Willow Slough to contribute sediment – whereas large dams limit sediment supply from larger tributaries – to the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay Delta and Estuary. This work is relevant to lowland agricultural river–floodplain systems globally in efforts to restore aquatic and riparian functions and where water quality

  11. Regional Scale Simulations of Nitrate Leaching through Agricultural Soils of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, E.; Walkinshaw, M.; O'Geen, A. T.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate is recognized as one of California's most widespread groundwater contaminants. As opposed to point sources, which are relative easily identifiable sources of contamination, non-point sources of nitrate are diffuse and linked with widespread use of fertilizers in agricultural soils. California's agricultural regions have an incredible diversity of soils that encompass a huge range of properties. This complicates studies dealing with nitrate risk assessment, since important biological and physicochemical processes appear at the first meters of the vadose zone. The objective of this study is to evaluate all agricultural soils in California according to their potentiality for nitrate leaching based on numerical simulations using the Richards equation. We conducted simulations for 6000 unique soil profiles (over 22000 soil horizons) taking into account the effect of climate, crop type, irrigation and fertilization management scenarios. The final goal of this study is to evaluate simple management methods in terms of reduced nitrate leaching. We estimated drainage rates of water under the root zone and nitrate concentrations in the drain water at the regional scale. We present maps for all agricultural soils in California which can be used for risk assessment studies. Finally, our results indicate that adoption of simple irrigation and fertilization methods may significantly reduce nitrate leaching in vulnerable regions.

  12. Weeds as a source of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, A V; Matheson, B G; Arsenault, W; Kimpinski, J; Christie, B R

    2001-11-01

    The influence of plant growth promoting (PGP) activity of bacterial communities recovered from each of six weed species (barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusfalli (L.) Beauv.), corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.), goldenrod (Sonchus sp.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), and quack grass (Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.)) was examined in relation to the effect it had on the growth of the potato cultivar Russet Burbank. Bacterial species composition and community structure were compared, species-abundance relationships were determined, and those members conferring positive benefits for potato growth and development were identified. Of the genera identified, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were the most common, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most frequent species recovered across all sources. Significantly higher population densities were found in the root zones of quack grass, compared with Italian ryegrass and lamb's-quarters. There were no significant differences in species richness among the root zones; however, evenness indices (species distribution) were significantly lower in corn spurrey (P = 0.05). Significantly higher diversity indices (Hill-1 and Hill-2 numbers) (P = 0.05) were found in the root zone soil communities of potato and goldenrod, indicating a decrease in the proportional abundance of common and very abundant species, respectively, while in barnyard grass, corn spurrey, and Italian ryegrass the reverse was the case. In both years of the study, Italian ryegrass and corn spurrey were consistently better sources of PGP rhizobacteria for potatoes, significantly (P rhizobacterial biodiversity and functional versatility can influence the numbers and types of PGP bacterial strains, and consequently may serve to improve soil quality.

  13. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  14. Nitrate sinks and sources as controls of spatio-temporal water quality dynamics in an agricultural headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick; Weiler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Several controls are known to affect water quality of stream networks during flow recession periods, such as solute leaching processes, surface water-groundwater interactions as well as biogeochemical in-stream turnover processes. Throughout the stream network, combinations of specific water and solute export rates and local in-stream conditions overlay the biogeochemical signals from upstream sections. Therefore, upstream sections can be considered functional units which could be distinguished and ordered regarding their relative contribution to nutrient dynamics at the catchment outlet. Based on snapshot sampling of flow and nitrate concentrations along the stream in an agricultural headwater during the summer flow recession period, we determined spatial and temporal patterns of water quality for the whole stream. A data-driven, in-stream-mixing-and-removal model was developed and applied for analysing the spatio-temporal in-stream retention processes and their effect on the spatio-temporal fluxes of nitrate from subcatchments. Thereby, we have been able to distinguish quantitatively between nitrate sinks, sources per stream reaches, and subcatchments, and thus we could disentangle the overlay of nitrate sink and source signals. For nitrate sources, we determined their permanent and temporal impact on stream water quality and for nitrate sinks, we found increasing nitrate removal efficiencies from upstream to downstream. Our results highlight the importance of distinct nitrate source locations within the watershed for in-stream concentrations and in-stream removal processes, respectively. Thus, our findings contribute to the development of a more dynamic perception of water quality in streams and rivers concerning ecological and sustainable water resource management.

  15. Sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field in the Southern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Berry, Joseph A; Billesbach, Dave; Campbell, John Elliott; Torn, Margaret S; Zahniser, Mark; Seibt, Ulli

    2014-06-24

    Net photosynthesis is the largest single flux in the global carbon cycle, but controls over its variability are poorly understood because there is no direct way of measuring it at the ecosystem scale. We report observations of ecosystem carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO2 fluxes that resolve key gaps in an emerging framework for using concurrent COS and CO2 measurements to quantify terrestrial gross primary productivity. At a wheat field in Oklahoma we found that in the peak growing season the flux-weighted leaf relative uptake of COS and CO2 during photosynthesis was 1.3, at the lower end of values from laboratory studies, and varied systematically with light. Due to nocturnal stomatal conductance, COS uptake by vegetation continued at night, contributing a large fraction (29%) of daily net ecosystem COS fluxes. In comparison, the contribution of soil fluxes was small (1-6%) during the peak growing season. Upland soils are usually considered sinks of COS. In contrast, the well-aerated soil at the site switched from COS uptake to emissions at a soil temperature of around 15 °C. We observed COS production from the roots of wheat and other species and COS uptake by root-free soil up to a soil temperature of around 25 °C. Our dataset demonstrates that vegetation uptake is the dominant ecosystem COS flux in the peak growing season, providing support of COS as an independent tracer of terrestrial photosynthesis. However, the observation that ecosystems may become a COS source at high temperature needs to be considered in global modeling studies.

  16. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphorus recycling from an unexplored source by polyphosphate accumulating microalgae and cyanobacteria – a step to phosphorus security in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan eMukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp. and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  18. TMDL implementation in agricultural landscapes: a communicative and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R; Slotterback, Carissa Schively; Cadieux, Kirsten Valentine; Mulla, David J; Pitt, David G; Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2011-07-01

    Increasingly, total maximum daily load (TMDL) limits are being defined for agricultural watersheds. Reductions in non-point source pollution are often needed to meet TMDL limits, and improvements in management of annual crops appear insufficient to achieve the necessary reductions. Increased adoption of perennial crops and other changes in agricultural land use also appear necessary, but face major barriers. We outline a novel strategy that aims to create new economic opportunities for land-owners and other stakeholders and thereby to attract their voluntary participation in land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Our strategy has two key elements. First, focused efforts are needed to create new economic enterprises that capitalize on the productive potential of multifunctional agriculture (MFA). MFA seeks to produce a wide range of goods and ecosystem services by well-designed deployment of annual and perennial crops across agricultural landscapes and watersheds; new revenue from MFA may substantially finance land-use change needed to meet TMDLs. Second, efforts to capitalize on MFA should use a novel methodology, the Communicative/Systemic Approach (C/SA). C/SA uses an integrative GIS-based spatial modeling framework for systematically assessing tradeoffs and synergies in design and evaluation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes, closely linked to deliberation and design processes by which multiple stakeholders can collaboratively create appropriate and acceptable MFA landscape designs. We anticipate that application of C/SA will strongly accelerate TMDL implementation, by aligning the interests of multiple stakeholders whose active support is needed to change agricultural land use and thereby meet TMDL goals.

  19. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  20. Quantifying the main sediment sources in agricultural landscapes of Southern Brazil cultivated with conventional and conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion; Tiecher, Tales; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Laceby, J. Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural expansion that occurred in the 1960s in Southern Brazil significantly increased soil erosion and sediment supply to the river networks. To limit the deleterious impacts of soil erosion, conservation practices were progressively implemented in the 1990s, including the direct sowing of crops on a soil densely covered with plant residues, contour farming, the installation of ponds to trap sediment in the landscape and the use of crop rotations. However, there remains a lack of observational data to investigate the impact of these conservation practices on soil erosion and sediment supply. This data is crucial to protect soil resources and maintain the sustainability of food production systems in this region of the world characterized by a rapidly increasing population. Accordingly, sediment sources were investigated in the Guaporé catchment (2,032 km2) representative of the cultivated environments found in this part of the world. In the upper catchment, the landscape is characterized by gentle slopes and deep soils (Ferralsols, Nitisols) corresponding to the edge of the basaltic plateau. Soybean, corn and wheat under direct sowing are the main crops in this area. In contrast, steep and shallow soils (Luvisols, Acrisols, Leptosols) highly connected to the rivers are found in the lower catchment, where tobacco and corn fields are cultivated with conventional ploughing. These soil types were characterized by elemental geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Sediment sources were then modelled using the optimal suite of properties (87Sr/86Sr ratios, K, Ti, Co, As, Ba, and Pb). The results demonstrate that sediment collected at the catchment outlet during two hydrological years (2012-2014) mainly originated from downstream soils (Luvisols, Acrisols, Leptosols; 92±3%), with this proportion remaining stable throughout the monitoring period. This research indicates that conservation practices implemented in the upper catchment are effective and that similar methods

  1. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  2. Assessing the Source-to-Stream Transport of Benzotriazoles during Rainfall and Snowmelt in Urban and Agricultural Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajulee, Abha; Lei, Ying Duan; De Silva, Amila O; Cao, Xiaoshu; Mitchell, Carl P J; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-07

    While benzotriazoles (BTs) are ubiquitous in urban waters, their sources and transport remain poorly characterized. We aimed to elucidate the origin and hydrological pathways of BTs in Toronto, Canada, by quantifying three BTs, electrical conductivity, and δ(18)O in high-frequency streamwater samples taken during two rainfall and one snowmelt event in two watersheds with contrasting levels of urbanization. Average concentrations of total BTs (∑BT) were 1.3 to 110 times higher in the more urbanized Mimico Creek watershed relative to the primarily agricultural and suburban Little Rouge Creek. Strong correlations between upstream density of major roads and total BT concentrations or BT composition within all events implicate vehicle fluids as the key source of BTs in both watersheds. Sustained historical releases of BTs within the Mimico Creek watershed have likely led to elevated ∑BT in groundwater, with elevated concentrations observed during baseflow that are diluted by rainfall and surface runoff. In contrast, relatively constant concentrations, caused by mixing of equally contaminated baseflow and rainfall/surface runoff, are observed in the Little Rouge Creek throughout storm hydrographs, with an occasional first flush occurring at a subsite draining suburban land. During snowmelt, buildup of BTs in roadside snowpiles and preferential partitioning of BTs to the liquid phase of a melting snowpack leads to early peaks in ∑BT in both streams, except the sites in the Little Rouge Creek with low levels of vehicle traffic. Overall, a history of BT release and land use associated with urbanization have led to higher levels of BTs in urban areas and provide a glimpse into future BT dynamics in mixed use, (sub)urbanizing areas.

  3. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3(-), with the concentration varying from 0.1mg/L to 206mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh (groundwater of the Poyang Lake basin has Eh>100mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ(15)N and δ(18)О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ(18)О values from -4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the (15)N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  5. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3-, with the concentration varying from 0.1 mg/L to 206 mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh ( 100 mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ15N and δ18O) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ18O values from - 4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions.

  6. A simple temperature domain two-source model for estimating agricultural field surface energy fluxes from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Chen, Jiquan; Liu, Shaomin; Lin, Yi; Fisher, Joshua B.; McVicar, Tim R.; Cheng, Jie; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xie, Xianhong; Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liang

    2017-05-01

    A simple and robust satellite-based method for estimating agricultural field to regional surface energy fluxes at a high spatial resolution is important for many applications. We developed a simple temperature domain two-source energy balance (TD-TSEB) model within a hybrid two-source model scheme by coupling "layer" and "patch" models to estimate surface heat fluxes from Landsat thematic mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) imagery. For estimating latent heat flux (LE) of full soil, we proposed a temperature domain residual of the energy balance equation based on a simplified framework of total aerodynamic resistances, which provides a key link between thermal satellite temperature and subsurface moisture status. Additionally, we used a modified Priestley-Taylor model for estimating LE of full vegetation. The proposed method was applied to TM/ETM+ imagery and was validated using the ground-measured data at five crop eddy-covariance tower sites in China. The results show that TD-TSEB yielded root-mean-square-error values between 24.9 (8.9) and 78.2 (21.4) W/m2 and squared correlation coefficient (R2) values between 0.60 (0.51) and 0.97 (0.90), for the estimated instantaneous (daily) surface net radiation, soil, latent, and sensible heat fluxes at all five sites. The TD-TSEB model shows good accuracy for partitioning LE into soil (LEsoil) and canopy (LEcanopy) components with an average bias of 11.1% for the estimated LEsoil/LE ratio at the Daman site. Importantly, the TD-TSEB model produced comparable accuracy but requires fewer forcing data (i.e., no wind speed and roughness length are needed) when compared with two other widely used surface energy balance models. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that this accurate operational model provides an alternative method for mapping field surface heat fluxes with satisfactory performance.

  7. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelar, A.C., E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Ferreira, W.M. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Pemberthy, D. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Grupo Catálisis Ambiental, Calle 70 No. 52-2, Medellín (Colombia); Abad, E. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Amaral, M.A. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup −1}). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. - Highlights: • PCDD/Fs dl- PCBs is not a matter since levels below the LOD in phosphate materials subject of study. • Significant accumulation of As and U in Limestone. Th was originally found in dicalcium phosphate. • High concentration of U in dicalcium phosphate suggests that a special attention should be paid.

  8. Eutrophication from agricultural sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, E.; Mills, P.; Jordan, P.

    Prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency by Centre for the Environment, Trinity College, Dublin......Prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency by Centre for the Environment, Trinity College, Dublin...

  9. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, Bas; Broers, Hans Peter; Berendrecht, Wilbert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Osté, Leonard; Griffioen, Jasper

    2016-05-01

    Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas or for reducing export loads to downstream water bodies. This paper introduces new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in a polder in the Netherlands situated below sea level using high-frequency monitoring technology at the outlet, where the water is pumped into a higher situated lake, combined with a low-frequency water quality monitoring programme at six locations within the drainage area. Seasonal trends and short-scale temporal dynamics in concentrations indicated that the NO3 concentration at the pumping station originated from N loss from agricultural lands. The NO3 loads appear as losses via tube drains after intensive rainfall events during the winter months due to preferential flow through the cracked clay soil. Transfer function-noise modelling of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be related to rainfall. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration and turbidity almost doubled during operation of the pumping station, which points to resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by changes in water flow due to pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not results in TP concentration peaks. The rainfall induced and NO3 enriched quick interflow, may also be enriched in TP but retention of TP due to sedimentation of particulate P then results in the absence of rainfall induced TP concentration peaks. Increased TP concentrations associated with run-off events is only observed during a rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. All these observations suggest that the P retention potential of polder water systems is primarily due to the artificial pumping regime

  10. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  11. Descriptions and Source Listings of Professional Information in Agricultural Education, 1966-67, 1967-68, and 1968-69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Professional Information Committee.

    These annotated bibliographies contain a total of 449 references of professional information in agricultural education published annually. References are organized under headings of: (1) Agricultural Mechanics, (2) Animal Science, (3) Conservation and Forestry, (4) Curriculum Development and Course of Study, (5) Farm Business Management and…

  12. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  13. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  14. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  15. High-Resolution NDVI from Planet's Constellation of Earth Observing Nano-Satellites: A New Data Source for Precision Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2016-09-19

    Planet Labs ("Planet") operate the largest fleet of active nano-satellites in orbit, offering an unprecedented monitoring capacity of daily and global RGB image capture at 3-5 m resolution. However, limitations in spectral resolution and lack of accurate radiometric sensor calibration impact the utility of this rich information source. In this study, Planet\\'s RGB imagery was translated into a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): a common metric for vegetation growth and condition. Our framework employs a data mining approach to build a set of rule-based regression models that relate RGB data to atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 NDVI. The approach was evaluated over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia where the use of near-coincident (within five days) Planet and Landsat-8 acquisitions in the training of the regression models resulted in NDVI predictabilities with an r2 of approximately 0.97 and a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) on the order of 0.014 (~9%). The MAD increased to 0.021 (~14%) when the Landsat NDVI training image was further away (i.e., 11-16 days) from the corrected Planet image. In these cases, the use of MODIS observations to inform on the change in NDVI occurring between overpasses was shown to significantly improve prediction accuracies. MAD levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 (3.9% to 9.1%) for the best performing 80% of the data. The technique is generic and extendable to any region of interest, increasing the utility of Planet\\'s dense time-series of RGB imagery.

  16. Degradation State, Sources, and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from an Amino Acid Time Series in an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasek, S. J.; Pellerin, B. A.; Spencer, R. G.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Hernes, P.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed time series of dissolved amino acids was obtained in an agricultural watershed in the northern Central Valley, California, USA to investigate the roles of hydrologic and seasonal changes on the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) concentrations ranged from 0.55 to 9.96 μM (mean 3.76 ± 1.80 μM) and not only peaked with discharge during winter storms, but also remained elevated throughout the irrigation season when discharge was low. Summer irrigation was a critical hydrologic regime for DOM cycling, since it mobilized DOM similar in concentration and reactivity to DOM released during winter storms for an extended period of time, with the largest amino acid contributions to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pools (3.4 ‒ 3.7 % DOC-AA, 17.4 ‒ 22.5 % DON-AA), the largest proportion of basic amino acids (B/(B+A) = 0.19 ‒ 0.22), and the largest degradation index values (mean 1.37 ± 0.96). The mole percent of non-protein amino acids, commonly considered as an indicator of microbial degradation, decreased with DOM processing and was highest during summer (mean 4.1 ± 1.1%). A lack of correlation between THAA concentrations and UV-Vis absorbance and fluorescence proxies (including "protein-like" fluorophores B and T) indicated that optical properties may be limited in representing amino acid dynamics in this system. A new parameter for DOM processing derived from trends in individual amino acids demonstrated strong potential for inferring the extent of DOM degradation in freshwater systems. The biogeochemical relevance of irrigation practices is heightened by timing, since the additional export of reactive DOM coincides with enhanced downstream DOM processing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a critical habitat for endangered species serving as water source for 25 million Californians.

  17. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  18. Managing Artificially Drained Low-Gradient Agricultural Headwaters for Enhanced Ecosystem Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pezeshki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Large tracts of lowlands have been drained to expand extensive agriculture into areas that were historically categorized as wasteland. This expansion in agriculture necessarily coincided with changes in ecosystem structure, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. These changes have impacted not only the landscapes in which they occurred, but also larger water bodies receiving runoff from drained land. New approaches must append current efforts toward land conservation and restoration, as the continuing impacts to receiving waters is an issue of major environmental concern. One of these approaches is agricultural drainage management. This article reviews how this approach differs from traditional conservation efforts, the specific practices of drainage management and the current state of knowledge on the ecology of drainage ditches. A bottom-up approach is utilized, examining the effects of stochastic hydrology and anthropogenic disturbance on primary production and diversity of primary producers, with special regard given to how management can affect establishment of macrophytes and how macrophytes in agricultural landscapes alter their environment in ways that can serve to mitigate non-point source pollution and promote biodiversity in receiving waters.

  19. Managing Artificially Drained Low-Gradient Agricultural Headwaters for Enhanced Ecosystem Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel C.; Kröger, Robert; Pezeshki, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Large tracts of lowlands have been drained to expand extensive agriculture into areas that were historically categorized as wasteland. This expansion in agriculture necessarily coincided with changes in ecosystem structure, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. These changes have impacted not only the landscapes in which they occurred, but also larger water bodies receiving runoff from drained land. New approaches must append current efforts toward land conservation and restoration, as the continuing impacts to receiving waters is an issue of major environmental concern. One of these approaches is agricultural drainage management. This article reviews how this approach differs from traditional conservation efforts, the specific practices of drainage management and the current state of knowledge on the ecology of drainage ditches. A bottom-up approach is utilized, examining the effects of stochastic hydrology and anthropogenic disturbance on primary production and diversity of primary producers, with special regard given to how management can affect establishment of macrophytes and how macrophytes in agricultural landscapes alter their environment in ways that can serve to mitigate non-point source pollution and promote biodiversity in receiving waters. PMID:24832519

  20. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  1. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was -254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, -218‰ in the San Joaquin River, -175‰ in the California State Water Project and -152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California's Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, -204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between -275 and -687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California's Central Valley.

  2. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  3. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...

  4. Assessment of point and non-point pollution associated with the power generation sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, H D; Heath, R G

    2007-01-01

    Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The need for guidelines to improve management of this valuable resource, and to regulate pollutant discharge, is therefore of national interest. A new and growing threat to our natural water resources is non-point source (NPS) pollution. The important distinction between point pollution and NPS pollution is that the latter is difficult to identify and the entry point of contamination to resources is diffuse and not limited to a single location. NPS pollution associated with power generation includes, but is not limited to, atmospheric deposition resulting from emissions (air and water), leachate from coal storage piles and runoff from impervious areas which are covered with dust fallout from coal and ash handling operations. Emissions of primary concern are sulfur, nitrogen and mercury.

  5. Near-Channel Sediment Sources Now Dominate in Many Agricultural Landscapes: The Emergence of River-Network Models to Guide Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Gran, K. B.; Belmont, P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed sediment budgets for many agricultural watersheds are revealing a surprising story - that sediment is no longer primarily sourced from upland fields, but instead from near-channel sources. This is the case for the Minnesota River Basin (MRB) where an intensification and expansion of agricultural drainage combined with increased precipitation has (1) reduced surface runoff and erosion, (2) amplified streamflows, and (3) accelerated both near-channel sediment generation and sediment transport. Bluffs and streambanks in the MRB are now the dominant sources of sediment, but these features are not easily incorporated into traditional watershed-scale, sediment-transport models. Instead, we are advancing a network-based modeling framework that explicitly considers sediment sources, transport, and storage along a river network. We apply this framework to bed-material sediment transport in the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, the major sediment-generating subbasin of the MRB, where a recent sediment budget has quantified the locations and rates of erosion and deposition of major sediment sources and sinks (i.e., bluffs, streambanks/floodplains, agricultural fields, and ravines) over millennial and decadal timescales. With the river network as the basis of a simple model, inputs of sediment to the network are informed by the sediment budget and these inputs are tracked through the network using process-based time delays that incorporate uniform-flow hydraulics and at-capacity sediment transport. We explore how this sediment might move through the network and affect the variability of bed elevations under cases where the mechanisms of in-channel and floodplain storage are turned on and off. We will discuss timescales of movement of sediment through the system to better inform legacy effects and hysteresis, and also discuss targeted management actions that will most effectively reduce the detrimental effects of excess sediment.

  6. Estimating the Regional Flux of Nitrate and Agricultural Herbicide Compounds from Groundwater to Headwater Streams of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, S.; Denver, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is common in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP, including New Jersey through North Carolina), and groundwater discharge provides nitrogen (primarily in the form of nitrate) and herbicide compounds from agricultural sources along with the majority of flow to NACP streams. Poor water quality has contributed to ecological degradation of tidal streams and estuaries along much of the adjacent mid-Atlantic coast. Although statistical models have provided estimates of total instream nutrient flux in the Coastal Plain, the regional flux of nitrogen and herbicides during base flow is less well understood. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected commonly used herbicide compounds from groundwater to non-tidal headwater streams of the NACP on the basis of late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 such streams. Sampled streams were selected using an unequal-probability random approach, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than empirical models, which are commonly used for such estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 NACP non-tidal headwater streams are an estimated 21,200 kilograms per day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kilograms per day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (including selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is dominated by degradates; flux of parent compounds is less than 3 percent of the total flux of parent plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications generally varies predictably with regional variations in hydrogeology. Abundant nonpoint (primarily agricultural) sources and hydrogeologic conditions, for example, contribute to particularly large base-flow flux from the Delmarva Peninsula to Chesapeake Bay. In the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Watershed, more than 10 percent of total nonpoint nitrogen applications is transported through groundwater to stream base flow

  7. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  8. Assessment of sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area by using a multi-tracer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Harter, Thomas; Ramírez, Aldo I; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Nitrate isotopic values are often used as a tool to understand sources of contamination in order to effectively manage groundwater quality. However, recent literature describes that biogeochemical reactions may modify these values. Therefore, data interpretation is difficult and often vague. We provide a discussion on this topic and complement the study using halides as comparative tracers assessing an aquifer underneath a sub-humid to humid region in NE Mexico. Hydrogeological information and stable water isotopes indicate that active groundwater recharge occurs in the 8000km(2) study area under present-day climatic and hydrologic conditions. Nitrate isotopes and halide ratios indicate a diverse mix of nitrate sources and transformations. Nitrate sources include organic waste and wastewater, synthetic fertilizers and soil processes. Animal manure and sewage from septic tanks were the causes of groundwater nitrate pollution within orchards and vegetable agriculture. Dairy activities within a radius of 1,000 m from a sampling point significantly contributed to nitrate pollution. Leachates from septic tanks caused nitrate pollution in residential areas. Soil nitrogen and animal waste were the sources of nitrate in groundwater under shrubland and grassland. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration underneath agricultural lands and grassland, especially during summer months.

  9. Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: Development of a Regional Water Reuse Decision-Support Model (RWRM) for Cost-Effective Irrigation Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Schwabe, Kurt A; Jassby, David

    2016-09-06

    Water scarcity has become a critical problem in many semiarid and arid regions. The single largest water use in such regions is for crop irrigation, which typically relies on groundwater and surface water sources. With increasing stress on these traditional water sources, it is important to consider alternative irrigation sources for areas with limited freshwater resources. One potential irrigation water resource is treated wastewater for agricultural fields located near urban centers. In addition, treated wastewater can contribute an appreciable amount of necessary nutrients for plants. The suitability of reclaimed water for specific applications depends on water quality and usage requirements. The main factors that determine the suitability of recycled water for agricultural irrigation are salinity, heavy metals, and pathogens, which cause adverse effects on human, plants, and soils. In this paper, we develop a regional water reuse decision-support model (RWRM) using the general algebraic modeling system to analyze the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment trains to generate irrigation water from reclaimed wastewater, with the irrigation water designed to meet crop requirements as well as California's wastewater reuse regulations (Title 22). Using a cost-minimization framework, least-cost solutions consisting of treatment processes and their intensities (blending ratios) are identified to produce alternative irrigation sources for citrus and turfgrass. Our analysis illustrates the benefits of employing an optimization framework and flexible treatment design to identify cost-effective blending opportunities that may produce high-quality irrigation water for a wide range of end uses.

  10. Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production: Global,Regional and National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.NORSE

    2005-01-01

    China is now the world's largest producer and user of industrial fertilizers and manures. Consequently China plays a substantial role in global N cycle dynamics and in man's disruption of the nitrogen cycle though there are still significant uncertainties about the size and importance of emission and leaching rates. A major cause of 1China's global role is the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, which is most serious with intensive vegetable production where application rates can be up to 50% greater than crop needs, but is also a problem with wheat, rice and maize.China's overuse of nitrogen fertiliser over the past 10-20 years has resulted in non-point source (NPS) pollution from crop production becoming a major cause of water pollution, and the situation is projected to get worse. In contrast, water pollution from point sources such as intensive livestock production and urban or industrial development is being brought more under control. The consequences for air pollution are equally serious. Emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers and manures may be so large that China could be responsible for 25-30% of global emissions of this damaging greenhouse gas and of the global warming resulting from it.The main national and local issues relate particularly to low fertilizer use efficiency and the losses of ammonia and NOx that lead to acid precipitation, and leaching and run-off losses that result in high nitrate levels in groundwater and eutrophication of rivers and lakes. The reasons why farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer are complex and not fully understood. They involve agro-climate differences between provinces and counties, farming systems and farm income structures. Although there is a wide range of institutional and technological improvements that can greatly reduce this overuse rapid progress in reducing NPS is unlikely.

  11. Adoption of information and communication technologies as source of information on agricultural innovations among farm households in Nigeria: evidence from Benue state”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorliam, T.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed adoption of ICTs as source of information on agricultural innovations in Nigeria. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and twenty (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP farmers sampled in Benue State. Results show that Radio (46.7%, Newspapers (45.8%, contact farmers (42.5%, and extension agents (41.7% ranked first, second, third and fourth respectively in terms of adoption by farmers. Level of education, and incomes were the significant (P<0.05 determinants of ICT adoption. Enabling policy environment that would encourage utilization of ICTs through deliberate programmes that expose farming communities to ICTs and support incomes such as highly subsidized ICT trainings and increased credit facilities to rural farmers would enhance adoption of ICTs in Nigeria.

  12. A case study on non-point source pollution and environmental carrying capacity of animal raising industry in subtropical watershed%亚热带流域氮磷排放与养殖业环境承载力实例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岑; 李裕元; 许晓光; 高茹; 王毅; 张满意; 吴金水

    2013-01-01

    畜禽养殖业粪便排放已经成为我国农村地区主要的农业面源污染源之一,也是制约养殖业良性发展的主要瓶颈.本文以湖南省长沙县典型亚热带流域为研究单元,基于流域水环境定位观测、耕地氮(N)磷(P)消纳能力以及养殖业调查和土壤分析资料,初步分析了亚热带丘陵区的面源污染现状及畜禽养殖业的环境承载力.结果表明,研究区金井河流域134.4 km2范围内N、P年负荷分别为N 2.72 t·km-2和P0.11t·km-2,其中养殖粪便对水体总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)负荷的贡献率分别约为42.2%和62.0%.区内平均畜禽养殖密度为3.46 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪24.39万头),显著高于现有化肥用量条件下流域的实际承载力1.13 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪6.35万头),因此养殖密度过高是导致研究区水体NP负荷较高的主要原因.区内N、P盈余量分别为N 35.8 kg·hm-2、P 18.61 kg·hm-2.研究区基本不施用化肥条件下畜禽养殖业的最大环境承载力为7.26 AU·hm-2,在有机肥占合理施肥量30%条件下,当地畜禽养殖业的环境承载力为2.74AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪19.50万头).降低养殖密度、调整养殖业空间布局以及提高养殖废弃物的资源化利用率是防治当前面源污染的有效途径.%The discharge of faeces from animal production is a major source of nitrogen ( N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants in the subtropical region of China. To quantify the N and F load from animal production to hydro-systems in the region, surveys on pig density and N,P inputs to farmlands, soil N and P contents, and annual observations of the N and P flows in the streams and the terminal river were carried out in a hilly watershed (134.4 km2 ) in Changsha County, Hunan Province. It was showed that the total NP loads from the watershed to the terminal river was 2.72 t and 0. 11 t·km-2·a-1, respectively ; within which 42. 2% of the N and 62. 0% of

  13. A Simple Runoff Model Based on Topographic Wetness Indices and Soil Moisture for Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, K.; Georgakakos, C.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates, such as the Northeastern US, topographic wetness indices (TWI) are good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns. Mapping areas of the landscape likely to generate saturation-excess runoff and carry NPS pollution to surface waters could allow for more efficient, targeted best management practices in agricultural fields. Given the relationship between saturation excess runoff and soil water storage, we used volumetric water content (VWC) measured in five agricultural fields in central New York over two years (2012-2014) to develop runoff probability maps based on a soil topographic index (STI). The relationship between VWC and STI was strongest during the fall season after leaf fall at all sites except one. We calculated the probability of runoff occurring based on soil moisture and precipitation distributions during the sampling period. The threshold for runoff occurs when the depth of soil water and rainfall reach saturation of the soil, and appears to be at the average porosity of the soil at all sites. Counter to our initial hypothesis of a higher probability of saturation excess runoff during the spring when conditions are wetter, some sites showed higher frequencies of runoff during the fall season.

  14. Application of Potential Non-Point Pollution Index For An Urban Watershed: Istanbul, Kucukcekmece Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoglu, N.; Dikerler, T.; Seker, D. Z.; Ustun, B.

    2011-12-01

    Istanbul is a major city with more than 15 million population and limited water resources. Besides, its urbanized area has been rapidly expanding for more than 30 years. Küçükçekmece Lagoon, as a potential RAMSAR site with its rich natural diversity and housing asset for birds, has been suffering from urbanization and industrial stress. With Sazlidere Dam constructed on the Lagoon's most important creek which supplies fresh water, Küçükçekmece Basin has almost 600 km2 wide area. Due to dam operation which cuts fresh water input down, water quality of the Küçükçekmece Lagoon has been deteriorating, as well as other antropogenic impacts. Potential non-point pollution index (or PNPI) is based on land use, soil and topographic data and aims to highlight the potentially polluting areas in a watershed. Denoting those areas, PNPI puts an assessment of the pressure exerted on the water bodies by different land uses. This index calculates different layers in order to represent run-off, land cover effect, and the distance of each polluting source (or pixels) in the study area. By the multiplication of those layers under GIS, a new data layer is produced showing the polluting potential of each pixel on the study area. For by Küçükçekmece Basin, Landsat ETM satellite images have been taken and its land use produced by unsupervised classification. Using this updated data, land use - land cover indicator has been calculated for the basin. Topography is another fact that is needed to produce both run-off indicator and distance indicator and it is generated by elevation data with 5m resolution. By integrating these indicator layers, PNPI analysis layer has been produced for Küçükçekmece Lagoon watershed.

  15. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution.

  16. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Non-Point Pollution in Huaibei Region and Comprehensive Regulation Strategies%气候变化对淮北地区面源污染的影响及综合调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 严登华; 尹军; 翁白莎

    2011-01-01

    分析了安徽省淮北地区面源污染的现状与压力,从污染物的产生、迁移、转化与汇聚的机理讨论气候变化对面源污染的影响机制,最后从源头控制、途径控制、末端治理、调控机制建设4个层面提出综合调控措施.%In this study, the situation and pressure of non-point pollution in Huaibei region of Anhui province were analyzed. The influence mechanism of climate change on non-point pollution was discussed from mechanism of generation, migration, conversion, and aggregation of contaminants. In the end, comprehensive coping strategies were put forward from four levels: source control, process control, end treatment and construction of regulation mechanism.

  18. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-05-01

    . Regarding the inventory of point and non-point pollutants sources, the river receives a number of point source pollutants from small villages and some outskirts of Palermo, most of them untreated, and non point source pollutants from agricultural cropland and zoo-technical farms. In particular, the Oreto river receives untreated wastewater and stormwater from Altofonte (8200 inhabitants) and Pioppo (2500 inhabitants) . The model was first calibrated using meteorological, flow and water quality data collected at various stations through-out the catchment, in order to predict water and nutrient concentrations at the catchment outlet and then was used to evaluate the potential impact of various management strategies on surface water quality. The results demonstrates that point and non-point polluting sources have to be contiguously analysed because they concur to the definition of river water quality both during wet and dry periods.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  20. Adaptive management for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water: a case study in an agricultural catchment in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A; Kandulu, John; Deere, Daniel A; White, Monique; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Crossman, Neville D

    2009-07-01

    Water-borne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium pose a significant human health risk and catchments provide the first critical pollution 'barrier' in mitigating risk in drinking water supply. In this paper we apply an adaptive management framework to mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water using a case study of the Myponga catchment in South Australia. Firstly, we evaluated the effectiveness of past water quality management programs in relation to the adoption of practices by landholders using a socio-economic survey of land use and management in the catchment. The impact of past management on the mitigation of Cryptosporidium risk in source water was also evaluated based on analysis of water quality monitoring data. Quantitative risk assessment was used in planning the next round of management in the adaptive cycle. Specifically, a pathogen budget model was used to identify the major remaining sources of Cryptosporidium in the catchment and estimate the mitigation impact of 30 alternative catchment management scenarios. Survey results show that earlier programs have resulted in the comprehensive adoption of best management practices by dairy farmers including exclusion of stock from watercourses and effluent management from 2000 to 2007. Whilst median Cryptosporidium concentrations in source water have decreased since 2004 they remain above target levels and put pressure on other barriers to mitigate risk, particularly the treatment plant. Non-dairy calves were identified as the major remaining source of Cryptosporidium in the Myponga catchment. The restriction of watercourse access of non-dairy calves could achieve a further reduction in Cryptosporidium export to the Myponga reservoir of around 90% from current levels. The adaptive management framework applied in this study was useful in guiding learning from past management, and in analysing, planning and refocusing the next round of catchment management strategies to achieve water quality targets.

  1. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  2. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3 (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pollutant Source Identification Project (MB-3) sought to provide a summary and analysis of pollutant loads to Mamala Bay from both point and nonpoint sources....

  3. ERIC-PCR Fingerprinting of Fecal Escherichia Coli and Microbial Source Tracking in Non-point Pollution of the Shellfish Culture Area of East China Sea%大肠埃希氏菌ERIC-PCR指纹图谱构建及贝类污染微生物源示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何力; 傅玲琳; 冯立芳; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish a host-orign fecal E. Coli DNA fingerprint library by rep-PCR method using ERIC primers from livestock and poultry farms in the shellfish culture area of East China Sea. Moreover, the efficacy of microbial source tracking (MST) based on ERIC-PCR for differentiating host sources of E. Coli from shellfish and their growing waters is also evaluated. Methods: fecal samples of poultry and livestock were obtained as cloacal swabs from different farm sites in Xiangshan Bay. E. Coli isolates were purified from the fecal samples by selective cultivation and API 20E tests. The genomic DNA of E. Coli isolates was extracted by bacterial genomic DNA purification kit and fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR. InfoQuestFPTM software was used to analyze the similarities, rate of correct classification(RCC) and the stability of library. Finally, host sources of E. Coli obtained from shellfish and shellfish growing waters were predicted using MST method by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). Results: cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprints of 216 E. Coli isolates revealed 37 clusters. Jack-knife analysis revealed high rate of correct classification(RCC) with 91.7%, 76.9%, 100% and 94.4% of swine, chicken, duck and goose E. Coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. In addition, based on the above host-origin library by discriminant analysis, 12 unknown source strains from shellfish and growing waters were successfully discriminanted with RCC value of 78.8%. Conclusion: this work suggests that ERIC-PCR fingerprinting can be a promising genotypic tool applied in the shellfish growing water management on East Chi na Sea for source identification of fecal pollution.%目的:采用rep-PCR的ERIC引物(ERIC-PCR)构建象山港周边粪污染指示因子大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)的DNA指纹图谱库,并根据所建DNA指纹图谱库对贝类产品污染进行微生物源示踪(Microbial Source Tracking,MST).方法:在选定的贝类养殖区域周

  4. Phosphorus export by runoff from agricultural field plots with different crop cover in Lake Taihu watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Runoff and soil losses from agricultural fields are investigated as major nonpoint sources of phosphorus (P) entering lakes of Eastern China. There is relatively little information on P transport from ricefield and cropland of Lake Taihu watershed in Eastern China. Soil and P in surface runoff from a series of plots in the watershed were evaluated under simulated rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate theeffects of crop cover, slope, and fertilizer application on P concentrations in surface runoff and eroded soil. Accumulated sediment yields varied from 7.1 to 300 g/m2 for croplands, depending on management practices. For all experiment plots, weighted average concentrations of total-P (TP), dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) are much higher than 0.02 mg/L, the limiting concentration in lake water. This result showed the potential contamination of lake water from agricultural surface runoff. Accumulated TP losses were 3.8 and 18.8 mg/m2 for ricefield and cropland, respectively. The estimated annual loss of TP was 0.74 kg/(hm2鷄) for cropland. Most of P loss is in PP form, which accounts for more than 90% of TP loss for cropland.

  5. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  6. Midwestern US Farmers Perceive Crop Advisers as Conduits of Information on Agricultural Conservation Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eanes, Francis R; Singh, Ajay S; Bulla, Brian R; Ranjan, Pranay; Prokopy, Linda S; Fales, Mary; Wickerham, Benjamin; Doran, Patrick J

    2017-08-30

    Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural land uses continues to pose one of the most significant threats to water quality in the US, with measurable impacts across local, regional, and national scales. The impact and the influence of targeted conservation efforts are directly related to the degree to which farmers are familiar with and trust the entities providing the information and/or outreach. Recent research suggests that farmers consistently rank independent and retail-affiliated crop advisers as among the most trusted and influential sources for agronomic information, but little is understood about whether farmers are willing to receive advice from crop advisers on the use of practices that conserve soil and water, and, if so, whether crop advisers will be perceived as influential. We present survey data from farmers (n = 1461) in Michigan's Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) watershed to explore these questions. Results suggest that farmers view crop advisers as trustworthy sources of information about conservation, and influential on management practices that have large conservation implications. We discuss these results, along with perceived barriers and opportunities to crop advisers partnering with traditional conservation agencies to enhance the impact of voluntary conservation programs.

  7. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  8. Biomass Resources: Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, Ingeborg N.; Brinkman, Marnix L. J.; de Jong, Sierk A.; Junginger, H. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others)

  9. A tiered risk-based approach for predicting diffuse and point source phosphorus losses in agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A L; Dils, R M; Liu, S; Carvalho, L; Brazier, R E; Pope, L; Hughes, M; Phillips, G; May, L

    2005-05-15

    Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive requires an assessment of the pressures from human activity, which, combined with information on the sensitivity of the receiving waterbody to the pressures, will identify those water bodies at risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives. Part of the process of undertaking the risk assessment for lakes is an assessment of diffuse agricultural phosphorus (P) pressures. Three approaches of increasing sophistication were developed for this purpose: a basic 'risk screening' approach (tier 1) applicable to all lakes in Great Britain (GB) and based on export coefficients for different land cover classes and animal types; the Pressure Delivery Risk Screening Matrix approach (tier 2) that differentiated between pressures in surface water and groundwater river basins; and the Phosphorus Indicators Tool (PIT), a simple model of locational risk and P delivery potential (tier 3). Application of the three approaches to a range of lake catchments in England demonstrated that a tiered risk assessment approach was appropriate which was tailored to the quality of the available data. A step-wise procedure was developed whereby if the tier 1 and 2 approaches showed a catchment to be at high risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives with regard to P, it was justifiable to undertake a more detailed assessment using the tier 3 approach. The tier 1 approach was applied to all lakes in GB greater than 1 ha in size on the assumption that the boundary between the good/moderate status classes under the Water Framework Directive guidelines represented a doubling of the total P (TP) reference conditions. The initial outputs suggested that 51% of lakes in GB are predicted to not meet the TP targets identified for high or good status and must, therefore, be considered at risk. There were regional differences in numbers of lakes at risk. Scotland appeared to have the fewest sites at risk (18

  10. Response of Polish rivers (Vistula, Oder) to reduced pressure from point sources and agriculture during the transition period (1988-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Stålnacke, Per; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Witek, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    The Vistula and Oder Rivers, two out of the seven largest rivers in the Baltic drainage basin, were responsible for 25% of total riverine nitrogen (TN) and 37% of total riverine phosphorus (TP) input to the Baltic Sea in 2000. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the response of these two rivers to changes that took place in Polish economy during the transition period (1988-2008). The economic changes encompassed: construction of nearly 900 waste water treatment plants in 1999-2008, modernization or closure of obsolete factories, economizing in water consumption, closure or change of ownership of State-owned farms, a drop in fertilizer application, and a decline in livestock stocking. More intensive agriculture and higher point source emissions in the Oder than in the Vistula basin resulted in higher concentrations of TN, nitrate (NO3-N), and TP in the Oder waters in the entire period of our studies. In both rivers, nutrient concentrations and loads showed significant declining trends in the period 1988-2008. TN loads decreased by ca. 20% and 25% in the Vistula and Oder; TP loads dropped by ca. 15% and 65% in the Vistula and Oder. The reduction in phosphorus loads was particularly pronounced in the Oder basin, which was characterized by efficient management systems aiming at mitigation of nutrient emission from the point sources and greater extent of structural changes in agricultural sector during the transition period. The trends in riverine loads are discussed in the paper in relation to socio-economical changes during the transition period, and with respect to physiographic features.

  11. Occurrence, sources, and potential human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Cheng, Bin; Xu, Yafei; Zhao, Ruifen; Zhang, Yigong; Hua, Xiaozan; Huo, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xiufeng

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, distribution patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. A total of 247 samples collected from agricultural soils from the area were analyzed for sixteen PAHs, including highly carcinogenic isomers. The PAH concentrations had a range of n.d. to 782ngg(-1), with a mean value of 202ngg(-1). The two-three ring PAHs were the dominant species, making up 60 percent of total PAHs. Compared with the pollution levels and carcinogenic potential risks reported in other studies, the soil PAH concentrations in the study area were in the low to intermediate range. A positive matrix factorization model indicates that coal/biomass combustion, coal and oil combustion, and coke ovens are the primary PAH sources, accounting for 33 percent, 26 percent, and 24 percent of total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations had a range of n.d. to 476ngg(-1) for PAH7c, with a mean value of 34ngg(-1). The BaPeq concentrations of PAH7c accounted for more than 99 percent of the ∑PAH16, which suggests that seven PAHs were major carcinogenic contributors of ∑PAH16. According to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines, only six of the soil samples had concentrations above the safe BaPeq value of 600ngg(-1); the elevated concentrations observed at these sites can be attributed to coal combustion and industrial activities. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health as a result of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  13. World Agricultural Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Monthly report on crop acreage, yield and production in major countries worldwide. Sources include reporting from FAS’s worldwide offices, official statistics of...

  14. 基于总量控制的盐城农业用水管理策略研究%Analysis of Yancheng Agricultural Water Management Strategy Based on Total Amount Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军田; 陈红卫

    2014-01-01

    Taking Yancheng as example,this paper expounded the general situation of agricultural development,analysized agricultural water use, and pointed out the main problems existing in agricultural water management,hought about several water use management strategies such as tuning planting structure,improving the management system,improving field supporting, strengthening water metering, exploring institutional incentive,controling non-point source pollution,improving agricultural water saving,strengthening propaganda and education.Which would provide better support and reference for water-saving agriculture construction,and coastal development.%以江苏省盐城市为例证,阐述了农业发展概况,分析了农业用水量,指出了农业用水管理现存的主要问题,思考了调优种植结构、完善管理体制、提高田间配套、加强用水计量、探索制度激励、防治面源污染、推进农业节水、强化宣传教育等加强农业用水管理的策略,为建设节水型农业、更好地服务沿海发展提供支撑和借鉴。

  15. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future.

  16. Sources of atmospheric acidity in an agricultural-industrial region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, G. O.; Franco, A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Surface-based measurements of atmospheric formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3) were made in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between April 1999 and March 2000. Mean concentrations were 9.0 ppb (HCOOH), 1.3 ppb (CH3COOH), 4.9 ppb (SO2), 0.3 ppb (HCl), and 0.5 ppb (HNO3). Concentrations in sugar cane burning plumes were 1160-4230 ppb (HCOOH), 360-1750 ppb (CH3COOH), 10-630 ppb (SO2), 4-210 ppb (HCl), and 14-90 ppb (HNO3). Higher ambient concentrations of SO2, HCl and HNO3 were measured during the burning season (May-November). Concentrations of SO2 and HCl increased during the evening, and of HCOOH and CH3COOH were lowest in the morning, with peak levels in the afternoon. Ratios obtained between different species showed either nighttime maxima (SO2/HCOOH, SO2/CH3COOH, SO2/HNO3, CH3COOH/HNO3, SO2/HCl and HCOOH/HNO3), daytime maxima (HCOOH/HCl, CH3COOH/HCl and HNO3/HCl), or no clear trends (HCOOH/CH3COOH). Correlation analysis showed that SO2 and HCl were primary emissions from biomass burning and road transport; HCOOH, HNO3 and CH3COOH were products of photochemistry; HCOOH and CH3COOH were emitted directly during combustion as well as from biogenic sources. Biomass burning affected atmospheric acidity on a regional scale, while vehicular emissions had greater impact in urban and adjacent areas. Atmospheric ammonia levels were insufficient to neutralize atmospheric acidity, which was mainly removed by deposition to the surface.

  17. Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Michael; Richards, Charlene

    2008-06-01

    Source water protection planning (SWPP) is an approach to prevent contamination of ground and surface water in watersheds where these resources may be abstracted for drinking or used for recreation. For SWPP the hazards within a watershed that could contribute to water contamination are identified together with the pathways that link them to the water resource. In rural areas, farms are significant potential sources of pathogens. A risk-based index can be used to support the assessment of the potential for contamination following guidelines on safety and operational efficacy of processes and practices developed as beneficial approaches to agricultural land management. Evaluation of the health risk for a target population requires knowledge of the strength of the hazard with respect to the pathogen load (massxconcentration). Manure handling and on-site wastewater treatment systems form the most important hazards, and both can comprise confined and unconfined source elements. There is also a need to understand the modification of pathogen numbers (attenuation) together with characteristics of the established pathways (surface or subsurface), which allow the movement of the contaminant species from a source to a receptor (water source). Many practices for manure management have not been fully evaluated for their impact on pathogen survival and transport in the environment. A key component is the identification of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This requires the development of a suitable digital elevation model of the watershed for surface movement and information on local groundwater aquifer systems for subsurface flows. Both require detailed soils and geological information. The pathways to surface and groundwater resources can then be identified. Details of land management, farm management practices (including animal and manure management) and agronomic practices have to be obtained, possibly from questionnaires completed by each producer within the

  18. Using U-series Isotopes To Determine Sources Of Pedogenic Carbonates: Comparison Of Natural And Agricultural Soils In The Semi-arid Southern New Mexico And Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Borrok, D. M.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonates commonly precipitate from infiltrating soil water in arid and semi-arid lands and are observed in soils of southern New Mexico and western Texas. These carbonates could form an impermeable layer in the soil horizons impairing water infiltration, thus affecting crop growth and yield. It is important to determine the source of C and Ca in these carbonates and to understand conditions favoring their formation, kinetics and precipitation rates. In this study, major elements and U-series isotopes in bulk calcic soils, and weak acid leachates and residues were measured from one irrigated alfalfa site in the Hueco basin near El Paso, TX and one natural shrubland site on the USDA Jornada experimental range in southern NM. The combined geochemical and isotopic results allow us to determine the formation ages of the carbonates; investigate the mobility of U, Th, and major elements in these soils; and infer for the effects of irrigation on carbonate formation in agricultural soils. Our results show distinctive U and Th isotope systems in the two soil profiles analyzed. For example, (234U/238U) ratios in the Jornada bulk soils decrease from ~1.01 to 0.96 towards the surface, consistent with a preferential loss of 234U over 238U during chemical weathering. At the Jornada site, (238U/232Th) ratios decrease while (230Th/238U) increase towards the surface, consistent with a general depletion of U and the immobility of Th in the natural soils. By contrast at the Alfalfa site, (234U/238U) ratios of bulk soils increase from ~ 0.97 to 1.02 towards the surface, suggesting an additional source of external uranium, most likely the irrigation water from Rio Grande which has a (234U/238U) ratio of ~ 1.5 near El Paso. The (238U/232Th) and (230Th/238U) ratios also imply leaching of U from shallower soils but precipitation in greater depths at Alfalfa site; suggests that partial dissolution and re-precipitation of younger carbonates occur. Calculated carbonate ages from U

  19. Characteristics and emission budget of carbonaceous species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning in source region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and emission budget of carbonaceous species from two distinct post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions have been studied from a source region (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E; 250 m amsl in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP, Northern India. The PM2.5 mass concentration varies from 60 to 390 µg m−3 during paddy-residue burning (October–November with dominant contribution from organic carbon (OC≈33%, whereas contribution from elemental carbon (EC centres at ~4%. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC accounts for about 50% of OC. In contrast, mass concentration of PM2.5 during the period of wheat-residue burning (April–May is significantly lower, varies from 18 to 123 µg m−3 and mass fractions of EC and OC are 7 and 26%, respectively. The diagnostic ratios of OC/EC (11±2, WSOC/OC (0.52±0.02, nss-K+/OC (0.06±0.00 and ΣPAHs/EC (4.3±0.7 mg/g from paddy-residue burning emissions are significantly different than those from wheat-residue burning (OC/EC: 3.0±0.4; WSOC/OC: 0.60±0.03; nss-K+/OC: 0.14±0.01 and ΣPAHs/EC: 1.3±0.2 mg/g. The emission budget of OC, EC and ΣPAHs from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning in the IGP are estimated to be 505±68 Gg/y, 59±2 Gg/y and 182±32 Mg/y, respectively. From a global perspective, crop-residue burning in Northern India contributes nearly 20% of both OC and EC to the total emission budget from the agricultural-waste burning.

  20. Statistical characterization of contaminated groundwater in the agricultural area by multivariative analysis and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaown, D.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.

    2004-12-01

    The characterization of groundwater contamination at a hydrologically complex agricultural site in Youpori, Chooncheon (Korea) was undertaken by analyzing hydro-chemical data of groundwater within a statistical framework. The data show that high and correlated concentrations of Ca, Mg, and NO3 reflected the polluted nature of groundwater at the site. More than 39% of samples showed nitrate concentrations above the human affected value (3mg/L as NO3-N ), while about 25% samples exceeded the maximum acceptable level (10mg/L as NO3-N ) according to the EPA regulation. Multivariate analyses (factor and cluster analyses) were used to identify contaminant pathway, source and geochemical process. The geostatistical method was applied in order to delineate the spatial extent and variation of nitrate contamination. Factor and cluster analyses indicate that hydrochemical data can clearly characterize the non-point contamination over the area by agrochemical fertilizer as well as point-source pollution like manure spreading near barn or pigpen on groundwater. Nitrate-N, the critical species in the study area, was used to delineate the spatial spread of the contaminants using kriging in the study area.

  1. HOW EFFECTIVE ARE RIPARIAN BUFFERS IN CONTROLLING NUTRIENT EXPORT FROM AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are being established in many parts of the world as part of nonpoint source pollution management strategies. A large number of studies have documented the potential of riparian buffers to reduce export of nutrients, especially nitrogen, in shallow ground water of...

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  3. Use of a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach including organic matter isotopes for quantifying nutrient contributions from agricultural vs wastewater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living

  4. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  5. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  6. Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Loads Prediction Using Caesium-137 Tracing Technique in Black Soil Region,Northeast China%~(137)Cs示踪技术在黑土区农业非点源污染负荷研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨育红; 阎百兴; 沈波; 曹会聪

    2010-01-01

    利用~(137)Cs核素示踪和定位监测相结合,研究松嫩平原黑土区3个旱作坡面土壤的流失厚度和流失速率,坡面土壤流失厚度1.20~5.25 mm/a,侵蚀强度1 355.0~7 558.2t/(km~2·a);近40 a来,松嫩平原黑土区年均入河(湖)农业非点源污染负荷分别为TN 1.43t/(km~2·a)、NH_3~-N 15.01 kg/(km~2·a)、NO_3~-N 8.51 kg/(km~2·a)TP0.42 t/(km~2·a)、PO_4~(3-)-P 1.85 kg/(km~2·a);土壤流失氮以有机氮为主;水溶态无机氮占总氮的0.51%,水溶性磷酸盐磷占总磷的0.12%.黑土区农业非点源污染物的输出和水土流失密切相关,深入研究其输移机理及防治措施具有重要的环境意义.

  7. Application of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Potential Index in Typical Area of Taihu: A Case Study in Kunshan City%太湖流域农业非点源污染优先识别区研究——以昆山为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小治; 王爱礼; 尹微琴; 郁志华; 王德建; 封克

    2009-01-01

    在现场调查和收集农业环境数据的基础上,通过地理信息系统及计算机等辅助手段,将已建立的农业非点源污染发生潜力评价系统(APPI)应用于县域范围,研究了昆山市11个城镇非点源污染负荷情况并识别出优先控制区.结果表明,昆山市非点源污染氮磷总排放量约为4.54×1066kg·a-1,其中农田氮磷排放总量约为4.30×105 kg·a-1,农村居民氮磷排放总量约为1.44×106 kg·a-1,城镇居民氮磷排放总量约为1.36×106 kg·a-1,畜禽氮磷排放总量为1.31×106kg·a-1.昆山市农业非点源污染发生潜力最大的3个乡镇为千灯镇、张浦镇和淀山湖镇,并对各乡镇不同类型污染源的负荷做了分析.该评价系统在太湖地区县域范围有一定的推广价值,具体参数仍需进一步完善.

  8. 石头口门水库双阳河流域农业非点源污染发生潜力评价%Evaluation on Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Potential in Shuangyang River Catchment of Shitouk oumen Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丹; 王宁; 刘振峰

    2008-01-01

    以资料收集、实地调查结合GIS技术为主要手段,采用农业非点源污染发生潜力(APPI)模型,对石头口门水库双阳河流域9个行政区的农业非点源污染发生潜力进行预测和评价,并通过对该流域的农业非点源污染负荷量的估箅进行验证.结果表明,流域9个行政区中农业非点源污染发生潜力最大的是平湖区,齐家和太平次之,结果与污染负荷量的估算结果基本一致.流域内化肥氮磷排放量为9512t·a-1,畜禽氮磷排放量为30 731t·a-1,居民氮磷排放量为1 645t·a-1,可见畜禽氮磷排放造成的非点源污染最为严重,占整个非点源污染负荷的73%,需作为优先控制的对象引起足够的重视.

  9. Preliminary Application of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Potential Index in Typical Area of Taihu Lake%农业非点源污染潜力指数系统(APPI)在太湖典型区域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周徐海; 王宁; 郭红岩; 朱建国; 王晓蓉

    2006-01-01

    通过地理信息系统及计算机等辅助手段对容易发生非点源污染的地区进行识别,进而将有限的人财物投入到该地区,是有效控制非点源污染,改善水环境的重要手段.在现场调查和收集农业环境数据的基础上,应用已建立的农业非点源污染发生潜力的评价系统,研究了宜兴市大浦镇19个行政村的非点源污染的负荷情况.结果表明,方钱村、浦北村以及大浦村非点源污染指数(APPI)位居所有行政村的前3位,初步判定其为非点源污染优先控制区.同时参考现场调查结果并经计算,方钱村、浦北村和大浦村的平均污染负荷量也为所有行政村的前3位,和预测结果相一致.大浦镇非点源污染负荷及分配情况分别为:农田氮磷排放总量约为198.3t·a-1,家禽氮磷排放总量约为35.6t·a-1,居民氮磷排放总量约为102.8t·a-1,总排放量约为336.7t·a-1.在3种污染类型中,污染发生潜力较大的方钱村及大浦村,家禽的氮磷排放均占有较大比例,说明家禽的散养是造成其污染的重要原因之一,需引起足够的重视.

  10. 基于农业非点源污染潜力指数系统的沙颍河流域非点源污染潜力评价和特征分析%Characterization and Evaluation of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Potential in Shaying River Catchment Based on APPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹昕鑫; 刘丛丛; 陈航; 宗宁; 李玉成; 郑刘根; 顾雪元; 王宁

    2013-01-01

    基于GIS技术,利用农业非点源污染潜力指数系统(APPI)分析位于沙颍河流域的河南省西华县黄桥乡和西夏亭镇共46个行政村的农业非点源污染潜力和污染负荷的空间分布,识别优先控制区和优先控制因子,确定污染负荷来源类型.结果表明,总体而言,2010-2011年研究区主要污染因子为氮,主要污染源为农田养分流失,其次为畜禽养殖,分别占总污染负荷的52%和40%;大杨庄、张庄和前集是非点源污染发生的高风险区域和优先控制区域,APPI指数,单位面积氮、磷污染负荷和总污染负荷均位居所有行政村的前3位,畜禽养殖是造成这3个村污染较重的首要原因.

  11. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Selected data for 1992 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, D.J.; Walker, J.F.; Greb, S.R.; Corsi, Steven R.; Owens, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the annual results of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin. The overall objective of each individual project in the program is to determine if the water chemistry in the receiving stream has changed as a result of the implementation of land-management practices in the watershed. This is accomplished through monitoring of water chemistry and ancillary variables before best-management practices (BMP's) are installed ('pre-BMP'), during installation ('transitional'), and after ('post-BMP') watershed- management plans have been completely implemented. Fecal-coliform (FC) counts ranged between 10 and 310,00/100 mL. A large range of values occurred within duplicate and triplicate samples as well as over time. The median percentage difference between duplicate and triplicate samples was 17 percent although 4 out of the total 60 duplicate and triplicate samples had differences greater than 100 percent. A decrease in FC counts generally occurred over the duration of the 4-day analyses. Linear regression models of the log-concentration values (dependent variable) with respect to time (independent variable) were calculated for all samples. Negative slopes were found for 14 of the 15 samples. Slopes varied from +0.5 to -38.4 percent gain/loss/day, with a median slope of -8.5 percent/day. A t-test was applied to the data to examine whether or not significant differences in FC counts exist with respect to holding times. Because the T-test only compares two treatments, the test was conducted 3 times (0 versus 24-hr holding time, 0 versus 48-hr holding time, and 0 versus 72-hr holding time). Setting the level of significance at p less than 0.05 and assuming equal variances, 27 percent (all from Bower and Otter Creeks) of the samples demonstrated a significant difference in colony count over the first 24 hr, 40 percent over 48 hr, and 47 percent over 72 hr. All samples that exhibited a significant change in colony count were because of a decrease in colony count of the sample.

  12. MARKET INCENTIVES AND NONPOINT SOURCES: AN APPLICATION OF TRADABLE CREDITS TO URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess stormwater runoff can cause serious pollution, habitat degradation and flooding in cities where growth in impervious surface area (such as pavement, buildings, etc.) has created a situation where stormwater runoff routinely exceeds the normal capacity of natural and constr...