Sample records for nonphysical pore pressure

  1. Estimation of pore pressure from seismic velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Zayra; Ojeda, German Y; Mateus, Darwin


    On pore pressure calculations it is common to obtain a profile in a well bore, which is then extrapolated toward offset wells. This practice might generate mistakes on pore pressure measurements, since geological conditions may change from a well bore to another, even into the same basin. Therefore, it is important to use other tools which allow engineers not only to detect and estimate in an indirect way overpressure zones, but also to keep a lateral tracking of possible changes that may affect those values in the different formations. Taking into account this situation, we applied a methodology that estimates formation pressure from 3D seismic velocities by using the Eaton method. First, we estimated formation pore pressure; then, we identified possible overpressure zones. Finally, those results obtained from seismic information were analyzed involving well logs and pore pressure tests, in order to compare real data with prediction based on seismic information from the Colombian foothill.

  2. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Zhang


    Full Text Available High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connection gas or elevated background gas, which can be used for real-time pore pressure detection. The pore pressure detection using the logging-while-drilling, measurement-while-drilling, and mud logging data is also implemented and evaluated. Abnormal pore pressure indicators from the well logs, mud logs, and wellbore instability events are identified and analyzed to interpret abnormal pore pressures for guiding real-time drilling decisions. The principles for identifying abnormal pressure indicators are proposed to improve real-time pore pressure monitoring.

  3. A simulation of earthquake induced undrained pore pressure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Plains, Kandla River and Gulf of Kachch, between .... We consider the role of induced pore pressure ... location of the Bhuj earthquake epicentre as estimated by US Geological Survey. .... war R 2001 Changes in Ocean; GIS @ development 5.

  4. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr


    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  5. Estimation of adsorption-induced pore pressure and confinement in a nanoscopic slit pore by a density functional theory (United States)

    Grégoire, David; Malheiro, Carine; Miqueu, Christelle


    This study aims at characterising the adsorption-induced pore pressure and confinement in nanoscopic pores by molecular non-local density functional theory (DFT). Considering its important potential industrial applications, the adsorption of methane in graphitic slit pores has been selected as the test case. While retaining the accuracy of molecular simulations at pore scale, DFT has a very low computational cost that allows obtaining highly resolved pore pressure maps as a function of both pore width and thermodynamic conditions. The dependency of pore pressure on these parameters (pore width, pressure and temperature) is carefully analysed in order to highlight the effect of each parameter on the confined fluid properties that impact the solid matrix.

  6. An instrument to measure differential pore pressures in deep ocean sediments: Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, P.J.; McPhail, S.D.; Packwood, A.R.; Hart, B.


    A Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI) has been developed to measure differential pore pressures in sediments. The differential pressure is the pressure above or below normal hydrostatic pressure at the depth of the measurement. It is designed to operate in water depths up to 6000 metres for periods of weeks or months, if required, and measures differential pore pressures at depths of up to 3 metres into the sediments with a resolution of 0.05 kPa. It is a free-fall device with a lance which penetrates the sediments. This lance and the ballast weight is disposed when the PUPPI is acoustically released from the sea floor. When combined with permeability and porosity values of deep-sea sediments the pore pressure measurements made using the PUPPI suggest advection velocities as low as 8.8 mm/yr. The mechanical, electrical and acoustic systems are described together with data obtained from both shallow and deep water trials. (author)

  7. Understanding the mechanisms behind coking pressure: Relationship to pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; M. Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Karen M. Steel; Merrick R. Mahoney [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering


    Three low volatile coals A, B and C with oven wall pressures of 100 kPa, 60 kPa and 20 kPa respectively were investigated using high-temperature rheometry, {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis and SEM, with the primary aim to better understand the mechanisms behind the coking pressure phenomenon. Rheometer plate displacement measurements ({Delta}L) have shown differences in the expansion and contraction behaviour of the three coals, which seem to correlate with changes in rheological properties; while SEM images have shown that the expansion process coincides with development of pore structure. It is considered that the point of maximum plate height ({Delta}L{sub max}) prior to contraction may be indicative of a cell opening or pore network forming process, based on analogies with other foam systems. Such a process may be considered important for coking pressure since it provides a potential mechanism for volatile escape, relieving internal gas pressure and inducing charge contraction. For coal C, which has the highest fluidity {delta}L{sub max} occurs quite early in the softening process and consequently a large degree of contraction is observed; while for the lower fluidity coal B, the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. When {Delta}L{sub max} is attained, a lower degree of contraction is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification where the increasing viscosity/elasticity can stabilise the expanded pore structure. For coal A which is relatively high fluidity, but also high coking pressure, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, which may be due to greater fluid elasticity during the expansion process. This excessive expansion is considered to be a potential reason for its high coking pressure. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Pore Pressure Distribution and Flank Instability in Hydrothermally Altered Stratovolcanoes (United States)

    Ball, J. L.; Taron, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Reid, M. E.


    Field and geophysical investigations of stratovolcanoes with long-lived hydrothermal systems commonly reveal that initially permeable regions (such as brecciated layers of pyroclastic material) can become both altered and water-bearing. Hydrothermal alteration in these regions, including clay formation, can turn them into low-permeability barriers to fluid flow, which could increase pore fluid pressures resulting in flank slope instability. We examined elevated pore pressure conditions using numerical models of hydrothermal flow in stratovolcanoes, informed by geophysical data about internal structures and deposits. Idealized radially symmetric meshes were developed based on cross-sectional profiles and alteration/permeability structures of Cascade Range stratovolcanoes. We used the OpenGeoSys model to simulate variably saturated conditions in volcanoes heated only by regional heat fluxes, as well as 650°C intrusions at two km depth below the surface. Meteoric recharge was estimated from precipitation rates in the Cascade Range. Preliminary results indicate zones of elevated pore pressures form: 1) where slopes are underlain by continuous low-permeability altered layers, or 2) when the edifice has an altered core with saturated, less permeable limbs. The first scenario might control shallow collapses on the slopes above the altered layers. The second could promote deeper flank collapses that are initially limited to the summit and upper slopes, but could progress to the core of an edifice. In both scenarios, pore pressures can be further elevated by shallow intrusions, or evolve over longer time scales under forcing from regional heat flux. Geometries without confining low-permeability layers do not show these pressure effects. Our initial scenarios use radially symmetric models, but we are also simulating hydrothermal flow under real 3D geometries with asymmetric subsurface structures (Mount Adams). Simulation results will be used to inform 3D slope

  9. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.


    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  10. Pore closure in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks under mechanical pressure. (United States)

    Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Kieslich, Gregor; Hante, Inke; Schneemann, Andreas; Wu, Yue; Daisenberger, Dominik; Cheetham, Anthony K


    We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im) 2 ; M 2+ = Co 2+ or Zn 2+ , im - = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore ( op ) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca , bulk modulus ∼1.4 GPa) to a closed pore ( cp ) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P 2 1 / c , bulk modulus ∼3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M 2+ ions (3d 10 for Zn 2+ and 3d 7 for Co 2+ ). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions ( i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.

  11. Evaluation Of Liner Back-pressure Due To Concrete Pore Pressure At Elevated Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Liu, A.S.; Gou, B.


    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. These passive systems used for emergency cooling also mean that the primary containment system will experience elevated temperatures with longer durations than conventional plants in the event of design basis accidents. During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the drywell in the primary containment structure for the ESBWR will be exposed to saturated steam conditions for up to 72 hours following the accident. A containment spray system may be activated that sprays the drywell area with water to condense the steam as part of the recovery operations. The liner back-pressure will build up gradually over the 72 hours as the concrete temperatures increase, and a sudden cool down could cause excessive differential pressure on the liner to develop. For this analysis, it is assumed that the containment spray is activated at the end of the 72-hour period. A back-pressure, acting between the liner and the concrete wall of the containment, can occur as a result of elevated temperatures in the concrete causing steam and saturated vapor pressures to develop from the free water remaining in the pores of the concrete. Additional pore pressure also develops under the elevated temperatures from the non-condensable gases trapped in the concrete pores during the concrete curing process. Any buildup of this pore pressure next to the liner, in excess of the drywell internal pressure, will act to push the liner away from the concrete with a potential for tearing at the liner anchorages. This paper describes the methods and analyses used to quantify this liner back-pressure so that appropriate measures are included in the design of the liner and anchorage system. A pore pressure model is developed that calculates the pressure distribution across the concrete

  12. Wave-induced stresses and pore pressures near a mudline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sawicki


    Full Text Available Conventional methods for the determination of water-wave induced stresses inseabeds composed of granular soils are based on Biot-type models, in which the soilskeleton is treated as an elastic medium. Such methods predict effective stressesin the soil that are unacceptable from the physical point of view, as they permittensile stresses to occur near the upper surface of the seabed. Therefore, in thispaper the granular soil is assumed to behave as an elastic-ideally plastic material,with the Coulomb-Mohr yield criterion adopted to bound admissible stress states inthe seabed. The governing equations are solved numerically by a~finite differencemethod. The results of simulations, carried out for the case of time-harmonicwater waves, illustrate the depth distributions of the excess pore pressures and theeffective stresses in the seabed, and show the shapes of zones of soil in the plastic state.~In particular, the effects on the seabed behaviour of suchparameters as the degree of pore water saturation, the soil permeability, and theearth pressure coefficient, are illustrated.

  13. Capillary pressure at irregularly shaped pore throats: Implications for water retention characteristics (United States)

    Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup


    The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.

  14. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores. (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi


    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  15. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid


    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  16. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben


    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  17. Two sides of a fault: Grain-scale analysis of pore pressure control on fault slip. (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Juanes, Ruben


    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior. The model couples fluid flow on the network of pores with mechanical deformation of the skeleton of solid grains. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks. We study fault stability in the presence of a pressure discontinuity across the gouge layer and compare it with the case of continuous (homogeneous) pore pressure. We focus on the onset of shear failure in the gouge layer and reproduce conditions where the failure plane is parallel to the fault. We show that when the pressure is discontinuous across the fault, the onset of slip occurs on the side with the higher pore pressure, and that this onset is controlled by the maximum pressure on both sides of the fault. The results shed new light on the use of the effective stress principle and the Coulomb failure criterion in evaluating the stability of a complex fault zone.

  18. A random-walk model for pore pressure accumulation in marine soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Cheng, Niang-Sheng


    A numerical random-walk model has been developed for the pore-water pressure. The model is based on the analogy between the variation of the pore pressure and the diffusion process of any passive quantity such as concentration. The pore pressure in the former process is analogous...... to the concentration in the latter. In the simulation, particles are released in the soil, and followed as they travel through the statistical field variables. The model has been validated (1) against the Terzaghi consolidation process, and (2) against the process where the pore pressure builds up under progressive...... waves. The model will apparently enable the researcher to handle complex geometries (such as a pipeline buried in a soil) relatively easily. Early results with regard to the latter example, namely the buildup of pore pressure around a buried pipeline subject to a progressive wave, are encouraging....

  19. Experimental study on the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure under loading and unloading conditions (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Dingyi; Zhang, Cun; Wang, Chen


    In order to study the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure, seepage experiments under different simulated in situ stresses on loading and unloading paths are carried out using the self-developed Gas Flow and Displacement Testing Apparatus (GFDTA) system. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the relationship between average pore pressure and permeability is found to basically obey the function distribution of a two degree polynomial. In this paper, two aspects of the relationship between permeability and pore pressure are explained: the Klinbenberg effect and expansion, and the penetration of the initial fracture. Under low pore pressure, the decrease in the Klinbenberg effect is the main reason for the decrease in permeability with increased pore pressure. Under relatively high pore pressure, the increase in pore pressure leads to the initial fracture expansion and penetration of the coal sample, which causes an increase in permeability. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the permeability response to pore pressure changes, the permeability dispersion and pore pressure sensitivity coefficients are defined. After the sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the loading history changed the fracture structure of the original coal sample and reduced its permeability sensitivity to pore pressure. Under low pore pressure, the Klinbenberg effect is the reason for the decrease in pore pressure sensitivity. Lastly, the permeability-pore pressure relationship is divided into three stages to describe the different response characteristics individually.

  20. Variation of Pore Water Pressure in Tailing Sand under Dynamic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-xu Jin


    Full Text Available Intense vibration affects the pore water pressure in a tailing dam, with the tendency to induce dam liquefaction. In this study, experiments were performed wherein model tailing dams were completely liquefied by sustained horizontal dynamic loading to determine the effects of the vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and tailing density on the pore water pressure. The results revealed four stages in the increase of the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading, namely, a slow increase, a rapid increase, inducement of structural failure, and inducement of complete liquefaction. A lower frequency and smaller amplitude of the vibration were found to increase the time required to achieve a given pore water pressure in dense tailings. Under the effect of these three factors—vibration frequency and amplitude and tailing density—the tailing liquefaction time varied nonlinearly with the height from the base of the tailing dam, with an initial decrease followed by an increase. The pore pressure that induced structural failure also gradually decreased with increasing height. The increase in the tailing pore pressure could be described by an S-shaped model. A complementary multivariate nonlinear equation was also derived for predicting the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading.

  1. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

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    Hongwei Ying


    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  2. Comparison of predicted and observed pore pressure increases on Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.; Ellett, D.M.; Pyke, R.; Winters, L.


    The RIO BLANCO event presented the opportunity to monitor, under controlled conditions in the field, the increase in pore pressures resulting from ground motion similar to an earthquake. In situ measurements of pore pressure changes were made by Sandia Laboratories and Dames and Moore. This report contains the results of laboratory tests believed to be indicative in assessing the magnitude of pore pressure increases and probability of soil liquefaction. These include triaxial load tests, gradation of grain size, and relative density. No liquefaction was observed in the field, and the increase of in situ pore pressures were much less than expected from laboratory measurements. Allied subjects presented in this report are pore pressure propagation and dissipation profiles, the previously unpublished pore pressure measurements made by Dames and Moore, and the boring logs for the various sites where measurements were taken. It is concluded that methods used to predict pore pressure increases and liquefaction potential are overly conservative, at least for these alluvial and colluvial soils found in Colorado

  3. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  4. Effects of intermediate wettability on entry capillary pressure in angular pores. (United States)

    Rabbani, Harris Sajjad; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Shokri, Nima


    Entry capillary pressure is one of the most important factors controlling drainage and remobilization of the capillary-trapped phases as it is the limiting factor against the two-phase displacement. It is known that the entry capillary pressure is rate dependent such that the inertia forces would enhance entry of the non-wetting phase into the pores. More importantly the entry capillary pressure is wettability dependent. However, while the movement of a meniscus into a strongly water-wet pore is well-defined, the invasion of a meniscus into a weak or intermediate water-wet pore especially in the case of angular pores is ambiguous. In this study using OpenFOAM software, high-resolution direct two-phase flow simulations of movement of a meniscus in a single capillary channel are performed. Interface dynamics in angular pores under drainage conditions have been simulated under constant flow rate boundary condition at different wettability conditions. Our results shows that the relation between the half corner angle of pores and contact angle controls the temporal evolution of capillary pressure during the invasion of a pore. By deviating from pure water-wet conditions, a dip in the temporal evolution of capillary pressure can be observed which will be pronounced in irregular angular cross sections. That enhances the pore invasion with a smaller differential pressure. The interplay between the contact angle and pore geometry can have significant implications for enhanced remobilization of ganglia in intermediate contact angles in real porous media morphologies, where pores are very heterogeneous with small shape factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Condensation pressures in small pores: An analytical model based on density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. H. Nilson; S. K. Griffiths


    Adsorption and condensation are critical to many applications of porous materials including filtration, separation, and the storage of gases. Integral methods are used to derive an analytical expression describing fluid condensation pressures in slit pores bounded by parallel plane walls. To obtain this result, the governing equations of Density Functional Theory (DFT) are integrated across the pore width assuming that fluid densities within adsorbed layers are spatially uniform. The thickness, density, and energy of these layers are expressed as composite functions constructed from asymptotic limits applicable to small and large pores. By equating the total energy of the adsorbed layers to that of a liquid-full pore, the authors arrive at a closed-form expression for the condensation pressure in terms of the pore size, surface tension, and Lennard-Jones parameters of the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The resulting equation reduces to the Kelvin equation in the large-pore limit. It further reproduces the condensation pressures computed by means of the full DFT equations for all pore sizes in which phase transitions are abrupt. Finally, in the limit of extremely small pores, for which phase transitions may be smooth and continuous, this simple analytical expression provides a good approximation to the apparent condensation pressure indicated by the steepest portion of the adsorption isotherm computed via DFT.

  6. Condensation pressures in small pores: An analytical model based on density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, R.H.; Griffiths, S.K.


    Integral methods are used to derive an analytical expression describing fluid condensation pressures in slit pores bounded by parallel plane walls. To obtain this result, the governing equations of density functional theory (DFT) are integrated across the pore width assuming that fluid densities within adsorbed layers are spatially uniform. The thickness, density, and free energy of these layers are expressed as composite functions constructed from asymptotic limits applicable to small and large pores. By equating the total free energy of the adsorbed layers to that of a liquid-full pore, we arrive at a closed-form expression for the condensation pressure in terms of the pore size, surface tension, and Lennard-Jones parameters of the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The resulting equation reduces to the Kelvin equation in the large-pore limit. It further reproduces the condensation pressures computed by means of the full DFT equations for all pore sizes in which phase transitions are abrupt. Finally, in the limit of extremely small pores, for which phase transitions may be smooth and continuous, this simple analytical expression provides a good approximation to the apparent condensation pressure indicated by the steepest portion of the adsorption isotherm computed via DFT. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure responses are vital in many aspects of slope management, design and monitoring. Its measurement however, is difficult, expensive and time consuming. Studies on its predictions are lacking. Support vector machines with linear kernel was used here to predict the responses of pore-water pressure to rainfall. Pore-water pressure response data was collected from slope instrumentation program. Support vector machine meta-parameter calibration and model development was carried out using grid search and k-fold cross validation. The mean square error for the model on scaled test data is 0.0015 and the coefficient of determination is 0.9321. Although pore-water pressure response to rainfall is a complex nonlinear process, the use of linear kernel support vector machine can be employed where high accuracy can be sacrificed for computational ease and time.

  8. Pore pressure control on faulting behavior in a block-gouge system (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.


    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection/extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood; yet they are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on faulting behavior. The model couples pore network fluid flow and mechanics of the solid grains. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks; the block material is represented by a group of contact-bonded grains and the gouge is composed of unbonded grains. A pore network is extracted from the particulate pack of the block-gouge system with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on the geometry of the local pore space. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). The model updates the pore network regularly in response to deformation of the solid matrix. We study the fault stability in the presence of a pressure inhomogeneity (gradient) across the gouge layer, and compare it with the case of homogeneous pore pressure. We consider both normal and thrust faulting scenarios with a focus on the onset of shear failure along the block-gouge interfaces. Numerical simulations show that the slip behavior is characterized by intermittent dynamics, which is evident in the number of slipping contacts at the block-gouge interfaces and the total kinetic energy of the gouge particles. Numerical results also show that, for the case of pressure inhomogeneity, the onset of slip occurs earlier for the side with higher pressure, and that this onset appears to be controlled by the maximum pressure of both sides

  9. Preliminary Investigation on the Behavior of Pore Air Pressure During Rainfall Infiltration (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Min, Ng Soon; Hasliza Hamzah, Nur; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad


    This paper focused on the preliminary investigation of pore air pressure behaviour during rainfall infiltration in order to substantiate the mechanism of rainfall induced slope failure. The actual behaviour or pore air pressure during infiltration is yet to be clearly understood as it is regularly assumed as atmospheric. Numerical modelling of one dimensional (1D) soil column was utilized in this study to provide a preliminary insight of this highlighted uncertainty. Parametric study was performed by using rainfall intensities of 1.85 x 10-3m/s and 1.16 x 10-4m/s applied on glass beads to simulate intense and modest rainfall conditions. Analysis results show that the high rainfall intensity causes more development of pore air pressure compared to low rainfall intensity. This is because at high rainfall intensity, the rainwater cannot replace the pore air smoothly thus confining the pore air. Therefore, the effect of pore air pressure has to be taken into consideration particularly during heavy rainfall.

  10. Determination of Pore Pressure from Sonic Log: a Case Study on One of Iran Carbonate Reservoir Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Azadpour


    Full Text Available Pore pressureis defined as the pressure of the fluid inside the pore space of the formation, which is also known as the formation pressure. When the pore pressure is higher than hydrostatic pressure, it is referred to as overpressure. Knowledge of this pressure is essential for cost-effective drilling, safe well planning, and efficient reservoir modeling. The main objective of this study is to estimate the formation pore pressure as a reliable mud weight pressure using well log data at one of oil fields in the south of Iran. To obtain this goal, the formation pore pressure is estimated from well logging data by applying Eaton’s prediction method with some modifications. In this way, sonic transient time trend line is separated by lithology changes and recalibrated by Weakley’s approach. The created sonic transient time is used to create an overlay pore pressure based on Eaton’s method and is led to pore pressure determination. The results are compared with the pore pressure estimated from commonly used methods such as Eaton’s and Bowers’s methods. The determined pore pressure from Weakley’s approach shows some improvements in comparison with Eaton’s method. However, the results of Bowers’s method, in comparison with the other two methods, show relatively better agreement with the mud weight pressure values.

  11. Capillary pressure across a pore throat in the presence of surfactants

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong


    Capillarity controls the distribution and transport of multiphase and immiscible fluids in soils and fractured rocks; therefore, capillarity affects the migration of nonaqueous contaminants and remediation strategies for both LNAPLs and DNAPLs, constrains gas and oil recovery, and regulates CO2 injection and geological storage. Surfactants alter interfacial tension and modify the invasion of pores by immiscible fluids. Experiments are conducted to explore the propagation of fluid interfaces along cylindrical capillary tubes and across pore constrictions in the presence of surfactants. Measured pressure signatures reflect the interaction between surface tension, contact angle, and the pore geometry. Various instabilities occur as the interface traverses the pore constriction, consequently, measured pressure signatures differ from theoretical trends predicted from geometry, lower capillary pressures are generated in advancing wetting fronts, and jumps are prone to under-sampling. Contact angle and instabilities are responsible for pronounced differences between pressure signatures recorded during advancing and receding tests. Pressure signatures gathered with surfactant solutions suggest changes in interfacial tension at the constriction; the transient surface tension is significantly lower than the value measured in quasi-static conditions. Interface stiffening is observed during receding fronts for solutions near the critical micelle concentration. Wetting liquids tend to form plugs at pore constrictions after the invasion of a nonwetting fluid; plugs split the nonwetting fluid into isolated globules and add resistance against fluid flow.

  12. Pore water pressure response to small and large openings in argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garitte, B.; Gens, A.; Vaunat, J.; Armand, G.; Conil, N.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the last decade an important amount of piezometers have been installed in the Bure Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in the vicinity of ongoing works involving gallery excavations and drilling of boreholes and alveoles both in the major and minor stress directions. Relatively far field piezometers (placed one to four diameters from the excavation wall) showed a qualitatively consistent response at different scales. Here, we investigate whether the pore water pressure response around openings of different scales may be up-scaled. An attempt is made to find a common set of parameters that explains quantitatively the rock response at the different scales. The mechanisms underlying the pore water pressure response around an underground opening are twofold. The first class of mechanisms is usually associated with nearly undrained behaviour and the related pore water pressure changes are induced by the stress redistribution triggered by the creation of the tunnel opening causing a reorientation of the principal stresses and influenced by the initial stress anisotropy. These pore water pressure changes are closely linked to the mechanical constitutive law of the rock and to the damage zone around the opening. The second class of mechanisms is related to the drainage of excess pore water pressure relative to a state governed by the atmospheric water pressure condition prescribed at gallery wall and the water flow law, usually Darcy's. Strong anisotropy effects on the hydraulic response of Callovo-Oxfordian Clay can be observed with reference to Figure 1 that shows the pore pressure response to the drilling of a 150 mm-diameter borehole performed to install a heater for the TER thermal experiment. The borehole is aligned with the major horizontal principal stress. Therefore, in principle, the stress state should be approximately isotropic in a cross section of the borehole. As a matter of fact, however, a degree of

  13. Experimental on moisture migration and pore pressure formation of concrete members subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kakuhiro; Nakane, Sunao


    The experimental studies concerning temperature, moisture migration, and pore pressure of mass concrete mock-up specimens heated up to high temperature at 110degC to 600degC, were performed, so as to correctly estimate the moisture migration behaviour of concrete members subjected to high temperature, which is considered significantly influenced on physical properties of concrete. As a results, it is confirmed that the moisture migration behavior of concrete members can be explained by temperature and pore pressure, and indicate the characteristics both sealed condition (dissipation of moisture is prevented) and unsealed condition (dissipation of moisture occur). (author)

  14. Excess pore water pressure induced in the foundation of a tailings dyke at Muskeg River Mine, Fort McMurray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshraghian, A.; Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed the effect of staged construction on the generation and dissipation of excess pore water pressure within the foundation clayey units of the External Tailings Facility dyke. Data were compiled from piezometers installed within the dyke foundation and used to estimate the dissipation parameters for the clayey units for a selected area of the foundation. Spatial and temporal variations in the pore water pressure generation parameters were explained. Understanding the process by which excess pore water pressure is generated and dissipates is critical to optimizing dyke design and performance. Piezometric data was shown to be useful in improving estimates of the construction-induced pore water pressure and dissipation rates within the clay layers in the foundation during dyke construction. In staged construction, a controlled rate of load application is used to increase foundation stability. Excess pore water pressure dissipates after each application, so the most critical stability condition happens after each load. Slow loading allows dissipation, whereas previous load pressure remains during fast loading. The dyke design must account for the rate of loading and the rate of pore pressure dissipation. Controlling the rate of loading and the rate of stress-induced excess pore water pressure generation is important to dyke stability during construction. Effective stress-strength parameters for the foundation require predictions of the pore water pressure induced during staged construction. It was found that both direct and indirect loading generates excess pore water pressure in the foundation clays. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  15. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors. (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff


    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  16. Temporal pore pressure induced stress changes during injection and depletion (United States)

    Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Schilling, Frank; Fuchs, Karl; Röckel, Thomas


    Induced seismicity is observed during injection of fluids in oil, gas or geothermal wells as a rather immediate response close to the injection wells due to the often high-rate pressurization. It was recognized even earlier in connection with more moderate rate injection of fluid waste on a longer time frame but higher induced event magnitudes. Today, injection-related induced seismicity significantly increased the number of events with M>3 in the Mid U.S. However, induced seismicity is also observed during production of fluids and gas, even years after the onset of production. E.g. in the Groningen gas field production was required to be reduced due to the increase in felt and damaging seismicity after more than 50 years of exploitation of that field. Thus, injection and production induced seismicity can cause severe impact in terms of hazard but also on economic measures. In order to understand the different onset times of induced seismicity we built a generic model to quantify the role of poro-elasticity processes with special emphasis on the factors time, regional crustal stress conditions and fault parameters for three case studies (injection into a low permeable crystalline rock, hydrothermal circulation and production of fluids). With this approach we consider the spatial and temporal variation of reservoir stress paths, the "early" injection-related induced events during stimulation and the "late" production induced ones. Furthermore, in dependence of the undisturbed in situ stress field conditions the stress tensor can change significantly due to injection and long-term production with changes of the tectonic stress regime in which previously not critically stressed faults could turn to be optimally oriented for fault reactivation.

  17. Mechanical behavior of cellular borosilicate glass with pressurized Ar-filled closed pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Matsumaru, Koji; Yang Jianfeng; Fu Zhengyi; Ishizaki, Kozo


    High strength borosilicate foams were fabricated by melting glass powder under high-pressure argon gas and subsequent heat treatment of the glass bulk at atmospheric pressure. In the first step, borosilicate glass powder was melted at 1100 °C for 1 h by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) under a high gas pressure of 10–70 MPa. Pressurized Ar-filled spherical pores were introduced into the glass, and argon atoms were dissolved in the glass network structure. The expansion of argon-filled pores and the release of the dissolved Ar gas resulted in the formation of pressurized Ar-filled closed pores by isothermal heat treatment at 800 °C for 10 min. A high porosity of up to 80% with a bimodal distribution of micro-size cells was obtained for the resultant cellular borosilicate glass. By increasing the total gas pressure from 10 to 70 MPa, the compressive strength and the Young’s modulus were increased considerably from 15 to 52 MPa and from 4.1 to 12.6 GPa, respectively, which can be substantially attributed to the high collapse stress from the high enclosed gas pressure. The cellular glass with a high porosity showed a large failure strain under uniaxial compression.

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Pore Pressure Diffusion in Some Basic Rock Mechanics Experiments (United States)

    Braun, Philipp; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Delage, Pierre; Sulem, Jean; Conil, Nathalie


    Non-homogeneity of the pore pressure field in a specimen is an issue for characterization of the thermo-poromechanical behaviour of low-permeability geomaterials, as in the case of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone ( k radioactive waste disposal in France. In tests with drained boundary conditions, excess pore pressure can result in significant errors in the measurement of material parameters. Analytical solutions are presented for the change in time of the pore pressure field in a specimen submitted to various loading paths and different rates. The pore pressure field in mechanical and thermal undrained tests is simulated with a 1D finite difference model taking into account the dead volume of the drainage system of the triaxial cell connected to the specimen. These solutions provide a simple and efficient tool for the estimation of the conditions that must hold for reliable determination of material parameters and for optimization of various test conditions to minimize the experimental duration, while keeping the measurement errors at an acceptable level.

  19. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.


    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  20. Pore-water pressures associated with clogging of soil pipes: Numerical analysis of laboratory experiments (United States)

    Clogging of soil pipes due to excessive internal erosion has been hypothesized to cause extreme erosion events such as landslides, debris flows, and gullies, but confirmation of this phenomenon has been lacking. Laboratory and field measurements have failed to measure pore water pressures within pip...

  1. Numerical simulation of pore pressure changes in levee under flood conditions (United States)

    Stanisz, Jacek; Borecka, Aleksandra; Pilecki, Zenon; Kaczmarczyk, Robert


    The article discusses the potential for using numerical simulation to assess the development of deformation and pore pressure changes in a levee as a result of the increase and decrease of the flood wave. The simulation made in FLAC 2D did not take into account the filter-erosion deformation associated with seepage in the levee. The simulations were carried out for a field experimental storage consisting of two combined levees, which was constructed with the help of homogeneous cohesive materials with different filtration coefficients. Calculated and measured pore pressure changes were analysed at 4 monitoring points. The water level was increased to 4 m in 96 hours and decreased in 120 hours. The characteristics of the calculated and measured pore pressure changes over time were similar. The maximum values of the calculated and measured pore pressure were almost identical. The only differences were the greater delay of the experimental levee response to changes in water level increase compared to the response of the numerical model. These differences were probably related to filtering-erosion effects during seepage in the levee.

  2. Impact of pore-pressure cycling on bentonite in constant volume experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.C.; Harrington, J.F.; Cuss, R.J.; Sellin, P.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The SKB safety case for a KBS-3 repository highlights the potential importance of future successive glaciation events on repository functions. One particular uncertainty is the likely affect of elevated pore-water pressures on barrier safety functions. Over the repository lifetime such changes in pore-water pressure are likely to be cyclic in nature, as successive glacial episodes lead to loading and unloading of the engineered barrier. For a clay-water system with the pore-water in thermodynamic equilibrium with an external reservoir of water at pressure, p w , the total stress acting on the surrounding vessel can be expressed as: (1) σ = Π + αp w where Π is the swelling pressure and α is a proportionality constant. We present results from a series of laboratory experiments designed to investigate this relationship, in the context of glacial loading. Blocks of pre-compacted Mx80 bentonite were manufactured by Clay Technology AB (Lund, Sweden), by rapidly compacting bentonite granules in a mould under a one dimensionally applied stress (Johannesson et al., 1995). The blocks were then sub-sampled and cylindrical specimens prepared for testing (120 mm in length and 60 mm in diameter). The experiments were conducted using a specially designed constant volume cell, which allows the evolution of the total stresses acting on the surrounding vessel to be monitored during clay swelling (at three radial and two axial locations). A high precision syringe pump was used to maintain a constant applied pore pressure within the bentonite, while the rate of hydraulic inflow, and consequent stress development, were monitored to determine the point at which hydraulic equilibrium was reached. During the tests each sample was subjected to an incremental series of constant pore-pressure steps, with all samples experiencing at least one loading and unloading cycle. The resulting average total stress data yield alpha values in the

  3. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.


    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  4. PBO Borehole Strainmeters and Pore Pressure Sensors: Recording Hydrological Strain Signals (United States)

    Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Pyatt, C.; Mattioli, G. S.


    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeters along the west coast of the United States and Vancouver Island, Canada as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters are designed to detect variations in the strain field at the nanostrain level and can easily detect transient strains caused by aseismic creep events, Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events and seismically induced co- and post-seimic signals. In 2016, one strainmeter was installed in an Oklahoma oil field to characterize in-situ deformation during CO2 injection. Twenty-three strainmeter sites also have pore pressure sensors to measure fluctuations in groundwater pressure. Both the strainmeter network and the pore pressure sensors provide unique data against which those using water-level measurements, GPS time-series or InSAR data can compare possible subsidence signals caused by groundwater withdrawal or fluid re-injection. Operating for 12 years, the PBO strainmeter and pore pressure network provides a long-term, continuous, 1-sps record of deformation. PBO deploys GTSM21 tensor strainmeters from GTSM Technologies, which consist of four horizontal strain gauges stacked vertically, at different orientations, within a single 2 m-long instrument. The strainmeters are typically installed at depths of 200 to 250 m and grouted into the bottom of 15 cm diameter boreholes. The pore pressure sensors are Digiquartz Depth Sensors from Paros Scientific. These sensors are installed in 2" PVC, sampling groundwater through a screened section 15 m above the co-located strainmeter. These sensors are also recording at 1-sps with a resolution in the hundredths of hPa. High-rate local barometric pressure data and low-rate rainfall data also available at all locations. PBO Strainmeter and pore pressure data are available in SEED, SAC-ASCII and time-stamped ASCII format from the IRIS Data Managements Center. Strainmeter data are

  5. Deformation of a Volcanic Edifice by Pore Pressurization: An Analog Approach (United States)

    Hyman, D.; Bursik, M. I.


    Volcanic flank destabilization, preceded by pressurization-induced surface deformation or weakening, presents a significant hazard at stratovolcanoes with ample supply of magmatic volatiles or preexisting hydrothermal systems as in Bezymianny- and Bandai-type eruptions, respectively. Deformation is also an important sign of the nature of unrest at large calderas such as Long Valley, USA. Previous studies of volcanic inflation have focused primarily on the role of ascending magma. Relatively few studies have centered on surface deformation caused by pressurization from other volcanic fluids, including exsolved volatiles and pressurized hydrothermal systems. Most investigations of pore-pressurization have focused on numerical modelling of pore pressure transients. In analog experiments presented here, pore-filling fluids are injected into the base of a damp sand medium without exceeding dike propagating pressures, simulating the pressurization and bulk-permeable flow of volatile fluids through volcanic systems. The experiments examine surface deformation from a range of source depths and pressures as well as edifice geometries. 3D imaging is possible through use of the Microsoft® Kinect™ sensor, which allows for the generation of high-resolution, high frame rate, lab-scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). After initial processing to increase signal-to-noise ratio, surface deformation is measured using the DEM time-series generated by the Kinect™. Analysis of preliminary experiments suggests that inflation is possible up to approx. 10 % of pressure source depth. We also show that the Kinect™ sensor is useful in analog volcanological studies, an environment to which it is well-suited.

  6. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.


    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  7. Seismic attributes and advanced computer algorithm to predict formation pore pressure: Qalibah formation of Northwest Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Nour, Abdoulshakour M.

    Oil and gas exploration professionals have long recognized the importance of predicting pore pressure before drilling wells. Pre-drill pore pressure estimation not only helps with drilling wells safely but also aids in the determination of formation fluids migration and seal integrity. With respect to the hydrocarbon reservoirs, the appropriate drilling mud weight is directly related to the estimated pore pressure in the formation. If the mud weight is lower than the formation pressure, a blowout may occur, and conversely, if it is higher than the formation pressure, the formation may suffer irreparable damage due to the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation. A simple definition of pore pressure is the pressure of the pore fluids in excess of the hydrostatic pressure. In this thesis, I investigated the utility of advance computer algorithm called Support Vector Machine (SVM) to learn the pattern of high pore pressure regime, using seismic attributes such as Instantaneous phase, t*Attenuation, Cosine of Phase, Vp/Vs ratio, P-Impedance, Reflection Acoustic Impedance, Dominant frequency and one well attribute (Mud-Weigh) as the learning dataset. I applied this technique to the over pressured Qalibah formation of Northwest Saudi Arabia. The results of my research revealed that in the Qalibah formation of Northwest Saudi Arabia, the pore pressure trend can be predicted using SVM with seismic and well attributes as the learning dataset. I was able to show the pore pressure trend at any given point within the geographical extent of the 3D seismic data from which the seismic attributes were derived. In addition, my results surprisingly showed the subtle variation of pressure within the thick succession of shale units of the Qalibah formation.

  8. Effects of moisture migration on shrinkage, pore pressure and other concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.A.; England, G.L.


    This work investigates the uniaxial migration of moisture in long, upright, limestone concrete cylinders, sealed at the base and sides, and open at the top. The design represents a section through a concrete pressure vessel wall. The cylinders are subjected to a sustained temperature difference between their ends, with maximum temperatures between 105 0 C and 200 0 C. Readings of pore pressure, water content and temperature are taken at various positions along the axis of the cylinders. In one cylinder, transverse and longitudinal shrinkage readings are also recorded. The results for the cylinders show that moisture migration is away from the hot face of the specimens causing reduction in both pore pressure and water content values in this region. The moisture migration creates a drying front which moves slowly up the specimens. The rate at which this drying front, moves is influenced by the base temperature, the magnitude of temperature and pressure gradients and the coefficient of permeability of the concrete. Samples taken from the hot side of the drying front show a considerable increase in the coefficient of permeability, and Scanning Electron Microscope photographs of the microstructure show both a break-up and reduction in size of the hydration products. The experiments reported indicate that when the hot inner face temperature of a concrete pressure vessel is increased above 100 0 C, the drying rate inside the wall increases considerably, However, it is unlikely pressure vessels of the size currently in use will ever completely dry out. (Auth.)

  9. Effects of elevated temperature and pore pressure on the mechanical behavior of Bullfrog tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.


    Samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff from the depth interval 758.9 to 759.2 m in hole USW-G1 on the Nevada Test Site were tested in triaxial compression. Test conditions were: (1) effective confining pressure to 20 MPa; (2) temperature of 200 0 C; (3) both dry and with pore water pressures from 3.4 to 5 MPa; and (4) a strain-rate of 10 -4 /s. The results suggest that the presence of water causes the strength to decrease. In addition, the brittle-ductile transition pressure for this rock was found to be about 15 MPa, regardless of saturation. Below this pressure deformation is characterized by unstable stress drops and the development of a single fracture, and above this pressure deformation is stable and distributed more uniformly throughout the sample

  10. Pore water pressures and slope stability: a joint geophysical and geotechnical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, Angela; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Vassallo, Roberto; Maio, Caterina Di


    Slope stability is influenced by many factors, among which are subsoil structure and pore water pressure distribution. This paper presents a multi-disciplinary approach for the determination of these two factors and for the construction of a reliable model of the subsoil for the slope stability analysis. The case of a clay slope located in the Southern Apennines (Italy) is presented and discussed. Geophysical imaging (2D electrical resistivity tomography—ERT), in situ geotechnical monitoring (measurements of pore pressures and horizontal displacements) and laboratory geotechnical tests (for the determination of index, hydraulic and mechanical properties of soils) have been carried out. The comparison and the integration between ERT images and direct observations of the material extracted from boreholes have allowed us to reconstruct the subsoil stratigraphy with continuity. Thus, a reliable 2D model of the subsoil has been obtained, with well-defined boundaries on which it has been possible to apply appropriate hydraulic conditions. This geotechnical model has been used for studying the pore water pressure distribution and for analysing how the hydraulic boundary conditions—among which rain events—influence the slope stability. Our findings demonstrate the powerful skill of the ERT, if integrated with borehole data, to generate an accurate subsoil model. It is also evident that geophysical imaging can be a source of ambiguity and misjudgement if interpreted without a comparison with geotechnical data

  11. Numerical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure in anticline formations using the tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eckert


    Full Text Available The advanced tensor based concept of pore pressure-stress coupling is used to provide pre-injection analytical estimates of the maximum sustainable pore pressure change, ΔPc, for fluid injection scenarios into generic anticline geometries. The heterogeneous stress distribution for different prevailing stress regimes in combination with the Young's modulus (E contrast between the injection layer and the cap rock and the interbedding friction coefficient, μ, may result in large spatial and directional differences of ΔPc. A single value characterizing the cap rock as for horizontal layered injection scenarios is not obtained. It is observed that a higher Young's modulus in the cap rock and/or a weak mechanical coupling between layers amplifies the maximum and minimum ΔPc values in the valley and limb, respectively. These differences in ΔPc imposed by E and μ are further amplified by different stress regimes. The more compressional the stress regime is, the larger the differences between the maximum and minimum ΔPc values become. The results of this study show that, in general compressional stress regimes yield the largest magnitudes of ΔPc and extensional stress regimes provide the lowest values of ΔPc for anticline formations. Yet this conclusion has to be considered with care when folded anticline layers are characterized by flexural slip and the friction coefficient between layers is low, i.e. μ = 0.1. For such cases of weak mechanical coupling, ΔPc magnitudes may range from 0 MPa to 27 MPa, indicating imminent risk of fault reactivation in the cap rock.

  12. Elucidating the mechanical effects of pore water pressure increase on the stability of unsaturated soil slopes (United States)

    Buscarnera, G.


    The increase of the pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope failures. This paper shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of suction removal promotes the initiation of mechanical instabilities. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure, and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. In order to account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order work criterion is used and different stability indices are devised. The paper shows that the theory of material stability can assess the risk of shear failure and static liquefaction in both saturated and unsaturated contexts. It is shown that the combined use of an enhanced definition of second-order work for unsaturated porous media and a hydro-mechanical constitutive framework enables to retrieve bifurcation conditions for water-infiltration processes in unsaturated deposits. This finding discloses the importance of the coupling terms that incorporate the interaction between the solid skeleton and the pore fluids. As a consequence, these theoretical results suggest that some material properties that are not directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) can play an important role in the initiation of slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be understood as a trigger of uncontrolled strains, which at material point level are reflected by the onset of bifurcation conditions.

  13. Deformation of volcanic materials by pore pressurization: analog experiments with simplified geometry (United States)

    Hyman, David; Bursik, Marcus


    The pressurization of pore fluids plays a significant role in deforming volcanic materials; however, understanding of this process remains incomplete, especially scenarios accompanying phreatic eruptions. Analog experiments presented here use a simple geometry to study the mechanics of this type of deformation. Syrup was injected into the base of a sand medium, simulating the permeable flow of fluids through shallow volcanic systems. The experiments examined surface deformation over many source depths and pressures. Surface deformation was recorded using a Microsoft® Kinect™ sensor, generating high-spatiotemporal resolution lab-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). The behavior of the system is controlled by the ratio of pore pressure to lithostatic loading (λ =p/ρ g D). For λ 10, fluid expulsion from the layer was much faster, vertically fracturing to the surface with larger pressure ratios yielding less deformation. The temporal behavior of deformation followed a characteristic evolution that produced an approximately exponential increase in deformation with time until complete layer penetration. This process is distinguished from magmatic sources in continuous geodetic data by its rapidity and characteristic time evolution. The time evolution of the experiments compares well with tilt records from Mt. Ontake, Japan, in the lead-up to the deadly 2014 phreatic eruption. Improved understanding of this process may guide the evolution of magmatic intrusions such as dikes, cone sheets, and cryptodomes and contribute to caldera resurgence or deformation that destabilizes volcanic flanks.

  14. Multiscale Pore Throat Network Reconstruction of Tight Porous Media Constrained by Mercury Intrusion Capillary Pressure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements (United States)

    Xu, R.; Prodanovic, M.


    Due to the low porosity and permeability of tight porous media, hydrocarbon productivity strongly depends on the pore structure. Effective characterization of pore/throat sizes and reconstruction of their connectivity in tight porous media remains challenging. Having a representative pore throat network, however, is valuable for calculation of other petrophysical properties such as permeability, which is time-consuming and costly to obtain by experimental measurements. Due to a wide range of length scales encountered, a combination of experimental methods is usually required to obtain a comprehensive picture of the pore-body and pore-throat size distributions. In this work, we combine mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements by percolation theory to derive pore-body size distribution, following the work by Daigle et al. (2015). However, in their work, the actual pore-throat sizes and the distribution of coordination numbers are not well-defined. To compensate for that, we build a 3D unstructured two-scale pore throat network model initialized by the measured porosity and the calculated pore-body size distributions, with a tunable pore-throat size and coordination number distribution, which we further determine by matching the capillary pressure vs. saturation curve from MICP measurement, based on the fact that the mercury intrusion process is controlled by both the pore/throat size distributions and the connectivity of the pore system. We validate our model by characterizing several core samples from tight Middle East carbonate, and use the network model to predict the apparent permeability of the samples under single phase fluid flow condition. Results show that the permeability we get is in reasonable agreement with the Coreval experimental measurements. The pore throat network we get can be used to further calculate relative permeability curves and simulate multiphase flow behavior, which will provide valuable

  15. Pore-scale modelling of the effect of viscous pressure gradients during heavy oil depletion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondino, I. [Total E and P UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom); McDougall, S.R. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hamon, G. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    In solution gas drive, when the reservoir pressure is lowered below the bubble point, bubbles nucleate and grow within saturated oil. A period of internal gas-phase expansion maintains reservoir pressure, driving oil to the wellbore region. Continued pressure reduction eventually leads to the formation of a connected gas phase that is capable of being produced along with the oleic phase. As a result, the total produced gas-oil ratio in the well begins to increase. Once the connected gas phase develops, oil production begins to decrease. This general description can be inadequate in the context of heavy oils where additional characteristics, such as foamy oil, and atypically high recoveries are observed. In order to improve the simulation of solution gas drive for heavy oil in the framework of a pre-existing pore-scale network simulator, a dynamic gas-oil interface tracking algorithm was used to determine the mobilization of bubbles under intense pressure gradients. The model was used to characterize both the stationary capillary controlled growth of bubbles characteristic of slow depletion rates in the far wellbore region and the flow phenomena in the near wellbore region. A rationale for interpreting a range of flow mechanism, their associated gas relative permeabilities and critical gas saturations was also proposed. The paper first presented a description of the dynamic pore network model in terms of its' ability to model the porous space; and mobilize gas under viscous pressure gradients and unsteady-state gas relative permeabilities. The dynamic network modelling of heavy oil depletion experiments at different rates and the prediction of the experimental gas saturations were then presented along with a discussion on critical gas saturations. It was concluded that foamy oil behaviour can be observed in situations where capillary pressures are overcome by viscous pressure gradients. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs.

  16. The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in Westerly granite. [for seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Spencer, J. W., Jr.; Nur, A. M.


    A description is presented of an experimental assembly which has been developed to conduct concurrent measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities in rocks at high temperatures and confining pressures and with independent control of the pore pressure. The apparatus was used in studies of the joint effects of temperature, external confining pressure, and internal pore water on sonic velocities in Westerly granite. It was found that at a given temperature, confining pressure has a larger accelerating effect on compressional waves in dry rock, whereas at a given confining pressure, temperature has a larger retarding effect on shear waves.

  17. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U. A.; Mody, F. K.; Mese, A. I. [Haliburton Energy Services, TX (United States)


    In order to develop a real-time wellbore (in)stability modelling capability, experimental work was carried out to investigate the role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations. Time-dependent alterations in the pore pressure, acoustic and rock properties of formations subjected to compressive tri-axial test were recorded during the experiments involving the Pore Pressure Transmission (PPT) test. Based on the transient pore pressure of shale exposed to the test fluid presented here, the 20 per cent calcium chloride showed a very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. The need for a thorough understanding of the drilling fluid/shale interaction prior to applying any chemical potential wellbore (in)stability model to real-time drilling operations was emphasized. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Effect of diagenesis on pore pressures in fine-grained rocks in the Egersund Basin, Central North Sea


    Kalani, Mohsen; Zadeh, Mohammad Koochak; Jahren, Jens; Mondol, Nazmul Haque; Faleide, Jan Inge


    - Pore pressure in fine-grained rocks is important with respect to drilling problems such as kicks, blowouts, borehole instability, stuck pipe and lost circulation. In this study, a succession of overpressured, fine-grained, sedimentary rocks located in the Egersund Basin, Central North Sea, was analysed with respect to mineralogical composition, source-rock maturation and log-derived petrophysical properties to highlight the effect of diagenetic processes on the pore pressure. Pe...

  19. Syncrude`s highway berm: part 3 of 5 - Soil parameters (pore pressure parameters and settlement from inundation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Fong, V.; Ashton, C.; Strueby, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Difficulties in predicting pore fluid pressures in the fills composing the highway berm were discussed. The pore water pressures in the in-situ clay foundation units were expected to be very sensitive to water content. Over 200 piezometer tips were installed into fill and in situ soil units, and results of the measurements were reported. The in situ basal foundation clays and sands were found to have a similar pore pressure ratio of typically less than 0.25. Fill pore fluid pressure ratios determined in the field varied according to density when loose fills were compared to very dense fills. To illustrate, when the fill was 86% to 91% of maximum Standard Proctor Density, the pore pressure ratio value was not dependent on fluid content. When the fill was densely compacted to 98% Standard Proctor Density, the pore pressure ratio was largely dependent on the fluid content as it related to the optimum fluid content determined from Standard Proctor testing. Significant first-time wetting settlement was observed to occur with fills at initial densities of around 90% of maximum Standard Proctor dry density. Settlements for fills placed initially above 97% Standard Proctor Density generally had inundation settlements of less than 0.3% of fill thickness predicted from laboratory testing. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An evaluation of factors influencing pore pressure in accretionary complexes: Implications for taper angle and wedge mechanics (United States)

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.


    At many subduction zones, accretionary complexes form as sediment is off-scraped from the subducting plate. Mechanical models that treat accretionary complexes as critically tapered wedges of sediment demonstrate that pore pressure controls their taper angle by modifying basal and internal shear strength. Here, we combine a numerical model of groundwater flow with critical taper theory to quantify the effects of sediment and de??collement permeability, sediment thickness, sediment partitioning between accretion and underthrusting, and plate convergence rate on steady state pore pressure. Our results show that pore pressure in accretionary wedges can be viewed as a dynamically maintained response to factors which drive pore pressure (source terms) and those that limit flow (permeability and drainage path length). We find that sediment permeability and incoming sediment thickness are the most important factors, whereas fault permeability and the partitioning of sediment have a small effect. For our base case model scenario, as sediment permeability is increased, pore pressure decreases from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic values and allows stable taper angles to increase from ??? 2.5?? to 8??-12.5??. With increased sediment thickness in our models (from 100 to 8000 m), increased pore pressure drives a decrease in stable taper angle from 8.4??-12.5?? to 15?? to <4??) with increased sediment thickness (from <1 to 7 km). One key implication is that hydrologic properties may strongly influence the strength of the crust in a wide range of geologic settings. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Simulation of pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading using Finite Volume Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Hededal, Ole


    This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model...... with an advanced elastoplastic model suitable for describing monotonic as well as cyclic loading conditions. The finite volume method is applied to discretize these formulations. The resulting set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations are then solved by a ’segregated’ solution procedure. An efficient return...

  2. Hydromechanical Rock Mass Fatigue in Deep-Seated Landslides Accompanying Seasonal Variations in Pore Pressures (United States)

    Preisig, Giona; Eberhardt, Erik; Smithyman, Megan; Preh, Alexander; Bonzanigo, Luca


    The episodic movement of deep-seated landslides is often governed by the presence of high pore pressures and reduced effective stresses along active shear surfaces. Pore pressures are subject to cyclic fluctuation under seasonal variations of groundwater recharge, resulting in an intermittent movement characterized by acceleration-deceleration phases. However, it is not always clear why certain acceleration phases reach alarming levels without a clear trigger (i.e., in the absence of an exceptional pore pressure event). This paper presents a conceptual framework linking hydromechanical cycling, progressive failure and fatigue to investigate and explain the episodic behavior of deep-seated landslides using the Campo Vallemaggia landslide in Switzerland as a case study. A combination of monitoring data and advanced numerical modeling is used. The principal processes forcing the slope into a critical disequilibrium state are analyzed as a function of rock mass damage and fatigue. Modeling results suggest that during periods of slope acceleration, the rock slope experiences localized fatigue and gradual weakening through slip along pre-existing natural fractures and yield of critically stressed intact rock bridges. At certain intervals, pockets of critically weakened rock may produce a period of enhanced slope movement in response to a small pore pressure increase similar to those routinely experienced each year. Accordingly, the distribution and connectivity of pre-existing permeable planes of weakness play a central role. These structures are often related to the rock mass's tectonic history or initiate (and dilate) in response to stress changes that disturb the entire slope, such as glacial unloading or seismic loading via large earthquakes. The latter is discussed in detail in a companion paper to this (Gischig et al., Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015). The results and framework presented further demonstrate that episodic movement and progressive failure of deep

  3. Effects of pressure and temperature on pore structure of ceramic synthesized from rice husk: A small angle neutron scattering investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut Dessai, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403 206 (India); Desa, J.A.E. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403 206 (India); Sen, D.; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)


    Highlights: ► A porous ceramic has been prepared from silica obtained from rice husk. ► The ceramic has a hierarchical pore structure from micrometric to nano-metric. ► Small Angle Neutron Scattering data indicate nano-pore connectivity to micro-pores. ► Pore morphology can be tuned by compaction pressure and sintering temperature. -- Abstract: Ceramic powder has been synthesized from rice husk as the source of silica. In order to probe the evolution of its hierarchical mesoscopic and microscopic porous structure, the ceramic powder was compacted at different pressures and was sintered at different temperatures. A glassy ceramic to crystalline transition under thermal treatment (up to 1000 °C) was revealed by X-ray diffraction. Existence of pores in two widely separated length scales was indicated by small angle neutron scattering with the smaller ones having mass fractal arrangement. Although no significant change in small pore structure under thermal effect was indicated, a significant modification of the same has been revealed by small angle neutron scattering at different compaction pressures. Connectivity between the pores was ascertained from scattering experiments on the ceramic compact impregnated with heavy water. Scanning electron microscopy shows the microstructure to undergo appreciable coalescence of micrometric ceramic particles for sintering temperature and pressure changes.

  4. Analysis of pore pressure response of Callovo Oxfordian clay-stone to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobmann, M.; Polster, M.; Li, S.; Schlegel, R.; Will, J.; Vymlatil, P.; Conil, N.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. One of the aims of the TED heater experiment at Bure is to perform a parameter identification of the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay. A detailed description of the heater experiment can be found in the paper presented by N. Conil, also at this meeting. Three artificial heat sources are used to simulate heat generating waste canisters and are placed in three parallel horizontal boreholes. The heating process is carried out by using three heating phases with different amounts of heat release. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) response of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone is monitored by a large number of temperature and pore water pressure sensors as well as extensometers installed in the heater boreholes as well as in a couple of observation boreholes. One possibility to identify the THM parameters of the clay-stone is to perform a series of forward simulations by adjusting the THM input parameters until the calculation results fit best to the measured values at the different sensor locations. Given the large number of sensors to consider, doing this fitting process manually is a long and laborious task. Thus, an automatic parameter identification process has been applied. Parameter identification In this paper we focus on the analysis of the pore water pressure response to drilling and heating. For the process of parameter identification, an automatic procedure was used by applying the software 'optiSLang' which allows for optimizing nonlinear tasks that include many parameters. The software is able to offer a sampling-based sensitivity analysis to identify important parameters, to quantify the individual influence on the calculation results, and to generate a so-called best design approximating the measurement results taken in situ as good as possible. optiSLang changes input parameters within given ranges automatically and autonomously starts new calculations by triggering the

  5. Dynamic Stability of the Rate, State, Temperature, and Pore Pressure Friction Model at a Rock Interface (United States)

    Sinha, Nitish; Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Trilok N.


    In this article, we study numerically the dynamic stability of the rate, state, temperature, and pore pressure friction (RSTPF) model at a rock interface using standard spring-mass sliding system. This particular friction model is a basically modified form of the previously studied friction model namely the rate, state, and temperature friction (RSTF). The RSTPF takes into account the role of thermal pressurization including dilatancy and permeability of the pore fluid due to shear heating at the slip interface. The linear stability analysis shows that the critical stiffness, at which the sliding becomes stable to unstable or vice versa, increases with the coefficient of thermal pressurization. Critical stiffness, on the other hand, remains constant for small values of either dilatancy factor or hydraulic diffusivity, but the same decreases as their values are increased further from dilatancy factor (˜ 10^{ - 4} ) and hydraulic diffusivity (˜ 10^{ - 9} {m}2 {s}^{ - 1} ) . Moreover, steady-state friction is independent of the coefficient of thermal pressurization, hydraulic diffusivity, and dilatancy factor. The proposed model is also used for predicting time of failure of a creeping interface of a rock slope under the constant gravitational force. It is observed that time of failure decreases with increase in coefficient of thermal pressurization and hydraulic diffusivity, but the dilatancy factor delays the failure of the rock fault under the condition of heat accumulation at the creeping interface. Moreover, stiffness of the rock-mass also stabilizes the failure process of the interface as the strain energy due to the gravitational force accumulates in the rock-mass before it transfers to the sliding interface. Practical implications of the present study are also discussed.

  6. In situ pore-pressure evolution during dynamic CPT measurements in soft sediments of the western Baltic Sea (United States)

    Seifert, Annedore; Stegmann, Sylvia; Mörz, Tobias; Lange, Matthias; Wever, Thomas; Kopf, Achim


    We present in situ strength and pore-pressure measurements from 57 dynamic cone penetration tests in sediments of Mecklenburg ( n = 51), Eckernförde ( n = 2) and Gelting ( n = 4) bays, western Baltic Sea, characterised by thick mud layers and partially free microbial gas resulting from the degradation of organic material. In Mecklenburg and Eckernförde bays, sediment sampling by nine gravity cores served sedimentological characterisation, analyses of geotechnical properties, and laboratory shear tests. At selected localities, high-resolution echo-sounder profiles were acquired. Our aim was to deploy a dynamic cone penetrometer (CPT) to infer sediment shear strength and cohesion of the sea bottom as a function of fluid saturation. The results show very variable changes in pore pressure and sediment strength during the CPT deployments. The majority of the CPT measurements ( n = 54) show initially negative pore-pressure values during penetration, and a delayed response towards positive pressures thereafter. This so-called type B pore-pressure signal was recorded in all three bays, and is typically found in soft muds with high water contents and undrained shear strengths of 1.6-6.4 kPa. The type B signal is further affected by displacement of sediment and fluid upon penetration of the lance, skin effects during dynamic profiling, enhanced consolidation and strength of individual horizons, the presence of free gas, and a dilatory response of the sediment. In Mecklenburg Bay, the remaining small number of CPT measurements ( n = 3) show a well-defined peak in both pore pressure and cone resistance during penetration, i.e. an initial marked increase which is followed by exponential pore-pressure decay during dissipation. This so-called type A pore-pressure signal is associated with normally consolidated mud, with indurated clay layers showing significantly higher undrained shear strength (up to 19 kPa). In Eckernförde and Gelting bays pore-pressure response type B is

  7. Tremor-tide correlations and near-lithostatic pore pressure on the deep San Andreas fault. (United States)

    Thomas, Amanda M; Nadeau, Robert M; Bürgmann, Roland


    Since its initial discovery nearly a decade ago, non-volcanic tremor has provided information about a region of the Earth that was previously thought incapable of generating seismic radiation. A thorough explanation of the geologic process responsible for tremor generation has, however, yet to be determined. Owing to their location at the plate interface, temporal correlation with geodetically measured slow-slip events and dominant shear wave energy, tremor observations in southwest Japan have been interpreted as a superposition of many low-frequency earthquakes that represent slip on a fault surface. Fluids may also be fundamental to the failure process in subduction zone environments, as teleseismic and tidal modulation of tremor in Cascadia and Japan and high Poisson ratios in both source regions are indicative of pressurized pore fluids. Here we identify a robust correlation between extremely small, tidally induced shear stress parallel to the San Andreas fault and non-volcanic tremor activity near Parkfield, California. We suggest that this tremor represents shear failure on a critically stressed fault in the presence of near-lithostatic pore pressure. There are a number of similarities between tremor in subduction zone environments, such as Cascadia and Japan, and tremor on the deep San Andreas transform, suggesting that the results presented here may also be applicable in other tectonic settings.

  8. Effect of Pore Pressure on Slip Failure of an Impermeable Fault: A Coupled Micro Hydro-Geomechanical Model (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.


    The geomechanical processes associated with subsurface fluid injection/extraction is of central importance for many industrial operations related to energy and water resources. However, the mechanisms controlling the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood and are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a coupled hydro-geomechanical model to investigate the effect of fluid injection induced pressure perturbation on the slip behavior of a sealing fault. The model couples single-phase flow in the pores and mechanics of the solid phase. Granular packs (see example in Fig. 1a) are numerically generated where the grains can be either bonded or not, depending on the degree of cementation. A pore network is extracted for each granular pack with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on geometry of the local pore space. The pore fluid pressure is solved via an explicit scheme, taking into account the effect of deformation of the solid matrix. The mechanics part of the model is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). We first test the validity of the model with regard to the classical one-dimensional consolidation problem where an analytical solution exists. We then demonstrate the ability of the coupled model to reproduce rock deformation behavior measured in triaxial laboratory tests under the influence of pore pressure. We proceed to study the fault stability in presence of a pressure discontinuity across the impermeable fault which is implemented as a plane with its intersected pore throats being deactivated and thus obstructing fluid flow (Fig. 1b, c). We focus on the onset of shear failure along preexisting faults. We discuss the fault stability criterion in light of the numerical results obtained from the DEM simulations coupled with pore fluid flow. The implication on how should faults be treated in a large-scale continuum model is also presented.

  9. Effects of moisture migration on shrinkage, pore pressure and other concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.A.; England, G.L.


    This work investigates the uniaxial migration of moisture in long, upright, limestone concrete cylinders, sealed at the base and sides, and open at the top. The design represents a section through a concrete pressure vessel wall. The cylinders are subjected to a sustained temperature difference between their ends, with maximum temperatures between 105 0 C and 200 0 C. Readings of pore pressure, water content and temperature are taken at various positions along the axis of the cylinders. In one cylinder transverse and longitudinal shrinkage readings are also recorded. The results for the cylinders show that moisture migration is away from the hot face of the specimens, causing reduction in both pore pressure and water content values in this region. The moisture migration creates a drying front which moves slowly up the specimens. Evaporation drying takes place from the unsealed end of the specimen. A drying front moves into the concrete and considerable weight loss is recorded as moisture escapes to the atmosphere. The rate of movement of the drying front is slower than that of the hot front and is proportional to the temperature difference between the top of the specimen and the surrounding atmosphere. In the shrinkage specimen, values of transverse and longitudinal shrinkage reflect the water content results. The specimen indicates that shrinkage occurs in a concrete pressure vessel, in the regions where moisture is lost. The restraint of the mass of concrete surrounding these regions sets up a three dimensional state of internal tensile stress. The areas into which the moisture migrates tend to swell, creating an internal stress situation, which is this

  10. Pore Structure and Limit Pressure of Gas Slippage Effect in Tight Sandstone (United States)

    You, Lijun; Xue, Kunlin; Kang, Yili; Liao, Yi


    Gas slip effect is an important mechanism that the gas flow is different from liquid flow in porous media. It is generally considered that the lower the permeability in porous media is, the more severe slip effect of gas flow will be. We design and then carry out experiments with the increase of backpressure at the outlet of the core samples based on the definition of gas slip effect and in view of different levels of permeability of tight sandstone reservoir. This study inspects a limit pressure of the gas slip effect in tight sandstones and analyzes the characteristic parameter of capillary pressure curves. The experimental results indicate that gas slip effect can be eliminated when the backpressure reaches a limit pressure. When the backpressure exceeds the limit pressure, the measured gas permeability is a relatively stable value whose range is less than 3% for a given core sample. It is also found that the limit pressure increases with the decreasing in permeability and has close relation with pore structure of the core samples. The results have an important influence on correlation study on gas flow in porous medium, and are beneficial to reduce the workload of laboratory experiment. PMID:24379747

  11. A thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures considering pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior (United States)

    Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi


    A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.

  12. Analysis of the temperature and pore water pressure field in the TED heating experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garitte, B.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Conil, N.; Armand, G


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The TED experiment is a heating experiment in Callovo-Oxfordian Clay performed in the Meuse Haute Marne underground research laboratory. It was set up by Andra to confirm the results obtained in a previous thermal experiment (TER). The main objectives are: characterisation of the thermal properties of intact argillite, identification of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) coupling parameters, improvement of the understanding of THM behaviour and comparison of parameters measured in-situ and in the laboratory. The three heaters in the TED experiment were installed parallel at a distance of about 2.7 m to reproduce as closely as possible the real storage case (HA cells). This arrangement should allow the verification of: i) the superposition of several temperature fields generated by the three heaters and ii) the overpressure generated in the symmetry planes between the three heaters. Three heaters 4 m long and 0.143 m diameter have been installed in parallel boreholes drilled form GED gallery. To limit the influence of the conditions prevailing in the gallery, a distance of 12 m have been left between the GED wall and the closest extremity of the heaters. Rock has been intensively instrumented within a zone of 15 m around the heaters. There are 108 thermal sensors, 10 pore pressure sensors, 2 extensometers/inclinometers, placed in 13 different small diameter boreholes (56 mm). 11 boreholes were filled with bentonite (those containing thermal and pore pressure sensors) and 2 of them left open (those equipped with extensometer/inclinometers). First heating started on 22 January 2010 at the central heater and consists of three steps: 120 days at 180 W, 150 days at 300 W and one last period at 600 W. The two lateral heaters have been switched on after 14 months following the same heating sequence. The concept and the results of the TED experiment are fully described in a companion paper. Concerning heat transport

  13. Permeability changes induced by microfissure closure and opening in tectonized materials. Effect on slope pore pressure regime. (United States)

    De la Fuente, Maria; Vaunat, Jean; Pedone, Giuseppe; Cotecchia, Federica; Sollecito, Francesca; Casini, Francesca


    Tectonized clays are complex materials characterized by several levels of structures that may evolve during load and wetting/drying processes. Some microstructural patterns, as microfissures, have a particular influence on the value of permeability which is one of the main factors controlling pore pressure regime in slopes. In this work, the pore pressure regime measured in a real slope of tectonized clay in Southern Italy is analyzed by a numerical model that considers changes in permeability induced by microfissure closure and opening during the wetting and drying processes resulting from climatic actions. Permeability model accounts for the changes in Pore Size Distribution observed by Microscopy Intrusion Porosimetry. MIP tests are performed on representative samples of ground in initial conditions ("in situ" conditions) and final conditions (deformed sample after applying a wetting path that aims to reproduce the saturation of the soil under heavy rains). The resulting measurements allow for the characterization at microstructural level of the soil, identifying the distribution of dominant families pores in the sample and its evolution under external actions. Moreover, comparison of pore size density functions allows defining a microstructural parameter that depends on void ratio and degree of saturation and controls the variation of permeability. Model has been implemented in a thermo-hydro-mechanical code provided with a special boundary condition for climatic actions. Tool is used to analyze pore pressure measurements obtained in the tectonized clay slope. Results are analyzed at the light of the effect that permeability changes during wetting and drying have on the pore pressure regime.

  14. Study on reciprocal relation of pore water pressure with genetic algorithm and neural network model (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Shoji; Nakajima, Makoto; Toida, Masaru; Kunimaru, Takanori; Watanabe, Kunio; Sohail Ahmed Rai


    Horonobe Underground Research Center has carried out the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project which is a comprehensive research project to investigate the deep geological environment within sedimentary rock. In this project, long-term observation of the pore water pressure has been conducted with monitoring systems introduced in 9 of 11 boreholes drilled in phase I (surface-based investigation). Since August 2003 the monitoring systems have been settled successively in the boreholes, and a certain amount of the pore water pressure data has been already accumulated. Using 6 borehole data (HDB-1,3,6,7,8,9) among this, this report summarized the result of a study on reciprocal relation of pore water pressure to investigate the hydrogeological environment of this site. At first, to exclude the influences of working of nature such as tide and atmospheric pressure from the source data, an analysis with Bayesian model was progressed. As the result of the estimation of these influences calculated by BAYTAP-G (Bayesian Tidal Analysis Program Grouping Model), it was found that the influence of the atmospheric pressure was comparatively large and that of tide was comparatively small. Secondly, an analysis on the reciprocal relation of the pore water pressure was carried out to investigate the relation between the different depth points of the same borehole and the relation between different boreholes. As the result of the calculations with genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network models (BPANN, GAANN), it was found that estimation by GA models was better than other models in the case where analyzing data included radical changes. And the result also showed that in regions lower than GL.-400m of HDB-3,6,7,8, the pore water pressures change in the same manner. These results indicate the effectiveness of this analysis method. (author)

  15. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian


    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments

  16. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.


    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  17. Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F.


    Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

  18. Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J


    We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.

  19. A Tilt, Soil Moisture, and Pore Water Pressure Sensor System for Slope Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanno de Dios


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and characterization of a sensor network intended for monitoring of slope deformation and potential failures. The sensor network system consists of a tilt and moisture sensor column, a pore water pressure sensor column and a personal computer for data storage and processing. The tilt sensor column consists of several pipe segments containing tri-axial accelerometers and signal processing electronics. Each segment is joined together by flexible joints to allow for the column to deform and subsequently track underground movement. Capacitive-type sensors for soil moisture measurement are also included in the sensor column, which are used to measure the soil moisture at different depths. The measurements at each segment are transferred via a Controller Area Network (CAN bus, where the CAN master node is located at the top of the column above ground. The CAN master node transmits the collected data from the slave nodes via a wireless connection to a personal computer that performs data storage, processing and display via a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI. The entire system was deployed and characterized on a small-scale slope model. Slope failure was induced via water seepage and the system was demonstrated to ably measure the inclination and soil moisture content throughout the landslide event.

  20. Multistep triaxial strength tests: investigating strength parameters and pore pressure effects on Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesle, W.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The impact of natural variability between rock samples from a single formation is a common problem for the characterisation of THM properties of rocks. Data variation arising from heterogeneity between samples often obscures details of material behaviour. Besides efforts to reduce this statistical noise by careful selection of samples, there are essentially two approaches to overcome this problem: - To generate very large data sets for better statistics. - To avoid the impact of natural variability by yielding an extensive data set from a single sample. The multistep strength test follows the latter approach to characterise the mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri and the possible impact of pore pressure effects. The concept of the multistep strength test comprises three test sections, each focused on the investigation of one mechanical characteristic of Opalinus Clay. Any section is composed of a series of strain controlled load cycles at various levels of confining pressure. 1) The linear elastic limit, i.e. the onset of nonlinearity in the stress-strain-relationship σ dev (ε 1 ) during strain-controlled triaxial loading, is determined in section 1. It defines a lower limit for the onset of damage. Avoiding sample damage is essential during this test section to ensure that all measurements reflect the behaviour of undisturbed material. Therefore, a rather strict and well detectable criterion for the onset of nonlinearity is required to enable a timely termination of any load phase. 2) Section 2 is focused on shear strength. Any load cycle is stopped as soon as peak stress is detected. As progressive damage of the sample is unavoidable during this process, it must be expected that only very few measured peak stresses approximately represent properties of the undamaged material. 3) Test section 3 is a conventional test of residual strength. Tests are carried out on cylindrical samples (100 mm

  1. Micro X-ray CT imaging of pore-scale changes in unconsolidated sediment under confining pressure (United States)

    Schindler, M.; Prasad, M.


    Micro X-ray computed tomography was used to image confining-pressure induced changes in a dry, unconsolidated quartz sand pack while simultaneously recording ultrasonic P-wave velocities. The experiments were performed under in-situ pressure of up to 4000 psi. The majority of digital rock physics studies rely on micro CT images obtained under ambient pressure and temperature conditions although effective rock properties strongly depend on in situ conditions. Goal of this work is to be able to obtain micro CT images of rock samples while pore and confining pressure is applied. Simultaneously we recorded ultrasonic P-wave velocities. The combination of imaging and velocity measurements provides insight in pore-scale changes in the rock and their influence on elastic properties. We visually observed a reduction in porosity by more than a third of the initial value as well as extensive grain damage, changes in pore and grain size distribution and an increase in contact number and contact radius with increasing confining pressure. An increase in measured ultrasonic P-wave velocities with increasing pressure was observed. We used porosity, contact number and contact radius obtained from micro CT images to model P-wave velocity with the contact-radius model by Bachrach et al. (1998). Our observations showed that the frame of unconsolidated sediments is significantly altered starting at pressures of only 1000 psi. This finding indicates that common assumptions in rock physics models (the solid frame remains unchanged) are violated for unconsolidated sediments. The effects on the solid frame should be taken into account when modeling the pressure dependence of elastic rock properties.

  2. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U.A.; Mody, F.K.; Mese, A.I. [Halliburton Energy Services, Cairo (Egypt)


    Experimental studies were conducted to explain the concept of a real-time wellbore (in)stability logging methodology. The role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations was examined by providing details about a pore pressure transmission (PPT) test. The PPT experiments exposed formation (shale) cores under simulated downhole conditions to various salt solutions and drilling fluids. The main objective was to translate the results of the PPT tests to actual drilling conditions. A 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution was exposed to a Pierre II shale under high pressure in the PPT apparatus. The PPT test was used to estimate the impact of a drilling fluid on shale pore pressure. The efficiency of the salt solution/shale system was also estimated. Estimates of the dynamic rock properties were made based on the obtained acoustic data. It was determined that in order to accurately model time-dependent wellbore (in)stability in the field, it is important to calibrate representative shale core response to drilling fluids under realistic in-situ conditions. The 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution showed very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. It was concluded that changes in the shale dynamic rock properties as a function of test fluid exposure can be obtained from the simultaneous acquisition of sonic compression and shear wave velocity data. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.


    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  4. The Rapid Formation of Localized Compaction Bands Under Hydrostatic Load Leading to Pore-pressure Transients in Compacting Rocks (United States)

    Faulkner, D.; Leclere, H.; Bedford, J. D.; Behnsen, J.; Wheeler, J.


    Compaction of porous rocks can occur uniformly or within localized deformation bands. The formation of compaction bands and their effects on deformation behaviour are poorly understood. Porosity may be primary and compaction can occur with burial, or it can be produced by metamorphic reactions with a solid volume reduction, that can then undergo collapse. We report results from hydrostatic compaction experiments on porous bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O) aggregates. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is first dehydrated under low effective pressure, 4 MPa, to produce a bassanite aggregate with a porosity of 27%. Compaction is induced by increasing confining pressure at rates from 0.001 MPa/s to 0.02 MPa/s while the sample is maintained at a temperature of 115°C. At slow compaction rates, porosity collapse proceeds smoothly. At higher compaction rates, sudden increases in the pore-fluid pressure occur with a magnitude of 5 MPa. Microstructural investigations using X-ray microtomography and SEM observations show that randomly oriented localized compaction features occur in all samples, where the bulk porosity of 18% outside the band is reduced to 5% inside the band. Previous work on deformation bands has suggested that localized compactive features only form under an elevated differential stress and not under a hydrostatic stress state. The magnitude of the pore-pressure pulses can be explained by the formation of compaction bands. The results indicate that the compaction bands can form by rapid (unstable) propagation across the sample above a critical strain rate, or quasi-statically at low compaction rates without pore-fluid pressure bursts. The absence of pore-fluid pressure bursts at slow compaction rates can be explained by viscous deformation of the bassanite aggregate around the tip of a propagating compaction band, relaxing stress, and promoting stable propagation. Conversely, at higher compaction rates, viscous deformation cannot relax the stress sufficiently and unstable

  5. A modified approach to predict pore pressure using the D exponent method: An example from the Carbonera Formation, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Yully P; Uribe, Rodolfo; Frydman, Marcelo; Saavedra, Nestor F; Calderon, Zuly H


    The methodology for the pore pressure prediction known as an exponent is o function of an exponent of adjustment that was originally defined for the Gulf of Mexico (Jorden and Shirley, 1966; Eaton, 1972). A limiting factor of this methodology is the definition of the normal compaction trend (NCT), which needs to be interpreted from the data (Mouchet and Mitchell, 1989). In this study, the D exponent methodology was modified to make it applicable to the Oligocene Carbonera Formation in an oil field of the llanos foothills Colombia. The approach consisted of calculating the ratio between affective stress and the D exponent of each wall, in order to find a robust NCT for the entire field, thus reducing subjectivity in the traditional d exponent methodology. Pore pressure determinations from Measured Direct Tests (MDT) at one wall confirm the predictive capability of our approach

  6. Spectral element modelling of seismic wave propagation in visco-elastoplastic media including excess-pore pressure development (United States)

    Oral, Elif; Gélis, Céline; Bonilla, Luis Fabián; Delavaud, Elise


    Numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation, considering soil nonlinearity, has become a major topic in seismic hazard studies when strong shaking is involved under particular soil conditions. Indeed, when strong ground motion propagates in saturated soils, pore pressure is another important parameter to take into account when successive phases of contractive and dilatant soil behaviour are expected. Here, we model 1-D seismic wave propagation in linear and nonlinear media using the spectral element numerical method. The study uses a three-component (3C) nonlinear rheology and includes pore-pressure excess. The 1-D-3C model is used to study the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake (ML 6.6), which was recorded at the Wildlife Refuge Liquefaction Array, USA. The data of this event present strong soil nonlinearity involving pore-pressure effects. The ground motion is numerically modelled for different assumptions on soil rheology and input motion (1C versus 3C), using the recorded borehole signals as input motion. The computed acceleration-time histories show low-frequency amplification and strong high-frequency damping due to the development of pore pressure in one of the soil layers. Furthermore, the soil is found to be more nonlinear and more dilatant under triaxial loading compared to the classical 1C analysis, and significant differences in surface displacements are observed between the 1C and 3C approaches. This study contributes to identify and understand the dominant phenomena occurring in superficial layers, depending on local soil properties and input motions, conditions relevant for site-specific studies.

  7. Differential equations governing slip-induced pore-pressure fluctuations in a water-saturated granular medium (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.


    Macroscopic frictional slip in water-saturated granular media occurs commonly during landsliding, surface faulting, and intense bedload transport. A mathematical model of dynamic pore-pressure fluctuations that accompany and influence such sliding is derived here by both inductive and deductive methods. The inductive derivation shows how the governing differential equations represent the physics of the steadily sliding array of cylindrical fiberglass rods investigated experimentally by Iverson and LaHusen (1989). The deductive derivation shows how the same equations result from a novel application of Biot's (1956) dynamic mixture theory to macroscopic deformation. The model consists of two linear differential equations and five initial and boundary conditions that govern solid displacements and pore-water pressures. Solid displacements and water pressures are strongly coupled, in part through a boundary condition that ensures mass conservation during irreversible pore deformation that occurs along the bumpy slip surface. Feedback between this deformation and the pore-pressure field may yield complex system responses. The dual derivations of the model help explicate key assumptions. For example, the model requires that the dimensionless parameter B, defined here through normalization of Biot's equations, is much larger than one. This indicates that solid-fluid coupling forces are dominated by viscous rather than inertial effects. A tabulation of physical and kinematic variables for the rod-array experiments of Iverson and LaHusen and for various geologic phenomena shows that the model assumptions commonly are satisfied. A subsequent paper will describe model tests against experimental data. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. In situ stress and pore pressure in the Kumano Forearc Basin, offshore SW Honshu from downhole measurements during riser drilling (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Boutt, D.; Doan, M.-L.; Ito, T.; McNeill, L.; Byrne, T.; Conin, M.; Lin, W.; Kano, Y.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.


    situ stress and pore pressure are key parameters governing rock deformation, yet direct measurements of these quantities are rare. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition #319, we drilled through a forearc basin at the Nankai subduction zone and into the underlying accretionary prism. We used the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool (MDT) for the first time in IODP to measure in situ minimum stress, pore pressure, and permeability at 11 depths between 729.9 and 1533.9 mbsf. Leak-off testing at 708.6 mbsf conducted as part of drilling operations provided a second measurement of minimum stress. The MDT campaign included nine single-probe (SP) tests to measure permeability and in situ pore pressure and two dual-packer (DP) tests to measure minimum principal stress. Permeabilities defined from the SP tests range from 6.53 × 10-17 to 4.23 × 10-14 m2. Pore fluid pressures are near hydrostatic throughout the section despite rapid sedimentation. This is consistent with the measured hydraulic diffusivity of the sediments and suggests that the forearc basin should not trap overpressures within the upper plate of the subduction zone. Minimum principal stresses are consistently lower than the vertical stress. We estimate the maximum horizontal stress from wellbore failures at the leak-off test and shallow MDT DP test depths. The results indicate a normal or strike-slip stress regime, consistent with the observation of abundant active normal faults in the seaward-most part of the basin, and a general decrease in fault activity in the vicinity of Site C0009.

  9. Investigating Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Fine-Grained Reservoir Rocks: Insights from Using Ethane Permeability Measurements over a Range of Pore Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aidan Letham


    Full Text Available The ability to quantify effective permeability at the various fluid saturations and stress states experienced during production from shale oil and shale gas reservoirs is required for efficient exploitation of the resources, but to date experimental challenges prevent measurement of the effective permeability of these materials over a range of fluid saturations. To work towards overcoming these challenges, we measured effective permeability of a suite of gas shales to gaseous ethane over a range of pore pressures up to the saturated vapour pressure. Liquid/semiliquid ethane saturation increases due to adsorption and capillary condensation with increasing pore pressure resulting in decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas. By how much effective permeability to ethane gas decreases with adsorption and capillary condensation depends on the pore size distribution of each sample and the stress state that effective permeability is measured at. Effective permeability decreases more at higher stress states because the pores are smaller at higher stress states. The largest effective permeability drops occur in samples with dominant pore sizes in the mesopore range. These pores are completely blocked due to capillary condensation at pore pressures near the saturated vapour pressure of ethane. Blockage of these pores cuts off the main fluid flow pathways in the rock, thereby drastically decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas.

  10. Free water transport, small pore transport and the osmotic pressure gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parikova, Alena; Smit, Watske; Zweers, Machteld M.; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.


    BACKGROUND: Water transport in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients occurs through the small pores and water channels, the latter allowing free water transport (FWT). The osmotic gradient is known to be one of the major determinants of water transport. The objective of the study was to analyse the

  11. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos) (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.


    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  12. First-order Probabilistic Analysis of the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pore-water Pressure in a Hillslope (United States)

    Cai, J.; Yan, E.; Yeh, T. C. J.


    Pore-water pressure in a hillslope is a critical control of its stability. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a first-order moment analysis to investigate the pressure head variability within a hypothetical hillslope, induced by steady rainfall infiltration. This approach accounts for the uncertainties and spatial variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and is based on a first-order Taylor approximation of pressure perturbations calculated by a variably saturated, finite element flow model. Using this approach, the effects of variance (σ2lnKs) and spatial structure anisotropy (λh/λv) of natural logarithm of saturated hydraulic conductivity, and normalized vertical infiltration flux (q/ks) on the hillslope pore-water pressure are evaluated. We found that the responses of pressure head variability (σ2p) are quite different between unsaturated region and saturated region divided by the phreatic surface. Above the phreatic surface, a higher variability in pressure head is obtained from a higher σ2lnKs, a higher λh/λv and a smaller q/ks; while below the phreatic surface, a higher σ2lnKs, a lower λh/λv or a larger q/ks would lead to a higher variability in pressure head, and greater range of fluctuation of the phreatic surface within the hillslope. σ2lnKs has greatest impact on σ2p within the slope and λh/λv has smallest impact. All three variables have greater influence on maximum σ2p within the saturated region below the phreatic surface than that within the unsaturated region above the phreatic surface. The results obtained from this study are useful to understand the influence of hydraulic conductivity variations on slope seepage and stability under different slope conditions and material spatial distributions.

  13. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu


    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  14. Stress and Pore Pressure Measurement in IODP Riser Drilling: An Example from Expedition 319, Kumano Basin offshore SW Honshu, Japan (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; McNeill, L. C.; Byrne, T. B.; Araki, E.; Flemings, P. B.; Conin, M.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Toczko, S.; Boutt, D. F.; Doan, M.; Kano, Y.; Ito, T.; Lin, W.


    In summer 2009, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 319 drilled a 1600 m deep riser borehole (Site C0009) in the Kumano Basin offshore SW Japan, to investigate the properties, structure and state of stress in the hanging wall above the subduction plate boundary. The first riser-based scientific drilling in IODP history allowed us to make several new scientific measurements including in situ stress magnitude, pore pressure and permeability using the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool, and measurement of minimum stress magnitude from Leak-off Tests (LOT). In addition, continuous monitoring of mud weight, mud gas, annular pressure, and mud losses provided data to constrain formation pore fluid pressure and stress. At Site C0009, we conducted 2 LOTs below a casing shoe at 708.6 m depth and 11 successful MDT measurements, including 9 single probe tests to measure pore pressure and fluid mobility and 2 dual packer tests: 1 to measure permeability by a drawdown test, and 1 to measure in situ stress. Measured pore pressures are approximately hydrostatic to 1463.7 m depth. We observed only minor gas shows when drilling ahead (as in-place methane was liberated from the rock at the bit) but little or no gas during pipe connections. This indicates that the borehole mud pressure exceeded the formation pore pressure, and is consistent with the MDT measurements. Permeabilities range from ~10-16 m2 - 10-14 m2, and the observed variation is consistent with lithologic changes defined in gamma ray logs. The MDT measurement at 874.3 mbsf and the LOT at 708.6 m yield values for the least principal stress of 34.8 MPa and 30.2 MPa, respectively. Both are less than the vertical stress (Sv) computed from density logs. Partial mud circulation losses occurred when the borehole mud pressure exceeded the leak-off stress measured at the base of the casing shoe; this provides an additional indirect constraint on Shmin magnitude. Mud pressure slightly in excess

  15. Laboratory Investigation to Assess the Impact of Pore Pressure Decline and Confining Stress on Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalil Rehman Memon


    Full Text Available Four core samples of outcrop type shale from Mancos, Marcellus, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale formations were studied to evaluate the productivity performance and reservoir connectivity at elevated temperature and pressure. These laboratory experiments were conducted using hydrostatic permeability system with helium as test gas primarily to avoid potential significant effects of adsorption and/or associated swelling that might affect permeability. It was found that the permeability reduction was observed due to increasing confining stress and permeability improvement was observed related to Knudsen flow and molecular slippage related to Klinkenberg effect. Through the effective permeability of rock is improved at lower pore pressures, as 1000 psi. The effective stress with relatively high flow path was identified, as 100-200 nm, in Eagle Ford core sample. However other three samples showed low marginal flow paths in low connectivity.

  16. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides (United States)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia


    Shallow landslides can be defined as slope movements affecting superficial deposits of small thicknesses which are usually triggered due to extreme rainfall events, also very concentrated in time. Shallow landslides are hazardous phenomena: in particular, if they happen close to urbanized areas they could cause significant damages to cultivations, structures, infrastructures and, sometimes, human losses. The triggering mechanism of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is strictly linked with the hydrological and mechanical responses of usually unsaturated soils to rainfall events. For this reason, it is fundamental knowing the intrinsic hydro-mechanical properties of the soils in order to assess both susceptibility and hazard of shallow landslide and to develop early-warning systems at large scale. The hydrological data collected by a 20 months monitoring on a slope susceptible to shallow landslides in an area of the North -Eastern Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Apennines, Italy) were used to identify the hydrological behaviors of the investigated soils towards rainfall events. Field conditions under different rainfall trends have also been modeled by using both hydrological and physically-based stability models for the evaluation of the slope safety factor . The main objectives of this research are: (a) to compare the field measured pore water pressures at different depths with results of hydrological models, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the tested models and to determine how precipitations affect pore pressure development; (b) to compare the time trends of the safety factor that have been obtained by applying different stability models; (c) to evaluate, through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of soil hydrological properties on modeling pore water pressure and safety factor. The test site slope where field measurements were acquired is representative of other sites in Northern Apennines affected by shallow landslides and is characterized by medium

  17. Pore Pressure Diffusion as a possible mechanism for the Ag. Ioanis 2001 earthquake swarm activity (Gulf of Corinth, Central Greece). (United States)

    Vallianatos, F.; Michas, G.; Papadakis, G.; Sammonds, P.


    The Gulf of Corinth rift (Central Greece) is one of the most seismotectonically active areas in Europe (Ambraseys and Jackson, 1990; 1997), with an important continental N-S extension of about 13 mm/yr and 6 mm/yr at the west and east part respectively (Clarke et al., 1997a). The seismicity of the area includes 5 main earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 since 1960. In the western part of the rift, where the extension reaches its maximum value, earthquake swarms are often being observed (Bourouis and Cornet, 2009). Such an earthquake crisis has been occurred on 2001 at the southern margin of the west part of the rift. The crisis lasted about 100 days with a major event the Ag. Ioanis earthquake (4.3 Mw) on 8th of April 2001 (Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen, 2010). The possible relation between fluids flow and the observed earthquake swarms at the west part of the Gulf of Corinth rift has been discussed in the works of Bourouis and Cornet (2009) and Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen (2010). In the present work we examine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ag. Ioanis 2001 earthquake swarm, using data from the CRL network ( We connect these properties to a mechanism due to pore pressure diffusion (Shapiro et al., 1997) and we estimate the hydraulic diffusivity and the permeability of the surrounding rocks. A back front of the seismicity (Parotidis et al., 2004) is also been observed, related to the migration of seismicity and the development of a quiescence region near the area of the initial pore pressure perturbation. Moreover, anisotropy of the hydraulic diffusivity has been observed, revealing the heterogeneity of the surrounding rocks and the fracture systems. This anisotropy is consistent in direction with the fault zone responsible for the Ag. Ioanis earthquake (Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen, 2010). Our results indicate that fluids flow and pore pressure perturbations are possible mechanisms for the initiation and the evolution of the Ag. Ioanis 2001

  18. A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.


    Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.

  19. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji


    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  20. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts. (United States)


    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  1. Pore Pressure Under A Gravity Based Structure Under The Influence Of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Madsen, Mikael Thyge


    based foundation. This leads typically to very conservative designs in order to accommodate the uncertainties in the procedure. The experiments shall lead to better prediction models based on for instance CFD model’s with the direct calculation of pressure variations in the seabed and any erosion...

  2. Pore Characterization of Shale Rock and Shale Interaction with Fluids at Reservoir Pressure-Temperature Conditions Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (United States)

    Ding, M.; Hjelm, R.; Watkins, E.; Xu, H.; Pawar, R.


    Oil/gas produced from unconventional reservoirs has become strategically important for the US domestic energy independence. In unconventional realm, hydrocarbons are generated and stored in nanopores media ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Fundamental knowledge of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes that control fluid flow and propagation within nano-pore confinement is critical for maximizing unconventional oil/gas production. The size and confinement of the nanometer pores creates many complex rock-fluid interface interactions. It is imperative to promote innovative experimental studies to decipher physical and chemical processes at the nanopore scale that govern hydrocarbon generation and mass transport of hydrocarbon mixtures in tight shale and other low permeability formations at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions. We have carried out laboratory investigations exploring quantitative relationship between pore characteristics of the Wolfcamp shale from Western Texas and the shale interaction with fluids at reservoir P-T conditions using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have performed SANS measurements of the shale rock in single fluid (e.g., H2O and D2O) and multifluid (CH4/(30% H2O+70% D2O)) systems at various pressures up to 20000 psi and temperature up to 150 oF. Figure 1 shows our SANS data at different pressures with H2O as the pressure medium. Our data analysis using IRENA software suggests that the principal changes of pore volume in the shale occurred on smaller than 50 nm pores and pressure at 5000 psi (Figure 2). Our results also suggest that with increasing P, more water flows into pores; with decreasing P, water is retained in the pores.

  3. Effect of unstable layer depth on the pore pressure distribution, case study of the Slano Blato landslide (Slovenia) (United States)

    Askarinejad, Amin; Secchi, Bandar; Macek, Matej; Petkovsek, Ana; Springman, Sarah


    The Slano Blato landslide is one of the largest landslides in Slovenia with a volume of more than 1 mio m3 of moving debris. The landslide is located at the border of Triassic limestone and Eocene flysch formations. Flysch is composed of layers of marls and sandstones. The sliding mass consists mainly of clay and clayey gravel of highly weathered and deteriorated flysch, while a minor part represents grains and blocks of limestones. (Petkovšek et al., 2009). The first documentation of an instability event dates back to 1789 and the landslide was reactivated during a heavy rain period in November 2000. Since then, the ground surface level above the unstable material on the upper zones of the landslide is significantly decreasing so that the current slope surface is now more than 10 m below the terrain surveyed in 1998. The new landslide topography results in different pore pressure distributions in the slope, which were anticipated to have a detrimental effect on the stability and movement regime of the slope. The main goal of this work is to investigate the effect of the overlying debris depth on the pore water pressure distribution during a predefined precipitation scenario. The behaviour of the unsaturated soil and the effects of fissures in the bedrock are also considered in the analysis. Hydro-mechanical simulations were performed using 2D finite element software (PLAXIS) and numerical results are compared with results from analytical models, which use a 1D steady state formulation for the hydraulic part and a 2D limit equilibrium approach to calculate the safety factors. The numerical studies show significant change in the pore water pressure distribution in the landslide body with variation of the debris depth. An increase in the debris depth leads to higher suction due to the deeper location of the water table. Higher suction increases landslide stability due to: i) increase of the effective stress and hence the shear strength of the material and ii

  4. The use of paleo-thermo-barometers and coupled thermal, fluid flow and pore fluid pressure modelling for hydrocarbon and reservoir prediction in fold and thrust belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roure, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Callot, J.P.; Ferket, H.; Gonzales, E.; Guilhaumou, N.; Hardebol, N.J.; Lacombe, O.; Malandain, J.; Mougin, P.; Muska, K.; Ortuno, S.; Sassi, W.; Swennen, R.; Vilasi, N.


    Basin modelling tools are now more efficient to reconstruct palinspastic structural cross sections and compute the history of temperature, pore-fluid pressure and fluid flow circulations in complex structural settings. In many cases and especially in areas where limited erosion occurred, the use of

  5. Studies of in Situ Pore Pressure Fluctuations At Various Scales Études des fluctuations in situ de la pression de pore à différentes échelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kümpel H. J.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure fluctuations in fluid saturated geological formations, either of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be observed at different scales. Natural fluctuations, e. g. , due to tidal, barometric or seismogenic forcing, or man-made effects as through use of underground fluid reservoirs, or initial filling and cyclic loading of lake reservoirs may have wavelengths from meters to kilometers. In situ monitoring of processes, in which both rock deformation and pore pressure changes are significant, improves our knowledge on the mechanical behaviour and the role of pore pressure in porous rocks and sedimentary layers. Pressure transducers for continuous recording of fluid level variations in wells, reflecting pore pressure changes at depth, or borehole tiltmeters that are sensitive to ground deformation caused by gradients of pore pressure fluctuations are relatively simple means to trace the dynamics of such rock-fluid interactions. The obtained data series are usually interpreted in two ways: by application of analytical solutions-adopting homogeneous poroelastic conditions or single fracture models in a uniform, elastic medium-and by simulation through numerical calculations allowing for some heterogeneity in the model volume. Field cases presented in this article include tilt measurements in the vicinity of pumped wells (1 to 100 m scale, fluid level monitoring in wells (borehole scale, and studies of pore pressure effects induced by seismic events (1 to 100 km scale. Specific rock parameters that can be constrained are the Skempton ratio, the hydraulic diffusivity, and the type of the effective rheology. In cases of tiltmeter studies, anisotropy of pore fluid flow can also be detected. Keywords: fluids in rocks, pore pressure, poroelasticity, hydrology. Les fluctuations de la pression de pore dans les formations géologiques saturées en fluides, d'origine naturelle ou anthropogéniques, peuvent être observées à différentes

  6. Characterization of Coal Micro-Pore Structure and Simulation on the Seepage Rules of Low-Pressure Water Based on CT Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper used the X-ray three-dimensional (3D microscope and acquired, through CT scanning, the 3D data of the long-frame coal sample from the Daliuta Coal Mine. Then, the 3D datacube reconstructed from the coal’s CT scanning data was visualized with the use of Avizo, an advanced visualization software (FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA. By means of a gray-scale segmentation technique, the model of the coal’s micro-pore structure was extracted from the object region, and the precise characterization was then conducted. Finally, the numerical simulation on the water seepage characteristics in the coal micro-pores model under the pressure of 3 MPa was performed on the CFX platform. Results show that the seepage of low-pressure water exhibited preference to the channels with large pore radii, short paths, and short distance from the outlet. The seepage pressure of low-pressure water decreased gradually along the seepage direction, while the seepage velocity of low-pressure water decreased gradually along the direction from the pore center to the wall. Regarding the single-channel seepage behaviors, the seepage velocity and mass flow rate of water seepage in the X direction were the largest, followed by the values of the seepage in the Y direction, and the seepage velocity and mass flow rate of water seepage in the Z direction were the smallest. Compared with the results in single-channel seepage, the dual-channel seepage in the direction of (X + Y and the multi-channel seepage in the direction of (X + Y + Z exhibited significant increases in the overall seepage velocity. The present study extends the application of 3D CT scanning data and provides a new idea and approach for exploring the seepage rules in coal micro-pore structures.

  7. Pore pressure propagation in a permeable thin-layer coal seam based on a dual porosity model: A case of risk prediction of water inrush in coalmines (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Gao, F.; Yang, J. W.; Zhou, G. Q.


    Thin-layer coal seams, a type of filling coal rock body, are considered aquifer systems made up of dual porosity medium with immediate floor. A numerical simulation for the pore pressure propagation along a thin-layer coal seam was carried out for the case of the Zhaogezhuang coalmine in China. By valuing the permeability (Kf ) of the thin-layer coal seam, pore pressure variation with time was simulated and compared to the analytical solutions of a dual porosity model (DPM). The main conclusions were drawn as follow: (1) Seepage in the thin-layer coal seam was predominant in the whole process, and the distance of seepage was lengthened and the pore pressure decreased with increased Kf , (2) A series of simulated hydraulic graphs demonstrated that the pore pressure characteristics of peak-occurring and time-lag effects agreed with the analytical solutions of DPM; (3) By adjusting the parameters of DPM, two results of analytical solutions and numerical solutions fit well, particularly in the thin-layer coal seam, (4) The power law relationship between the peak-values and lag time of pore pressure were derived statistically under consideration of the Kf parameter in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 m2/pa-s orders, and it was reasonable that the Kf of the thin-layer coal seam was in the range of 10-8 m2/pa-s orders. The results were significantly helpful in decision-making for mining water prevention and prediction in practice.

  8. Effect of uncertainty in pore volumes on the uncertainty in amount adsorbed at high-pressures on activated carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Ph.; Badalyan, A.


    determination on the adsorption capacity and the specific surface excess on FMI/250 ACC at high-pressures, assess the extent of hysteresis in the pore volume and size distribution as a result of low-high-low pressure cycling, and show the influence of chemisorbed oxygen on the amount adsorbed and the materials physical property values. [1] E. Dimotakis, M. P. Cal, J. Economy, M. J. Rood, S. Larson, Environmental Science and Technology, 29, 1876,1995. [2] D. Lozano-Castello, J. Alcaniz-Monge, M. A. de la Casa-Lillo, D. Cazorla-Amoros, A. Linares-Solano, Fuel, 81, 1777, 2 002. [3] Sh. Jiang, J. A. Zollweg, K. E. Gubbins, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 98, 5709,1994. (authors)

  9. A new technique for obtaining high-resolution pore pressure records in thick claystone aquitards and its use to determine in situ compressibility (United States)

    Smith, Laura A.; van der Kamp, Garth; Jim Hendry, M.


    Laboratory tests are commonly used to determine properties (vertical compressibility, α; specific storage, SS; and vertical hydraulic conductivity, Kv) of claystone aquitards; however, whether data representative of in situ conditions can be obtained from disturbed samples is questionable. Here, we present a method to determine the in situ α and SS of a thick sequence of Cretaceous aged claystone by estimating the loading efficiency (γ) of a formation from pore pressure responses to barometric pressure fluctuations. We installed 10 vibrating wire pressure transducers at different depths (25-325 m below ground) in a thick claystone aquitard by placing them directly within the cement-bentonite grout. Two years of continuous transducer records using this method appeared to provide pore pressure data with a resolution of better than one part in 105, equivalent to millimeter of hydraulic head change. Pore pressure responses to barometric pressure changes, earth tides, and precipitation events can be clearly identified, and the barometric responses can be easily analyzed. The resulting values of γ (0.6-0.93), α (2.5 × 10-7 to 2.2 × 10-6 kPa-1), and SS (2.6 × 10-5 to 4.5 × 10-6 m-1) all decrease with depth. The results are comparable with the limited existing data for in situ estimates of SS and are as much as an order of magnitude smaller than laboratory estimates of SS for similar aquitard deposits. Our findings suggest that the fully grouted transducer method can provide an accurate and reliable means to monitor pore pressure changes and to determine in situ parameters for bedrock aquitard systems.

  10. A Multilevel Investigation of the Association between School Context and Adolescent Nonphysical Bullying




    Although researchers have identified individual-level predictors of nonphysical bullying among children and youth, school-level predictors (i.e., characteristics of the school environment that influence bullying exposure) remain largely unstudied. Using data from a survey of 1,838 students in 21 Boston public high schools, we used multilevel modeling techniques to estimate the level of variation across schools in student reports of nonphysical bully victimization and identify school-level pre...

  11. Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.


    An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained

  12. Sediment compaction and pore pressure prediction in deepwater basin of the South China Sea: Estimation from ODP and IODP drilling well data (United States)

    Xie, Yangbing; Wu, Tuoyu; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiliang; Gao, Jinwei; Chen, Chuanxu


    Overpressure in deepwater basins not only causes serious soft sediment deformation, but also significantly affects the safety of drilling operations. Therefore, prediction of overpressure in sediments has become an important task in deepwater oil exploration and development. In this study, we analyze the drilling data from ODP Leg 184 Sites 1144, 1146, and 1148, and IODP Leg 349 Sites U1431, U1432, U1433, and U1435 to study the sediment compaction and controls in the northern South China Sea. Sedimentation rate, sediment content, distribution area, and buried depth are the factors that influence sediment compaction in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea. Among these factors, the sediment content is the most important. The fitted normal compacted coefficients and mudline porosity for an interval of 50 m shows disciplinary variation versus depth. The pore pressure predicted from different fitted results shows varying overpressure situations. The normal compaction trend from Site 1144 reflects the porosity variation trend in stable deposition basins in the northern South China Sea. The predicted pore pressure shows overpressure at Site 1144, which is attributed to compaction disequilibrium. Nevertheless, the mixed lithology column may influence the predicted over-pressure at Site 1148, which is responsible for the confusing result. Above all, we find that sediment compaction should serve as a proxy for pore pressure in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea.

  13. Numerical models of pore pressure and stress changes along basement faults due to wastewater injection: Applications to the 2014 Milan, Kansas Earthquake (United States)

    Hearn, Elizabeth H.; Koltermann, Christine; Rubinstein, Justin R.


    We have developed groundwater flow models to explore the possible relationship between wastewater injection and the 12 November 2014 Mw 4.8 Milan, Kansas earthquake. We calculate pore pressure increases in the uppermost crust using a suite of models in which hydraulic properties of the Arbuckle Formation and the Milan earthquake fault zone, the Milan earthquake hypocenter depth, and fault zone geometry are varied. Given pre‐earthquake injection volumes and reasonable hydrogeologic properties, significantly increasing pore pressure at the Milan hypocenter requires that most flow occur through a conductive channel (i.e., the lower Arbuckle and the fault zone) rather than a conductive 3‐D volume. For a range of reasonable lower Arbuckle and fault zone hydraulic parameters, the modeled pore pressure increase at the Milan hypocenter exceeds a minimum triggering threshold of 0.01 MPa at the time of the earthquake. Critical factors include injection into the base of the Arbuckle Formation and proximity of the injection point to a narrow fault damage zone or conductive fracture in the pre‐Cambrian basement with a hydraulic diffusivity of about 3–30 m2/s. The maximum pore pressure increase we obtain at the Milan hypocenter before the earthquake is 0.06 MPa. This suggests that the Milan earthquake occurred on a fault segment that was critically stressed prior to significant wastewater injection in the area. Given continued wastewater injection into the upper Arbuckle in the Milan region, assessment of the middle Arbuckle as a hydraulic barrier remains an important research priority.

  14. Seasonal Effects on the Relationships Between Soil Water Content, Pore Water Pressure and Shear Strength and Their Implications for Slope Stability (United States)

    Hughes, P. N.


    A soil's shear resistance is mainly dependent upon the magnitude of effective stress. For small to medium height slopes (up to 10m) in clay soils the total stress acting along potential failure planes will be low, therefore the magnitude of effective stress (and hence soil shear strength) will be dominated by the pore-water pressure. The stability of slopes on this scale through periods of increased precipitation is improved by the generation of negative pore pressures (soil suctions) during preceding, warmer, drier periods. These negative pore water pressures increase the effective stress within the soil and cause a corresponding increase in shearing resistance. The relationships between soil water content and pore water pressure (soil water retention curves) are known to be hysteretic, but for the purposes of the majority of slope stability assessments in partially saturated clay soils, these are assumed to be consistent with time. Similarly, the relationship between shear strength and water content is assumed to be consistent over time. This research presents a laboratory study in which specimens of compacted Glacial Till (typical of engineered slopes within the UK) were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting and drying to simulate seasonal cycles. At predetermined water contents, measurements of soil suction were made using tensiometer and dewpoint potentiometer methods. The undrained shear strength of the specimens was then measured using triaxial strength testing equipment. Results indicate that repeated wetting and drying cycles caused a change in the soil water retention behaviour. A reduction in undrained shear strength at corresponding water contents along the wetting and drying paths was also observed. The mechanism for the change in the relationship is believed to be a deterioration in the soil physical structure due to shrink/swell induced micro-cracking. The non-stationarity of these relationships has implications for slope stability assessment.

  15. Experimental–theoretical methodology for determination of inertial pressure drop distribution and pore structure properties in wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Serrano, J.R.; Piqueras, P.


    Wall-flow particulate filters have been placed as a standard technology for Diesel engines because of the increasing restrictions to soot emissions. The inclusion of this system within the exhaust line requires the development of computational tools to properly simulate its flow dynamics and acoustics behaviour. These aspects become the key to understand the influence on engine performance and driveability as a function of the filter placement. Since the pressure drop and the filtration process are strongly depending on the pore structure properties – permeability, porosity and pore size – a reliable definition of these characteristics is essential for model development. In this work a methodology is proposed to determine such properties based on the combination of the pressure drop rement in a steady flow test rig and two theoretical approaches. The later are a lumped model and a one-dimensional (1D) unsteady compressible flow model. The purpose is to simplify the integration of particulate filters into the global engine modelling and development processes avoiding the need to resort to specific and expensive characterisation tests. The proposed methodology was validated against measurements of the response of an uncoated diesel particulate filter (DPF) under different flow conditions as cold steady flow, impulsive flow and hot pulsating flow. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and modelling tools to characterise wall-flow DPFs pressure drop. ► Decomposition of inertial pressure drop contributions in canned DPFs. ► Methodology to define pore structure properties in clean wall-flow DPFs. ► Evaluation of specific permeability, porosity and mean pore diameter. ► Significant influence of slip-flow effect on uncoated wall-flow DPFs.

  16. Simulation of Co-Seismic Off-Fault Stress Effects: Influence of Fault Roughness and Pore Pressure Coupling (United States)

    Fälth, B.; Lund, B.; Hökmark, H.


    Aiming at improved safety assessment of geological nuclear waste repositories, we use dynamic 3D earthquake simulations to estimate the potential for co-seismic off-fault distributed fracture slip. Our model comprises a 12.5 x 8.5 km strike-slip fault embedded in a full space continuum where we apply a homogeneous initial stress field. In the reference case (Case 1) the fault is planar and oriented optimally for slip, given the assumed stress field. To examine the potential impact of fault roughness, we also study cases where the fault surface has undulations with self-similar fractal properties. In both the planar and the undulated cases the fault has homogeneous frictional properties. In a set of ten rough fault models (Case 2), the fault friction is equal to that of Case 1, meaning that these models generate lower seismic moments than Case 1. In another set of ten rough fault models (Case 3), the fault dynamic friction is adjusted such that seismic moments on par with that of Case 1 are generated. For the propagation of the earthquake rupture we adopt the linear slip-weakening law and obtain Mw 6.4 in Case 1 and Case 3, and Mw 6.3 in Case 2 (35 % lower moment than Case 1). During rupture we monitor the off-fault stress evolution along the fault plane at 250 m distance and calculate the corresponding evolution of the Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) on optimally oriented hypothetical fracture planes. For the stress-pore pressure coupling, we assume Skempton's coefficient B = 0.5 as a base case value, but also examine the sensitivity to variations of B. We observe the following: (I) The CFS values, and thus the potential for fracture slip, tend to increase with the distance from the hypocenter. This is in accordance with results by other authors. (II) The highest CFS values are generated by quasi-static stress concentrations around fault edges and around large scale fault bends, where we obtain values of the order of 10 MPa. (III) Locally, fault roughness may have a

  17. Fast intraslab fluid-flow events linked to pulses of high pore fluid pressure at the subducted plate interface (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas


    A better understanding of the subduction zone fluid cycle and its chemical-mechanical feedback requires in-depth knowledge about how fluids flow within and out of descending slabs. Relicts of fluid-flow systems in exhumed rocks of fossil subduction zones allow for identification of the general relationships between dehydration reactions, fluid pathway formation, the dimensions and timescales of distinct fluid flow events; all of which are required for quantitative models for fluid-induced subduction zone processes. Two types of garnet-quartz-phengite veins can be distinguished in an eclogite-facies mélange block from the Pouébo Eclogite Mélange, New Caledonia. These veins record synmetamorphic internal fluid release by mineral breakdown reactions (type I veins), and infiltration of an external fluid (type II veins) with the associated formation of a reaction selvage. The dehydration and fluid migration documented by the type I veins likely occurred on a timescale of 105-106 years, based on average subduction rates and metamorphic conditions required for mineral dehydration and fluid flow. The timeframe of fluid-rock interaction between the external fluid and the wall-rock of the type II veins is quantified using a continuous bulk-rock Li-diffusion profile perpendicular to a vein and its metasomatic selvage. Differences in Li concentration between the internal and external fluid reservoirs resulted in a distinct diffusion profile (decreasing Li concentration and increasing δ7 Li) as the reaction front propagated into the host rock. Li-chronometric constraints indicate that the timescales of fluid-rock interaction associated with type II vein formation are on the order of 1 to 4 months (0.150-0.08+0.14 years). The short-lived, pulse-like character of this process is consistent with the notion that fluid flow caused by oceanic crust dehydration at the blueschist-to-eclogite transition contributes to or even dominates episodic pore fluid pressure increases at the

  18. Episodic Sediment Failure in Northern Flemish Pass, Eastern Canadian Margin: Interplay of Seismicity, Contour Current Winnowing, and Excess Pore Pressures (United States)

    Piper, D.


    preconditioned the slope for earthquake triggering. There is circumstantial evidence that such preconditioning is related to excess pore pressures, released by fluid drainage at head scarps.

  19. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.


    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  20. Best Practices for Mudweight Window Generation and Accuracy Assessment between Seismic Based Pore Pressure Prediction Methodologies for a Near-Salt Field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Mannon, Timothy Patrick, Jr.

    Improving well design has and always will be the primary goal in drilling operations in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas plays are continuing to move into increasingly hostile drilling environments, including near and/or sub-salt proximities. The ability to reduce the risk and uncertainly involved in drilling operations in unconventional geologic settings starts with improving the techniques for mudweight window modeling. To address this issue, an analysis of wellbore stability and well design improvement has been conducted. This study will show a systematic approach to well design by focusing on best practices for mudweight window projection for a field in Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico. The field includes depleted reservoirs and is in close proximity of salt intrusions. Analysis of offset wells has been conducted in the interest of developing an accurate picture of the subsurface environment by making connections between depth, non-productive time (NPT) events, and mudweights used. Commonly practiced petrophysical methods of pore pressure, fracture pressure, and shear failure gradient prediction have been applied to key offset wells in order to enhance the well design for two proposed wells. For the first time in the literature, the accuracy of the commonly accepted, seismic interval velocity based and the relatively new, seismic frequency based methodologies for pore pressure prediction are qualitatively and quantitatively compared for accuracy. Accuracy standards will be based on the agreement of the seismic outputs to pressure data obtained while drilling and petrophysically based pore pressure outputs for each well. The results will show significantly higher accuracy for the seismic frequency based approach in wells that were in near/sub-salt environments and higher overall accuracy for all of the wells in the study as a whole.

  1. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha


    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavko, G.; Vanorio, T.; Vialle, S.; Saxena, N.


    Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured over a range of confining pressures while injecting CO2 and brine into the samples. Pore fluid pressure was also varied and monitored together with porosity during injection. Effective medium models were developed to understand the mechanisms and impact of observed changes and to provide the means for implementation of the interpretation methodologies in the field. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities in carbonate rocks show as much as 20-50% decrease after injection of the reactive CO2-brine mixture; the changes were caused by permanent changes to the rock elastic frame associated with dissolution of mineral. Velocity decreases were observed under both dry and fluid-saturated conditions, and the amount of change was correlated with the initial pore fabrics. Scanning Electron Microscope images of carbonate rock microstructures were taken before and after injection of CO2-rich water. The images reveal enlargement of the pores, dissolution of micrite (micron-scale calcite crystals), and pitting of grain surfaces caused by the fluid- solid chemical reactivity. The magnitude of the changes correlates with the rock microtexture – tight, high surface area samples showed the largest changes in permeability and smallest changes in porosity and elastic stiffness compared to those in rocks with looser texture and larger intergranular pore space. Changes to the pore space also occurred from flow of fine particles with the injected fluid. Carbonates with grain-coating materials, such as residual oil, experienced very little permanent change during injection. In the tight micrite/spar cement component, dissolution is controlled by diffusion: the mass transfer of products and reactants is thus slow and the fluid is expected to be close to thermodynamical equilibrium with the calcite, leading to very little dissolution, or even precipitation. In the microporous rounded micrite and macropores, dissolution is controlled by

  3. Modeling seismic stimulation: Enhanced non-aqueous fluid extraction from saturated porous media under pore-pressure pulsing at low frequencies (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Huang, Yu-Han


    Seismic stimulation, the application of low-frequency stress-pulsing to the boundary of a porous medium containing water and a non-aqueous fluid to enhance the removal of the latter, shows great promise for both contaminated groundwater remediation and enhanced oil recovery, but theory to elucidate the underlying mechanisms lag significantly behind the progress achieved in experimental research. We address this conceptual lacuna by formulating a boundary-value problem to describe pore-pressure pulsing at seismic frequencies that is based on the continuum theory of poroelasticity for an elastic porous medium permeated by two immiscible fluids. An exact analytical solution is presented that is applied numerically using elasticity parameters and hydraulic data relevant to recent proof-of-principle laboratory experiments investigating the stimulation-induced mobilization of trichloroethene (TCE) in water flowing through a compressed sand core. The numerical results indicated that significant stimulation-induced increases of the TCE concentration in effluent can be expected from pore-pressure pulsing in the frequency range of 25-100 Hz, which is in good agreement with what was observed in the laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analysis of our numerical results revealed that the TCE concentration in the effluent increases with the porous medium framework compressibility and the pulsing pressure. Increasing compressibility also leads to an optimal stimulation response at lower frequencies, whereas changing the pulsing pressure does not affect the optimal stimulation frequency. Within the context of our model, the dominant physical cause for enhancement of non-aqueous fluid mobility by seismic stimulation is the dilatory motion of the porous medium in which the solid and fluid phases undergo opposite displacements, resulting in stress-induced changes of the pore volume.

  4. Micro-mechanical modeling of the growth/percolation of pressurized pores in a ceramic matrix at high temperatures; Modelisation micromecanique de la croissance et de la percolation de pores sous pression dans une matrice ceramique a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, P.G


    The aim of this work is to propose an elasto-plastic model of damage in a porous ceramics containing two populations of saturated cavities: the nuclear fuel uranium dioxide highly irradiated and at high temperature. The followed approach consists in a multi-scale approach based on the hypothesis of separation of the scales between the two populations of cavities (spherical intragranular pores and spheroidal intergranular pores) and of those of the macroscopic isotropy. The proposed elasto-plastic model of damage treats separately of the elasticity, of the surface of plasticity and of the evolution of the internal parameters of the model with load. The taking into account of different pressures in each population of cavity is carried out for elasticity-plasticity-damage. The model developed for the elastic behaviour takes into account the two populations of cavity, their morphology, their distribution and the pore pressures inside them. The proposed plasticity criteria is based on homogenization methods for non linear behaviours. At the grain scale, the first population of cavity is taken into account by a plasticity criteria of Gurson-Tvegaard-Needleman type. At the scale of grains collection, the presence of a second population of cavity inside a compressible matrix leads to the development of new superior boundaries and pertaining estimations for the effective plasticity surface. These models depend on the morphology and of the distribution of cavities. In the case of drained cavities, an analytical estimation, based on the writing of the classical variational principle with a compressible velocity field and an average on the equiprobable orientations is developed. In the case of saturated cavity, another estimation, based on the variational approach of Ponte Castaneda (1991) with a linear N phases comparison composite is proposed. These models are compared to numerical simulations by finite elements and to numerical simulations using the fast Fourier

  5. Mechanical Properties of Rocks: Pore Pressure and Scale Effects Propriétés mécaniques des roches : pression de pore et effets d'échelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueguen Y.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure plays a major role when considering rocks mechanical properties. In that field, the concept of effective pressure is a key one to deal with fluids mechanical effects. However, its frequent use has been the source of frequent confusing statements. Because of the various meanings which have been attached to that concept, an attempt is made in this paper to clarify it and examine the validity of its various uses relative to rock mechanical behaviour or rock properties. At a macroscopic scale, thermodynamics provides a powerful tool to investigate this. Reversible or irreversible thermodynamics provide general relationships of great interest. But because real rocks are non homogeneous systems, a microscopic approach is also required in order to analyze the mechanical properties from a description of the small scale processes. The microscopic approach is complementary of the macroscopic thermodynamic one as it leads to the calculation of the effective properties of the medium. In this last approach, effective medium theory is a powerful tool. The effective properties as derived from the microscale can be nicely combined to thermodynamic relations to interpret pore fluid pressure effects and scale effects. The example of elastic properties of porous rocks is more specifically emphasized to illustrate this because of both its intrinsic interest and importance as far as applications are concerned. La pression de pore joue un rôle de première importance dans la considération des propriétés mécaniques des roches. Dans ce domaine, le concept de contrainte effective est essentiel pour aborder les effets mécaniques. Toutefois, son utilisation fréquente a conduit à de nombreuses affirmations trompeuses. Compte tenu des significations diverses accordées à ce concept, nous tentons ici de le clarifier et examinons le domaine d'application de ses divers emplois dans le cadre du comportement mécanique ou des propriétés des roches. À l

  6. Ethics and the Non-physical Self in Ndorobo World View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRicAn SOciOLOGicAL REviEW. Ethics and ... non-physical Self that reflect four basic ethical principles in ndorobo world view: 1) Ethical principle ... At the highest levels of academia, ethics is defined as the systematic, philosophical study of ...

  7. A Multilevel Investigation of the Association between School Context and Adolescent Nonphysical Bullying (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Molnar, Beth E.


    Although researchers have identified individual-level predictors of nonphysical bullying among children and youth, school-level predictors (i.e., characteristics of the school environment that influence bullying exposure) remain largely unstudied. Using data from a survey of 1,838 students in 21 Boston public high schools, we used multilevel…

  8. Pore pressure measurement plan of near field rock used on three dimensional groundwater flow analysis in demonstration test of cavern type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki


    Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)

  9. Pore Pressure Evolution in Shallow Subduction Earthquake Sequences and Effects on Aseismic Slip Transients -- Numerical Modeling With Rate and State Friction (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Rice, J. R.


    In 3D modeling of long tectonic loading and earthquake sequences on a shallow subduction fault [Liu and Rice, 2005], with depth-variable rate and state friction properties, we found that aseismic transient slip episodes emerge spontaneously with only a simplified representation of effects of metamorphic fluid release. That involved assumption of a constant in time but uniformly low effective normal stress in the downdip region. As suggested by observations in several major subduction zones [Obara, 2002; Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Kodaira et al, 2004], the presence of fluids, possibly released from dehydration reactions beneath the seismogenic zone, and their pressurization within the fault zone may play an important role in causing aseismic transients and associated non-volcanic tremors. To investigate the effects of fluids in the subduction zone, particularly on the generation of aseismic transients and their various features, we develop a more complete physical description of the pore pressure evolution (specifically, pore pressure increase due to supply from dehydration reactions and shear heating, decrease due to transport and dilatancy during slip), and incorporate that into the rate and state based 3D modeling. We first incorporated two important factors, dilatancy and shear heating, following Segall and Rice [1995, 2004] and Taylor [1998]. In the 2D simulations (slip varies with depth only), a dilatancy-stabilizing effect is seen which slows down the seismic rupture front and can prevent rapid slip from extending all the way to the trench, similarly to Taylor [1998]. Shear heating increases the pore pressure, and results in faster coseismic rupture propagation and larger final slips. In the 3D simulations, dilatancy also stabilizes the along-strike rupture propagation of both seismic and aseismic slips. That is, aseismic slip transients migrate along the strike faster with a shorter Tp (the characteristic time for pore pressure in the fault core to re

  10. Response to long-period seismic waves recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure sensor at IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Saffer, D. M.


    Long term in situ monitoring of seismic activity, slow slip event, and pore fluid behavior around mega earthquake zone is important for understanding the processes of earthquake generation and strain accumulation. In order to characterize the response to long-period seismic waves, we compared waveforms and hydroseismograms recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure transducers, respectively, which were installed at IODP Site C0002 in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin. The borehole monitoring system sensor array at Site C0002 is designed to collect multiparameter observations covering a dynamic range of events, including local microearthquakes, low frequency earthquakes, and large-scale earthquakes similar to the Tonankai earthquake. The suite of sensors for the downhole portion of the observatory includes a broadband seismometer (CMG3TBD, Guralp Systems Ltd.) with sampling rate of 100Hz at the depth of 907mbsf, and four pressure ports connected to pressure gauges located at 948mbsf, 917mbsf, 766mbsf, and at the seafloor. The sampling rate of the data logger was set to 1Hz after successful connection to the DONET seafloor cable network for real-time monitoring on 24 Jan 2013. Since then, we processed 12 earthquakes between a moment magnitude of 6.5 to 8.3. In addition to the comparison of long-period surface waves waveform and pressure data, we compared the records with theoretical strain seismograms. The latter were calculated by normal mode summation using the earth model PREM of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). A Butterworth bandpass filter was applied to the records with cut-off frequencies of 0.003 and 0.1 Hz. Our initial results indicate that the hydroseismograms correspond well with the vertical rather than the horizontal (radial and transverse) components in seismic data. The observed hydroseismogram have a good correlation with the predicted volumetric strain seismogram, especially for the Okhotsk (2013/05/24 14:17UT, Mw8.3, 632km depth), the Chishima

  11. Solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy with non-physical S matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberspaecher, M.; Amos, K.; Apagyi, B.


    The quantum mechanical inverse elastic scattering problem is solved with the modified Newton-Sabatier method. A set of S matrix elements calculated from a realistic analytic optical model potential serves as input data. It is demonstrated that the quality of the inversion potential can be improved by including non-physical S matrix elements to half, quarter and eighth valued partial waves if the original set does not contain enough information to determine the interaction potential. We demonstrate that results can be very sensitive to the choice of those non-physical S matrix values both with the analytic potential model and in a real application in which the experimental cross section for the symmetrical scattering system of 12 C+ 12 C at E=7.998 MeV is analyzed

  12. Remarks on the chemical Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations: Nonphysical currents at equilibrium. (United States)

    Ceccato, Alessandro; Frezzato, Diego


    The chemical Langevin equation and the associated chemical Fokker-Planck equation are well-known continuous approximations of the discrete stochastic evolution of reaction networks. In this work, we show that these approximations suffer from a physical inconsistency, namely, the presence of nonphysical probability currents at the thermal equilibrium even for closed and fully detailed-balanced kinetic schemes. An illustration is given for a model case.

  13. A Multilevel Investigation of the Association between School Context and Adolescent Nonphysical Bullying. (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Dunn, Erin C; Johnson, Renee M; Molnar, Beth E


    Although researchers have identified individual-level predictors of nonphysical bullying among children and youth, school-level predictors (i.e., characteristics of the school environment that influence bullying exposure) remain largely unstudied. Using data from a survey of 1,838 students in 21 Boston public high schools, we used multilevel modeling techniques to estimate the level of variation across schools in student reports of nonphysical bully victimization and identify school-level predictors of bullying. We found significant between school variation in youth reports of nonphysical bullying, with estimates ranging from 25-58%. We tested school-level indicators of academic performance, emotional well-being, and school safety. After controlling for individual-level covariates and demographic controls, the percent of students in the school who met with a mental health counselor was significantly associated with bullying (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.06). There was no significant association between school-level academic performance and perceptions of school safety on individual reports of bullying. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention programs may benefit from attending to the emotional well-being of students and support the importance of understanding the role of the school environment in shaping student experiences with bullying.

  14. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Veins in Paleo-reservoir as a Natural Indication of Coupled Changes in Pore Pressure and Stress, Salt Wash Graben of SE Utah, USA (United States)

    Gwon, S.; Edwards, P.; Kim, Y. S.


    Hydrofracturing associated with elevated fluid pressure coupled with changes in stress has been crucial in enhancing the production and recovery of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, it is also an important issue to access the efficiency and stability of long-term CO2 geologic storage reservoirs. Veins are mineral-filled extension fractures developed along the plane of σ1-σ2 and perpendicular to σ3, and the fluid pressure must exceed σ3applied to the plane when the vein opens. Therefore, vein is a well-known natural analogue for fluid migration in a paleo-reservoir. In the Salt Wash Graben of SE Utah, CO2-charged vein systems hosted in the bleached Entrada Formation are well developed and examined to understand the conditions of fluid pressure and stress during the injections of CO2-charged fluid. Based on color and relative cross-cutting relationship in the field, veins are subdivided into two sets; sub-vertical black mineral-rich veins and orthogonal calcite veins that have previously been described as 'grid-lock fractures'. The vein distribution and fluid leakage along through-going fractures in mechanic units allow us to determine the stress regime and driving stress condition through 3D-Mohr circle reconstruction. The results of this statistical analysis for the veins show that the orthogonal veins indicate a 'stress transition' with maximum principal stress direction changing from vertical to NNW-SSE sub-horizontal which coincides with the current regional stress regime. The possible causes of the stress transition can be considered. The process of repeated sealing, reactivation and localization of veins within the bleached zone is a natural indication of a coupled change in pore pressure and stress in the reservoir. Thus, an understanding of the effect of stress changes due to the volumetric injection of CO2 in the subsurface as well as a knowledge of how pre-existing fractures affect fluid flow with respect to elevated pore pressures in layered rocks are

  16. Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: a quantitative review. (United States)

    Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan


    This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency

  17. Correlation between pore fluid pressures and DInSAR post-seismic deformation of the May 20, 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) earthquake (United States)

    Moro, M.; Stramondo, S.; Albano, M.; Barba, S.; Solaro, G.; Saroli, M.; Bignami, C.


    The present work focuses on the detection and analysis of the postseismic surface deformations following the two earthquakes that hit the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) on May 20 and 29, 2012. The 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence struck the central sector of the Ferrara arc, which represents the external fold-and-thrust system of the Northern Apennines thrust belt buried below the Po plain. The May 20 event occurred on the Ferrara basal thrust at depth, at about 6-7 km, while, during the May 29 event, the rupture jumped on an inner splay of the Ferrara system. The analysis of the postseismic displacements was carried out thanks to a dataset of SAR COSMO­ SkyMed images covering a time span of about one year (May 20, 2012 - May 11, 2013) after the May 20 event. The DInSAR results revealed the presence of two deformation patches: the first one is located in the area that experienced the coseismic uplift. Here the postseismic displacements point out a further ground uplift occurring along the first three months after the 20 May event. The second deformation patch is located in the villages of San Carlo and Mirabello, where ground subsidence lasting about four months was detected. We hypothesized that both the observed phenomena are related to the pore pressure perturbation caused by the coseismic deformation. In particular, the ground uplift is due to the deep crustal deformations caused by the pore fluid diffusion at depth to re-establish the initial hydrostatic stresses. Instead, the ground subsidence is related to the compaction of the shallow sandy layers caused by the liquefaction phenomena, which widely affected the San Carlo and Mirabello area. Preliminary numerical analyses performed with the Finite Element Method and empirical relations confirmed our hypothesis.

  18. Pore pressure buildup and soil stress relaxation in monopile foundations of offshore wind converters; Porenwasserdruckaufbau und Bodenentfestigung um Pfahlgruendungen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Pablo; Baessler, Matthias; Georgi, Steven; Ruecker, Werner [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich 7.2 Ingenieurbau


    For the installation of wind turbines in the offshore environment and their foundation in the seabed it is customary to employ large-diameter steel piles, either in monopile or multi-pile configurations (jacket, tripod, etc..). The effects of cyclic lateral loading on the offshore piles and particularly the possibility of a progressive accumulation of residual pore water pressure within the saturated embedding soil are discussed in this article. Here it is shown that this can lead to significant changes of their behaviour under external loading, which can potentially compromise the foundation's stability or serviceability. Furthermore, some of the singular effects arising during a realistic storm of moderate magnitude as well as their potential for transient damages to the foundation's stiffness are addressed in the paper. For the investigation of these phenomena the authors have employed a coupled bi-phasic analytical model of the offshore foundation. The constitutive model employed for the seabed, in the frame of the theory of Generalized Plasticity, can reproduce some complex features of cyclic soil behaviour such as the tendency for a progressive densification under cyclic loading, which is responsible for the soil liquefaction phenomena in undrained conditions. Finally, some implications and specific recommendations for the design of offshore monopiles in the frame of the limit states are provided. (orig.)

  19. Characterizing the effects of elevated temperature on the air void pore structure of advanced gas-cooled reactor pressure vessel concrete using x-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withers P.J.


    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT has been applied to nondestructively characterise changes in the microstructure of a concrete used in the pressure vessel structure of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR in the UK. Concrete specimens were conditioned at temperatures of 105 °C and 250 °C, to simulate the maximum thermal load expected to occur during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Following thermal treatment, these specimens along with an unconditioned control sample were characterised using micro-focus X-ray CT with a spatial resolution of 14.6 microns. The results indicate that the air void pore structure of the specimens experienced significant volume changes as a result of the increasing temperature. The increase in the porous volume was more prevalent at 250 °C. Alterations in air void size distributions were characterized with respect to the unconditioned control specimen. These findings appear to correlate with changes in the uni-axial compressive strength of the conditioned concrete.

  20. Effect of excess pore pressure on the long runout of debris flows over low gradient channels: A case study of the Dongyuege debris flow in Nu River, China (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Kun; Yang, Kui; Tang, Yong-Jun; Tian, Lin; Xu, Ze-Min


    Debris flows with long reaches are one of the major natural hazards to human life and property on alluvial fans, as shown by the debris flow that occurred in the Dongyuege (DYG) Gully in August 18, 2010, and caused 96 deaths. The travel distance and the runout distance of the DYG large-scale tragic debris flow were 11 km and 9 km, respectively. In particular, the runout distance over the low gradient channel (channel slope sediment and water are related to the maximum grain size (MGS), gradation and mineralogy of clay-size particles of the sediment. The layer-lattice silicates in clay particles can be the typical clay minerals, including kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, and also the unrepresentative clay minerals such as muscovite and chlorite. Moreover, small woody debris can also contribute to the slurrying of sediments and maintenance of debris flows in well vegetated mountainous areas and the boulders suspended in debris flows can elevate excess pore pressure and extend debris-flow mobility. The parameters, including Id, Kp, R and etc., are affected by the intrinsic properties of debris. They, therefore, can reflect the slurrying susceptibility of sediments, and can also be applied to the research on the occurrence mechanisms and risk assessment of other debris flows.

  1. The connectivity of pore space in mudstones: insights from high-pressure Wood's metal injection, BIB-SEM imaging, and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, J.; Hemes, S.; Houben, M.; Desbois, G.; Radi, Z.; Urai, J.L.


    Study of the pore space in mudstones by mercury intrusion porosimetry is a common but indirect technique and it is not clear which part of the pore space is actually filled with mercury. We studied samples from the Opalinus Clay, Boom Clay, Haynesville Shale, and Bossier Shale Formations using

  2. A comparison of physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid ARAZI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students. The target population of this study was all male and female physical education and non-physical education university students in Rasht city of Iran. After translating the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ and adjusting some of the questions, the questionnaire was evaluated by the specialists in the context of validity and the reliability achieved by test-retest (Cronbach Alpha value of 0.84. We then, according to the Odineski table selected 180 physical education and non-physical education males and 190 physical education and non-physical education females opportunistically. The collected data was analyzed by 2×2 MANOVA for determine differences between genders and major. The results showed mean vector scores of physical education in the following scales: physical activity; global physical; competence; sports; strength; endurance and flexibility were significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of non-physical education major students. Also, the results shows that mean vector scores of male in the following scales: health; coordination; physical activity; body fat; global physical; competence; sports; global physical self-concept and global esteem were significantly (p<0.05 higher than female. Based on the result of our study the physical self-concept non-physical education and female is lower, than that physical education and male. The results may reflect that male and physical major education students, who usually spend more time on physical activity and sport training to have better fitness and skill oriented self concept than their counterparts.

  3. On the calculation of the eigenvalues of the Faddeev equation kernel on the nonphysical sheet of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, K.


    A system of three particles is considered which interacts by rank-1 separable potential. For the Faddeev equation kernel of this system a method is proposed for calculating the eigenvalues on the nonphysical sheet of the three-particle cms-energy. From the consideration of the analytical structure of the eigenvalues in the energy plane it follows that the analytical continuations of the eigenvalues from the physical to the nonphysical region are different above and below the three-particle threshold. In this paper the continuation below the threshold is discussed. (author)

  4. Transition to Pulse-Like Rupture, With and Without Inclusion of Evolving Temperature and Pore Pressure, When Accounting for Extreme Weakening at High Slip Rates (United States)

    Noda, H.; Dunham, E. M.; Rice, J. R.


    We have conducted rupture propagation simulations incorporating the combined effects of thermal pressurization of pore fluid by distributed heating within a finite width shear zone, and flash heating of microscopic contacts. These are probably the primary weakening mechanisms at high coseismic slip rates. For flash heating, we use a rate- and state-dependent friction law in the slip law formulation, accounting for extreme velocity weakening above a weakening slip rate Vw ~ 0.1 m/s that depends on the background temperature, and a very short state evolution distance, L, of ~ 10 μm, which is comparable to the asperity length. We have also conducted a series of calculations with neglecting evolving change in macroscopic temperature, T, and pore pressure, p, and compared the results. Slip rate, V, at a point on a fault increases when a rupture front approaches, and decreases behind it. In the pulse-like solutions, V decreases below Vw, and the point is eventually locked. On the other hand, in the crack-like solutions, V increases again only if we allow evolving change in T and p. In the cases when we neglect changes in T and p, V continues to decrease behind the rupture front as long as we simulate. Here, a question emerges; is the solution crack-like because of the short calculation time? Zheng and Rice [1998] proposed an intuitive criterion between crack-like and pulse-like solutions as follows: If and only if the background shear stress, τb, is larger than a critical value, τpulse, there are roots of τss(V) = τb - μ V/2 cs, where τss is steady-state strength, μ is shear modulus and cs is shear speed. If TZR = - (μ/2cs)/(dτss/dV) at the largest root is near unity, the solution is pulse-like. Our calculations without T and p changes show that the pulse-like solution regime extends above τpulse, at least up to the point where TZR = 0.176, if a rupture is initiated by a perturbation in shear stress in a certain manner. The transition time to pulse

  5. Accounting for pore water pressure and confined aquifers in assessing the stability of slopes: a Limit Equilibrium analysis carried out through the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation method (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano


    The model we introduce is an implementation of the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method, developed by Tinti and Manucci (Tinti and Manucci 2006; 2008), that makes use of the limit equilibrium (LE) theory to estimate the stability of a slope. The main purpose here is to analyse the role of a confined aquifer on the value of the Safety Factor (F), the parameter that in the LE is used to determine if a slope is stable or unstable. The classical LE methods treat unconfined aquifers by including the water pore pressure in the Mohr-Coulomb failure formula: since the water decreases the friction shear strength, the soil above the sliding surface turns out to be more prone to instability. In case of a confined aquifer, however, due to a presence of impermeable layers, the water is not free to flow into the matrix of the overlying soil. We consider here the assumption of a permeable soil sliding over an impermeable layer, which is an occurrence that is found in several known landslide cases (e.g. Person, 2008; Strout and Tjeltja, 2008; Morgan et al., 2010 for offshore slides; and Palladino and Peck, 1972; Miller and Sias, 1998; Jiao et al. 2005; Paparo et al., 2013 for slopes in proximity of artificial or natural water basins) where clay beds form the potential sliding surface: the water, confined below, pushes along these layers and acts on the sliding body as an external bottom load. We modify the MLD method equations in order to take into account the load due to a confined aquifer and apply the new model to the Vajont case, where many have hypothesised the contribution of a confined aquifer to the failure. Our calculations show that the rain load i) infiltrating directly into the soil body and ii) penetrating into the confined aquifer below the clay layers, in addition with the lowering of the reservoir level, were key factors of destabilization of the Mt Toc flank and caused the disastrous landslide.

  6. Active stress from earthquake focal mechanisms along the Padan-Adriatic side of the Northern Apennines (Italy), with considerations on stress magnitudes and pore-fluid pressures (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Bracone, Vito


    The active tectonic regime along the outer Northern Apennines (Padan-Adriatic area) is a matter of debate. We analyse the active tectonic regime by systematically inverting earthquake focal mechanisms in terms of their driving stress field, comparing two different stress inversion methods. Earthquakes within the area often deviate from Andersonian conditions, being characterized by reverse or transpressional slip on high-angle faults even if the regime is almost purely thrust faulting (e.g. Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes). We analyse the stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia and Faenza earthquakes in order to infer the stress magnitudes and the possible role of fluid pressures. The stress analysis defines a consistent pattern of sub-horizontal active deviatoric compression arranged nearly perpendicular to the eastern front of the Padan-Adriatic fold-and-thrust system, independent of the stress inversion method used. The results are consistent with active compression operating within the Padan-Adriatic belt. The stress field is thrust faulting (sub-vertical σ3), except for the Cesena-Forlì and Ancona areas, where a strike-slip regime (sub-vertical or steeply-plunging σ2) operates. The strike-slip regimes are interpreted as being caused by the superposition of local tensional stresses due to oroclinal bending (i.e. rotations of the belt about vertical axes) on the regional compressional stress field. Kinematic complexities characterize the 1996 Reggio Emilia seismic sequence. The distribution of these complexities is not random, suggesting that they are due to local variations of the regional stress field within the unfaulted rocks surrounding the coseismic rupture. The stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes, coupled with the observation that seismicity in the Padan-Adriatic area often occurs in swarms, suggest that high pore-fluid pressures (Pf ≥ 70% of the lithostatic load) operate

  7. Impact of a Six-Month Empowerment-Based Exercise Intervention Programme in Non-Physically Active Adolescent Swedish Girls (United States)

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan


    Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…

  8. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves (United States)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.


    Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubehebe craters (USA), Laacher See (Germany), and Tower Hill and Purrumbete lakes (both Australia). The variety of features can be classified in four groups: (1) tubular features such as pipes; (2) isolated, laterally oriented deformation such as overturned or oversteepened laminations and vortex-shaped laminae; (3) folds-and-faults structures involving thick (>30 cm) units; (4) dominantly vertical inter-penetration of two layers such as potatoids, dishes, or diapiric flame-like structures. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusions suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of other soft-sediment deformation structures. Variations from injection dikes to suction-driven, local uplifts at the base of outcrops indicate the role of dynamic pore pressure. Isolated, centimeter-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. Vertical inter-penetration and those folds-and-faults features related to slumps are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. The passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may also produce trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds that disturb the surface bedding

  9. Nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being: a comprehensive systematic review. (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Aikasalo, Anna; Suvitie, Anne


    Exergames have the potential to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. They also have other important benefits, but knowledge about other than the physical effects of exergaming remains thin. To report the findings of a review of ten studies on the nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being. A broad search strategy was employed to identify relevant studies in CINAHL Ebsco Host, Ovid MEDLINE, Psycinfo ProQuest, Eric ProQuest, Scopus and Cochrane Library. The search timeframe was from January 2004 to April 2015. A comprehensive systematic review without meta-analysis was conducted on 10 quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods intervention studies. The quality of these studies was assessed following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data were analysed using a narrative synthesis approach. Exergaming was found to have some positive effects on self-concept, situational interest and motivation, enjoyment, psychological and social well-being, symptomatology and different learning experiences. However, two studies reported no effect on self-efficacy, and one study showed no intervention effect on self-esteem. The only follow-up study indicated that the enjoyment effect lasted for a few months. Most of the studies reviewed found that exergaming had positive effects. However, more research evidence is still needed. In particular, there is a need for better-validated instruments and follow-up research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Heidebrecht


    Full Text Available The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient, pore sizes (0.14–0.8 µm, transmembrane pressures (0.5–2.5 bar, and temperatures (10, 50 °C were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (<0.1% fat was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation.

  11. Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes. (United States)

    Heidebrecht, Hans-Jürgen; Toro-Sierra, José; Kulozik, Ulrich


    The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF) was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk) while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient), pore sizes (0.14⁻0.8 µm), transmembrane pressures (0.5⁻2.5 bar), and temperatures (10, 50 °C) were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (fat) was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa) were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa) at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation.

  12. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: Motor imagery and observational balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTaube


    Full Text Available For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI and action observation (AO have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical balance training (BT is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON. Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT not only promotes motor learning of ‘rigid’ postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients.

  13. Beyond the body: A systematic review of the nonphysical effects of a surgical career. (United States)

    Oskrochi, Youssof; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Henriksson, Maria; Davies, Alun H; Shalhoub, Joseph


    Training as a physician has been demonstrated to be a source of personal and familial distress; we sought to assess and analyze the holistic impact of a surgical career by examining nonphysical effects on surgeons and their families. The MEDLINE database was searched systematically from inception to June 2014 in accordance with PRISMA guidance. Two reviewers independently reviewed articles using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We found 71 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Fifty-four studies (77%) assessed burnout with a reported prevalence of 12.6-58% (mean, 34.6%; SD, 11.0%). Workload was found to be the most significant contributor to burnout. Rates of psychiatric morbidity ranged between 16 and 37% (mean, 25.3%; SD, 6.6%) and rates of suicidal ideation, especially among more senior surgeons and those involved in malpractice, was higher than the general population. Depression was reported in 30.8-37.5% (mean, 33.9%; SD, 3.1%). All were strongly associated with workload and burnout, indicative of a likely synergistic effect. Other risk factors included junior status and younger age, poor professional relationships, work-home conflicts and poor work-life balance. Protective factors included marriage or spousal support, career satisfaction, autonomy, and academic practice. Surgeons have a high prevalence of burnout, psychiatric morbidity, and depression, with suicidal ideation rates higher than the general population. Professional factors contribute significantly to these phenomena. Although personal and familial factors are protective, they are eroded by the overwhelming impact of professional factors; nevertheless, career satisfaction rates remain high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Physical Activity on Students' Physical Self-Concept and Satisfaction with Life: Physical and Non-Physical Education Students' Perspective




    The purpose of this study was to find out the physical and non-physical education students' physical self-concept and satisfaction with life. 470 students were selected randomly as two sample groups (physical and non-physical education students). The valid sample of study was 449. The two questionnaires employed here were the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. SPSS 20 was used to produce the Mean; Standard Deviations; Pearson's Pro...

  15. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention. (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd


    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  16. Non disturbing characterization and quantification of natural organic matter (NOM) contained in clay rock pore water by mass spectrometry using electro-spray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Landesman, C.; Grambow, B.; Rogniaux, H.; Monteau, F.; Vinsot, A.


    formation is of great importance. In this context, establishing accurate sequencing of structural units for the DOM shall be attempted. The present work is focused on small organic molecules that are present in the COx formation and that could also play a key role in the migration processes. It would be valuable to develop rapid analytical methods that require only a small sample volume and minimal pretreatment. Of particular importance is the ability to analyze bulk pore water samples as opposed to samples subjected to specific extraction techniques, fractionation, and/or concentration. Mass Spectrometry with either the Electro-Spray or the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization modes has been proved to be a powerful tool for aquatic humic substances since it allows the determination of the molecular weight distribution and the access to the different molecular weights. In this study, we have employed ESI-MS and APCI-MS to identify the chemical composition of NOM contained in the pore water from the argillite clay rock. Due to the very small quantities of COx pore water available from boreholes, these techniques are thus very suitable. The DOM in pore water has never been characterized on a well preserved pore water sample. The following aspects were considered in the present work: (1) the use of either ESI or APCI to select the most appropriated mode of ionization for providing the best information depending on the class of compound examined (2) a unique and original experimental process developed to get pore water from a core sample (3) the determination of concentration of dissolved organic matter and the evaluation of the organic matter maturity by Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and (4) the application of the proposed instrumental methods for the characterization of organic components from natural pore waters. For the first time to our knowledge, a quite exhaustive inventory of the small organic compounds presents is given without proceeding to any

  17. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses. (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D


    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Continuous borehole strain and pore pressure in the near field of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield, California, earthquake: Implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquake prediction and tremor (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.


    Near-field observations of high-precision borehole strain and pore pressure, show no indication of coherent accelerating strain or pore pressure during the weeks to seconds before the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. Minor changes in strain rate did occur at a few sites during the last 24 hr before the earthquake but these changes are neither significant nor have the form expected for strain during slip coalescence initiating fault failure. Seconds before the event, strain is stable at the 10-11 level. Final prerupture nucleation slip in the hypocentral region is constrained to have a moment less than 2 ?? 1012 N m (M 2.2) and a source size less than 30 m. Ground displacement data indicate similar constraints. Localized rupture nucleation and runaway precludes useful prediction of damaging earthquakes. Coseismic dynamic strains of about 10 microstrain peak-to-peak were superimposed on volumetric strain offsets of about 0.5 microstrain to the northwest of the epicenter and about 0.2 microstrain to the southeast of the epicenter, consistent with right lateral slip. Observed strain and Global Positioning System (GPS) offsets can be simply fit with 20 cm of slip between 4 and 10 km on a 20-km segment of the fault north of Gold Hill (M0 = 7 ?? 1017 N m). Variable slip inversion models using GPS data and seismic data indicate similar moments. Observed postseismic strain is 60% to 300% of the coseismic strain, indicating incomplete release of accumulated strain. No measurable change in fault zone compliance preceding or following the earthquake is indicated by stable earth tidal response. No indications of strain change accompany nonvolcanic tremor events reported prior to and following the earthquake.

  19. Quality assurance technique for absorbed dose distribution in external radiation therapy with non-physical wedges in consideration of the character of the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Masayuki; Sakae, Takeji


    The film dose distribution method is used for profile measurements of non-physical wedges, because three-dimensional automatic control water phantoms cannot be used. Recently, many hospitals have adopted computed radiography (CR) systems in preference to automatic developing processors and films. This may allow use of automatic processors to be discontinued. In this study, a beam was irradiated to an Imaging Plate (IP), and then IP was exposed to a fixed amount of light with fading, and we then measured the off-center ratio (OCR) absorbed dose distribution in external radiation therapy with non-physical wedge. This was compared with the OCR measured with an ionization chamber dosimeter. It was consequently possible for IP to approximate the value measured by the ionization chamber dosimeter by using a metal filter. This method offers a simple quality assurance technique for absorbed dose distribution in external radiation therapy with non-physical wedges in consideration of the character of the IP. (author)

  20. A variational model of disjoining pressure: Liquid film on a nonplanar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Virnovsky, G.


    Variational methods have been successfully used in modelling thin liquid films in numerous theoretical studies of wettability. In this paper, the variational model of the disjoining pressure is extended to the general case of a two-dimensional solid surface. The Helmgoltz free energy functional depends both on the disjoining pressure isotherm and the shape of the solid surface. The augmented Young-Laplace equation (AYLE) is a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation. A number of solutions describing wetting films on spherical grains have been obtained. In the case of cylindrical films, the phase portrait technique describes the entire variety of mathematically feasible solutions. It turns out that a periodic solution, which would describe wave-like wetting films, does not satisfy the Jacobi's condition of the classical calculus of variations. Therefore, such a solution is nonphysical. The roughness of the solid surface significantly affects liquid film stability. AYLE solutions suggest that film rupture is more likely at a location where the pore-wall surface is most exposed into the pore space and the curvature is positive.

  1. The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students' psychological well-being in Norway: consistent and stable findings across studies. (United States)

    Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen


    The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.

  2. Consideraciones termodinámicas entre la formación de poros y la presión hidrostática durante la soldadura subacuatica mojada Thermodynamic considerations between pores formation and hydrostatic pressure during underwater wet welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Quintana Puchol


    Full Text Available Las formaciones de poros y grietas en los cordones de soldadura durante la soldadura subacuatica mojada son las principales causas que impiden alcanzar las propiedades mecánicas requeridas en el metal de soldadura para que estas possam ser utilizadas em aplicações de responsabilidade. Estos defectos están estrechamente asociados a la descomposición de la molécula de agua en las condiciones del arco eléctrico. En el presente trabajo se expone los cálculos termodinámicos sobre el complejo proceso de la descomposición del agua en las condiciones de las altas temperaturas de arco eléctrico a una presión de una atmósfera de vapor. Los valores de las presiones parciales de los cinco principales productos de la evaporización y descomposición del agua (H2O(g, H2, O2, H y O son calculados a temperaturas entre 1870 y 4000 K. Debido a que el hidrógeno atómico es el principal responsable de la formación de poros en el metal de soldadura es que se expresa finalmente su presión parcial en función de las presiones parciales del oxígeno atómico y vapor de agua. Se expone valores de la solubilidad del hidrógeno en el metal líquido en las condiciones de la soldadura subacuatica mojada a 50 y 100 m de profundidad y finalmente se compara los resultados obtenidos por cálculos termodinámicos con las mediciones efectuadas en soldaduras realizadas a 50 y 100m de profundidad.The pores and cracks formations in weld bead during underwater wet welding are the main cause that prevent to reach the required mechanical properties of the weld metal. These defects are closely associated with the decomposition of the water molecule under conditions of electric arc. In this paper the thermodynamic calculations of the complex process of the water decomposition under the conditions of high temperatures of electric arc to a pressure of one atmosphere of steam is exposed. The values of the partial pressures of the five main products of the vaporizations and

  3. Difficulties of supercurrents in narrow pores of 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuneberg, E.V.; Kurkijaervi, J.


    We consider resistanceless supercurrents through narrow pores and find such currents to vanish in most cases because of end effects at the entries and exists of the pores. Under pressure dc-supercurrents are found to arise. (author)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  5. The pore space scramble (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils


    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  6. Effect of pore fluid on the cyclic behavior of laterally loaded offshore piles modelled in centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askarinejad, A.; Philia Boru Sitanggang, Anggi; Schenkeveld, Ferry; Lee, W.; Lee, J-S.; Kim, H-K.; kim, D-S.

    The common practice in centrifuge modelling of dynamic processes is to use high-viscosity pore fluids to unify the time scaling factors for the generation and dissipation of pore pressures. This paper focuses on the effects of the density and viscosity of the pore fluid on the behaviour of an

  7. Pore facies analysis: incorporation of rock properties into pore geometry based classes in a Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoir in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour-Bonab, H; Aliakbardoust, E


    Pore facies analysis is a useful method for the classification of reservoir rocks according to pore geometry characteristics. The importance of this method is related to the dependence of the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock on the pore geometry. In this study, pore facies analysis was performed by the quantification and classification of the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves applying the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method. Each pore facies includes a limited variety of rock samples with different depositional fabrics and diagenetic histories, which are representative of one type of pore geometry. The present pore geometry is the result of the interaction between the primary rock fabric and its diagenetic overprint. Thus the variations in petrographic properties can be correlated with the pore geometry characteristics. Accordingly, the controlling parameters in the pore geometry characteristics were revealed by detailed petrographic analysis in each pore facies. The reservoir rock samples were then classified using the determined petrographic properties which control the pore system quality. This method is proposed for the classification of reservoir rocks in complicated carbonate reservoirs, in order to reduce the incompatibility of traditional facies analysis with pore system characteristics. The method is applicable where enough capillary pressure data is not available. (papers)

  8. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  9. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  10. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.


    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  11. Combined use of rheometry and microscopy to understand pore structure development during coal carbonisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; Miguel Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre


    The viscoelastic behaviour of coal during carbonisation plays a role in the formation, growth and coalescence of pores. While viscosity is considered to govern pore formation and growth, the coalescence of pores or stabilisation of pores is considered to be governed by elasticity, and these two factors need to be considered in tandem when investigating pore network formation. The properties of the pore network, such as the connectivity of the pores, is hypothesised to be a factor controlling the degree of pressure that the carbonising mass exerts on its surrounding walls, called oven wall pressure (OWP). When volatiles are unable to pass out through the newly formed semi-coke due to low permeability, they travel instead to the centre of the charge, possibly condense as it is cooler, and build-up to high levels, causing high OWPs. Possible causes for low permeability on the semi-coke side could include poor connectivity between pores in the resolidifying material due to lack of connections, tortuous flow paths or narrow necks between pores. Low OWPs are thought to be largely due to a reduction in the elasticity of the fluid phase which allows a greater degree of pore coalescence and ultimately pore connectivity. This paper presents viscoelastic measurements for coals exhibiting different OWPs and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the coal, quenched at various temperatures during carbonisation to show the development of their pore networks. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Laboratory characterization of shale pores (United States)

    Nur Listiyowati, Lina


    To estimate the potential of shale gas reservoir, one needs to understand the characteristics of pore structures. Characterization of shale gas reservoir microstructure is still a challenge due to ultra-fine grained micro-fabric and micro level heterogeneity of these sedimentary rocks. The sample used in the analysis is a small portion of any reservoir. Thus, each measurement technique has a different result. It raises the question which methods are suitable for characterizing pore shale. The goal of this paper is to summarize some of the microstructure analysis tools of shale rock to get near-real results. The two analyzing pore structure methods are indirect measurement (MIP, He, NMR, LTNA) and direct observation (SEM, TEM, Xray CT). Shale rocks have a high heterogeneity; thus, it needs multiscale quantification techniques to understand their pore structures. To describe the complex pore system of shale, several measurement techniques are needed to characterize the surface area and pore size distribution (LTNA, MIP), shapes, size and distribution of pore (FIB-SEM, TEM, Xray CT), and total porosity (He pycnometer, NMR). The choice of techniques and methods should take into account the purpose of the analysis and also the time and budget.

  13. Superplastically foaming method to make closed pores inclusive porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Hidetaka


    Porous ceramics incorporates pores to improve several properties including thermal insulation maintaining inherenet ceramic properties such as corrosion resistance and large mechanical strength. Conventional porous ceramics is usually fabricated through an insufficient sintering. Since the sintering accompanies the exclusion of pores, it must be terminated at the early stage to maintain the high porosity, leading to degraded strength and durability. Contrary to this, we have innovated superplastically foaming method to make ceramic foams only in the solid state. In this method, the previously inserted foam agent evaporates after the full densification of matrix at around the sintering temperature. Closed pores expand utilizing the superplastic deformation driven by the evolved gas pressure. The typical features of this superplastically foaming method are listed as follows, 1. The pores are introduced after sintering the solid polycrystal. 2. Only closed pores are introduced, improving the insulation of gas and sound in addition to heat. 3. The pore walls are fully densified expecting a large mechanical strength. 4. Compared with the melt foaming method, this method is practical because the fabrication temperature is far below the melting point and it does not need molds. 5. The size and the location pores can be controlled by the amount and position of the foam agent.

  14. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng


    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. PMID:24955384

  15. Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix. (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N; Gao, Shengyan


    The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.


    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  17. Can ash clog soil pores? (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo


    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  18. Analysis of the effect of pore geometry in the physical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque


    Full Text Available Pore geometry is one of the main factors influencing the flow of reservoir fluids under pressure. Pores with narrower formats are more easily compressed when subject to pressure. Pressure modifies pore geometry by opening or closing cracks, causing increase or decrease in the elastic modulus, porosity, permeability, and other parameters. Rock physical properties depend on the size and shape of pores. Thus, in order to analyze changes on the physical properties behavior according to the pores geometry, it is necessary to study and improve mathematical models of the porous media by taking into account the pore shape factor for estimating rock elastic properties. Differential effective medium model (DEM, Hertz-Mindlin theory and coherent potential approximation (CPA are some of the theoretical paradigms that take into account pore geometry in changes in elastic moduli. Given the importance of the pore structure effect on the behavior of physical parameters, this article proposes an analysis of some mathematical models that consider the influence of pore shapes in the physical properties of rocks.

  19. Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements. (United States)

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Flynn, J; Doyle, L; Robertson, N; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A


    The cause of enlarged pores remains obscure but still remains of concern for women. To complement subjective methods, bioengineered methods are needed for quantification of pores visibility following treatments. The study objective was to demonstrate the suitability of pore measurements from the Antera 3D. Pore measurements were collected on 22 female volunteers aged 18-65 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on photographs. Additionally, 4 raters graded pore size on photographs on a scale 0-5. Repeatability of Antera 3D parameters was ascertained and the benefit of a pore minimizer product on the cheek was assessed on a sub panel of seven female volunteers. Pore parameters using the Antera were shown to depict pore severity similar to raters on photographs, except for Max Depth. Mean pore volume, mean pore area and count were moderately correlated with DermaTOP parameters (up to r = .50). No relationship was seen between the Antera 3D and pore visibility analysis on photographs. The most repeatable parameters were found to be mean pore volume, mean pore area and max depth, especially for the small and medium filters. The benefits of a pore minimizer product were the most striking for mean pore volume and mean pore area when using the small filter for analysis, rather than the medium/large ones. Pore measurements with the Antera 3D represent a reliable tool for efficacy and field studies, with an emphasis of the small filter for analysis for the mean pore volume/mean pore area parameters. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A new method for calculating gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Song


    Full Text Available When the gas content of a coal reservoir is calculated, the reservoir pressure measured by well logging and well testing is generally used for inversion calculation instead of gas pressure. However, the calculation result is not accurate because the reservoir pressure is not equal to the gas pressure in overpressure environments. In this paper, coal samples of different ranks in Shanxi and Henan are collected for testing the capillary pressure of coal pores. Based on the formation process of CBM reservoirs and the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion history of coal beds, the forming mechanisms of micro-pore overpressure environments in coal reservoirs were analyzed. Accordingly, a new method for calculating the gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment was developed. And it was used to calculate the gas content of No. 1 coal bed of the 2nd member of Lower Permian Shanxi Fm in the Zhongmacun Coal Mine in Jiaozuo, Henan. It is indicated that during the formation and evolution of coals, some solid organic matters were converted into gas and water, and gas–water contact is surely formed in pores. In the end, capillary pressure is generated, so the gas pressure in micro-pores is much higher than the hydrostatic column pressure, which results in a micro-pore overpressure environment. Under such an environment, gas pressure is higher than reservoir pressure, so the gas content of coal reservoirs calculated previously based on the conventional reservoir pressure evaluation are usually underestimated. It is also found that the micro-pore overpressure environment exerts a dominating effect on the CBM content calculation of 3–100 nm pores, especially that of 3–10 nm pores, but a little effect on that of pores >100 nm. In conclusion, this new method clarifies the pressure environment of CBM gas reservoirs, thereby ensuring the calculation accuracy of gas content of coal reservoirs.

  1. Understanding the microscopic moisture migration in pore space using DEM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo


    Full Text Available The deformation of soil skeleton and migration of pore fluid are the major factors relevant to the triggering of and damages by liquefaction. The influence of pore fluid migration during earthquake has been demonstrated from recent model experiments and field case studies. Most of the current liquefaction assessment models are based on testing of isotropic liquefiable materials. However the recent New Zealand earthquake shows much severer damages than those predicted by existing models. A fundamental cause has been contributed to the embedded layers of low permeability silts. The existence of these silt layers inhibits water migration under seismic loads, which accelerated liquefaction and caused a much larger settlement than that predicted by existing theories. This study intends to understand the process of moisture migration in the pore space of sand using discrete element method (DEM simulation. Simulations were conducted on consolidated undrained triaxial testing of sand where a cylinder sample of sand was built and subjected to a constant confining pressure and axial loading. The porosity distribution was monitored during the axial loading process. The spatial distribution of porosity change was determined, which had a direct relationship with the distribution of excess pore water pressure. The non-uniform distribution of excess pore water pressure causes moisture migration. From this, the migration of pore water during the loading process can be estimated. The results of DEM simulation show a few important observations: (1 External forces are mainly carried and transmitted by the particle chains of the soil sample; (2 Porosity distribution during loading is not uniform due to non-homogeneous soil fabric (i.e. the initial particle arrangement and existence of particle chains; (3 Excess pore water pressure develops differently at different loading stages. At the early stage of loading, zones with a high initial porosity feature higher

  2. Acoustic properties in travertines and their relation to porosity and pore types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soete, J.; Kleipool, L.M.; Claes, H.; Claes, S.; Hamaekers, H.; Kele, S.; Özkul, M.; Foubert, A.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Swennen, R.


    Sonic velocities of Pleistocene travertines were measured under variable confining pressures. Combined with petrographical characteristics and petrophysical data, i.e. porosity, permeability and density, it was determined that travertine porosity, pore types and cementation control

  3. Effect of Pore Geometry on Gas Adsorption: Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eon Ji; Chang, Rak Woo; Han, Ji Hyung; Chung, Taek Dong


    In this study, we investigated the pure geometrical effect of porous materials in gas adsorption using the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of primitive gas-pore models with various pore geometries such as planar, cylindrical, and random pore geometries. Although the model does not possess atomistic level details of porous materials, our simulation results provided many insightful information in the effect of pore geometry on the adsorption behavior of gas molecules. First, the surface curvature of porous materials plays a significant role in the amount of adsorbed gas molecules: the concave surface such as in cylindrical pores induces more attraction between gas molecules and pore, which results in the enhanced gas adsorption. On the contrary, the convex surface of random pores gives the opposite effect. Second, this geometrical effect shows a nonmonotonic dependence on the gas-pore interaction strength and length. Third, as the external gas pressure is increased, the change in the gas adsorption due to pore geometry is reduced. Finally, the pore geometry also affects the collision dynamics of gas molecules. Since our model is based on primitive description of fluid molecules, our conclusion can be applied to any fluidic systems including reactant-electrode systems

  4. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland


    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  5. Acoustic characteristics of sand sediment with circular cylindrical pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol; Lee, Kang-Il; Yoon, Suk-Wang


    The acoustic pressure transmission coefficient and the phase velocity are experimentally measured as functions of the frequency and the porosity in sand sediment slabs with circular cylindrical pores filled with water and air. They are also theoretically estimated with the modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) model, which uses a separate treatment of the viscous and the thermal effects in a non-rigid porous medium with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores. In this study, the fast (first kind) wave and the slow (second kind) wave are not separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab without the circular cylindrical pores, but they are separated in the transmitted signals through a sediment slab with pores. Both the phase velocities and the transmission coefficients of the fast wave and the slow wave in the sediment slabs with water- and air-filled cylindrical pores are sensitive to the air and the water porosities. It is proposed that the fast and the slow waves have opposite behaviors for several acoustic characteristics. The generalized tortuosity factor and the dynamic shape factor are introduced from the acoustic characteristics of the fast wave. The experimental results show reasonable agreement with the theoretical results estimated with the MBA model. These results suggest the possibility of predicting the acoustic characteristics of a sediment as functions of arbitrary water and air porosities. This study may also be applicable to understanding acoustic wave propagations in a bubbly liquid sediment for underwater applications and in cancellous bone for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  6. Pore volume is most highly correlated with the visual assessment of skin pores. (United States)

    Kim, S J; Shin, M K; Back, J H; Koh, J S


    Many studies have been focused on evaluating assessment techniques for facial pores amid growing attention on skin care. Ubiquitous techniques used to assess the size of facial pores include visual assessment, cross-section images of the skin surface, and profilometric analysis of silicone replica of the facial skin. In addition, there are indirect assessment methods, including observation of pores based on confocal laser scanning microscopy and the analysis of sebum secretion and skin elasticity. The aim of this study was to identify parameters useful in estimating pore of surface in normal skin. The severity of pores on the cheek area by frontal optical images was divided on a 0-6 scale with '0' being faint and small pore and '6' being obvious and large pore. After the photos of the frontal cheek of 32 women aged between 35 and 49 were taken, the size of their pores was measured on a 0-6 scale; and the correlation between visual grading of pore and various evaluations (pore volume by 3-D image, pore area and number by Optical Image Analyzer) contributing to pore severity investigated using direct, objective, and noninvasive evaluations. The visual score revealed that the size of pores was graded on a 1-6 scale. Visual grading of pore was highly correlated with pore volume measured from 3-D images and pore area measured from 2-D optical images in the order (P pore was also slightly correlated with the number of pores in size of over 0.04 mm(2) (P pore score and pore volume can be explained by 3-D structural characteristics of pores. It is concluded that pore volume and area serve as useful parameters in estimating pore of skin surface. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Protein crystal nucleation in pores. (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi E


    The most powerful method for protein structure determination is X-ray crystallography which relies on the availability of high quality crystals. Obtaining protein crystals is a major bottleneck, and inducing their nucleation is of crucial importance in this field. An effective method to form crystals is to introduce nucleation-inducing heterologous materials into the crystallization solution. Porous materials are exceptionally effective at inducing nucleation. It is shown here that a combined diffusion-adsorption effect can increase protein concentration inside pores, which enables crystal nucleation even under conditions where heterogeneous nucleation on flat surfaces is absent. Provided the pore is sufficiently narrow, protein molecules approach its walls and adsorb more frequently than they can escape. The decrease in the nucleation energy barrier is calculated, exhibiting its quantitative dependence on the confinement space and the energy of interaction with the pore walls. These results provide a detailed explanation of the effectiveness of porous materials for nucleation of protein crystals, and will be useful for optimal design of such materials.

  8. Lattice density functional theory investigation of pore shape effects. I. Adsorption in single nonperiodic pores. (United States)

    Malanoski, A P; van Swol, Frank


    A fully explicit in three dimensions lattice density functional theory is used to investigate adsorption in single nonperiodic pores. The effect of varying pore shape from the slits and cylinders that are normally simulated was our primary interest. A secondary concern was the results for pores with very large diameters. The shapes investigated were square pores with or without surface roughness, cylinders, right triangle pores, and trapezoidal pores. It was found that pores with very similar shape factors gave similar results but that the introduction of acute angled corners or very large side ratio lengths in rectangular pores gave results that were significantly different. Further, a rectangular pore going towards the limit of infinite side ratio does not approach the results of a slit pore. In all of these cases, the importance of features that are present for only a small portion of the pore is demonstrated.

  9. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope


    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena


    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  10. Relationship between pore structure and compressive strength

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the pore structure-compressive strength relationship in concrete. Several concrete mixtures with different pore structures are proportioned and ...

  11. Facial Pores: Definition, Causes, and Treatment Options. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Seok, Joon; Jeong, Se Yeong; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun


    Enlarged skin pores refer to conditions that present with visible topographic changes of skin surfaces. Although not a medical concern, enlarged pores are a cosmetic concern for a large number of individuals. Moreover, clear definition and possible causes of enlarged pores have not been elucidated. To review the possible causes and treatment options for skin pores. This article is based on a review of the medical literature and the authors' clinical experience in investigating and treating skin pores. There are 3 major clinical causes of enlarged facial pores, namely high sebum excretion, decreased elasticity around pores, and increased hair follicle volume. In addition, chronic recurrent acne, sex hormones, and skin care regimen can affect pore size. Given the different possible causes for enlarged pores, therapeutic modalities must be individualized for each patient. Potential factors that contribute to enlarged skin pores include excessive sebum, decreased elasticity around pores, and increased hair follicle volume. Because various factors cause enlarged facial pores, it might be useful to identify the underlying causes to be able to select the appropriate treatment.

  12. Measuring kinetic drivers of pneumolysin pore structure. (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert J C; Sonnen, Andreas F-P


    Most membrane attack complex-perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins are thought to form pores in target membranes by assembling into pre-pore oligomers before undergoing a pre-pore to pore transition. Assembly during pore formation is into both full rings of subunits and incomplete rings (arcs). The balance between arcs and full rings is determined by a mechanism dependent on protein concentration in which arc pores arise due to kinetic trapping of the pre-pore forms by the depletion of free protein subunits during oligomerization. Here we describe the use of a kinetic assay to study pore formation in red blood cells by the MACPF/CDC pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that cell lysis displays two kinds of dependence on protein concentration. At lower concentrations, it is dependent on the pre-pore to pore transition of arc oligomers, which we show to be a cooperative process. At higher concentrations, it is dependent on the amount of pneumolysin bound to the membrane and reflects the affinity of the protein for its receptor, cholesterol. A lag occurs before cell lysis begins; this is dependent on oligomerization of pneumolysin. Kinetic dissection of cell lysis by pneumolysin demonstrates the capacity of MACPF/CDCs to generate pore-forming oligomeric structures of variable size with, most likely, different functional roles in biology.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits taken from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate, while the chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no significant fractionation of solutes

  14. Hydrodynamic thickness of petroleum oil adsorbed layers in the pores of reservoir rocks. (United States)

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Algharaib, Meshal K; Alajmi, Abdullah F


    The hydrodynamic thickness delta of adsorbed petroleum (crude) oil layers into the pores of sandstone rocks, through which the liquid flows, has been studied by Poiseuille's flow law and the evolution of (electrical) streaming current. The adsorption of petroleum oil is accompanied by a numerical reduction in the (negative) surface potential of the pore walls, eventually stabilizing at a small positive potential, attributed to the oil macromolecules themselves. After increasing to around 30% of the pore radius, the adsorbed layer thickness delta stopped growing either with time or with concentrations of asphaltene in the flowing liquid. The adsorption thickness is confirmed with the blockage value of the rock pores' area determined by the combination of streaming current and streaming potential measurements. This behavior is attributed to the effect on the disjoining pressure across the adsorbed layer, as described by Derjaguin and Churaev, of which the polymolecular adsorption films lose their stability long before their thickness has approached the radius of the rock pore.

  15. Pore surface engineering in covalent organic frameworks. (United States)

    Nagai, Atsushi; Guo, Zhaoqi; Feng, Xiao; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Xiong; Ding, Xuesong; Jiang, Donglin


    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of important porous materials that allow atomically precise integration of building blocks to achieve pre-designable pore size and geometry; however, pore surface engineering in COFs remains challenging. Here we introduce pore surface engineering to COF chemistry, which allows the controlled functionalization of COF pore walls with organic groups. This functionalization is made possible by the use of azide-appended building blocks for the synthesis of COFs with walls to which a designable content of azide units is anchored. The azide units can then undergo a quantitative click reaction with alkynes to produce pore surfaces with desired groups and preferred densities. The diversity of click reactions performed shows that the protocol is compatible with the development of various specific surfaces in COFs. Therefore, this methodology constitutes a step in the pore surface engineering of COFs to realize pre-designed compositions, components and functions.

  16. Pore volume and pore size distribution of cement samples measured by a modified mercury intrusion porosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorani, E.; Blanchard, H.


    Important parameters for the characterization of cement specimens are mechanical properties and porosity. This work is carried out at the Ispra Establishment of the Joint Research Centre in the scope of the Radioactive Waste Management programme. A commercial Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter was modified in an attempt to improve the performance of the instrument and to provide fast processing of the recorded values: pressure-volume of pores. The dead volume of the instrument was reduced and the possibility of leakage from the moving parts eliminated. In addition, the modification allows an improvement of data acquisition thus increasing data accuracy and reproducibility. In order to test the improved performance of the modified instrument, physical characterizations of cement forms were carried out. Experimental procedures and results are reported

  17. Pore system characteristics of the Permian transitional shale reservoir in the Lower Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Cao


    Full Text Available The Permian shale, a set of transitional shale reservoir, is considered to be an important shale gas exploration target in the Lower Yangtze region. Due to little research conducted on the pore system characteristic and its controlling factors of the shale gas reservoir, SEM, FE-SEM, low-pressure N2 adsorption, and mercury intrusion tests were carried out on the Permian shales from the outcrop and HC well in the southern Anhui. The results show that the Permian shales mainly consist of organic matter, quartz, illite, calcite, and pyrite, of which pyrite occurs as framboids coexisting with organic matter and the organic matter is distributed in shales in stripped, interstitial, thin film and shell shapes. The basic pore types are inorganic mineral pore (intercrystalline pore, intergranular edge pore, intergranular pore, and interlayer pore in clay minerals and the organic pore and microfracture, of which organic pore and microfracture are the dominating pore types. In shale, organic pores are not developed at all in some organic grains but are well developed in others, which may be related to the types of and maceral compositions of kerogen. Under tectonic stress, shale rocks could develop mylonitization phenomenon exhibiting organic grains well blend with clay minerals, and produce a mass of microfractures and nanopores between organic matter grains and clay minerals. Mercury intrusion tests show that the shale is mainly composed of micropore and transition pore with high porosity, good pore connectivity and high efficiency of mercury withdraw, while the shale that mainly dominated by mesopore and macropore has a low porosity, poor pore connectivity, and low efficiency of the mercury withdraw. The volume percentage of mesopore and marcopore is increasing with the increase of quartz, and that of micropore and transition pore has a decreased tendency along with the increase of soluble organic matter (S1. Organic matter is the main contributor to

  18. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.


    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  19. The one-dimensional compression method for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff and effects on pore-water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.D.; Burger, P.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Yang, L.C. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)


    Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires extraction of pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff bedrock. Two generations of compression cells have been designed and tested for extracting representative, unaltered pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff cores. The one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 552 MPa. Results from 86 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 14% for non welded tuff and about 61% for densely welded tuff. The high-pressure, one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 827 MPa. Results from 109 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 7.5% for non welded tuff and about 34% for densely welded tuff. Geochemical analyses show that, in general, there is a decrease in ion concentration of pore waters as extraction pressures increase. Only small changes in pore-water composition occur during the one-dimensional extraction test.

  20. Electroosmotic pore transport in human skin. (United States)

    Uitto, Olivia D; White, Henry S


    To determine the pathways and origin of electroosmotic flow in human skin. Iontophoretic transport of acetaminophen in full thickness human cadaver skin was visualized and quantified by scanning electrochemical microscopy. Electroosmotic flow in the shunt pathways of full thickness skin was compared to flow in the pores of excised stratum corneum and a synthetic membrane pore. The penetration of rhodamine 6G into pore structures was investigated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Electroosmotic transport is observed in shunt pathways in full thickness human skin (e.g., hair follicles and sweat glands), but not in pore openings of freestanding stratum corneum. Absolute values of the diffusive and iontophoretic pore fluxes of acetaminophen in full thickness human skin are also reported. Rhodamine 6G is observed to penetrate to significant depths (approximately 200 microm) along pore pathways. Iontophoresis in human cadaver skin induces localized electroosmotic flow along pore shunt paths. Electroosmotic forces arise from the passage of current through negatively charged mesoor nanoscale pores (e.g., gap functions) within cellular regions that define the pore structure beneath the stratum corneum.

  1. Fabrication of porous aluminium with directional pores through thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H; Kim, S Y; Park, J S


    Lotus-type porous metals were fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized gas atmosphere. The elongated pres are evolved by insoluble gas resulted from the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt is solidified. Recently we developed a novel fabrication technique, in which gas compounds are used as a source of dissolving gas instead of the high pressure. In the present work this gas compound method was applied to fabrication of lotus aluminium. Hydrogen decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and titanium hydride evolves cylindrical pores in aluminium. The porosity is about 20%. The pore size decreases and the pore number density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by increase in pore nucleation sites.

  2. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarchuk Olga


    Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

  3. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.


    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  4. Capillary condensation hysteresis in overlapping spherical pores: a Monte Carlo simulation study. (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Yu; Rasmussen, Christopher J; Neimark, Alexander V


    The mechanisms of hysteretic phase transformations in fluids confined to porous bodies depend on the size and shape of pores, as well as their connectivity. We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of capillary condensation and evaporation cycles in the course of Lennard-Jones fluid adsorption in the system of overlapping spherical pores. This model system mimics pore shape and connectivity in some mesoporous materials obtained by templating cubic surfactant mesophases or colloidal crystals. We show different mechanisms of capillary hysteresis depending on the size of the window between the pores. For the system with a small window, the hysteresis cycle is similar to that in a single spherical pore: capillary condensation takes place upon achieving the limit of stability of adsorption film and evaporation is triggered by cavitation. When the window is large enough, the capillary condensation shifts to a pressure higher than that of the isolated pore, and the possibility for the equilibrium mechanism of desorption is revealed. These finding may have important implications for practical problems of assessment of the pore size distributions in mesoporous materials with cagelike pore networks.

  5. Kinetic models of controllable pore growth of anodic aluminum oxide membrane (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zeng, Hong-yan; Zhao, Ce; Qu, Ye-qing; Zhang, Pin


    An anodized Al2O3 (AAO) membrane with apertures about 72 nm in diameter was prepared by two-step anodic oxidation. The appearance and pore arrangement of the AAO membrane were characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the pores with high pore aspect ratio were parallel, well-ordered, and uniform. The kinetics of pores growth in the AAO membrane was derived, and the kinetic models showed that pores stopped developing when the pressure ( σ) trended to equal the surface tension at the end of anodic oxidation. During pore expansion, the effects of the oxalic acid concentration and expansion time on the pore size were investigated, and the kinetic behaviors were explained with two kinetic models derived in this study. They showed that the pore size increased with extended time ( r= G· t+ G'), but decreased with increased concentration ( r = - K·ln c- K') through the derived mathematic formula. Also, the values of G, G', K, and K' were derived from our experimental data.

  6. Effect of pore geometry on the compressibility of a confined simple fluid (United States)

    Dobrzanski, Christopher D.; Maximov, Max A.; Gor, Gennady Y.


    Fluids confined in nanopores exhibit properties different from the properties of the same fluids in bulk; among these properties is the isothermal compressibility or elastic modulus. The modulus of a fluid in nanopores can be extracted from ultrasonic experiments or calculated from molecular simulations. Using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble, we calculated the modulus for liquid argon at its normal boiling point (87.3 K) adsorbed in model silica pores of two different morphologies and various sizes. For spherical pores, for all the pore sizes (diameters) exceeding 2 nm, we obtained a logarithmic dependence of fluid modulus on the vapor pressure. Calculation of the modulus at saturation showed that the modulus of the fluid in spherical pores is a linear function of the reciprocal pore size. The calculation of the modulus of the fluid in cylindrical pores appeared too scattered to make quantitative conclusions. We performed additional simulations at higher temperature (119.6 K), at which Monte Carlo insertions and removals become more efficient. The results of the simulations at higher temperature confirmed both regularities for cylindrical pores and showed quantitative difference between the fluid moduli in pores of different geometries. Both of the observed regularities for the modulus stem from the Tait-Murnaghan equation applied to the confined fluid. Our results, along with the development of the effective medium theories for nanoporous media, set the groundwork for analysis of the experimentally measured elastic properties of fluid-saturated nanoporous materials.

  7. Design of pore size of macroporous ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szewald, O.; Kotsis, I.


    A method has been developed for the design of macro-porous ceramic substrates. Based on geometrical and regression models detailed technology was worked out for producing these 100% open porous filters, which were made using quasi homo-disperse fractions of corundum of diameters of several tens and hundreds microns and glassy binding material. Axial pressing was used as a forming process. Pore networks with size distribution that can be defined by a curve having one maximum were provided applying the above technology. Based on geometrical considerations and measurements it was proved that these maximums are at characteristic pore sizes that depend only on characteristic size of the original grain fractions and on the extent of the axial forming pressure. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  8. compaction and porosity based pore pressure prediction in the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Tertiary Niger Delta is situated in the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa (Fig.1). It is located at the intersection of the Benue Trough and the South Atlantic Ocean where a triple junction ... turbidity fans deposited in deeper marine settings.

  9. Effect of pore size on performance of monolithic tube chromatography of large biomolecules. (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Hamachi, Masataka; Isakari, Yu; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi


    Effect of pore size on the performance of ion-exchange monolith tube chromatography of large biomolecules was investigated. Radial flow 1 mL polymer based monolith tubes of different pore sizes (1.5, 2, and 6 μm) were tested with model samples such as 20 mer poly T-DNA, basic proteins, and acidic proteins (molecular weight 14 000-670 000). Pressure drop, pH transient, the number of binding site, dynamic binding capacity, and peak width were examined. Pressure drop-flow rate curves and dynamic binding capacity values were well correlated with the nominal pore size. While duration of the pH transient curves depends on the pore size, it was found that pH duration normalized on estimated surface area was constant, indicating that the ligand density is the same. This was also confirmed by the constant number of binding site values being independent of pore size. The peak width values were similar to those for axial flow monolith chromatography. These results showed that it is easy to scale up axial flow monolith chromatography to radial flow monolith tube chromatography by choosing the right pore size in terms of the pressure drop and capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Understanding the role of pore size homogeneity in the water transport through graphene layers (United States)

    Su, Jiaye; Zhao, Yunzhen; Fang, Chang


    Graphene is a versatile 2D material and attracts an increasing amount of attention from a broad scientific community, including novel nanofluidic devices. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the pressure driven water transport through graphene layers, focusing on the pore size homogeneity, realized by the arrangement of two pore sizes. For a given layer number, we find that water flux exhibits an excellent linear behavior with pressure, in agreement with the prediction of the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Interestingly, the flux for concentrated pore size distribution is around two times larger than that of a uniform distribution. More surprisingly, under a given pressure, the water flux changes in an opposite way for these two distributions, where the flux ratio almost increases linearly with the layer number. For the largest layer number, more distributions suggest the same conclusion that higher water flux can be attained for more concentrated pore size distributions. Similar differences for the water translocation time and occupancy are also identified. The major reason for these results should clearly be due to the hydrogen bond and density profile distributions. Our results are helpful to delineate the exquisite role of pore size homogeneity, and should have great implications for the design of high flux nanofluidic devices and inversely the detection of pore structures.

  11. The Effect of the Pore Entrance on Particle Motion in Slit Pores: Implications for Ultrathin Membranes. (United States)

    Delavari, Armin; Baltus, Ruth


    Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore. The axial position in the pore where particle motion becomes steady is defined as the particle entrance length (PEL). PELs were found to be comparable to the fluid entrance length, larger than the pore size and larger than the thickness typical of many ultrathin membranes. Results also show that, in the absence of particle diffusion, hydrodynamic particle-membrane interactions at the pore mouth result in particle "funneling" in the pore, yielding cross-pore particle concentration profiles focused at the pore centerline. The implications of these phenomena on rejection from ultrathin membranes are examined.

  12. Automatic facial pore analysis system using multi-scale pore detection. (United States)

    Sun, J Y; Kim, S W; Lee, S H; Choi, J E; Ko, S J


    As facial pore widening and its treatments have become common concerns in the beauty care field, the necessity for an objective pore-analyzing system has been increased. Conventional apparatuses lack in usability requiring strong light sources and a cumbersome photographing process, and they often yield unsatisfactory analysis results. This study was conducted to develop an image processing technique for automatic facial pore analysis. The proposed method detects facial pores using multi-scale detection and optimal scale selection scheme and then extracts pore-related features such as total area, average size, depth, and the number of pores. Facial photographs of 50 subjects were graded by two expert dermatologists, and correlation analyses between the features and clinical grading were conducted. We also compared our analysis result with those of conventional pore-analyzing devices. The number of large pores and the average pore size were highly correlated with the severity of pore enlargement. In comparison with the conventional devices, the proposed analysis system achieved better performance showing stronger correlation with the clinical grading. The proposed system is highly accurate and reliable for measuring the severity of skin pore enlargement. It can be suitably used for objective assessment of the pore tightening treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, R.; Schuessler, M.; Vögler, A.; Zakharov, V.


    Context. Solar pores represent a class of magnetic structures intermediate between small-scale magnetic flux concentrations in intergranular lanes and fully developed sunspots with penumbrae. Aims. We study the structure, energetics, and internal dynamics of pore-like magnetic structures by means of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  15. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini


    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  16. Pore-scale investigation of biomass plug development and propagation in porous media. (United States)

    Stewart, Terri L; Scott Fogler, H


    Biomass plugging of porous media finds application in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. An understanding of biomass plugging of porous media was sought by using a porous glass micromodel through which biomass and nutrient were passed. This study describes the pore-scale physics of biomass plug propagation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under nutrient-rich conditions. It was found that, as the nutrient flowed through the micromodel, the initial biomass plug occurred at the nutrient-inoculum interface due to growth in the larger pore throats. As growth proceeded, biomass filled and closed these larger pore throats, until only isolated groupings of pore throats with smaller radii remained empty. As nutrient flow continued, a maximum pressure drop was reached. At the maximum pressure drop, the biomass yielded in a manner similar to a Bingham plastic to form a breakthrough channel consisting of a path of interconnected pore throats. The channel incorporated the isolated groupings of empty pore throats that had been present before breakthrough. As the nutrient flow continued, subsequent plugs developed as breakthrough channels refilled with biomass and in situ growth was stimulated in the region just downstream of the previous plug. The downstream plugs had a higher fraction of isolated groupings of empty pore throats, which can be attributed to depletion of nutrient downstream. When the next breakthrough channel formed, it incorporated these isolated groupings, causing the breakthrough channels to be branched. It was observed that the newly formed plug could be less stable with this higher fraction of empty pore throats and that the location of breakthrough channels changed in subsequent plugs. This change in breakthrough channel location could be attributed to the redistribution of nutrient flow and the changes in flowrate in the pore throats. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 77: 577-588, 2002; DOI 10.1002/bit.10044

  17. A Coupled Model for Solution Flow and Bioleaching Reaction Based on the Evolution of Heap Pore Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Yin


    Full Text Available Based on the basic seepage law, equations have been derived to descript the solution flow within the copper ore heap which is treated as anisotropy porous media. The relationship between heap permeability and pore ratio has been revealed. Given the consideration of cover pressure and particle dissolution, pore evolution model has been set up. The pore evolution mechanism, due to the process of dissolution, precipitation, blockage, collapse, and caking, has been investigated. The comprehensive model for pore evolution and solution flow under the effect of solute transport and leaching reaction has been established. A trapezoidal heap was calculated, and the estimated results show that permeability decreases with the decreasing of pore ratio. Therefore, the permeability of the heap with small particles is relatively low because of its low pore ratio. Furthermore, permeability and height are found to be the two main factors influencing the solution flow.

  18. Mesoporous templated silicas: stability, pore size engineering and catalytic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vansant, Etienne


    The Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis has focused its research activities on the synthesis and activation of new porous materials. In the past few years, we have succeeded in developing easy and reproducible pathways to synthesize a huge variety of mesoporous crystalline materials. Points of interest in the synthesis of Mesoporous Templated Silicas are (i) stabilization of the structure, to withstand hydrothermal, thermal and mechanical pressure, (ii) pore size engineering to systematically control the pore size, pore volume and the ratio micro/mesopores and (iii) ease and reproducibility of the synthesis procedure, applying green principles, such as template recuperation. By carefully adapting the synthesis conditions and composition of the synthesis gel, using surfactants (long chain quaternary ammonium ions) and co-templates (long chain amines, alcohols or alkanes), the pore size of the obtained materials can be controlled from 1.5 to 7.0 nm, retaining the very narrow pore size distribution. Alternatively, materials with combined micro- and mesoporosity can be synthesized, using neutral surfactants (triblock copolymers). Hereby, the optimization of the SBA-15 and SBA-16 synthesis is being done in order to create mesoporous materials with microporous walls. The second research line is the controlled activation of MTS materials, by grafting or incorporation of catalytic active centers. We have developed for this purpose the Molecular Designed Dispersion method, which uses metal diketonate complexes as precursors. It is shown that in all cases the dispersion of the metal oxides on the surface is much better compared to the conventional grafting techniques. We have studied and published activation with V, Ti, Mo, Fe, Al and Cr species on different MTS materials. The structure and location of the active metal ion is the subject of an extensive spectroscopic investigation, using FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis DR coupled with selective chemisorption experiments and

  19. Density profile of nitrogen in cylindrical pores of MCM-41 (United States)

    Soper, Alan K.; Bowron, Daniel T.


    A straightforward approach using radiation scattering (X-ray or neutron) combined with atomistic modelling is used to accurately assess the pore dimensions in the porous silica, MCM-41. The method is used to calculate the density profile of nitrogen absorbed in this material at a variety of fractional pressures, p/p0, where p0 is the saturated vapour pressure, up to p/p0 = 0.36 at T = 87 K in the present instance. At this pressure two distinct layers of liquid nitrogen occur on the silica surface, with a relatively sharp gas-liquid interface. It is suggested surface tension effects at this interface strongly influence the growth of further layers.

  20. Fractal Characteristics of Pores in Taiyuan Formation Shale from Hedong Coal Field, China (United States)

    Li, Kunjie; Zeng, Fangui; Cai, Jianchao; Sheng, Guanglong; Xia, Peng; Zhang, Kun

    For the purpose of investigating the fractal characteristics of pores in Taiyuan formation shale, a series of qualitative and quantitative experiments were conducted on 17 shale samples from well HD-1 in Hedong coal field of North China. The results of geochemical experiments show that Total organic carbon (TOC) varies from 0.67% to 5.32% and the organic matters are in the high mature or over mature stage. The shale samples consist mainly of clay minerals and quartz with minor pyrite and carbonates. The FE-SEM images indicate that three types of pores, organic-related pores, inorganic-related pores and micro-fractures related pores, are developed well, and a certain number of intragranular pores are found inside quartz and carbonates formed by acid liquid corrosion. The pore size distributions (PSDs) broadly range from several to hundreds nanometers, but most pores are smaller than 10nm. As the result of different adsorption features at relative pressure (0-0.5) and (0.5-1) on the N2 adsorption isotherm, two fractal dimensions D1 and D2 were obtained with the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model. D1 and D2 vary from 2.4227 to 2.6219 and from 2.6049 to 2.7877, respectively. Both TOC and brittle minerals have positive effect on D1 and D2, whereas clay minerals, have a negative influence on them. The fractal dimensions are also influenced by the pore structure parameters, such as the specific surface area, BJH pore volume, etc. Shale samples with higher D1 could provide more adsorption sites leading to a greater methane adsorption capacity, whereas shale samples with higher D2 have little influence on methane adsorption capacity.

  1. Forming and control of pores by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing in NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, B; Zhu, M; Gao, Y; Li, X; Chung, C Y


    In this study, the pore evolution process of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) fabricated by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (CF-HIP) was investigated by adopting different fabricating parameters. It is shown that porous NiTi SMAs with homogeneous pore distribution and nearly spherical pore shape can be prepared by CF-HIP under suitable conditions. In addition, two novel pore structures were produced, one with a sandwich-like structure, and another with controlled gradient of porosity along the radial direction, with pore size increasing from the outside towards the center of the specimen. The former was obtained by balancing the pressure in the HIP chamber and the gas pressure resulting from the gas expansion in the green sample. The latter resulted from the formation of air bubbles in the liquid phase during the sintering

  2. Pore Structure Model for Predicting Elastic Wavespeeds in Fluid-Saturated Sandstones (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; David, E. C.


    During hydrostatic compression, in the elastic regime, ultrasonic P and S wave velocities measured on rock cores generally increase with pressure, and reach asymptotic values at high pressures. The pressure dependence of seismic velocities is generally thought to be due to the closure of compliant cracks, in which case the high-pressure velocities must reflect only the influence of the non-closable, equant "pores". Assuming that pores can be represented by spheroids, we can relate the elastic properties to the pore structure using an effective medium theory. Moreover, the closure pressure of a thin crack-like pore is directly proportional to its aspect ratio. Hence, our first aim is to use the pressure dependence of seismic velocities to invert the aspect ratio distribution. We use a simple analytical algorithm developed by Zimmerman (Compressibility of Sandstones, 1991), which can be used for any effective medium theory. Previous works have used overly restrictive assumptions, such as assuming that the stiff pores are spherical, or that the interactions between pores can be neglected. Here, we assume that the rock contains an exponential distribution of crack aspect ratios, and one family of stiff pores having an aspect ratio lying somewhere between 0.01 and 1. We develop our model in two versions, using the Differential Scheme, and the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The inversion is done using data obtained in dry experiments, since pore fluids have a strong effect on velocities and tend to mask the effect of the pore geometry. This avoids complicated joint inversion of dry and wet data, such as done by Cheng and Toksoz (JGR, 1979). Our results show that for many sets of data on sandstones, we can fit very well the dry velocities. Our second aim is to predict the saturated velocities from our pore structure model, noting that at a given differential stress, the pore structure should be the same as for a dry test. Our results show that the Biot-Gassmann predictions always

  3. A USANS/SANS study of the accessibility of pores in the Barnett Shale to methane and water (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Sakurovs, Richard; Blach, Tomasz P.; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mildner, David F.; Alcantar-Lopez, Leo


    Shale is an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States. The gas is held in fine pores that need to be accessed by horizontal drilling and hydrofracturing techniques. Understanding the nature of the pores may provide clues to making gas extraction more efficient. We have investigated two Mississippian Barnett Shale samples, combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) to determine the pore size distribution of the shale over the size range 10 nm to 10 μm. By adding deuterated methane (CD4) and, separately, deuterated water (D2O) to the shale, we have identified the fraction of pores that are accessible to these compounds over this size range. The total pore size distribution is essentially identical for the two samples. At pore sizes >250 nm, >85% of the pores in both samples are accessible to both CD4 and D2O. However, differences in accessibility to CD4 are observed in the smaller pore sizes (~25 nm). In one sample, CD4 penetrated the smallest pores as effectively as it did the larger ones. In the other sample, less than 70% of the smallest pores (4, but they were still largely penetrable by water, suggesting that small-scale heterogeneities in methane accessibility occur in the shale samples even though the total porosity does not differ. An additional study investigating the dependence of scattered intensity with pressure of CD4 allows for an accurate estimation of the pressure at which the scattered intensity is at a minimum. This study provides information about the composition of the material immediately surrounding the pores. Most of the accessible (open) pores in the 25 nm size range can be associated with either mineral matter or high reflectance organic material. However, a complementary scanning electron microscopy investigation shows that most of the pores in these shale samples are contained in the organic components. The neutron scattering results indicate that the pores are

  4. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments. (United States)

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary


    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies.

  5. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.


    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  6. Dynamics of snap-off and pore-filling events during two-phase fluid flow in permeable media. (United States)

    Singh, Kamaljit; Menke, Hannah; Andrew, Matthew; Lin, Qingyang; Rau, Christoph; Blunt, Martin J; Bijeljic, Branko


    Understanding the pore-scale dynamics of two-phase fluid flow in permeable media is important in many processes such as water infiltration in soils, oil recovery, and geo-sequestration of CO 2 . The two most important processes that compete during the displacement of a non-wetting fluid by a wetting fluid are pore-filling or piston-like displacement and snap-off; this latter process can lead to trapping of the non-wetting phase. We present a three-dimensional dynamic visualization study using fast synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to provide new insights into these processes by conducting a time-resolved pore-by-pore analysis of the local curvature and capillary pressure. We show that the time-scales of interface movement and brine layer swelling leading to snap-off are several minutes, orders of magnitude slower than observed for Haines jumps in drainage. The local capillary pressure increases rapidly after snap-off as the trapped phase finds a position that is a new local energy minimum. However, the pressure change is less dramatic than that observed during drainage. We also show that the brine-oil interface jumps from pore-to-pore during imbibition at an approximately constant local capillary pressure, with an event size of the order of an average pore size, again much smaller than the large bursts seen during drainage.

  7. Morphology and pore structure of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.A.; Hoang, M.; Hardin, S.; Turney, T.W.


    The morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy of rare earth oxides, prepared by two different routes, has been related to adsorption, characteristics for nitrogen at 77 K. The most common morphology was that of thin sheets, then small equiaxed particles, and, more rarely, rod-like particles. The presence of small equiaxed particles was found to be a prerequisite for adsorption hysteresis. Evaluation of linear 't' plots indicated freedom from micropores in all samples, but positive deviations in the presence of sheet morphology at high relative pressures left open the possibility of wedge-like pores in these samples. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Swelling and gas release of grain-boundary pores in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrire, D.I.


    The swelling and gas release of overpressured grain boundary pores is sintered unirradiated uranium dioxide were investigated under isothermal conditions. The pores became overpressured when the ambient pressure was reduced, and the excess pressure driving force caused growth and interconnection of the pores, leading to eventual gas release. Swelling was measured continuously by a linear variable differential transformer, and open and closed porosity fractions were determined after the tests by immersion density and quantitative microscopy measurements. The sinter porosity consisted of pores situated on grain faces, grain edges, and grain corners. Isolated pores maintained their equilibrium shape while growing, without any measurable change in dihedral angle. Interconnection occurred predominantly along grain edges, without any evidence of pore sharpening or crack propagation at low driving forces. Extensive open porosity occurred at a threshold density of about 85% TD. There was an almost linear dependence of the initial swelling rate on the driving force, with an activation energy of 200+- 8 kJ/mole, in good agreement with published values of the activation energy for grain boundary diffusion

  9. Phase-field simulations of pore migration and morphology change in thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Ian W.; Millett, Paul C., E-mail:


    Here we present a phase-field simulation model that captures the thermal-gradient-driven migration of pores in oxide fuel associated with fuel restructuring. The model utilizes a Cahn-Hilliard equation supplemented with an advection term to describe the vapor transport of fuel material through the pore interior due to gradients in vapor pressure. Simulations demonstrate that the model not only predicts pore migration towards the centerline of the fuel, but also a concurrent change in pore shape during migration from an initially isotropic morphology to either a lenticular morphology or a prolate morphology depending on the vapor transport conditions. This model is a necessary first step to conducting accurate simulations of the microscopic changes that occur during the complicated process of oxide fuel restructuring.

  10. Effect of pore structure on capillary condensation in a porous medium. (United States)

    Deinert, M R; Parlange, J-Y


    The Kelvin equation relates the equilibrium vapor pressure of a fluid to the curvature of the fluid-vapor interface and predicts that vapor condensation will occur in pores or irregularities that are sufficiently small. Past analyses of capillary condensation in porous systems with fractal structure have related the phenomenon to the fractal dimension of the pore volume distribution. Recent work, however, suggests that porous systems can exhibit distinct fractal dimensions that are characteristic of both their pore volume and the surfaces of the pores themselves. We show that both fractal dimensions have an effect on the thermodynamics that governs capillary condensation and that previous analyses can be obtained as limiting cases of a more general formulation.

  11. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer (United States)

    Olmore, A. B.


    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.


    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  13. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.


    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  14. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study. (United States)

    Workineh, Zerihun G; Vanakaras, Alexandros G


    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  15. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucka, Filip [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23221 (United States); Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bratko, Dusan, E-mail:; Luzar, Alenka, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23221 (United States)


    Using a newly developed grand canonical Monte Carlo approach based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules, we studied equilibrium partitioning of both components between laterally extended apolar confinements and surrounding electrolyte solution. Accurate calculations of the Hamiltonian and tensorial pressure components at anisotropic conditions in the pore required the development of a novel algorithm for a self-consistent correction of nonelectrostatic cut-off effects. At pore widths above the kinetic threshold to capillary evaporation, the molality of the salt inside the confinement grows in parallel with that of the bulk phase, but presents a nonuniform width-dependence, being depleted at some and elevated at other separations. The presence of the salt enhances the layered structure in the slit and lengthens the range of inter-wall pressure exerted by the metastable liquid. Solvation pressure becomes increasingly repulsive with growing salt molality in the surrounding bath. Depending on the sign of the excess molality in the pore, the wetting free energy of pore walls is either increased or decreased by the presence of the salt. Because of simultaneous rise in the solution surface tension, which increases the free-energy cost of vapor nucleation, the rise in the apparent hydrophobicity of the walls has not been shown to enhance the volatility of the metastable liquid in the pores.

  16. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study (United States)

    Workineh, Zerihun G.; Vanakaras, Alexandros G.


    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  17. Electrolyte pore/solution partitioning by expanded grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moucka, Filip; Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka


    Using a newly developed grand canonical Monte Carlo approach based on fractional exchanges of dissolved ions and water molecules, we studied equilibrium partitioning of both components between laterally extended apolar confinements and surrounding electrolyte solution. Accurate calculations of the Hamiltonian and tensorial pressure components at anisotropic conditions in the pore required the development of a novel algorithm for a self-consistent correction of nonelectrostatic cut-off effects. At pore widths above the kinetic threshold to capillary evaporation, the molality of the salt inside the confinement grows in parallel with that of the bulk phase, but presents a nonuniform width-dependence, being depleted at some and elevated at other separations. The presence of the salt enhances the layered structure in the slit and lengthens the range of inter-wall pressure exerted by the metastable liquid. Solvation pressure becomes increasingly repulsive with growing salt molality in the surrounding bath. Depending on the sign of the excess molality in the pore, the wetting free energy of pore walls is either increased or decreased by the presence of the salt. Because of simultaneous rise in the solution surface tension, which increases the free-energy cost of vapor nucleation, the rise in the apparent hydrophobicity of the walls has not been shown to enhance the volatility of the metastable liquid in the pores

  18. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workineh, Zerihun G; Vanakaras, Alexandros G


    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2–3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2–3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape. (paper)

  19. Pore REconstruction and Segmentation (PORES) method for improved porosity quantification of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyndhoven, G., E-mail: [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Kurttepeli, M. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Oers, C.J.; Cool, P. [Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 1, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)


    Electron tomography is currently a versatile tool to investigate the connection between the structure and properties of nanomaterials. However, a quantitative interpretation of electron tomography results is still far from straightforward. Especially accurate quantification of pore-space is hampered by artifacts introduced in all steps of the processing chain, i.e., acquisition, reconstruction, segmentation and quantification. Furthermore, most common approaches require subjective manual user input. In this paper, the PORES algorithm “POre REconstruction and Segmentation” is introduced; it is a tailor-made, integral approach, for the reconstruction, segmentation, and quantification of porous nanomaterials. The PORES processing chain starts by calculating a reconstruction with a nanoporous-specific reconstruction algorithm: the Simultaneous Update of Pore Pixels by iterative REconstruction and Simple Segmentation algorithm (SUPPRESS). It classifies the interior region to the pores during reconstruction, while reconstructing the remaining region by reducing the error with respect to the acquired electron microscopy data. The SUPPRESS reconstruction can be directly plugged into the remaining processing chain of the PORES algorithm, resulting in accurate individual pore quantification and full sample pore statistics. The proposed approach was extensively validated on both simulated and experimental data, indicating its ability to generate accurate statistics of nanoporous materials. - Highlights: • An electron tomography reconstruction/segmentation method for nanoporous materials. • The method exploits the porous nature of the scanned material. • Validated extensively on both simulation and real data experiments. • Results in increased image resolution and improved porosity quantification.

  20. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.


    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  1. Pore geometry of ceramic device: The key factor of drug release kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović B.


    Full Text Available Release kinetics of tigecycline, a potential antibiotic in treatment of osteomyelitis, from calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA, as one of the most important ceramic materials in bone tissue engineering, was investigated in this study. Tigecycline, in solid state, was mixed with CHA powder and the obtained mixture was compressed into tablets using two different pressures. These tablets were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution and tigecycline release was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The total release time was 5 or 28 days, depending on the pressure applied during compression. It was shown that there is a close relationship between pore sizes and drug release rate. The drug release kinetics was interpreted on the base of pore sizes and pore size distribution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  2. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study. (United States)

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland


    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed.

  3. Interactions between bedforms, turbulence and pore flow (United States)

    Blois, G.; Best, J.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Hardy, R. J.; Lead, J.


    A widespread occurrence of flow-form interaction in rivers is represented by subaqueous bedforms such as dunes. Many models have been proposed to explain how bedform generation and evolution are driven by turbulent flow structures that control the incipient motion of cohesionless sediments and later bedform development. However, most of these models have assumed such bedforms to be migrating over an impermeable bed, and that any surface-subsurface flow interaction is negligible. However, for some gravel-bed rivers the porosity can be high, up to 43%, which may result in significant flow both through the permeable bed (hyporheic flow) and across the surface-subsurface interface. The mass and momentum exchange occurring at the interface may have a strong impact on the structure of turbulent flow in the near-bed region. In the case of a dune, its topography induces a local pressure gradient that enhances flow across the interface. This results in a flow structure that may be radically different from that commonly proposed by past work. This paper presents results from a simplified laboratory model akin to a fine-grained bedform generated on top of a coarser sediment bed. Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted in order to characterise flow both over and underneath an idealised 2-dimensional dune (0.41 m long, 0.056 m high and having a leeside angle of 27°) overlaying a packed bed of uniform size spheres (D = 0.04 m diameter). Experiments were conducted in free surface flow conditions (Froude number = 0.1; Reynolds number = 25,000) for one bedform height: flow depth ratio (0.31). The flow above the dune was measured using a standard PIV technique while a novel endoscopic PIV (EPIV) system allowed collection of flow data within the pore spaces beneath the dune. The results show that topographically-induced subsurface flow significantly modifies the structure of flow in the leeside of the dune, resulting in a flow field that is radically different

  4. Using BIB-SEM to determine pore morphology and pore size distributions in coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, S.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Klaver, J.; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics


    The composition of coalbeds is considerably heterogeneous, affecting the transport pathways for fluids within the coal. Transport pathways include cleats and larger pores. However, only a few clues exist as the nature of these pores. This study examines the morphology and distribution of macro- and mesopores in coal samples, using broad ion beam (BIB) milling to prepare relief- and damage-free polished surfaces of coal samples for high-resolution SEM imaging. Broad ion beam milling is advantageous to focused ion beam milling in that a larger surface area can be milled. Combining that with SEM imaging results in a useful tool to study pore morphology and distributions in the size range between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m. Since BIB-sections of a few square millimeters are not large enough to be statistically representative, results cannot be easily interpreted from a coal seam standpoint. Therefore, porosity was investigated as a function of maceral type to characterize pore morphologies. Macerals from the vitrinite and inertinite groups were selected with a known relationship to bedding. BIB-sections were milled parallel to bedding and perpendicular to bedding, and the pores were evaluated in each section. The goal of this study is to (1) qualitatively describe pore morphology with respect to maceral type and (2) quantitatively characterize pore size distributions with respect to maceral and in relationship to bedding. Our results lead to a better understanding of bulk coal porosity due to the visual, spatial representation and quantification of pores in individual macerals. (orig.)

  5. TIG Dressing Effects on Weld Pores and Pore Cracking of Titanium Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jun Yi


    Full Text Available Weld pores redistribution, the effectiveness of using tungsten inert gas (TIG dressing to remove weld pores, and changes in the mechanical properties due to the TIG dressing of Ti-3Al-2.5V weldments were studied. Moreover, weld cracks due to pores were investigated. The results show that weld pores less than 300 μm in size are redistributed or removed via remelting due to TIG dressing. Regardless of the temperature condition, TIG dressing welding showed ductility, and there was a loss of 7% tensile strength of the weldments. Additionally, it was considered that porosity redistribution by TIG dressing was due to fluid flow during the remelting of the weld pool. Weld cracks in titanium weldment create branch cracks around pores that propagate via the intragranular fracture, and oxygen is dispersed around the pores. It is suggested that the pore locations around the LBZ (local brittle zone and stress concentration due to the pores have significant effects on crack initiation and propagation.

  6. Influence of hydrological regime on pore water metal concentrations in a contaminated sediment-derived soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Laing, G.; Vanthuyne, D.R.J.; Vandecasteele, B.; Tack, F.M.G.; Verloo, M.G.


    Options for wetland creation or restoration might be limited because of the presence of contaminants in the soil. The influence of hydrological management on the pore water concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in the upper soil layer of a contaminated overbank sedimentation zone was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Flooding conditions led to increased Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr concentrations and decreased Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in the pore water of the upper soil layer. Keeping the soil at field capacity resulted in a low pore water concentration of Fe, Mn and Ni while the Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn concentrations increased. Alternating hydrological conditions caused metal concentrations in the pore water to fluctuate. Formation and re-oxidation of small amounts of sulphides appeared dominant in determining the mobility of Cd, Cu, and to a lesser extent Zn, while Ni behaviour was consistent with Fe/Mn oxidation and reduction. These effects were strongly dependent on the duration of the flooded periods. The shorter the flooded periods, the better the metal concentrations could be linked to the mobility of Ca in the pore water, which is attributed to a fluctuating CO 2 pressure. - The hydrological regime is a key factor in determining the metal concentration in the pore water of a contaminated sediment-derived soil

  7. Moving Magnetic Features Around a Pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaithakkal, A. J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Lagg, A.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; VanNoort, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, Göttingen D-37077 (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)


    Spectropolarimetric observations from Sunrise/IMaX, obtained in 2013 June, are used for a statistical analysis to determine the physical properties of moving magnetic features (MMFs) observed near a pore. MMFs of the same and opposite polarity, with respect to the pore, are found to stream from its border at an average speed of 1.3 km s{sup −1} and 1.2 km s{sup −1}, respectively, with mainly same-polarity MMFs found further away from the pore. MMFs of both polarities are found to harbor rather weak, inclined magnetic fields. Opposite-polarity MMFs are blueshifted, whereas same-polarity MMFs do not show any preference for up- or downflows. Most of the MMFs are found to be of sub-arcsecond size and carry a mean flux of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 17} Mx.

  8. Gas transport and subsoil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas


    Arrangements of elementary soil particles during soil deposition and subsequent biological and physical processes in long-term pedogenesis are expected to lead to anisotropy of the non-tilled subsoil pore system. Soil compaction by agricultural machinery is known to affect soil pore characteristics...... were sampled in vertical and horizontal directions from 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m depth (the two lower depths only in Sweden). In the laboratory, water retention, air permeability (ka) and gas diffusivity (Ds/D0) were determined. For the sandy clay loam, morphological characteristics of pores (effective......). In the sandy clay loam soil, dB and nB displayed significant anisotropy (FAcharacteristics because of its origin...

  9. Pore to core scale simulation of the mass transfer with mineral reaction in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekri, S.; Renard, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.


    Pore Network Model (PNM) is used to simulate mass transfer with mineral reaction in a single phase flow through porous medium which is here a sandstone sample from the reservoir formation of the Pakoslaw gas field. The void space of the porous medium is represented by an idealized geometry of pore-bodies joined by pore-throats. Parameters defining the pore-bodies and the pore-throats distribution are determined by an optimization process aiming to match the experimental Mercury Intrusion Capillary Pressure (MICP) curve and petrophysical properties of the rock such as intrinsic permeability and formation factor. The generated network is used first to simulate the multiphase flow by solving Kirchhoff's laws. The capillary pressure and relative permeability curves are derived. Then, reactive transport is addressed under asymptotic regime where the solute concentration undergoes an exponential evolution with time. The porosity/ permeability relationship and the three phenomenological coefficients of transport, namely the solute velocity, the dispersion and the mean reaction rate are determined as functions of Peclet and Peclet-Damkohler dimensionless numbers. Finally, the role of the dimensionless numbers on the reactive flow properties is highlighted. (authors)

  10. Porous media fluid transport and pore structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dullien, F A L


    This book examines the relationship between transport properties and pore structure of porous material. Models of pore structure are presented with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict the transport properties of porous media. Portions of the book are devoted to interpretations of experimental results in this area and directions for future research. Practical applications are given where applicable, and are expected to be useful for a large number of different fields, including reservoir engineering, geology, hydrogeology, soil science, chemical process engineering, biomedica

  11. Nuclear pore complex tethers to the cytoskeleton. (United States)

    Goldberg, Martin W


    The nuclear envelope is tethered to the cytoskeleton. The best known attachments of all elements of the cytoskeleton are via the so-called LINC complex. However, the nuclear pore complexes, which mediate the transport of soluble and membrane bound molecules, are also linked to the microtubule network, primarily via motor proteins (dynein and kinesins) which are linked, most importantly, to the cytoplasmic filament protein of the nuclear pore complex, Nup358, by the adaptor BicD2. The evidence for such linkages and possible roles in nuclear migration, cell cycle control, nuclear transport and cell architecture are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mesoscale Simulations of Pore Migration in a Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B.


    The evolution of pore and grain structure in a nuclear fuel environment is strongly influenced by the local temperature, and the temperature gradient. The evolution of pore and grain structure in an externally imposed temperature gradient is simulated for a hypothetical material using a Potts model approach that allows for porosity migration by mechanisms similar to surface, grain boundary and volume diffusion, as well as the interaction of migrating pores with stationary grain boundaries. First, the migration of a single pore in a single crystal in the presence of the temperature gradient is simulated. Next, the interaction of a pore moving in a temperature gradient with a grain boundary that is perpendicular to the pore migration direction is simulated in order to capture the force exerted by the pore on the grain boundary. The simulations reproduce the expected variation of pore velocity with pore size as well as the variation of the grain boundary force with pore size.

  13. Dissolution at porous interfaces VI: Multiple pore systems. (United States)

    Grijseels, H; Crommelin, D J; De Blaey, C J


    With the aid of rapidly dissolving sodium chloride particles, cubic pores were made in the surface of a theophylline tablet. The influence of the pores on the dissolution rate of the surface was investigated in a rotating disk apparatus. Like the drilled pores used in earlier studies, downstream on the surface they caused a turbulent flow regimen with the development of a trough due to enhanced erosion. The phenomenon of a critical pore diameter, discovered with single, drilled pores, seems to be applicable to the cubic pores investigated in this study, although a higher degree of surface coverage with pores caused complications, probably due to particles bordering one another and forming larger pores. The behavior of the porous surfaces at different rotation speeds was studied. Due to the presence of pores the laminar character of the boundary layer flow changes to turbulent, which induces locally an increased dissolution flux in the wake of a pore.

  14. Characterization of lacustrine shale pore structure: The Upper-Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Yu


    Full Text Available Amounts of silty laminae in continental shale gas reservoir were investigated in the Zhangjiatan shale of the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. The purpose of this study is to provide awareness in terms of the nature and discrepancies in pore structure between silty laminae and clayey laminae. By mechanically separating the silty laminae from the shale core, a combination measurement series of mercury injection capillary pressure, N2 adsorption, and carbon dioxide adsorption were performed on the aforementioned two parts. An integrated pore size distribution, with a pore diameter range of 0.1 nm-100 μm, was obtained by using appropriate sample particle size and calculation model. The comparative analysis of the pore structure shows that the clayey laminae are dominated by mesopore and micropore; meanwhile, the silty laminae are dominated by macropore alone. The pore volume distribution in clayey laminae is sorted as mesopore volume > micropore volume > macropore volume, on the other hand, for silty laminae it is macropore volume > mesopore volume > micropore volume. The averaged total pore volume of silty laminae is 2.02 cc/100 g, and for clayey laminae, it is 1.41 cc/100 g. The porosity of silty laminae is 5.40%, which is greater than that of clayey laminae's 3.67%. Since silty laminae have larger pore width and pore space, they are more permeable and porous than the clayey laminae; it also acts as a favorable conduit and reservoir for shale gas.

  15. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo


    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  16. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo


    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  17. Transport of water molecules through noncylindrical pores in multilayer nanoporous graphene. (United States)

    Shahbabaei, Majid; Kim, Daejoong


    In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to examine the water transport properties through asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores in multilayer nanoporous graphene with a constant interlayer separation of 6 Å. The properties of the tested asymmetric hourglass-shaped pores [with the models having long cone (l 1 , -P) and short cone (l 2 , +P) entrances] are compared to a symmetric pore model. The study findings indicate that the water occupancy increases across the asymmetric pore (l 1 , -P) compared to (l 2 , +P), because of the length effect. The asymmetric pore, (l 1 , -P), yields higher flux compared to (l 2 , +P) and even the symmetric model, which can be attributed to the increase in the hydrogen bonds. In addition, the single-file water molecules across the narrowest pore diameter inside the (l 2 , +P) pore exhibit higher viscosity compared to those in the (l 1 , -P) pore because of the increase in the water layering effect. Moreover, it is found that the permeability inside the multilayer hourglass-shaped pore depends on the length of the flow path of the water molecules before approaching the layer with the smallest pore diameter. The probability of dipole orientation exhibits wider distribution inside the (l 1 , -P) system compared to (l 2 , +P), implying an enhanced formation of hydrogen bonding of water molecules. This results in the fast flow of water molecules. The MD trajectory shows that the dipole orientation across the single-layer graphene has frequently flipped compared to the dipole orientation across the pores in multilayer graphene, which is maintained during the whole simulation time (although the dipole orientation has flipped for a few picoseconds at the beginning of the simulation). This can be attributed to the energy barrier induced by the individual layer. The diffusion coefficient of water molecules inside the (l 2 , +P) system increases with pressure difference, however, it decreases inside the (l 1 , -P) system because

  18. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.


    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  19. Mimicking the nuclear pore complex using nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananth, A.N.


    Nuclear pore complexes acts as a gatekeeper for molecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. The central NPC channel is filled with intrinsically disordered FG domains (phenylalanine (F), glycine (G)) that are responsible for the fascinating selectivity of NPCs, for

  20. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh


    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  1. X-ray pore optic developments (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk


    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  2. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A


    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...... processes at pore scale, but they are much larger in amplitude and duration. Pressure jumps can result from transient redistribution of water potential in internal regions of soil and can be triggered during drainage by capillary displacements at the scale of structural pores....

  3. Research and development on groundwater dating. Part 6. Extraction of pore water from low permeability rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Oyama, Takahiro; Higashihara, Tomohiro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kitsukawa, Takashi


    The squeezing method is one of the most promising methods to obtain the pore water from rock cores. However, in previous studies, ion composition of squeezed water was found to have dependency on squeezing pressure. In this study, squeezing method was applied to both natural and artificial standard samples and concentration of Cl ion in squeezed water and basal spacing of smectite included in samples were investigated as a function of squeezing pressure. Furthermore, bentonite sample was prepared by suspending the bentonite powder in NaCl solution and supplied for squeezing. The relation between concentration of Cl ion in squeezed water and the amount of inter-layer water squeezed from smectite was discussed quantitatively, for this bentonite sample. The concentration of Cl ion in squeezed water was found to decrease with increase of squeezing pressure. The inter-layer water from smectite is assumed to be one of the most effective cause of the decrease of Cl ion with increase of squeezing pressure, because of following 3 reasons; 1) Basal spacing of smectite included in rocks decreased with increase of squeezing pressure, 2) The decrease of Cl ion strongly depended on the amount of smectite included in rocks and no decrease was observed in glass filter sample in which no smectite is included, 3) The agreement between concentration of Cl estimated from obtained pore water and that calculated with basal spacing and amount of pore water was obtained in bentonite sample. These results indicated squeezing pressure should be limited so that basal spacing of smectite do not change during squeezing to estimate the concentration of Cl in pore water precisely. (author)

  4. The equivalent pore aspect ratio as a tool for pore type prediction in carbonate reservoirs


    FOURNIER , François; Pellerin , Matthieu; Villeneuve , Quentin; Teillet , Thomas; Hong , Fei; Poli , Emmanuelle; Borgomano , Jean; Léonide , Philippe; Hairabian , Alex


    International audience; The equivalent pore aspect ratios (EPAR) provide a tool to detect pore types by combining P-and S-wave velocities, porosity, bulk density and mineralogical composition of carbonate rocks. The integration of laboratory measurements, well log data and petrographic analysis of 468 carbonate samples from various depositional and diagenetic settings (Lower Cretaceous pre-salt non-marine carbonates from offshore Brazil, Lower Cretaceous shallow-water platform carbonates from...

  5. A Pore Scale Flow Simulation of Reconstructed Model Based on the Micro Seepage Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu


    Full Text Available Researches on microscopic seepage mechanism and fine description of reservoir pore structure play an important role in effective development of low and ultralow permeability reservoir. The typical micro pore structure model was established by two ways of the conventional model reconstruction method and the built-in graphics function method of Comsol® in this paper. A pore scale flow simulation was conducted on the reconstructed model established by two different ways using creeping flow interface and Brinkman equation interface, respectively. The results showed that the simulation of the two models agreed well in the distribution of velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, and so on. And it verified the feasibility of the direct reconstruction method from graphic file to geometric model, which provided a new way for diversifying the numerical study of micro seepage mechanism.

  6. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  7. Enhancement of plasma generation in catalyst pores with different shapes (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie


    Plasma generation inside catalyst pores is of utmost importance for plasma catalysis, as the existence of plasma species inside the pores affects the active surface area of the catalyst available to the plasma species for catalytic reactions. In this paper, the electric field enhancement, and thus the plasma production inside catalyst pores with different pore shapes is studied with a two-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the electric field will be significantly enhanced near tip-like structures. In a conical pore with small opening, the strongest electric field appears at the opening and bottom corners of the pore, giving rise to a prominent ionization rate throughout the pore. For a cylindrical pore, the electric field is only enhanced at the bottom corners of the pore, with lower absolute value, and thus the ionization rate inside the pore is only slightly enhanced. Finally, in a conical pore with large opening, the electric field is characterized by a maximum at the bottom of the pore, yielding a similar behavior for the ionization rate. These results demonstrate that the shape of the pore has a significantly influence on the electric field enhancement, and thus modifies the plasma properties.

  8. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory (United States)

    Leith, David


    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  9. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte


    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... environment. Lowland soils are primarily peat soils, and only a minor part of the total soil volume of peat soils is occupied by macropores (>30 µm). Since water primarily flows in these macropores, the majority of the soil matrix is bypassed (the immobile domain). Phosphorus released in the immobile domain...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  10. Multiscale pore networks and their effect on deformation and transport property alteration associated with hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Hayman, Nicholas; Jiang, Han; Tian, Xiao; Jiang, Chunbi


    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that, during a hydraulic fracture stimulation, the permeability of the unfractured matrix far from the main, induced tensile fracture increases by one to two orders of magnitude. This permeability enhancement is associated with pervasive shear failure in a large region surrounding the main induced fracture. We have performed low-pressure gas sorption, mercury intrusion, and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements along with high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging on several preserved and unpreserved shale samples from North American basins before and after inducing failure in confined compressive strength tests. We have observed that the pore structure in intact samples exhibits multiscale behavior, with sub-micron-scale pores in organic matter connected in isolated, micron-scale clusters which themselves are connected to each other through a network of microcracks. The organic-hosted pore networks are poorly connected due to a significant number of dead-end pores within the organic matter. Following shear failure, we often observe an increase in pore volume in the sub-micron range, which appears to be related to the formation of microcracks that propagate along grain boundaries and other planes of mechanical strength contrast. This is consistent with other experimental and field evidence. In some cases these microcracks cross or terminate in organic matter, intersecting the organic-hosted pores. The induced microcrack networks typically have low connectivity and do not appreciably increase the connectivity of the overall pore network. However, in other cases the shear deformation results in an overall pore volume decrease; samples which exhibit this behavior tend to have more clay minerals. Our interpretation of these phenomena is as follows. As organic matter is converted to hydrocarbons, organic-hosted pores develop, and the hydrocarbons contained in these pores are overpressured. The disconnected nature of these

  11. The measurement of pore size in porous and microporous materials using resonant ion beam backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, B.H.; Ramsay, J.D.F.; Brady, F.P.


    Established methods for measuring the size of pores in porous materials include those of mercury porosimetry and gas adsorption. A disadvantage of these methods is that only one determination can be made for each prepared specimen. A property of the ion beam backscattering method is that each specimen can be probed over the surface and also as a function of depth. Furthermore for microporous samples (pore width less than 2 nm) mercury penetration methods cannot be used because the high pressures involved make unreasonable demands in terms of mechanical strength. At the same time gas adsoption techniques are considerably restricted because capillary condensation is no longer possible because of the small size of the pores. A description is given of the methods of calculation of pore size from resonant ion beam backscattering data, with various assumptions for the pore and interpore path length distributions. Examples are shown of results obtained with highly porous silica gels where good agreement with gas adsoption has been achieved. Finally, some results obtained by scanning silica gels of lower porosity are also given. (Auth.)

  12. Study on Compatibility of Polymer Hydrodynamic Size and Pore Throat Size for Honggang Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Yin


    Full Text Available Long core flow experiment was conducted to study problems like excessive injection pressure and effective lag of oil wells during the polymer flooding in Honggang reservoir in Jilin oilfield. According to the changes in viscosity and hydrodynamic dimensions before and after polymer solution was injected into porous media, the compatibility of polymer hydrodynamic dimension and the pore throat size was studied in this experiment. On the basis of the median of radius R of pore throats in rocks with different permeability, dynamic light scattering method (DLS was adopted to measure the hydrodynamic size Rh of polymer solution with different molecular weights. The results state that three kinds of 1500 mg/L concentration polymer solution with 2000 × 104, 1500 × 104, and 1000 × 104 molecular weight matched well with the pore throat in rocks with permeability of 300 mD, 180 mD, and 75 mD in sequence. In this case, the ratios of core pore throat radius median to the size of polymer molecular clew R/Rh are 6.16, 5.74, and 6.04. For Honggang oil reservoir in Jilin, when that ratio ranges from 5.5 to 6.0, the compatibility of polymer and the pore structure will be relatively better.

  13. Pressure-induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation in porous PZT95/5 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, T.; Dong, X.L.; Chen, X.F.; Yao, C.H.; He, H.L.


    The hydrostatic pressure-induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric (FE-AFE) phase transformation of PZT95/5 ceramics was investigated as a function of porosity, pore shape and pore size. FE-AFE phase transformations were more diffuse and occurred at lower hydrostatic pressures with increasing porosity. The porous PZT95/5 ceramics with spherical pores exhibited higher transformation pressures than those with irregular pores. Moreover, FE-AFE phase transformations of porous PZT95/5 ceramics with polydisperse irregular pores were more diffuse than those of porous PZT95/5 ceramics with monodisperse irregular pores. The relation between pore structure and hydrostatic pressure-induced FE-AFE transformation was established according to stress concentration theory. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Nucleation of frictional instability caused by fluid pressurization in subducted blueschist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, M.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Plümper, O.; Hirose, T.; Spiers, C.J.


    Pore pressure is an important factor in controlling the slip instability of faults and thus the generation of earthquakes. Particularly slow earthquakes are widespread in subduction zones and usually linked to the occurrence of high pore pressure. Yet the influence of fluid pressure and effective

  15. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F


    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  16. Radial distribution of ions in pores with a surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, J.H.G. van der; Görtzen, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A sorption model applicable to calculate the radial equilibrium concentrations of ions in the pores of ion-selective membranes with a pore structure is developed. The model is called the radial uptake model. Because the model is applied to a Nafion sulfonic layer with very small pores and the radial

  17. Analysis of over-pressure mechanisms in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, B.; Bredehoeft, J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Extremely high pore fluid pressures exist in the area of the Altamount/Bluebell oil field in the Uinta basin, Utah. We discuss two possible mechanisms for the cause of these over-pressures in this paper: (1) compaction disequilibrium, and (2) conversion of kerogen to liquid hydrocarbon (oil). Compaction disequilibrium occurs during periods of rapid sedimentation. If the permeability of deeply buried strata is low, then connate water within the rock matrix does not escape rapidly enough as compaction occurs; as sedimentary deposition continues, high pore fluid pressures develop. Conversion of solid kerogen to a liquid generates both a liquid and additional pore space for the liquid to occupy. If the volume of the liquid generated is just sufficient to fill the pore space generated, then there will be no accompanying effect on the pore pressure. If the liquid is less dense than the solid it replaces, then there is more liquid than pore space created; pore pressure will increase, causing flow away from the area of the reaction. Pore pressure is a sensitive measure of the balance between hydrocarbon generation and expulsion from the source into adjacent strata. If high pore pressures exist only where source rocks are thought to be generating oil, then kerogen conversion is a likely over-pressure mechanism. However, if over-pressures are found in low-permeability strata regardless of source rock proximity, then sedimentary compaction is probably a more dominant mechanism.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Polymeric Hollow Fiber Membranes with Nano-scale Pore Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir Mansourizadeh; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail


    Porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polysulfide (PSF) hollow fiber membranes were fabricated via a wet spinning method. The membranes were characterized in terms of gas permeability, wetting pressure, overall porosity and water contact angle. The morphology of the membranes was examined by FESEM. From gas permeation test, mean pore sizes of 7.3 and 9.6 nm were obtained for PSF and PVDF membrane, respectively. Using low polymer concentration in the dopes, the membranes demonstrated a relatively high overall porosity of 77 %. From FESEM examination, the PSF membrane presented a denser outer skin layer, which resulted in significantly lower N 2 permeance. Therefore, due to the high hydrophobicity and nano-scale pore sizes of the PVDF membrane, a good wetting pressure of 4.5x10 -5 Pa was achieved. (author)

  19. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO


    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  20. Silicon pore optics developments and status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Wallace, Kotska


    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a lightweight high performance X-ray optics technology being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class high energy astrophysics missions. An example of such application is the former ESA science mission candidate ATHENA (Advanced Telescope...... for High Energy Astrophysics), which uses the SPO technology for its two telescopes, in order to provide an effective area exceeding 1 m2 at 1 keV, and 0.5 m2 at 6 keV, featuring an angular resolution of 10" or better [1 to 24]. This paper reports on the development activities led by ESA, and the status...

  1. Pore-scale modeling of phase change in porous media (United States)

    Juanes, Ruben; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Fu, Xiaojing


    One of the main open challenges in pore-scale modeling is the direct simulation of flows involving multicomponent mixtures with complex phase behavior. Reservoir fluid mixtures are often described through cubic equations of state, which makes diffuse interface, or phase field theories, particularly appealing as a modeling framework. What is still unclear is whether equation-of-state-driven diffuse-interface models can adequately describe processes where surface tension and wetting phenomena play an important role. Here we present a diffuse interface model of single-component, two-phase flow (a van der Waals fluid) in a porous medium under different wetting conditions. We propose a simplified Darcy-Korteweg model that is appropriate to describe flow in a Hele-Shaw cell or a micromodel, with a gap-averaged velocity. We study the ability of the diffuse-interface model to capture capillary pressure and the dynamics of vaporization/condensation fronts, and show that the model reproduces pressure fluctuations that emerge from abrupt interface displacements (Haines jumps) and from the break-up of wetting films.

  2. Influence of pore water in the seabed on dynamic response of offshore wind turbines on monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Highlights •Sandy soil can present reduction of soil stiffness and maximum value of damping. •Equivalent dashpot and mass at the pile cap are highly dependent on the soil type. •Dynamic soil stiffness for offshore monopile foundation is calculated. •Soil damping around offshore monopile wind turb...... turbine foundation is calculated. •The effect of pore pressure and load frequency is illustrated....

  3. A Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model for Non-Wetting Phase Mobilization with Ferrofluid (United States)

    Wang, N.; Prodanovic, M.


    Ferrofluid, a stable dispersion of paramagnetic nanoparticles in water, can generate a distributed pressure difference across the phase interface in an immiscible two-phase flow under an external magnetic field. In water-wet porous media, this non-uniform pressure difference may be used to mobilize the non-wetting phase, e.g. oil, trapped in the pores. Previous numerical work by Soares et al. of two-dimensional single-pore model showed enhanced non-wetting phase recovery with water-based ferrofluid under certain magnetic field directions and decreased recovery under other directions. However, the magnetic field selectively concentrates in the high magnetic permeability ferrofluid which fills the small corners between the non-wetting phase and the solid wall. The magnetic field induced pressure is proportional to the square of local magnetic field strength and its normal component, and makes a significant impact on the non-wetting phase deformation. The two-dimensional model omitted the effect of most of these corners and is not sufficient to compute the magnetic-field-induced pressure difference or to predict the non-wetting blob deformation. Further, it is not clear that 3D effects on magnetic field in an irregular geometry can be approximated in 2D. We present a three-dimensional immiscible two-phase flow model to simulate the deformation of a non-wetting liquid blob in a single pore filled with a ferrofluid under a uniform external magnetic field. The ferrofluid is modeled as a uniform single phase because the nanoparticles are 104 times smaller than the pore. The open source CFD solver library OpenFOAM is used for the simulations based on the volume of fluid method. Simulations are performed in a converging-diverging channel model on different magnetic field direction, different initial oil saturations, and different pore shapes. Results indicate that the external magnetic field always stretches the non-wetting blob away from the solid channel wall. A magnetic

  4. Performance characterization of silicon pore optics (United States)

    Collon, M. J.; Kraft, S.; Günther, R.; Maddox, E.; Beijersbergen, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Wallace, K.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Freyberg, M.


    The characteristics of the latest generation of assembled silicon pore X-ray optics are discussed in this paper. These very light, stiff and modular high performance pore optics (HPO) have been developed [1] for the next generation of astronomical X-ray telescopes, which require large collecting areas whilst achieving angular resolutions better than 5 arcseconds. The suitability of 12 inch silicon wafers as high quality optical mirrors and the automated assembly process are discussed elsewhere in this conference. HPOs with several tens of ribbed silicon plates are assembled by bending the plates into an accurate cylindrical shape and directly bonding them on top of each other. The achievable figure accuracy is measured during assembly and in test campaigns at X-ray testing facilities like BESSY-II and PANTER. Pencil beam measurements allow gaining information on the quality achieved by the production process with high spatial resolution. In combination with full beam illumination a complete picture of the excellent performance of these optics can be derived. Experimental results are presented and discussed in detail. The results of such campaigns are used to further improve the production process in order to match the challenging XEUS requirements [2] for imaging resolution and mass.

  5. [A photographic scale for evaluating facial pores and analysis of factors associated with pore widening in Chengdu]. (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Cheng-xia; Meng, Hui-min; Wang, Xi; Li, Li


    To develop a photographic scale for grading widening of pores, and to identify the factors associated with pore widening. People with widened pores were recruited, with photographs taken on their nasal tips, nasal alas and cheeks. A questionnaire survey was undertaken by dermatologists to assess the severity of pore widening. A Cumulative Logit Model was established to identify factors that were associated with pore widening. A total of 115 people participated in the study and 562 photographs were taken. The photographic scale was highly consistent with the clinical judgment. Another 1011 residents aged from 18 to 70 years old in Chengdu were surveyed. The logit model revealed that facial pore widening were associated with gender, age, oily skin, sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic. The photographic scale is reliable and easy to use. Gender, age and oily skin are risk factors, and sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic are protective factors with related to pore widening.

  6. Multiple Approaches to Characterizing Pore Structure in Natural Rock (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Dultz, S.; Hamamoto, S.; Ewing, R. P.


    Microscopic characteristics of porous media - pore shape, pore-size distribution, and pore connectivity - control fluid flow and chemical transport, and are important in hydrogeological studies of rock formations in the context of energy, environmental, and water resources management. This presentation discusses various approaches to investigating pore structure of rock, with a particular focus on the Barnett Shale in north Texas used for natural gas production. Approaches include imbibition, tracer diffusion, porosimetry (MIP, vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms, NMR cyroporometry), and imaging (μ-tomography, Wood's metal impregnation, FIB/SEM). Results show that the Barnett Shale pores are predominantly in the nm size range, with a measured median pore-throat diameter of 6.5 nm. But small pore size is not the major contributor to low gas recovery; rather, the low gas diffusivity appears to be caused by low pore connectivity. Chemical diffusion in sparsely-connected pore spaces is not well described by classical Fickian behavior; anomalous behavior is suggested by percolation theory, and confirmed by results of imbibition tests. Our evolving complementary approaches, with their several advantages and disadvantages, provide a rich toolbox for tackling the pore structure characteristics in the Barnett Shale and other natural rocks.

  7. Dynamic Pore-Scale Imaging of Reactive Transport in Heterogeneous Carbonates at Reservoir Conditions Across Multiple Dissolution Regimes (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Blunt, M. J.


    Sequestering carbon in deep geologic formations is one way of reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When supercritical CO2 mixes with brine in a reservoir, the acid generated has the potential to dissolve the surrounding pore structure. However, the magnitude and type of dissolution are condition dependent. Understanding how small changes in the pore structure, chemistry, and flow properties affect dissolution is paramount for successful predictive modelling. Both 'Pink Beam' synchrotron radiation and a Micro-CT lab source are used in dynamic X-ray microtomography to investigate the pore structure changes during supercritical CO2 injection in carbonate rocks of varying heterogeneity at high temperatures and pressures and various flow-rates. Three carbonate rock types were studied, one with a homogeneous pore structure and two heterogeneous carbonates. All samples are practically pure calcium carbonate, but have widely varying rock structures. Flow-rate was varied in three successive experiments by over an order of magnitude whlie keeping all other experimental conditions constant. A 4-mm carbonate core was injected with CO2-saturated brine at 10 MPa and 50oC. Tomographic images were taken at 30-second to 20-minute time-resolutions during a 2 to 4-hour injection period. A pore network was extracted using a topological analysis of the pore space and pore-scale flow modelling was performed directly on the binarized images with connected pathways and used to track the altering velocity distributions. Significant differences in dissolution type and magnitude were found for each rock type and flowrate. At the highest flow-rates, the homogeneous carbonate was seen to have predominately uniform dissolution with minor dissolution rate differences between the pores and pore throats. Alternatively, the heterogeneous carbonates which formed wormholes at high flow rates. At low flow rates the homogeneous rock developed wormholes, while the heterogeneous samples showed evidence

  8. An Evaluation of Models of Bentonite Pore Water Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Watson, Claire; Wilson, James (Quintessa Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)); Arthur, Randy (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States))


    The determination of a bentonite pore water composition and understanding its evolution of with time underpins many radioactive waste disposal issues, such as buffer erosion, canister corrosion, and radionuclide solubility, sorption, and diffusion, inter alia. The usual approach to modelling clay pore fluids is based primarily around assumed chemical equilibrium between Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ aqueous species and ion exchange sites on montmorillonite, but also includes protonation- deprotonation of clay edge surface sites, and dissolution-precipitation of the trace mineral constituents, calcite and gypsum. An essential feature of this modelling approach is that clay hydrolysis reactions (i.e. dissolution of the aluminosilicate octahedral and tetrahedral sheets of montmorillonite) are ignored. A consequence of the omission of clay hydrolysis reactions from bentonite pore fluid models is that montmorillonite is preserved indefinitely in the near-field system, even over million-year timescales. Here, we investigate the applicability of an alternative clay pore fluid model, one that incorporates clay hydrolysis reactions as an integral component and test it against well-characterised laboratory experimental data, where key geochemical parameters, Eh and pH, have been measured directly in compacted bentonite. Simulations have been conducted using a range of computer codes to test the applicability of this alternative model. Thermodynamic data for MX-80 smectite used in the calculations were estimated using two different methods. Simulations of 'end-point' pH measurements in batch bentonite-water slurry experiments showed different pH values according to the complexity of the system studied. The most complete system investigated revealed pH values were a strong function of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, with pH increasing with decreasing PCO{sub 2} (log PCO{sub 2} values ranging from -3.5 to -7.5 bars produced pH values ranging from 7.9 to 9.6). A second

  9. Using Neutron Scattering and Mercury Intrusion Techniques to Characterize Micro- and Nano-Pore Structure of Shale (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Barber, T.; Hu, Q.; Bleuel, M.


    The micro- and nano-pore structure of oil shale plays a critical role in hydrocarbon storage and migration. This study aims to characterize the pore structure of three Bakken members (i.e., upper organic-rich shale, middle silty/sandy dolomites, and lower organic-rich shale), through small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS) techniques, as well as mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) analyses. SANS/USANS have the capabilities of measuring total porosity (connected and closed porosity) across nm-mm spectrum, not measurable than other fluid-invasion approaches, such as MICP which obtains connected porosity and pore-throat size distribution. Results from both techniques exhibit different features of upper/lower Bakken and middle Bakken, as a result of various mineral composition and organic matter contents. Middle Bakken is primarily dominated by the mineral pores, while in the upper and lower Bakken, organic pores contribute a significant portion of total porosity. A combination of USANS/SANS and MICP techniques gives a comprehensive picture of shale micro- and nano-pore structure.

  10. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías


    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  11. Pore structure in blended cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canut, Mariana Moreira Cavalcanti

    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as slag and fly ash, are increasingly used as a substitute for Portland cement in the interests of improvement of engineering properties and sustainability of concrete. According to studies improvement of engineering properties can be explained by...... on assumptions of degree of reaction and product densities gave for plain cement pastes results comparable to MIP data.......Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as slag and fly ash, are increasingly used as a substitute for Portland cement in the interests of improvement of engineering properties and sustainability of concrete. According to studies improvement of engineering properties can be explained...... supplement each other. Cement pastes (w/b=0.4) with and without slag and fly ash cured at two moisture (sealed and saturated) and temperature (20 and 55ºC) conditions were used to investigate the combined impact of SCMs addition and curing on the pore structure of pastes cured up to two years. Also...

  12. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (MP), harrowing to a depth of 8-10 cm (H) and direct drilling (D). Minimally disturbed core samples were taken at 4-8, 12-16 and 18-27 cm depths 11 years after experimental start. Water retention characteristics were measured for a range of matric potential ranging from -10......Conservation tillage in combination with crop rotation, residue management and cover crops are key components of conservation agriculture. A positive long-term effect of applying all components of conservation agriculture on soil structural quality is expected. However, there is a lack...... of quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage...

  13. Preferential flow from pore to landscape scales (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.; Larsbo, M.


    In this presentation, we give a brief personal overview of some recent progress in quantifying preferential flow in the vadose zone, based on our own work and those of other researchers. One key challenge is to bridge the gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (i.e. pore to Darcy scales) and the scales of interest for management (i.e. fields, catchments, regions). We present results of recent studies that exemplify the potential of 3-D non-invasive imaging techniques to visualize and quantify flow processes at the pore scale. These studies should lead to a better understanding of how the topology of macropore networks control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow under variable initial and boundary conditions. Extrapolation of this process knowledge to larger scales will remain difficult, since measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these larger scales are lacking. Recent work suggests that the application of key concepts from percolation theory could be useful in this context. Investigation of the larger Darcy-scale heterogeneities that generate preferential flow patterns at the soil profile, hillslope and field scales has been facilitated by hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help to parameterize models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  14. Phase transitions of fluids in heterogeneous pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malijevský


    Full Text Available We study phase behaviour of a model fluid confined between two unlike parallel walls in the presence of long range (dispersion forces. Predictions obtained from macroscopic (geometric and mesoscopic arguments are compared with numerical solutions of a non-local density functional theory. Two capillary models are considered. For a capillary comprising two (differently adsorbing walls we show that simple geometric arguments lead to the generalized Kelvin equation locating very accurately capillary condensation, provided both walls are only partially wet. If at least one of the walls is in complete wetting regime, the Kelvin equation should be modified by capturing the effect of thick wetting films by including Derjaguin's correction. Within the second model, we consider a capillary formed of two competing walls, so that one tends to be wet and the other dry. In this case, an interface localized-delocalized transition occurs at bulk two-phase coexistence and a temperature T*(L depending on the pore width L. A mean-field analysis shows that for walls exhibiting first-order wetting transition at a temperature T_{w}, T_{s} > T*(L > T_{w}, where the spinodal temperature Ts can be associated with the prewetting critical temperature, which also determines a critical pore width below which the interface localized-delocalized transition does not occur. If the walls exhibit critical wetting, the transition is shifted below Tw and for a model with the binding potential W(l=A(Tl-2+B(Tl-3+..., where l is the location of the liquid-gas interface, the transition can be characterized by a dimensionless parameter κ=B/(AL, so that the fluid configuration with delocalized interface is stable in the interval between κ=-2/3 and κ ~ -0.23.

  15. Pore structure of natural and regenerated soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen


    Quantitative characterization of aggregate pore structure can reveal the evolution of aggregates under different land use and management practices and their effects on soil processes and functions. Advances in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) provide powerful means to conduct such characterization....... This study examined aggregate pore structure of three differently managed same textured Danish soils (mixed forage cropping, MFC; mixed cash cropping, MCC; cereal cash cropping, CCC) for (i) natural aggregates, and (ii) aggregates regenerated after 20 months of incubation. In total, 27 aggregates (8-16 mm...... pore diameter of 200 and 170 Hm, respectively. Pore shape analysis indicated that CCC and MFC aggregates had an abundance of rounded and elongated pores, respectively, and those of MCC were in-between CCC and MFC. Aggregate pore structure development in the lysimeters was nearly similar irrespective...

  16. Characteristics of Pore Structure and Fractal Dimension of Isometamorphic Anthracite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Gao


    Full Text Available The geologic conditions of No. 3 coal seams are similar to Sihe and Zhaozhuang Collieries, however, the gas production is significantly different. To better understand the effect of pores, by means of experimental measurements and quantitative analysis, the pore properties of high-rank isometamorphic anthracite were thoroughly studied. Our study showed that the pore structures were predominantly adsorptive, accounting for more than 88% of the specific surface area. The coal pores showed typical three-stage fractal characteristics at boundary points of 1 nm and 9 nm (7 nm of coal samples from Zhaozhuang Colliery, and the fractal dimension with 1–9 nm (or 1–7 nm, as being significantly larger than those measured outside the given ranges. Pores in samples from Sihe Colliery were mainly open spherical or ellipsoidal pores in shape; conversely, those from Zhaozhuang Colliery were mainly Y-shaped, V-shaped, or ‘ink-bottle’ type.

  17. Preparation of micro-pored silicone elastomer through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoling; Gu Mei; Xie Xubing; Huang Wei


    The radiation crosslinking was adopted to prepare the micro-pored silicone elastomer, which was performed by vulcanization and foaming respectively. Radiation crosslinking is a new method to prepare micro-pored material with high performance by use of radiation technology. Silicon dioxide was used as filler, and silicone elastomer was vulcanized by electron beams, then the micro-pored material was made by heating method at a high temperature. The effects of absorbed dose and filler content on the performance and morphology were investigated. The structure and distribution of pores were observed by SEM. The results show that the micro-pored silicon elastomer can be prepared successfully by controlling the absorbed dose and filler content. It has a smooth surface similar to a rubber meanwhile the pores are round and unconnected to each other with the minimum size of 14 μm. And the good mechanical performance can be suitable for further uses. (authors)

  18. Application of a Pore Fraction Hot Tearing Model to Directionally Solidified and Direct Chill Cast Aluminum Alloys (United States)

    Dou, Ruifeng; Phillion, A. B.


    Hot tearing susceptibility is commonly assessed using a pressure drop equation in the mushy zone that includes the effects of both tensile deformation perpendicular to the thermal gradient as well as shrinkage feeding. In this study, a Pore Fraction hot tearing model, recently developed by Monroe and Beckermann (JOM 66:1439-1445, 2014), is extended to additionally include the effect of strain rate parallel to the thermal gradient. The deformation and shrinkage pore fractions are obtained on the basis of the dimensionless Niyama criterion and a scaling variable method. First, the model is applied to the binary Al-Cu system under conditions of directional solidification. It is shown that for the same Niyama criterion, a decrease in the cooling rate increases both the deformation and shrinkage pore fractions because of an increase in the time spent in the brittle temperature region. Second, the model is applied to the industrial aluminum alloy AA5182 as part of a finite element simulation of the Direct Chill (DC) casting process. It is shown that an increase in the casting speed during DC casting increases the deformation and shrinkage pore fractions, causing the maximum point of pore fraction to move towards the base of the casting. These results demonstrate that including the strain rate parallel to the thermal gradient significantly improves the predictive quality of hot tearing criteria based on the pressure drop equation.

  19. Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently


    Bodner, G.; Leitner, D.; Kaul, H.-P.


    Aims Small scale root-pore interactions require validation of their impact on effective hydraulic processes at the field scale. Our objective was to develop an interpretative framework linking root effects on macroscopic pore parameters with knowledge at the rhizosphere scale. Methods A field experiment with twelve species from different families was conducted. Parameters of Kosugi?s pore size distribution (PSD) model were determined inversely from tension infiltrometer data. Measured root tr...

  20. The effect of scaffold pore size in cartilage tissue engineering. (United States)

    Nava, Michele M; Draghi, Lorenza; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo


    The effect of scaffold pore size and interconnectivity is undoubtedly a crucial factor for most tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and porosity on cartilage construct development in different scaffolds seeded with articular chondrocytes. We fabricated poly-L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate scaffolds with different pore sizes, using a solvent-casting/particulate-leaching technique. We seeded primary bovine articular chondrocytes on these scaffolds, cultured the constructs for 2 weeks and examined cell proliferation, viability and cell-specific production of cartilaginous extracellular matrix proteins, including GAG and collagen. Cell density significantly increased up to 50% with scaffold pore size and porosity, likely facilitated by cell spreading on the internal surface of bigger pores, and by increased mass transport of gases and nutrients to cells, and catabolite removal from cells, allowed by lower diffusion barriers in scaffolds with a higher porosity. However, both the cell metabolic activity and the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins significantly decreased by up to 40% with pore size. We propose that the association of smaller pore diameters, causing 3-dimensional cell aggregation, to a lower oxygenation caused by a lower porosity, could have been the condition that increased the cell-specific synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins in the scaffold with the smallest pores and the lowest porosity among those tested. In the initial steps of in vitro cartilage engineering, the combination of small scaffold pores and low porosity is an effective strategy with regard to the promotion of chondrogenesis.

  1. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso


    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  2. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock. (United States)

    Oliveira, M F S; Lima, I; Borghi, L; Lopes, R T


    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the synaptobrevin C terminus in fusion pore formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngatchou, Annita N; Kisler, Kassandra; Fang, Qinghua


    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin II (sybII, also known as VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, generating a force transfer to the membranes and inducing fusion pore formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which this force leads to opening of a fusion pore...... stimulation, the SNARE complex pulls the C terminus of sybII deeper into the vesicle membrane. We propose that this movement disrupts the vesicular membrane continuity leading to fusion pore formation. In contrast to current models, the experiments suggest that fusion pore formation begins with molecular...

  4. Extraction of pores from microtomographic reconstructions of intact soil aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albee, P. B.; Stockman, G. C.; Smucker, A. J. M.


    Segmentation of features is often a necessary step in the analysis of volumetric data. The authors have developed a simple technique for extracting voids from irregular volumetric data sets. In this work they look at extracting pores from soil aggregates. First, they identify a threshold that gives good separability of the object from the background. They then segment the object, and perform connected components analysis on the pores within the object. Using their technique pores that break the surface can be segmented along with pores completely contained in the initially segmented object.

  5. Nonphysical sheet for the Friedrichs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, B.S.


    A method of deducing an expansion theorem in resonance states for the two-dimensional Friedrichs model A=1/2(U var-phi -U var-phi + ) is suggested. The construction is based on detailed Lax-Phillips analogs of the corresponding unitary Friedrichs model U var-phi = z(1 + 2iα/1-iα P var-phi ), perturbed by the protector P var-phi , generated by an element var-phi possessing special analytic properties

  6. The effect of the atmosphere and the role of pore filling on the sintering of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.; Hall, B.J.; Bonner, S.J.; Huo, S.H.; Sercombe, T.B.


    Alloys of Al-3.8Cu-1Mg-0.7Si, Al-4Cu-0.6Si-0.1Mg, Al-4Cu-1.2Mg and Al-1.9Mg-1.9Si were made using air atomised powder and conventional press-and-sinter powder metallurgy techniques. These were sintered under nitrogen with a controlled water content which varied from 3 to 630 ppm (a dew point of -69 to -25 deg. C), nitrogen-5%hydrogen, argon and argon-5%hydrogen, all at atmospheric pressure, or a vacuum of -2 torr. Dry nitrogen is the most efficacious atmosphere. Vacuum is more effective than argon while hydrogen, and thus water, is extremely prejudicial to sintered density. The minimum dew point for optimum sintering is -60 deg. C (10.5 ppm H 2 O). The key feature in the beneficial effect of nitrogen is the formation of aluminium nitride. This reduces the pressure in the pore spaces relative to the external atmosphere, which induces pore filling at grain sizes that are smaller than those required for sintering in inert atmospheres. It is suggested that pore filling is an important densification mechanism during the sintering of aluminium

  7. Pore-water chemistry effects on the compressibility behaviour of Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Y.F.; Cui, Y.J.; Tang, A.M.; Nguyen, X.P.; Li, X.L.; Maarten, V.G.


    %) and the soil can be classified as plastic clay. In order to study the effects of pore-water chemistry on soil compressibility, oedometer tests were performed following a specific procedure. After installation of the soil specimen (50 mm in diameter and 20 mm high) in the oedometer cell between two dry porous stones, the vertical stress was increased in steps from 0.05 MPa to 2.4 MPa, which corresponds to the in-situ effective vertical stress of the soil cores (before flushing the pore stone). After stabilisation of the soil deformation, a back-pressure of 1 MPa was applied from the lower base of the odometer cell using a volume/pressure controller. For each soil core, one test was performed using the synthetic pore-water solution and another one using distilled water. The soil volume change during the back-pressure application was monitored, Meanwhile, the volume of liquid (synthetic pore-water solution or distilled water) passing though the soil specimen was also recorded. Each test lasted about one month and it was stopped when the volume of liquid flow through the specimen was twice the pore volume of the soil specimen. This duration is believed to be long enough to determine the hydraulic conductivity under a constant head conditions (under a pressure gradient of 1 MPa). It is noted that for the test using distilled water, the important volume of liquid flow through the soil specimen allows all the in-situ pore-water to be flushed out from the specimen. At the end of this 'flushing' stage, the back-pressure was decreased to zero and loading and unloading were performed in steps with the vertical stress ranging from 0.05 to 3.2 MPa. This test allows determination of the soil compressibility and also the hydraulic conductivity at various void ratios, in the range of relatively low stresses (up to 3.2 MPa). The result shows that the hydraulic conductivity is almost independent of the pore-water used. By contrast, the soil compressibility clearly changes

  8. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  9. Pore-size Distributions from Nitrogen Adsorption Revisited: Models Comparison with Controlled-pore Glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Matějová, Lenka; Schneider, Petr


    Roč. 313, č. 2 (2006), s. 167-176 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2116; GA ČR GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR IAA4072404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pore size distribution * physical adsorption * standard nitrogen isotherm Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2006

  10. Uncertainties in pore water chemistry of compacted bentonite from Rokle deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervinka, R.; Vejsadu, J.; Vokal, A.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The composition of compacted bentonite pore water influences a number of important processes occurring in a deep geological repository (DGR), e.g. corrosion of waste package materials, solubility of radionuclides, or diffusion and sorption of radionuclides. Its determination is not straightforward, because it is difficult to obtain (e.g. squeeze) the pore water from compacted bentonite without changing its properties. It is therefore necessary to combine experimentally obtained parameters and geochemical modelling to approach it compositions. This article describes the results achieved in investigation the composition of pore water of compacted Ca-Mg bentonite from Czech deposits, proposed in Czech DGR concept. Ca-Mg bentonite from the largest operating deposit Rokle (Tertiary neo-volcanic area, NW Bohemia) represents complex mixture of (Ca,Mg)-Fe-rich montmorillonite, micas, kaolinite and other mineral admixtures (mainly Ca, Mg, Fe carbonates, feldspars and iron oxides). For experimental investigations the homogenized and grind raw bentonite material obtained directly from the deposit and commercial product (partly Na-activated) from supplier were used. Geochemical characterization of Rokle bentonite included mineralogical composition analyzed by Xray diffraction, cation exchange capacity determined using Cu-trien method, surface complexation parameters determined by acid-base titrations and 'geochemical' porosity derived from diffusion experiments with tracers ( 3 H and 36 Cl). Soluble salts inventory was calculated on the base of results from aqueous extracts of bentonite in deionized water at different solid to liquid ratios (from 18.6 to 125 g/l) and high pressure squeezing of water saturated bentonite at different solid to liquid ratios (from 1:1 to 4:1 w/w). The geochemical model contained cation exchange in the interlayer space and protonization and de-protonization of surface hydroxyl groups on clay

  11. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure. (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Giménez, Daniel; Subroy, Vandana; Heck, Richard J; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen


    Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C 4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO 2 . Through an analysis of soil aggregate fractal properties supported by 3D microtomographic imagery, we found that N fertilization induced an increase in intra-aggregate porosity and a simultaneous shift toward greater accumulation of pore space in larger aggregates. These effects were enhanced by eCO 2 and yielded an increase in water retention at pressure potentials near the wilting point of plants. However, eCO 2 alone induced changes in the opposite direction, with larger aggregates containing less pore space than under control conditions, and water retention decreasing accordingly. Results on biotic factors further suggested that organic matter gains or losses induced the observed structural changes. Based on our results, we postulate that the pore structure of many mineral soils could undergo N-dependent changes as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise, having global-scale implications for water balance, carbon storage, and related rhizosphere functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Propagation of a plasma streamer in catalyst pores (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Bogaerts, Annemie


    Although plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various environmental applications, the underlying mechanisms are still far from understood. For instance, it is not yet clear whether and how plasma streamers can propagate in catalyst pores, and what is the minimum pore size to make this happen. As this is crucial information to ensure good plasma-catalyst interaction, we study here the mechanism of plasma streamer propagation in a catalyst pore, by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model, for various pore diameters in the nm-range to μm-range. The so-called Debye length is an important criterion for plasma penetration into catalyst pores, i.e. a plasma streamer can penetrate into pores when their diameter is larger than the Debye length. The Debye length is typically in the order of a few 100 nm up to 1 μm at the conditions under study, depending on electron density and temperature in the plasma streamer. For pores in the range of ∼50 nm, plasma can thus only penetrate to some extent and at very short times, i.e. at the beginning of a micro-discharge, before the actual plasma streamer reaches the catalyst surface and a sheath is formed in front of the surface. We can make plasma streamers penetrate into smaller pores (down to ca. 500 nm at the conditions under study) by increasing the applied voltage, which yields a higher plasma density, and thus reduces the Debye length. Our simulations also reveal that the plasma streamers induce surface charging of the catalyst pore sidewalls, causing discharge enhancement inside the pore, depending on pore diameter and depth.

  13. Control of Target Molecular Recognition in a Small Pore Space with Biomolecule-Recognition Gating Membrane. (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroto; Oshiba, Yuhei; Ohashi, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Takeo


    A biomolecule-recognition gating membrane, which introduces thermosensitive graft polymer including molecular recognition receptor into porous membrane substrate, can close its pores by recognizing target biomolecule. The present study reports strategies for improving both versatility and sensitivity of the gating membrane. First, the membrane is fabricated by introducing the receptor via a selectively reactive click reaction improving the versatility. Second, the sensitivity of the membrane is enhanced via an active delivering method of the target molecules into the pores. In the method, the tiny signal of the target biomolecule is amplified as obvious pressure change. Furthermore, this offers 15 times higher sensitivity compared to the previously reported passive delivering method (membrane immersion to sample solution) with significantly shorter recognition time. The improvement will aid in applying the gating membrane to membrane sensors in medical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.


    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  15. Electrokinetic flows in cylindrical and slit capillaries in clays: from pore scale to sample scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obliger, Amael; Jardat, Marie; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Bekri, Samir; Coelho, Daniel


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Transport on the nanometer scale of clay interlayers and on the macroscopic sample scale can be well characterized experimentally, using either X-ray or neutron diffraction and diffusion on the one hand, and solute diffusion experiments on the other hand. Current imaging techniques do not allow to provide a direct picture of the pore network on the scale of several nanometers to several micrometers. The lack of knowledge of the pore network structure on intermediate scales requires to use numerical models of analog porous media. We attempt to describe the ionic transport in meso (diam. ∼ 10-50 nm) and macro-porosity (diam. > 50 nm) (due to the organization of clays particles) with a multi-scale approach provided by the Pore Network Model (PNM) that takes into consideration the topology of the media. Such an approach requires to know the transport coefficients of solvent and solutes in a throat connecting two pores, modelled as a capillary. The challenge in the case of clays, compared to the usual PNM methods, is to capture the effect of the surface charge of clay minerals on the transport of ions and water, under the effect of macroscopic pressure, salt concentration and electric potential gradients. Solvent and ionic transports are governed by the Stokes, the Nernst-Planck and the Poisson- Boltzmann equations. This set of equations can be solved analytically using the linearized form of the latter in order to get an approximation of the electro-osmotic speed and the ionic density profile. At variant with most previous works, we consider the case of a fixed surface charge instead of fixed surface potential. In addition to the Nernst-Einstein and chemical flows of solute, we calculated analytically the Poiseuille flow of solutes and the electro-osmotic flow of solvent and solutes. When the linearization is not possible, one must use numerical results for transport coefficients

  16. The effect of the pore-fluid factor on strength and failure mechanism of Wilkeson sandstone (United States)

    Kätker, A. K.; Rempe, M.; Renner, J.


    The effective stress law, σn,eff = σn - αpf, is a central tool in analysing phenomena related to hydromechanical coupling, such as fluid-induced seismicity or aftershock activity. The effective-stress coefficient α assumes different values for specific physical properties and may deviate from 1. The limited number of studies suggest that brittle compressive strength obeys an effective-stress law when effective drainage is achieved. Yet, open questions remain regarding, e.g., the role of the loading path. We performed suites of triaxial compression tests on samples of Wilkeson sandstone at a range of pore-fluid pressures but identical effective confining pressure (60, 100, and 120 MPa) maintaining the pore-fluid factor λ = pf / pc constant (0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 0.55) during the isostatic loading stage to ensure uniform loading paths. Samples were shortened with a strain rate of 4×10-7 s-1 yielding drained conditions. All tests were terminated at a total axial strain of 4.5% for comparability of microstructures. The tests also included continuous permeability determination and ultrasonic p-wave-velocity measurements to monitor microstructural evolution. Results from experiments conducted at peff = 100 MPa show that dry samples exhibit a higher peak strength and brittle failure while water-saturated samples tend to deform at lower stress by cataclastic flow indicating physico-chemical weakening. Regardless of pore-fluid factor, the saturated experiments exhibit similar peak and residual strength. Differences in failure mechanism (degree of macroscopic localization) and volumetric strain evolution are however noticed, albeit without systematic relation to pore-fluid factor. Microstructure analyses by optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed an evolution from localized shear zones in dry experiments and experiments with a low pore-fluid factor to rather distributed cataclastic flow for experiments with high pore fluid factors. Yet, mechanical and structural

  17. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.


    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  18. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.


    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  19. Current concepts in nuclear pore electrophysiology. (United States)

    Bustamante, José Omar


    Over 4 decades ago, microelectrode studies of in situ nuclei showed that, under certain conditions, the nuclear envelope (NE) behaves as a barrier opposing the nucleocytoplasmic flow of physiological ions. As the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of the NE are the only pathways for direct nucleocytoplasmic flow, those experiments implied that the NPCs are capable of restricting ion flow. These early studies validated electrophysiology as a useful approach to quantify some of the mechanisms by which NPCs mediate gene activity and expression. Since electron microscopy (EM) and other non-electrophysiological investigations, showed that the NPC lumen is a nanochannel, the opinion prevailed that the NPC could not oppose the flow of ions and, therefore, that electrophysiological observations resulted from technical artifacts. Consequently, the initial enthusiasm with nuclear electrophysiology faded out in less than a decade. In 1990, nuclear electrophysiology was revisited with patch-clamp, the most powerful electrophysiological technique to date. Patch-clamp has consistently demonstrated that the NE has intrinsic ion channel activity. Direct demonstrations of the NPC on-off ion channel gating behavior were published for artificial conditions in 1995 and for intact living nuclei in 2002. This on-off switching/gating behavior can be interpreted in terms of a metastable energy barrier. In the hope of advancing nuclear electrophysiology, and to complement the other papers contained in this special issue of the journal, here I review some of the main technical, experimental, and theoretical issues of the field, with special focus on NPCs.

  20. The hydraulic conductivity of sediments: A pore size perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, X.W.; Santamarina, Carlos


    in the void ratio is higher than the theoretical value due to two concurrent phenomena: 1) percolating large pores are responsible for most of the flow, and 2) the larger pores close first during compaction. The prediction of hydraulic conductivity based

  1. Pore fluids from the argillaceous rocks of the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Bath, A.H.; Cave, M.R.; Darling, W.G.


    The aim of this work was to obtain samples of pore water from argillaceous formations in the Harwell area for chemical analysis to provide a background for radionuclide migration studies and regional groundwater flow pattern. This report describes the samples, development of a pore-water squeezing cell and its operation. Chemical and analytical studies are summarized. (UK)

  2. Fouling layer characterization and pore-blocking mechanisms in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fouling layer characterization and pore-blocking mechanisms in an UF membrane externally coupled to a UASB reactor. ... Regarding pore-blocking mechanisms, standard blocking was the predominant mechanism at the beginning of filtration, coexisting at the end of it with cake filtration. In the first filtration cycle (1 h), after ...

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hydrophilic Pores in Lipid Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontiadou, Hari; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    Hydrophilic pores are formed in peptide free lipid bilayers under mechanical stress. It has been proposed that the transport of ionic species across such membranes is largely determined by the existence of such meta-stable hydrophilic pores. To study the properties of these structures and understand

  4. The study of the relationship between pore structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The pore structure was determined by the N2 adsorption/desorption method below. 73 K and calculated using the BJH model. TEM characterizations show that the pores are ... Mesoporous TiO2 was obtained by calcination of the gel at 500°C for 6 h in air to remove the surfactant species. The samples were designated as ...

  5. Pore size distribution in tablets measured with a morphological sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees


    Porosity and pore structure are important characteristics of tablets, since they influence mechanical strength and many other proper-ties. This paper proposes an alternative method for the characterization of pore structure based on image analysis of SEM micrographs. SEM images were made of sodium

  6. The Pore Structure of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner


    The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make...

  7. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.


    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  8. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D.; Hogan, Joanna A.; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S.; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Yu, Zhiheng; de La Cruz, M. Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L.; Aitchison, John D.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Gerton, Jennifer L.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Akey, Christopher W.; Chait, Brian T.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.


    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  9. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex. (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D; Hogan, Joanna A; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R; Greenberg, Charles H; Jacobs, Erica Y; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, M Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L; Aitchison, John D; Jarrold, Martin F; Gerton, Jennifer L; Ludtke, Steven J; Akey, Christopher W; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P


    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  10. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is about porosity parameter in carbonate rocks by 3D X-Ray Microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has become useful as data input for modeling reservoir characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique was able to provide pores, grains and mineralogical differences among the samples.

  11. Measurements of pore-scale flow through apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnicki, Kirsten [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Pore-scale aperture effects on flow in pore networks was studied in the laboratory to provide a parameterization for use in transport models. Four cases were considered: regular and irregular pillar/pore alignment with and without an aperture. The velocity field of each case was measured and simulated, providing quantitatively comparable results. Two aperture effect parameterizations were considered: permeability and transmission. Permeability values varied by an order of magnitude between the cases with and without apertures. However, transmission did not correlate with permeability. Despite having much greater permeability the regular aperture case permitted less transmission than the regular case. Moreover, both irregular cases had greater transmission than the regular cases, a difference not supported by the permeabilities. Overall, these findings suggest that pore-scale aperture effects on flow though a pore-network may not be adequately captured by properties such as permeability for applications that are interested in determining particle transport volume and timing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bat


    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  13. X-ray CT analysis of pore structure in sand (United States)

    Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Miyata, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Kazuaki; Shiota, Erika


    The development of microfocused X-ray computed tomography (CT) devices enables digital imaging analysis at the pore scale. The applications of these devices are diverse in soil mechanics, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, petroleum engineering, and agricultural engineering. In particular, the imaging of the pore space in porous media has contributed to numerical simulations for single-phase and multiphase flows or contaminant transport through the pore structure as three-dimensional image data. These obtained results are affected by the pore diameter; therefore, it is necessary to verify the image preprocessing for the image analysis and to validate the pore diameters obtained from the CT image data. Moreover, it is meaningful to produce the physical parameters in a representative element volume (REV) and significant to define the dimension of the REV. This paper describes the underlying method of image processing and analysis and discusses the physical properties of Toyoura sand for the verification of the image analysis based on the definition of the REV. On the basis of the obtained verification results, a pore-diameter analysis can be conducted and validated by a comparison with the experimental work and image analysis. The pore diameter is deduced from Young-Laplace's law and a water retention test for the drainage process. The results from previous study and perforated-pore diameter originally proposed in this study, called the voxel-percolation method (VPM), are compared in this paper. In addition, the limitations of the REV, the definition of the pore diameter, and the effectiveness of the VPM for an assessment of the pore diameter are discussed.

  14. Surfactant-enhanced control of track-etch pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L.; Samojlova, L.I.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.


    The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few annometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters

  15. A statistical image analysis framework for pore-free islands derived from heterogeneity distribution of nuclear pore complexes. (United States)

    Mimura, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Satoko; Tachibana, Taro; Ogawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masaomi; Yokota, Hideo; Imamoto, Naoko


    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) maintain cellular homeostasis by mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Although cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate NPC assembly in interphase, the location of NPC assembly on the nuclear envelope is not clear. CDKs also regulate the disappearance of pore-free islands, which are nuclear envelope subdomains; this subdomain gradually disappears with increase in homogeneity of the NPC in response to CDK activity. However, a causal relationship between pore-free islands and NPC assembly remains unclear. Here, we elucidated mechanisms underlying NPC assembly from a new perspective by focusing on pore-free islands. We proposed a novel framework for image-based analysis to automatically determine the detailed 'landscape' of pore-free islands from a large quantity of images, leading to the identification of NPC intermediates that appear in pore-free islands with increased frequency in response to CDK activity. Comparison of the spatial distribution between simulated and the observed NPC intermediates within pore-free islands showed that their distribution was spatially biased. These results suggested that the disappearance of pore-free islands is highly related to de novo NPC assembly and indicated the existence of specific regulatory mechanisms for the spatial arrangement of NPC assembly on nuclear envelopes.

  16. Pore Scale Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation. (United States)

    Unsal, Evren; Broens, Marc; Armstrong, Ryan T


    Experiments in various porous media have shown that multiple parameters come into play when an oleic phase is displaced by an aqueous solution of surfactant. In general, the displacement efficiency is improved when the fluids become quasi-miscible. Understanding the phase behavior oil/water/surfactant systems is important because microemulsion has the ability to generate ultralow interfacial tension (microemulsion formation and the resulting properties under equilibrium conditions. However, the majority of applications where microemulsion is present also involve flow, which has received relatively less attention. It is commonly assumed that the characteristics of an oil/water/surfactant system under flowing conditions are identical to the one under equilibrium conditions. Here, we show that this is not necessarily the case. We studied the equilibrium phase behavior of a model system consisting of n-decane and an aqueous solution of olefin sulfonate surfactant, which has practical applications for enhanced oil recovery. The salt content of the aqueous solution was varied to provide a range of different microemulsion compositions and oil-water interfacial tensions. We then performed microfluidic flow experiments to study the dynamic in situ formation of microemulsion by coinjecting bulk fluids of n-decane and surfactant solution into a T-junction capillary geometry. A solvatochromatic fluorescent dye was used to obtain spatially resolved compositional information. In this way, we visualized the microemulsion formation and the flow of it along with the excess phases. A complex interaction between the flow patterns and the microemulsion properties was observed. The formation of microemulsion influenced the flow regimes, and the flow regimes affected the characteristics of the microemulsion formation. In particular, at low flow rates, slug flow was observed, which had profound consequences on the pore scale mixing behavior and resulting microemulsion properties.

  17. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.


    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  18. Pore water chemistry of Rokle Bentonite (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervinka, R.; Vejsada, J.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. With inflowing the groundwater to Deep Geological Repository (DGR), the interaction of this water with engineering barrier materials will alter both, barrier materials and also the groundwater. One of the most important alterations represents the formation of bentonite pore water that will affect a number of important processes, e.g. corrosion of waste package materials, solubility of radionuclides, diffusion and sorption of radionuclides. The composition of bentonite pore water is influenced primarily by the composition of solid phase (bentonite), liquid phase (inflowing groundwater), the gaseous phase (partial pressure of CO 2 ), bentonite compaction and the rate of groundwater species diffusion through bentonite. Also following processes have to be taken into account: dissolution of admixtures present in the bentonite (particularly well soluble salts, e.g. KCl, NaCl, gypsum), ion exchange process and protonation and deprotonation of surface hydroxyl groups on clay minerals. Long-term stability of mineral phases and possible mineral transformation should not be neglected as well. In the Czech Republic, DGR concept takes local bentonite into account as material for both buffer and backfill. The candidate bentonite comes from the Rokle deposit (NW Bohemia) and represents complex mixture of (Ca,Mg)-Fe-rich montmorillonite, micas, kaolinite and other mineral admixtures (mainly Ca, Mg, Fe carbonates, feldspars and iron oxides). The mineralogical and chemical characteristics were published previously. This bentonite is different in composition and properties from worldwide studied Na-bentonite (e.g. MX-80, Volclay) or Na-Ca bentonite (e.g. Febex). This fact leads to the need of investigation of Rokle bentonite in greater detail to verify its suitability as a buffer and backfill in DGR. Presented task is focused on the study of pore water evolution. Our approach for this study consists in modeling the pore water using

  19. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.


    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  20. Straight-Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; McCallum. Thomas J.; Schmitt, Edwin W.


    A novel, high-efficiency gas particulate filter has precise particle size screening, low pressure drop, and a simple and fast regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated, and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time. This filter is of a novel material composite that contains the support structure and a novel coating.

  1. Pore formation by actinoporins, cytolysins from sea anemones. (United States)

    Rojko, Nejc; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Maček, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor


    Actinoporins (APs) from sea anemones are ~20 kDa pore forming toxins with a β-sandwich structure flanked by two α-helices. The molecular mechanism of APs pore formation is composed of several well-defined steps. APs bind to membrane by interfacial binding site composed of several aromatic amino acid residues that allow binding to phosphatidylcholine and specific recognition of sphingomyelin. Subsequently, the N-terminal α-helix from the β-sandwich has to be inserted into the lipid/water interphase in order to form a functional pore. Functional studies and single molecule imaging revealed that only several monomers, 3-4, oligomerise to form a functional pore. In this model the α-helices and surrounding lipid molecules build toroidal pore. In agreement, AP pores are transient and electrically heterogeneous. On the contrary, crystallized oligomers of actinoporin fragaceatoxin C were found to be composed of eight monomers with no lipids present between the adjacent α-helices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Maur Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear Pore-Like Structures in a Compartmentalized Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Sagulenko

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G.obscuriglobus and that they have elements structurally similar to eukaryote nuclear pores, including a basket, ring-spoke structure, and eight-fold rotational symmetry. Bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data reveals that some of the G. obscuriglobus proteins associated with pore-containing membranes possess structural domains found in eukaryote nuclear pore complexes. Moreover, immunogold labelling demonstrates localization of one such protein, containing a β-propeller domain, specifically to the G. obscuriglobus pore-like structures. Finding bacterial pores within internal cell membranes and with structural similarities to eukaryote nuclear pore complexes raises the dual possibilities of either hitherto undetected homology or stunning evolutionary convergence.

  3. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance. (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan


    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  4. Novel Techniques to Characterize Pore Size of Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulghani, Ali J.


    Porous materials are implemented in several industrial applications such as water desalination, gas separation and pharmaceutical care which they are mainly governed by the pore size and the PSD. Analyzing shale reservoirs are not excluded from these applications and numerous advantages can be gained by evaluating the PSD of a given shale reservoir. Because of the limitations of the conventional characterization techniques, novel methods for characterizing the PSD have to be proposed in order to obtain better characterization results for the porous materials, in general, and shale rocks in particular. Thus, permporosimetry and evapoporometry (EP) technologies were introduced, designed and utilized for evaluating the two key parameters, pore size and pore size distribution. The pore size and PSD profiles of different shale samples from Norway and Argentina were analyzed using these technologies and then confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). Norway samples showed an average pore diameter of 12.94 nm and 19.22 nm with an average diameter of 13.77 nm and 23.23 nm for Argentina samples using permporosimetry and EP respectively. Both techniques are therefore indicative of the heterogeneity of the shales. The results from permporosimetry are in good agreement with those obtained from MIP technique, but EP for most part over-estimates the average pore size. The divergence of EP results compared to permporosimetry results is referred to the fact that the latter technique measures only the active pores which is not the case with the former technique. Overall, both techniques are complementary to each other which the results from both techniques seem reasonable and reliable and provide two simple techniques to estimate the pore size and pore size distributions for shale rocks.

  5. Novel Techniques to Characterize Pore Size of Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulghani, Ali J.


    Porous materials are implemented in several industrial applications such as water desalination, gas separation and pharmaceutical care which they are mainly governed by the pore size and the PSD. Analyzing shale reservoirs are not excluded from these applications and numerous advantages can be gained by evaluating the PSD of a given shale reservoir. Because of the limitations of the conventional characterization techniques, novel methods for characterizing the PSD have to be proposed in order to obtain better characterization results for the porous materials, in general, and shale rocks in particular. Thus, permporosimetry and evapoporometry (EP) technologies were introduced, designed and utilized for evaluating the two key parameters, pore size and pore size distribution. The pore size and PSD profiles of different shale samples from Norway and Argentina were analyzed using these technologies and then confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). Norway samples showed an average pore diameter of 12.94 nm and 19.22 nm with an average diameter of 13.77 nm and 23.23 nm for Argentina samples using permporosimetry and EP respectively. Both techniques are therefore indicative of the heterogeneity of the shales. The results from permporosimetry are in good agreement with those obtained from MIP technique, but EP for most part over-estimates the average pore size. The divergence of EP results compared to permporosimetry results is referred to the fact that the latter technique measures only the active pores which is not the case with the former technique. Overall, both techniques are complementary to each other which the results from both techniques seem reasonable and reliable and provide two simple techniques to estimate the pore size and pore size distributions for shale rocks.

  6. Pore Structures in the Biomineralized Byssus of Anomia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon; Leemreize, Hanna; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus


    that uses a biomineralized byssus to permanently anchor itself to substrates. The byssus has a highly complex hierarchical structure and contains over 90 wt% CaCO3. The byssus features a complex set of porosities, presumed to be highly important for the function of the attachment system. The pore space...... is the main focus of the present work. We characterize the three dimensional distribution of pore spaces in the byssus using micro-computed tomography (µCT) through a combination of in house CT and high-resolution synchrotron CT. The pore structures are observed to fall into distinct categories in various...

  7. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure (United States)

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.


    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  8. Tension-induced vesicle fusion: pathways and pore dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.


    and eventually opens a pore to complete the fusion process. In pathway II, at higher tension, a stalk is formed during the fusion process that is then transformed by transmembrane pore formation into a fusion pore. Whereas the latter pathway II resembles stalk pathways as observed in other simulation studies......, fusion pathway I, which does not involve any stalk formation, has not been described previously to the best of our knowledge. A statistical analysis of the various processes shows that fusion is the dominant pathway for releasing the tension of the vesicles. The functional dependence of the observed...

  9. Time evolution of pore system in lime - Pozzolana composites (United States)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Keppert, Martin


    The lime - pozzolana mortars and plasters are used in restoration works on building cultural heritage but these materials are also following the trend of energy - efficient solutions in civil engineering. Porosity and pore size distribution is one of crucial parameters influencing engineering properties of porous materials. The pore size distribution of lime based system is changing in time due to chemical processes occurring in the material. The present paper describes time evolution of pore system in lime - pozzolana composites; the obtained results are useful in prediction of performance of lime - pozzolana systems in building structures.

  10. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.


    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the

  11. Study on investigation and evaluation methods of deep seated sedimentary rocks. Chemical weathering, pore water squeezing and relationships of physical properties of sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Suzuki, Koichi


    Chemical weathering, porewater squeezing and physical properties for the sedimentary rocks were examined. Chemical weathering potential of rocks was described by the sulfur as a acceleration factor of weathering and carbonate contents as a neutralization factor of it. The carbonate contents in the rocks were measured accurately by the gas pressure measurement method. Pore water squeezing method was applied for the semi-hard sedimentary rocks (Opalinusclay). The chemical change of extracted pore water under high pressure conditions was estimated. Physical property of sedimentary rocks have relationship among the porosity and permeability and resistivity coefficient in the same rock types. It is possible to estimate the water permeability from the geophysical tests. (author)

  12. The Pore-scale modeling of multiphase flows in reservoir rocks using the lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    Mu, Y.; Baldwin, C. H.; Toelke, J.; Grader, A.


    Digital rock physics (DRP) is a new technology to compute the physical and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In this approach, pore scale images of the porous rock are obtained and processed to create highly accurate 3D digital rock sample, and then the rock properties are evaluated by advanced numerical methods at the pore scale. Ingrain's DRP technology is a breakthrough for oil and gas companies that need large volumes of accurate results faster than the current special core analysis (SCAL) laboratories can normally deliver. In this work, we compute the multiphase fluid flow properties of 3D digital rocks using D3Q19 immiscible LBM with two relaxation times (TRT). For efficient implementation on GPU, we improved and reformulated color-gradient model proposed by Gunstensen and Rothmann. Furthermore, we only use one-lattice with the sparse data structure: only allocate memory for pore nodes on GPU. We achieved more than 100 million fluid lattice updates per second (MFLUPS) for two-phase LBM on single Fermi-GPU and high parallel efficiency on Multi-GPUs. We present and discuss our simulation results of important two-phase fluid flow properties, such as capillary pressure and relative permeabilities. We also investigate the effects of resolution and wettability on multiphase flows. Comparison of direct measurement results with the LBM-based simulations shows practical ability of DRP to predict two-phase flow properties of reservoir rock.

  13. Fluid flow behaviour of gas-condensate and near-miscible fluids at the pore scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawe, Richard A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Grattoni, Carlos A. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)


    Retrograde condensate reservoir behaviour is complex with much of the detailed mechanisms of the multiphase fluid transport and mass transfer between the phases within the porous matrix still speculative. Visual modelling of selected processes occurring at the pore level under known and controlled boundary conditions can give an insight to fluid displacements at the core scale and help the interpretation of production behaviour at reservoir scale. Visualisation of the pore scale two-phase flow mechanisms has been studied experimentally at low interfacial tensions, < 0.5 mN/m, using a partially miscible fluid system in glass visual micro models. As the interfacial tension decreases the balance between fluid-fluid forces (interfacial, spreading and viscous) and fluid-solid interactions (wettability and viscous interactions) changes. Data measurements in the laboratory, particularly relative permeability, will therefore always be difficult especially for condensate fluids just below their dew point. What is certain is that gas production from a gas-condensate leads to condensate dropout when pressure falls below the dew point, either within the wellbore or, more importantly, in the reservoir. This paper illustrates some pore scale physics, particularly interfacial phenomena at low interfacial tension, which has relevance to appreciating the flow of condensate fluids close to their dew point either near the wellbore (which affects well productivity) or deep inside the reservoir (which affects condensate recovery). (author)

  14. Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels. (United States)

    Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem


    Mechanotransduction has an important role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require as-yet-unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse Piezo1 (MmPiezo1) and MmPiezo2 (also called Fam38a and Fam38b, respectively) induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown whether Piezo proteins are pore-forming ion channels or modulate ion channels. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Piezo (DmPiezo, also called CG8486) also induces mechanically activated currents in cells, but through channels with remarkably distinct pore properties including sensitivity to the pore blocker ruthenium red and single channel conductances. MmPiezo1 assembles as a ∼1.2-million-dalton homo-oligomer, with no evidence of other proteins in this complex. Purified MmPiezo1 reconstituted into asymmetric lipid bilayers and liposomes forms ruthenium-red-sensitive ion channels. These data demonstrate that Piezo proteins are an evolutionarily conserved ion channel family involved in mechanotransduction.

  15. Versatile and efficient pore network extraction method using marker-based watershed segmentation (United States)

    Gostick, Jeff T.


    Obtaining structural information from tomographic images of porous materials is a critical component of porous media research. Extracting pore networks is particularly valuable since it enables pore network modeling simulations which can be useful for a host of tasks from predicting transport properties to simulating performance of entire devices. This work reports an efficient algorithm for extracting networks using only standard image analysis techniques. The algorithm was applied to several standard porous materials ranging from sandstone to fibrous mats, and in all cases agreed very well with established or known values for pore and throat sizes, capillary pressure curves, and permeability. In the case of sandstone, the present algorithm was compared to the network obtained using the current state-of-the-art algorithm, and very good agreement was achieved. Most importantly, the network extracted from an image of fibrous media correctly predicted the anisotropic permeability tensor, demonstrating the critical ability to detect key structural features. The highly efficient algorithm allows extraction on fairly large images of 5003 voxels in just over 200 s. The ability for one algorithm to match materials as varied as sandstone with 20% porosity and fibrous media with 75% porosity is a significant advancement. The source code for this algorithm is provided.

  16. The effect of physically applied alpha hydroxyl acids on the skin pore and comedone. (United States)

    Kim, S J; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Bae, M I; Lee, S J; Shin, M K


    Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) have been recognized as commonly used therapy for acne. Our studies examined whether an additional effect of physical treatment using chemical peeling combined with negative pressure and compared with AHA treatment only occurs in acne-prone subjects. The chemical peeling agent used 4% of an AHA solution (mixture of 1000 mL of carbonated water, 20 mL of glycolic acid and 20 mL of lactic acid). All subjects' faces were randomly divided into test and control groups. The test group was treated with chemical peeling combined with a physical effect, and the control group applied chemical peeling alone. For the 23 healthy females (average age: 30.17 ± 5.06 year), we measured sebum output level by light transmission, pore area and number by optical image analyser, and comedone counting before treatment and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment. Compared to the before treatment, whiteheads and blackheads were significantly decreased at 1, 2 and 4 weeks in the test group (P Pore area and number significantly decreased at 1 week (P pore size and seborrhoea. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Hexadecane trapped in nano-pores of silica-aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavikova, B.; Jesenak, K.; Iskrova, M.; Majernik, V.; Sausa, O.; Kristiak, J.


    Ways of filling of the high-porous silica-aerogel with hydrocarbon C 16 H 34 and its efficient removal from the pores by physical method of the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy were studied. As the most effective way to fill the SiO 2 aerogel appears through the implementation of a liquid phase, while the most appropriate way of removing of hexadecane is firing at an elevated temperature. Molecular system of hexadecane closed in nano-pores of silica-aerogel behaves otherwise than volume system of the same molecules. In the case of pure hexadecane phase transition was observed at 291 K, while solidification process is gradual with decrease of temperature in cetane trapped in pores of silica-aerogel. The results of the periods of life of o-Ps indicate greater turbidity in the pores of the molecular system compared to the volume sample of hexadecane.

  18. Microfiltration of distillery stillage: Influence of membrane pore size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.


    Full Text Available Stillage is one of the most polluted waste products of the food industry. Beside large volume, the stillage contains high amount of suspended solids, high values of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, so it should not be discharged in the nature before previous purification. In this work, three ceramic membranes for microfiltration with different pore sizes were tested for stillage purification in order to find the most suitable membrane for the filtration process. Ceramic membranes with a nominal pore size of 200 nm, 450 nm and 800 nm were used for filtration. The influence of pore size on permeate flux and removal efficiency was investigated. A membrane with the pore size of 200 nm showed the best filtration performance so it was chosen for the microfiltration process.

  19. Mesoporous Akaganeite of Adjustable Pore Size Synthesized using Mixed Templates (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ge, D. L.; Ren, H. P.; Fan, Y. J.; Wu, L. M.; Sun, Z. X.


    Mesoporous akaganeite with large and adjustable pore size was synthesized through a co-template method, which was achieved by the combined interaction between PEG2000 and alkyl amines with different lengths of the straight carbon chain. The characterized results indicate that the synthesized samples show comparatively narrow BJH pore size distributions and centered at 14.3 nm when PEG and HEPA was used, and it could be enlarged to 16.8 and 19.4 nm respectively through changing the alkyl amines to DDA and HDA. Meanwhile, all the synthesized akaganeite possess relativity high specific surface area ranging from 183 to 281 m2/g and high total pore volume of 0.98 to 1.5 cm3/g. A possible mechanism leading to the pore size changing was also proposed.

  20. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre


    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  1. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Niutitang Shale from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodong Xi


    Full Text Available A suite of shale samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northwestern Hunan Province, China, were investigated to better understand the pore structure and fractal characteristics of marine shale. Organic geochemistry, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, porosity, permeability, mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption and methane adsorption experiments were conducted for each sample. Fractal dimension D was obtained from the nitrogen adsorption data using the fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH model. The relationships between total organic carbon (TOC content, mineral compositions, pore structure parameters and fractal dimension are discussed, along with the contributions of fractal dimension to shale gas reservoir evaluation. Analysis of the results showed that Niutitang shale samples featured high TOC content (2.51% on average, high thermal maturity (3.0% on average, low permeability and complex pore structures, which are highly fractal. TOC content and mineral compositions are two major factors affecting pore structure but they have different impacts on the fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher TOC content had a larger specific surface area (SSA, pore volume (PV and fractal dimension, which enhanced the heterogeneity of the pore structure. Quartz content had a relatively weak influence on shale pore structure, whereas SSA, PV and fractal dimension decreased with increasing clay mineral content. Shale with a higher clay content weakened pore structure heterogeneity. The permeability and Langmuir volume of methane adsorption were affected by fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher fractal dimension had higher adsorption capacity but lower permeability, which is favorable for shale gas adsorption but adverse to shale gas seepage and diffusion.

  2. Rock Physics of Reservoir Rocks with Varying Pore Water Saturation and Pore Water Salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina

    experiments, the rock is subjected to high external stresses that resemble the reservoir stresses; 2) the fluid distribution within the pore space changes during the flow through experiments and wettability alterations may occur; 3) different ions, present in the salt water injected in the core, interact......Advanced waterflooding (injection of water with selective ions in reservoirs) is a method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that has attracted the interest of oil and gas companies that exploit the Danish oil and gas reservoirs. This method has been applied successfully in oil reservoirs...... and in the Smart Water project performed in a laboratory scale in order to evaluate the EOR processes in selected core plugs. A major step towards this evaluation is to identify the composition of the injected water that leads to increased oil recovery in reservoirs and to define changes in the petrophysical...

  3. Final Report for Subcontract B541028,Pore-Scale Modeling to Support 'Pore Connectivity' Research Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.P.


    A central concept for the geological barrier at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository is diffusive retardation: solute moving through a fracture diffuses into and out of the rock matrix. This diffusive exchange retards overall solute movement, and retardation both dilutes waste being released, and allows additional decay. The original concept of diffusive retardation required knowledge only of the fracture conductivity and the matrix diffusion. But that simple concept is unavoidably complicated by other issues and processes: contaminants may sorb to the rock matrix, fracture flow may be episodic, a given fracture may or may not flow depending on the volume of flow and the fracture's connection to the overall fracture network, the matrix imbibes water during flow episodes and dries between episodes, and so on. Some of these issues have been examined by other projects. This particular project is motivated by a simple fact: Yucca Mountain tuff has low pore connectivity. This fact is not widely recognized, nor are its implications widely appreciated. Because low pore connectivity affects many processes, it may invalidate many assumptions that are basic (though perhaps not stated) to other investigations. The overall project's objective statement (from the proposal) was: This proposal aims to improve our understanding of diffusive retardation of radionuclides due to fracture/matrix interactions. Results from this combined experimental/modeling work will (1) determine whether the current understanding and model representation of matrix diffusion is valid, (2) provide insights into the upscaling of laboratory-scale diffusion experiments, and (3) evaluate the impact on diffusive retardation of episodic fracture flow and pore connectivity in Yucca Mountain tuffs. An obvious data gap addressed by the project was that there were only a few limited measurements of the diffusion coefficient of the rock at the repository level. That is, at the time we wrote

  4. Impact of Pore-Scale Wettability on Rhizosphere Rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Benard


    Full Text Available Vast amounts of water flow through a thin layer of soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, where high microbial activity takes place—an important hydrological and biological hotspot. The rhizosphere was shown to turn water repellent upon drying, which has been interpreted as the effect of mucilage secreted by roots. The effects of such rhizosphere water dynamics on plant and microbial activity are unclear. Furthermore, our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms controlling the rhizosphere water repellency remains largely speculative. Our hypothesis is that the key to describe the emergence of water repellency lies within the microscopic distribution of wettability on the pore-scale. At a critical mucilage content, a sufficient fraction of pores is blocked and the rhizosphere turns water repellent. Here we tested whether a percolation approach is capable to predict the flow behavior near the critical mucilage content. The wettability of glass beads and sand mixed with chia seed mucilage was quantified by measuring the infiltration rate of water drops. Drop infiltration was simulated using a simple pore-network model in which mucilage was distributed heterogeneously throughout the pore space with a preference for small pores. The model approach proved capable to capture the percolation nature of the process, the sudden transition from wettable to water repellent and the high variability in infiltration rates near the percolation threshold. Our study highlights the importance of pore-scale distribution of mucilage in the emergent flow behavior across the rhizosphere.

  5. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  6. Pore growth in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jeong, G.Y.; Sohn, D.-S. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jamison, L.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel is currently under development in the DOE’s Material Management and Minimization program to convert HEU-fueled research reactors to LEU-fueled reactors. In some demanding conditions in high-power and high-performance reactors, large pores form in the interaction layers between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix, which pose a potential to cause fuel failure. In this study, comprehension of the formation and growth of these pores was explored. As a product, a model to predict pore growth and porosity increase was developed. The model includes three major topics: fission gas release from the U-Mo and the IL to the pores, stress evolution in the fuel meat, and the effect of amorphous IL growth. Well-characterized in-pile data from reduced-size plates were used to fit the model parameters. A data set from full-sized plates, independent and distinctively different from those used to fit the model parameters, was used to examine the accuracy of the model. The model showed fair agreement with the measured data. The model suggested that the growth of the IL has a critical effect on pore growth, as both its material properties and energetics are favorable to pore formation. Therefore, one area of the current effort, focused on suppressing IL growth, appears to be on the right track to improve the performance of this fuel.

  7. Software Image J to study soil pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Passoni


    Full Text Available In the soil science, a direct method that allows the study of soil pore distribution is the bi-dimensional (2D digital image analysis. Such technique provides quantitative results of soil pore shape, number and size. The use of specific softwares for the treatment and processing of images allows a fast and efficient method to quantify the soil porous system. However, due to the high cost of commercial softwares, public ones can be an interesting alternative for soil structure analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of data provided by the Image J software (public domain used to characterize the voids of two soils, characterized as Geric Ferralsol and Rhodic Ferralsol, from the southeast region of Brazil. The pore distribution analysis technique from impregnated soil blocks was utilized for this purpose. The 2D image acquisition was carried out by using a CCD camera coupled to a conventional optical microscope. After acquisition and treatment of images, they were processed and analyzed by the software Noesis Visilog 5.4® (chosen as the reference program and ImageJ. The parameters chosen to characterize the soil voids were: shape, number and pore size distribution. For both soils, the results obtained for the image total porosity (%, the total number of pores and the pore size distribution showed that the Image J is a suitable software to be applied in the characterization of the soil sample voids impregnated with resin.

  8. Pore opening dynamics in the exocytosis of serotonin (United States)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Cercos, Montserrat G.; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Salinas Hernandez, Israel; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; de-Miguel, Francisco F.


    The current view of the exocytosis of transmitter molecules is that it starts with the formation of a fusion pore that connects the intravesicular and the extracellular spaces, and is completed by the release of the rest of the transmitter contained in the vesicle upon the full fusion and collapse of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, under certain circumstances, a rapid closure of the pore before the full vesicle fusion produces only a partial release of the transmitter. Here we show that whole release of the transmitter occurs through fusion pores that remain opened for tens of milliseconds without vesicle collapse. This was demonstrated through amperometric measurements of serotonin release from electrodense vesicles in the axon of leech Retzius neurons and mathematical modelling. By modeling transmitter release with a diffusion equation subjected to boundary conditions that are defined by the experiment, we showed that those pores with a fast half rise time constant remained opened and allowed the full quantum release without vesicle collapse, whereas pores with a slow rise time constant closed rapidly, thus producing partial release. We conclude that a full transmitter release may occur through the fusion pore in the absence of vesicle collapse. This work was founded by a DGAPA-UNAM grants IN200914 and IN118410 CONACYT GRANT 130031, and CONACyT doctoral fellowships.

  9. Effect of pore structure on chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic properties of mud-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, M.; Manaka, M.; Ito, K.; Miyoshi, S.; Tokunaga, T.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ experiment by Neuzil (2000) has obtained the substantial proof of chemical osmosis in natural clayey formation. Chemical osmosis in clayey formations has thus received attention in recent years in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. Chemical osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between solutions to compensate the difference of water potentials, increasing the other potential differences, such as the pressure difference. Accordingly, the chemical osmosis could generate localized, abnormal fluid pressures in geological formations where formation media act as semi-permeable membranes and groundwater salinity is not uniform. Without taking account of the chemical osmosis, groundwater flow modeling may mislead the prediction of the groundwater flow direction. Therefore the possibility of chemical osmosis needs to be identified for potential host formations for radioactive waste repositories. The chemico-osmotic property of formation media is an essential parameter to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in the formation; however, the diffusion and hydraulic properties are also fundamental parameters to estimate the duration of chemical osmosis since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments. A series of experiments were performed on mud-stones. The chemico-osmotic parameter of each rock sample was further interpreted by the osmotic efficiency model proposed by Bresler (1973) to examine the pore structure inherent in rocks. Diatomaceous and siliceous mud-stone samples were obtained from drill cores taken from the Koetoi and Wakkanai

  10. Metal–organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry–sorption energetics relationship

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kordi, Mohamed; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.

  11. Metal–organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry–sorption energetics relationship

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kordi, Mohamed


    This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.

  12. Improvement of the prediction of fluid pressure from the results of techno-geophysical studies under complex geological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, B.L.; Esipko, O.A.; Dakhkilgov, T.D.


    Results of statistical processing of the data of prediction of pore pressures in the course of well sinking, according to the material of oil field and geophysical investigations in different areas, are presented. Likewise, the errors of pressure prediction, their causes, geological models of series with anomalously high formation pressure, and methods for prediction of pore and formation pressures under different geological conditions are considered. 12 refs.

  13. MD simulation of organics adsorption from aqueous solution in carbon slit-like pores. Foundations of the pore blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester; Zieliński, Wojciech; Włoch, Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Piotr


    The results of systematic studies of organics adsorption from aqueous solutions (at the neutral pH level) in a system of slit-like carbon pores having different sizes and oxygen groups located at the pore mouth are reported. Using molecular dynamics simulations (GROMACS package) the properties of adsorbent–adsorbate (benzene, phenol or paracetamol) as well as adsorbent–water systems are discussed. After the introduction of surface oxygen functionalities, adsorption of organic compounds decreases (in accordance with experimental data) and this is caused by the accumulation of water molecules at pore entrances. The pore blocking effect decreases with the diameter of slits and practically vanishes for widths larger than approx. 0.68 nm. We observed the increase in phenol adsorption with the rise in temperature. Moreover, adsorbed molecules occupy the external surface of the slit pores (the entrances) in the case of oxidized adsorbents. Among the studied molecules benzene, phenol and paracetamol prefer an almost flat orientation and with the rise in the pore width the number of molecules oriented in parallel decreases. The decrease or increase in temperature (with respect to 298 K) leads to insignificant changes of angular orientation of adsorbed molecules. (paper)

  14. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.


    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  15. Pore-scale simulations of drainage in granular materials: Finite size effects and the representative elementary volume (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Chareyre, Bruno; Darve, Félix


    A pore-scale model is introduced for two-phase flow in dense packings of polydisperse spheres. The model is developed as a component of a more general hydromechanical coupling framework based on the discrete element method, which will be elaborated in future papers and will apply to various processes of interest in soil science, in geomechanics and in oil and gas production. Here the emphasis is on the generation of a network of pores mapping the void space between spherical grains, and the definition of local criteria governing the primary drainage process. The pore space is decomposed by Regular Triangulation, from which a set of pores connected by throats are identified. A local entry capillary pressure is evaluated for each throat, based on the balance of capillary pressure and surface tension at equilibrium. The model reflects the possible entrapment of disconnected patches of the receding wetting phase. It is validated by a comparison with drainage experiments. In the last part of the paper, a series of simulations are reported to illustrate size and boundary effects, key questions when studying small samples made of spherical particles be it in simulations or experiments. Repeated tests on samples of different sizes give evolution of water content which are not only scattered but also strongly biased for small sample sizes. More than 20,000 spheres are needed to reduce the bias on saturation below 0.02. Additional statistics are generated by subsampling a large sample of 64,000 spheres. They suggest that the minimal sampling volume for evaluating saturation is one hundred times greater that the sampling volume needed for measuring porosity with the same accuracy. This requirement in terms of sample size induces a need for efficient computer codes. The method described herein has a low algorithmic complexity in order to satisfy this requirement. It will be well suited to further developments toward coupled flow-deformation problems in which evolution of the

  16. Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores. (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O; Pospíšil, Martin


    We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H=∞) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure p_{cc}(L;H) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θ_{e} that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ, only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H. For walls that are completely wet (θ=0) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θ_{e}≈sqrt[πL/2H] for large H. Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature T_{w} we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above T_{w} the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.

  17. Effect of Pore Structure on Soot Deposition in Diesel Particulate Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the after-treatment of diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been used to trap nano-particles of the diesel soot. However, as there are more particles inside the filter, the pressure which corresponds to the filter backpressure increases, which worsens the fuel consumption rate, together with the abatement of the available torque. Thus, a filter with lower backpressure would be needed. To achieve this, it is necessary to utilize the information on the phenomena including both the soot transport and its removal inside the DPF, and optimize the filter substrate structure. In this paper, to obtain useful information for optimization of the filter structure, we tested seven filters with different porosities and pore sizes. The porosity and pore size were changed systematically. To consider the soot filtration, the particle-laden flow was simulated by a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Then, the flow field and the pressure change were discussed during the filtration process.

  18. Analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of rocks (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert


    In the present paper, the authors discussed the functioning of their own analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of high strength rocks. A sample is placed inside a hermetic measuring chamber, and then undergoes impact milling as a result of colliding with the vibrating blade of a knife which is rotationally driven by a high-speed brushless electric motor. The measuring chamber is equipped with all the necessary sensors, i.e. gas, pressure, and temperature sensors. Trial tests involving the comminution of dolomite and anhydrite samples demonstrated that the constructed device is able to break up rocks into grains so fine that they are measured in single microns, and the sensors used in the construction ensure balancing of the released gas. The tests of the analyzer showed that the metrological concept behind it, together with the way it was built, make it fit for measurements of the content and composition of selected gases from the rock pore space. On the basis of the conducted tests of balancing the gases contained in the two samples, it was stated that the gas content of Sample no. 1 was (0.055  ±  0.002) cm3 g-1, and Sample no. 2 contained gas at atmospheric pressure, composed mostly of air.

  19. Pore network modeling of drainage process in patterned porous media: a quasi-static study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao


    This work represents a preliminary investigation on the role of wettability conditions on the flow of a two-phase system in porous media. Since such effects have been lumped implicitly in relative permeability-saturation and capillary pressure-saturation relationships, it is quite challenging to isolate its effects explicitly in real porous media applications. However, within the framework of pore network models, it is easy to highlight the effects of wettability conditions on the transport of two-phase systems. We employ quasi-static investigation in which the system undergo slow movement based on slight increment of the imposed pressure. Several numerical experiments of the drainage process are conducted to displace a wetting fluid with a non-wetting one. In all these experiments the network is assigned different scenarios of various wettability patterns. The aim is to show that the drainage process is very much affected by the imposed pattern of wettability. The wettability conditions are imposed by assigning the value of contact angle to each pore throat according to predefined patterns.

  20. Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.; Pospíšil, Martin


    We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H =∞ ) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure pc c(L ;H ) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θe that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ , only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H . For walls that are completely wet (θ =0 ) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θe≈√{π L /2 H } for large H . Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature Tw we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above Tw the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.

  1. Development of a reactive burn model based upon an explicit visco-plastic pore collapse model (United States)

    Bouton, Eric; Lefrançois, Alexandre; Belmas, Robert


    Our aim in this study is to develop a reactive burn model based upon a microscopic hot spot model to compute the initiation and shock to detonation of pressed TATB explosives. For the sake of simplicity, the hot spots are supposed to result from the viscoplastic collapse of spherical micro-voids inside the composition. Such a model has been incorporated in a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. In our calculations, 8 different pore diameters, ranging from 100 nm to 1.2 μm, have been taken into account and the porosity associated to each pore size has been deduced from the PBX-9502 void distribution derived from the SAXS. The last ingredient of our model is the burn rate that depends on two main variables. The first one is the shock pressure as proposed by the developers of the CREST model. The second one is the number of effective chemical reaction sites calculated by the microscopic model. Furthermore, the function of the reaction progress variable of the burn rate is similar to that in the SURF model proposed by Menikoff. Our burn rate has been calibrated by using pressure profile, material velocities wave forms obtained with embedded particle velocity gauges and run distance to detonation. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results is really good and sufficient to perform a wide variety of simulations including single, double shock waves and the desensitization phenomenon. In conclusion, future works are described.

  2. Synthesis of Novel Mesoporous Silica Materials with Hierarchical Pore Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Choi, Wang Kyu; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Porous materials with various pore sizes in the range of micropore (< 2 nm), mesopore (2-50 nm), and macropore (> 50 nm) are attractive due to their many emerging applications such as catalysts, separation systems, and low dielectric constant materials. The discovery of new M41S mesoporous silica families with pore sizes larger than 2 nm in diameter in 1992 extended the applications into much wider pore ranges, bringing in a new prosperous era in porous material research. The synthesis of these silica materials has been mainly accomplished through a self-assembly between surfactant molecules and inorganic species under various pH conditions. Recently, core-shell nanoparticles with a silica core and mesoporous shell under basic conditions were synthesized using the silica nanoparticles as a core, and a silica precursor (TEOS) and cationic surfactant (CTABr) as a material for the formation of the mesoporous shell. The resultant materials were very monodispersive in size and showed a narrow pore size distribution in the range of ca 2-3 nm in diameter, depending on the alkyl-chain length of the surfactants used. In this work, the mesoporous shell coated-fumed silicas (denoted as MS M-5s) were synthesized by using fumed silica instead of the silica nanoparticle as a core based on previous reports. Also, the structural properties of the MS M-5s such as the specific surface area and pore volume were easily controlled by varying the amount of the silica precursor and surfactant. The resultant materials exhibited a BET surface area of ca 279-446 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of ca 0.64-0.74 cm{sup 3}/g and showed a narrow pore size distribution (PSD) due to the removal of the organic surfactant molecules

  3. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels (United States)

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît


    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  4. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.


    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency 3 , KNO 3 , Na 3 PO 4 x12H 2 O, and K 3 PO 4 when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that

  5. Blood pressure (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  6. Final Report for Subcontract B541028, Pore-Scale Modeling to Support 'Pore Connectivity' Research Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.P.


    This report covers modeling aspects of a combined experimental and modeling task in support of the DOE Science and Technology Program (formerly OSTI) within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). Research Objectives The research for this project dealt with diffusive retardation: solute moving through a fracture diffuses into and out of the rock matrix. This diffusive exchange retards overall solute movement, and retardation both dilutes waste being released, and allows additional decay. Diffusive retardation involves not only fracture conductivity and matrix diffusion, but also other issues and processes: contaminants may sorb to the rock matrix, fracture flow may be episodic, a given fracture may or may not flow depending on the volume of flow and the fracture's connection to the overall fracture network, the matrix imbibes water during flow episodes and dries between episodes, and so on. The objective of the project was to improve understanding of diffusive retardation of radionuclides due to fracture / matrix interactions. Results from combined experimental/modeling work were to (1) determine whether the current understanding and model representation of matrix diffusion is valid, (2) provide insights into the upscaling of laboratory-scale diffusion experiments, and (3) help in evaluating the impact on diffusive retardation of episodic fracture flow and pore connectivity in Yucca Mountain tuffs. Questions explored included the following: (1) What is the relationship between the diffusion coefficient measured at one scale, to that measured or observed at a different scale? In classical materials this relationship is trivial; in low-connectivity materials it is not. (2) Is the measured diffusivity insensitive to the shape of the sample? Again, in classical materials there should be no sample shape effect. (3) Does sorption affect diffusive exchange in low-connectivity media differently than in classical media? (4) What is the effect of matrix

  7. Blocking of Single α-Hemolysin Pore by Rhodamine Derivatives. (United States)

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Nazarov, Pavel A; Golovin, Andrey V; Antonenko, Yuri N


    Measurements of ion conductance through α-hemolysin pore in a bilayer lipid membrane revealed blocking of the ion channel by a series of rhodamine 19 and rhodamine B esters. The longest dwell closed time of the blocking was observed with rhodamine 19 butyl ester (C4R1), whereas the octyl ester (C8R1) was of poor effect. Voltage asymmetry in the binding kinetics indicated that rhodamine derivatives bound to the stem part of the aqueous pore lumen. The binding frequency was proportional to a quadratic function of rhodamine concentrations, thereby showing that the dominant binding species were rhodamine dimers. Two levels of the pore conductance and two dwell closed times of the pore were found. The dwell closed times lengthened as the voltage increased, suggesting impermeability of the channel for the ligands. Molecular docking analysis revealed two distinct binding sites within the lumen of the stem of the α-hemolysin pore for the C4R1 dimer, but only one binding site for the C8R1 dimer. The blocking of the α-hemolysin nanopore by rhodamines could be utilized in DNA sequencing as additional optical sensing owing to bright fluorescence of rhodamines if used for DNA labeling. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven


    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on discrete element computer-simulation of concrete. It is argued on the basis of stochastic heterogeneity theory that modern concurrent-algorithm-based systems should be employed for the assessment of pore characteristics underlying durability performance of cementitious materials. The SPACE system was developed at Delft University of Technology for producing realistic schematizations of realcrete for a wide range of other particle packing problems, involving aggregate and fresh cement, and for the purpose of exploring characteristics in the hardened state of concrete, including of the pore network structure because of obvious durability problems. Since structure-sensitive properties are involved, schematization of reality should explicitly deal with the configuration of the cement particles in the fresh state. The paper concentrates on the stereological and mathematical morphology operations executed to acquire information on particle size, global porosity, and on distribution of porosity and of the connected pore fraction as a result of the near neighbourhood of aggregate grains. Goal is to provide information obtained along different exploration routes of concrete's pore space for setting up a pore network modelling approach. This type of methodological papers is scarce in concrete technology, if not missing at all. Technical publications that report on obtained results in our investigations are systematically referred to.

  9. Development of a toxicity-based fractionation approach for the identification of phototoxic PAHs in pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosian, P.A.; Makynen, E.A.; Ankley, G.T.; Monson, P.D.


    Environmental matrices often contain complex mixtures of chemical compounds, however, typically only a few chemicals are responsible for observed toxicity. To determine those chemicals responsible for toxicity, a toxicity-based fractionation technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been used for the isolation and identification of nonpolar toxicants in aqueous samples. In this study, this technique was modified to separate and identify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) responsible for phototoxicity in pore water. Whole pore water, obtained from sediments collected near an oil refinery discharge site, was found to be toxic to Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light. Solid phase extraction disks and high pressure liquid chromatography were used, in conjunction with toxicity tests with L. variegatus, to extract and fractionate phototoxic chemicals from the pore water. GC/MS analysis was performed on the toxic fractions and a tentative list of compound identifications were made based on interpretation of mass spectra and elution information from the chromatographic separation. The compounds identified include PAHs and substituted PAHs that are known or predicted to be phototoxic in the presence of UV light. The results show that a modified toxicity-based fractionation approach can be successfully applied to identify phototoxic PAHs in sediment pore water and therefore used in the assessment of contaminated sediments

  10. Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Motoori


    Full Text Available This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm. On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  11. Hydrodeoxygenation of heavy oils derived from low-temperature coal gasification over NiW catalysts-effect of pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis


    The effect of the pore structure on the hydroprocessing of heavy distillate oils derived from low-temperature coal gasification residues was studied using four NiW catalysts with different pore size distributions. The hydroprocessing was conducted at a pressure of 17.5 MPa, a temperature range of 370-410{sup o}C, and a 0.50 h{sup -1} space velocity. The degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) in terms of phenolics removal was influenced by the catalyst pore structure, with the most preferable peak pore diameter for HDO ranging between 6.8 and 16 nm. The catalyst with the highest volume of pores in the 3.5-6 nm range showed the lowest HDO activity. The apparent activation energies for the HDO reaction varied between 59 and 87 kJ/mol, whereby the lowest values are obtained for the catalysts with a peak pore diameter of 11 and 16 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Why liquid displacement methods are sometimes wrong in estimating the pore-size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen-Abrahamse, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Padt, van der A.


    The liquid displacement method is a commonly used method to determine the pore size distribution of micro- and ultrafiltration membranes. One of the assumptions for the calculation of the pore sizes is that the pores are parallel and thus are not interconnected. To show that the estimated pore size

  13. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn


    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Cohen, Roy; Wang, Suntao; Bradbury, Michelle; Baird, Barbara; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich


    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  16. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  17. Influence of crosslinking agents on the pore structure of skin. (United States)

    Fathima, N Nishad; Dhathathreyan, Aruna; Ramasami, T


    Analysis of pore structure of skin is important to understand process of diffusion and adsorption involved during any application of the skin matrix. In this study, the effect of thermal shrinkage on the pore structure of chromium and vegetable treated skin has been analyzed as these tanning agents are known to bring about thermal stability to the matrix. The changes brought about in the pore structure have been studied using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Response of the chromium treated and vegetable tanning treated skin structure to heat has been found to be quite different from each other. About 41% decrease in porosity is observed for chromium treated skin as against 97% decrease for the skin treated with vegetable tannins. This is primarily attributed to the basic nature of these materials and the nature of interaction of them towards skin.

  18. Evaluation of Colloid Retention Site Dominance in Variably Saturated Porous Media: An All Pores Pore-Scale Analysis (United States)

    Morales, Veronica; Perez-Reche, Francisco; Holzner, Markus; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang


    It is well accepted that colloid and nanoparticle transport processes in porous media differ substantially between water saturated and unsaturated conditions. Differences are frequently ascribed to particle immobilization by association with interfaces with the gas, as well as to restrictions of the liquid medium through which colloids are transported. Yet, the current understanding of the importance of particle retention at gas interfaces is based on observations of single pores or two-dimensional pore network representations, leaving open the question of their statistical significance when all pores in the medium are considered. In order to address this question, column experiments were performed using a model porous medium of glass beads through which Silver particles were transported for conditions of varying water content and water chemistry. X-ray microtomography was subsequently employed as a non-destructive imaging technique to obtain pore-scale information of the entire column regarding: i) the presence and distribution of the main locations where colloids can become retained (interfaces with the water-solid, air-water, air-solid, and air-water-solid, grain-grain contacts, and the bulk liquid), ii) deposition profiles of colloids along the column classified by the available retention location, and iii) channel widths of 3-dimensional pore-water network representations. The results presented provide a direct statistical evaluation on the significance of colloid retention by attachment to interfaces or by strainig at contact points where multiple interfaces meet.

  19. Pore-Width-Dependent Preferential Interaction of sp2 Carbon Atoms in Cyclohexene with Graphitic Slit Pores by GCMC Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Kojima


    Full Text Available The adsorption of cyclohexene with two sp2 and four sp3 carbon atoms in graphitic slit pores was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular arrangement of the cyclohexene on the graphitic carbon wall depends on the pore width. The distribution peak of the sp2 carbon is closer to the pore wall than that of the sp3 carbon except for the pore width of 0.7 nm, even though the Lennard-Jones size of the sp2 carbon is larger than that of the sp3 carbon. Thus, the difference in the interactions of the sp2 and sp3 carbon atoms of cyclohexene with the carbon pore walls is clearly observed in this study. The preferential interaction of sp2 carbon gives rise to a slight tilting of the cyclohexene molecule against the graphitic wall. This is suggestive of a π-π interaction between the sp2 carbon in the cyclohexene molecule and graphitic carbon.

  20. Dispersion upscaling from a pore scale characterization of Lagrangian velocities (United States)

    Turuban, Régis; de Anna, Pietro; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy


    Mixing and reactive transport are primarily controlled by the interplay between diffusion, advection and reaction at pore scale. Yet, how the distribution and spatial correlation of the velocity field at pore scale impact these processes is still an open question. Here we present an experimental investigation of the distribution and correlation of pore scale velocities and its relation with upscaled dispersion. We use a quasi two-dimensional (2D) horizontal set up, consisting of two glass plates filled with cylinders representing the grains of the porous medium : the cell is built by soft lithography technique, wich allows for full control of the system geometry. The local velocity field is quantified from particle tracking velocimetry using microspheres that are advected with the pore scale flow. Their displacement is purely advective, as the particle size is chosen large enough to avoid diffusion. We thus obtain particle trajectories as well as lagrangian velocities in the entire system. The measured velocity field shows the existence of a network of preferential flow paths in channels with high velocities, as well as very low velocity in stagnation zones, with a non Gaussian distribution. Lagrangian velocities are long range correlated in time, which implies a non-fickian scaling of the longitudinal variance of particle positions. To upscale this process we develop an effective transport model, based on correlated continous time random walk, which is entirely parametrized by the pore scale velocity distribution and correlation. The model predictions are compared with conservative tracer test data for different Peclet numbers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of different pore geometries on the distribution and correlation of Lagrangian velocities and we discuss the link between these properties and the effective dispersion behavior.

  1. Pore-water chemistry explains zinc phytotoxicity in soil. (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Correll, Ray; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Zinc (Zn) is a widespread soil contaminant arising from a numerous anthropogenic sources. However, adequately predicting toxicity of Zn to ecological receptors remains difficult due to the complexity of soil characteristics. In this study, we examined solid-solution partitioning using pore-water data and toxicity of Zn to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spiked soils. Pore-water effective concentration (ECx, x=10%, 20% and 50% reduction) values were negatively related to pH, indicating lower Zn pore water concentration were needed to cause phytotoxicity at high pH soils. Total dissolved zinc (Znpw) and free zinc (Zn(2+)) in soil-pore water successfully described 78% and 80.3% of the variation in relative growth (%) in the full dataset. When the complete data set was used (10 soils), the estimated EC50pw was 450 and 79.2 µM for Znpw and Zn(2+), respectively. Total added Zn, soil pore water pH (pHpw) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were the best predictors of Znpw and Zn(2+) in pore-water. The EC10 (total loading) values ranged from 179 to 5214 mg/kg, depending on soil type. Only pH measurements in soil were related to ECx total Zn data. The strongest relationship to ECx overall was pHca, although pHw and pHpw were in general related to Zn ECx. Similarly, when a solution-only model was used to predict Zn in shoot, DOC was negatively related to Zn in shoot, indicating a reduction in uptake/ translocation of Zn from solution with increasing DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.


    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  3. Silicon pore optics for future x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska


    arcsec or better. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is being developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor...... industry. We present the recent upgrades made to the manufacturing processes and equipment, ranging from the manufacture of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration, and results from first vibration tests. The performance of the mirror modules is tested...

  4. Gas Adsorption in Novel Environments, Including Effects of Pore Relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Milton W; Gatica, Silvina M; Kim, Hye-Young; Lueking, Angela D; Sircar, Sarmishtha


    Adsorption experiments have been interpreted frequently with simplified model geometries, such as ideally flat surfaces and slit or cylindrical pores. Recent explorations of unusual environments, such as fullerenes and metal-organic-framework materials, have led to a broadened scope of experimental, theoretical and simulation investigations. This paper reviews a number of such studies undertaken by our group. Among the topics receiving emphasis are these: universality of gas uptake in pores, relaxation of a porous absorbent due to gas uptake and the novel phases of gases on a single nanotube, all of which studies have been motivated by recent experiments.

  5. Role of scaffold mean pore size in meniscus regeneration. (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Jiang, Dong; Ding, Jian-Xun; Wang, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Qi, Yan-Song; Chen, Xue-Si; Yu, Jia-Kuo


    Recently, meniscus tissue engineering offers a promising management for meniscus regeneration. Although rarely reported, the microarchitectures of scaffolds can deeply influence the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation in meniscus tissue engineering. Herein, a series of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with three distinct mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The scaffold with the mean pore size of 215μm significantly improved both the proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production/deposition of mesenchymal stem cells compared to all other groups in vitro. Moreover, scaffolds with mean pore size of 215μm exhibited the greatest tensile and compressive moduli in all the acellular and cellular studies. In addition, the relatively better results of fibrocartilaginous tissue formation and chondroprotection were observed in the 215μm scaffold group after substituting the rabbit medial meniscectomy for 12weeks. Overall, the mean pore size of 3D-printed PCL scaffold could affect cell behavior, ECM production, biomechanics, and repair effect significantly. The PCL scaffold with mean pore size of 215μm presented superior results both in vitro and in vivo, which could be an alternative for meniscus tissue engineering. Meniscus tissue engineering provides a promising strategy for meniscus regeneration. In this regard, the microarchitectures (e.g., mean pore size) of scaffolds remarkably impact the behaviors of cells and subsequent tissue formation, which has been rarely reported. Herein, three three-dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The results suggested that the mean pore size significantly affected the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation. This study furthers

  6. Dynamics of phase ordering of nematics in a pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Chakrabarti, A.


    We study the kinetics of phase ordering of a nematic liquid crystal, modeled by a spin-rotor Hamiltonian, confined within a parallel piped pore. The dynamics of the rotor obeys the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We study the generation and evolution of a variety of defect structures, and the growth of domains, with different anchoring conditions at the pore surface. Unlike in binary fluids, mere confinement with no anchoring field, does not result in slow dynamics. Homeotropic anchoring, however, leads to slow logarithmic growth. Interestingly, homogeneous anchoring dynamically generates wall defects, resulting in an Ising like structure factor at late times. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs

  7. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures. (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong


    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  8. Effect of pore structure on the activated carbon's capability to sorb airborne methylradioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhola, A.J.; Friel, J.V.


    A study was conducted to determine the effect pore structure of activated carbons has on their capabiity to sorp airborne methylradioiodine. Six de-ashed carbons of very diverse pore structure were selected for study. Batches of each were impregnated with (1) 4.3% I 2 , (2) 5.6% KI, (3) 2% KI, (4) 3% KI to 2% I 2 , (5) 2% I 2 , and (6) 3.4% KIO 3 . Some carbon was reserved for testing without impregnant. Standard procedures at ambient temperature and pressure were followed in the methyliodide testing, with some changes only made to meet the requirements of the specialized study. The surface area of the open-pore volume, for KI impregnated carbons, determined the sorptive efficiency. This relationship is expressed by the equation ln p = ln a - ks, where p is the fraction of methyliodide penetrating the bed and s the surface area. The quantity (a) is associated with the macropore properties, and deterines the capability of the carbon to sorb at very high humidites (> 95% RH). Constant k is to a large degree dependent on the mean diameter of the micropores. Elemental iodine impregnated carbons were considerably less effective than those impregnated with KI, and their sorptive of methyliodide did not follow the above equation. Their activity could be increased by a second impregnation with KOH. KI impregnated carbons lost their activity when treated with HCl on converting the Ki to I 2 . The conversion of KI to I 2 by acid gases in nuclear power plants offers an explanation for the cause of carbon aging

  9. Wettability impact on supercritical CO2 capillary trapping: Pore-scale visualization and quantification (United States)

    Hu, Ran; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.


    How the wettability of pore surfaces affects supercritical (sc) CO2 capillary trapping in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is not well understood, and available evidence appears inconsistent. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system with image analysis, we studied the impact of wettability on scCO2 capillary trapping during short-term brine flooding (80 s, 8-667 pore volumes). Experiments on brine displacing scCO2 were conducted at 8.5 MPa and 45°C in water-wet (static contact angle θ = 20° ± 8°) and intermediate-wet (θ = 94° ± 13°) homogeneous micromodels under four different flow rates (capillary number Ca ranging from 9 × 10-6 to 8 × 10-4) with a total of eight conditions (four replicates for each). Brine invasion processes were recorded and statistical analysis was performed for over 2000 images of scCO2 saturations, and scCO2 cluster characteristics. The trapped scCO2 saturation under intermediate-wet conditions is 15% higher than under water-wet conditions under the slowest flow rate (Ca ˜ 9 × 10-6). Based on the visualization and scCO2 cluster analysis, we show that the scCO2 trapping process in our micromodels is governed by bypass trapping that is enhanced by the larger contact angle. Smaller contact angles enhance cooperative pore filling and widen brine fingers (or channels), leading to smaller volumes of scCO2 being bypassed. Increased flow rates suppress this wettability effect.

  10. Capillary filling rules and displacement mechanisms for spontaneous imbibition of CO2 for carbon storage and EOR using micro-model experiments and pore scale simulation (United States)

    Chapman, E.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E. S.


    In the 1980s, Lenormand et al. carried out their pioneering work on displacement mechanisms of fluids in etched networks [1]. Here we further examine displacement mechanisms in relation to capillary filling rules for spontaneous imbibition. Understanding the role of spontaneous imbibition in fluid displacement is essential for refining pore network models. Generally, pore network models use simple capillary filling rules and here we examine the validity of these rules for spontaneous imbibition. Improvement of pore network models is vital for the process of 'up-scaling' to the field scale for both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration. In this work, we present our experimental microfluidic research into the displacement of both supercritical CO2/deionised water (DI) systems and analogous n-decane/air - where supercritical CO2 and n-decane are the respective wetting fluids - controlled by imbibition at the pore scale. We conducted our experiments in etched PMMA and silicon/glass micro-fluidic hydrophobic chips. We first investigate displacement in single etched pore junctions, followed by displacement in complex network designs representing actual rock thin sections, i.e. Berea sandstone and Sucrosic dolomite. The n-decane/air experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, whereas the supercritical CO2/DI water experiments were conducted under high temperature and pressure in order to replicate reservoir conditions. Fluid displacement in all experiments was captured via a high speed video microscope. The direction and type of displacement the imbibing fluid takes when it enters a junction is dependent on the number of possible channels in which the wetting fluid can imbibe, i.e. I1, I2 and I3 [1]. Depending on the experiment conducted, the micro-models were initially filled with either DI water or air before the wetting fluid was injected. We found that the imbibition of the wetting fluid through a single pore is primarily controlled by the

  11. Septal Pore Caps in Basidiomycetes, Composition and Ultrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, K.G.A. van


    Filamentous fungi, including Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, form mycelia that consist of a network of apical growing hyphae. These hyphae are separated into cellular compartments by septa that have pores of about 70 to 500 nm in diameter. The cytoplasm within the mycelium is thus continuous

  12. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.


    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  13. Pore-scale uncertainty quantification with multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of pore-scale transport processes in porous media have recently gained large popularity. However the geometrical details of the pore structures can be known only in a very low number of samples and the detailed flow computations can be carried out only on a limited number of cases. The explicit introduction of randomness in the geometry and in other setup parameters can be crucial for the optimization of pore-scale investigations for random homogenization. Since there are no generic ways to parametrize the randomness in the porescale structures, Monte Carlo techniques are the most accessible to compute statistics. We propose a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) technique to reduce the computational cost of estimating quantities of interest within a prescribed accuracy constraint. Random samples of pore geometries with a hierarchy of geometrical complexities and grid refinements, are synthetically generated and used to propagate the uncertainties in the flow simulations and compute statistics of macro-scale effective parameters.

  14. The dimension of the pore space in sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L H F; Yamashita, M T


    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm -3 was 2.948± 0.008

  15. Microstructural characterization and pore structure analysis of nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, J.; Karthik, C.; Butt, D.P.; Windes, W.E.; Ubic, R.


    Graphite will be used as a structural and moderator material in next-generation nuclear reactors. While the overall nature of the production of nuclear graphite is well understood, the historic nuclear grades of graphite are no longer available. This paper reports the virgin microstructural characteristics of filler particles and macro-scale porosity in virgin nuclear graphite grades of interest to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. Optical microscopy was used to characterize filler particle size and shape as well as the arrangement of shrinkage cracks. Computer aided image analysis was applied to optical images to quantitatively determine the variation of pore structure, area, eccentricity, and orientation within and between grades. The overall porosity ranged between ∼14% and 21%. A few large pores constitute the majority of the overall porosity. The distribution of pore area in all grades was roughly logarithmic in nature. The average pore was best fit by an ellipse with aspect ratio of ∼2. An estimated 0.6-0.9% of observed porosity was attributed to shrinkage cracks in the filler particles. Finally, a preferred orientation of the porosity was observed in all grades.

  16. Energetics of Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghavami, Ali; van der Giessen, Erik; Onck, Patrick R


    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells is solely controlled by the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC provides two types of nucleocytoplasmic transport: passive diffusion of small molecules and active chaperon-mediated translocation of large molecules. It has been shown

  17. The hydraulic conductivity of sediments: A pore size perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, X.W.


    This article presents an analysis of previously published hydraulic conductivity data for a wide range of sediments. All soils exhibit a prevalent power trend between the hydraulic conductivity and void ratio. Data trends span 12 orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity and collapse onto a single narrow trend when the hydraulic conductivity data are plotted versus the mean pore size, estimated using void ratio and specific surface area measurements. The sensitivity of hydraulic conductivity to changes in the void ratio is higher than the theoretical value due to two concurrent phenomena: 1) percolating large pores are responsible for most of the flow, and 2) the larger pores close first during compaction. The prediction of hydraulic conductivity based on macroscale index parameters in this and similar previous studies has reached an asymptote in the range of kmeas/5≤kpredict≤5kmeas. The remaining uncertainty underscores the important role of underlying sediment characteristics such as pore size distribution, shape, and connectivity that are not measured with index properties. Furthermore, the anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity cannot be recovered from scalar parameters such as index properties. Overall, results highlight the robustness of the physics inspired data scrutiny based Hagen–Poiseuille and Kozeny-Carman analyses.

  18. On the Mechanism of Pore Formation by Melittin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, Geert; Guzman, Jeanette Velasquez; Mika, Jacek T.; Poolman, Bert


    The mechanism of pore formation of lytic peptides, such as melittin from bee venom, is thought to involve binding to the membrane surface, followed by insertion at threshold levels of bound peptide. We show that in membranes composed of zwitterionic lipids, i.e. phosphatidylcholine, melittin not

  19. Plastic strain caused by contraction of pores in polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Yoda, Shinichi; Konishi, Takashi.


    The effects of porosity on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of four isotropic polycrystalline graphites were studied. The pore size distributions of the graphites were measured using a conventional mercury penetration technique. The average pore radius of ISO-88 graphite was about one-tenth of that of ISEM-1, IG-11 or IG-15 graphites. Young's modulus of the graphites decreased with increasing porosity. The stress-strain curve of each graphite was measured in its lateral and axial directions. Young's modulus of graphite decreased with increasing load. The plastic strain at a given compressive load was calculated from the stress-strain curve and the initial gradient of the unloading curve at the load. The ratio of lateral plastic strain to axial plastic strain for the graphites was less than 0.5, indicating that the volume of the graphites decreased during compressive loading. By assuming that the volume change was caused by contraction of pores, plastic strain associated with contraction of pores was calculated from the axial plastic strain and lateral plastic strain by slips along the basal planes. The plastic strain increased with increasing axial plastic strain and porosity of graphite. (author)

  20. Pore collapse and regrowth in silicon electrodes for rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCaluwe, S. C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering; Colorado School of Mines; USA; Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Dhar, B. M. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Material Measurement Laboratory; Huang, L. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; He, Y. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy; Yang, K. [Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; State University of New York; Binghamton; USA; Owejan, J. P. [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Technology; State University of New York; Alfred; USA; Zhao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy; University of Georgia; Athens; USA; Talin, A. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Sandia National Laboratories; Dura, J. A. [Center for Neutron Research; National Institute of Standards and Technology; Gaithersburg; USA; Wang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Maryland; College Park; USA; Institute for Materials Research and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    In-operando Neutron Reflectometry establishes the pore collapse and regrowth (PCRG) mechanism in amorphous Si. Upon lithiation, porosity is first consumed by expansion of solid Si domains, with little thickness increase. After, the whole film expands. Porosity returns upon delithiation.

  1. Alumina ceramics prepared with new pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Živcová


    Full Text Available Porous ceramics have a wide range of applications at all length scales, ranging from fi ltration membranes and catalyst supports to biomaterials (scaffolds for bone ingrowths and thermally or acoustically insulating bulk materials or coating layers. Organic pore-forming agents (PFAs of biological origin can be used to control porosity, pore size and pore shape. This work concerns the characterization and testing of several less common pore-forming agents (lycopodium, coffee, fl our and semolina, poppy seed, which are of potential interest from the viewpoint of size, shape or availability. The performance of these new PFAs is compared to that of starch, which has become a rather popular PFA for ceramics during the last decade. The PFAs investigated in this work are in the size range from 5 μm (rice starch to approximately 1 mm (poppy seed, all with more or less isometric shape. The burnout behavior of PFAs is studied by thermal analysis, i.e. thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. For the preparation of porous alumina ceramics from alumina suspensions containing PFAs traditional slip casting (into plaster molds and starch consolidation casting (using metal molds are used in this work. The resulting microstructures are investigated using optical microscopy, combined with image analysis, as well as other methods (Archimedes method of double-weighing in water, mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  2. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores. (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N


    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  3. Concentration Polarization to Measure Nano-pore Accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solsona, Miguel; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Olthuis, Wouter; Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Abelmann, Leon; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Nieuwelink, A. E.


    Understanding the deactivation process in porous catalysts is of tremendous economic significance. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the concentration polarization method to obtain the pore accessibility distribution at single particle level for the first time. By using this technique we could

  4. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, Carlos


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing

  5. Wettability effect on capillary trapping of supercritical CO2 at pore-scale: micromodel experiment and numerical modeling (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.


    Wettability of reservoir minerals along pore surfaces plays a controlling role in capillary trapping of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. The mechanisms controlling scCO2 residual trapping are still not fully understood. We studied the effect of pore surface wettability on CO2 residual saturation at the pore-scale using engineered high pressure and high temperature micromodel (transparent pore networks) experiments and numerical modeling. Through chemical treatment of the micromodel pore surfaces, water-wet, intermediate-wet, and CO2-wet micromodels can be obtained. Both drainage and imbibition experiments were conducted at 8.5 MPa and 45 °C with controlled flow rate. Dynamic images of fluid-fluid displacement processes were recorded using a microscope with a CCD camera. Residual saturations were determined by analysis of late stage imbibition images of flow path structures. We performed direct numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equations using a volume-of-fluid based finite-volume framework for the primary drainage and the followed imbibition for the micromodel experiments with different contact angles. The numerical simulations agreed well with our experimental observations. We found that more scCO2 can be trapped within the CO2-wet micromodel whereas lower residual scCO2 saturation occurred within the water-wet micromodels in both our experiments and the numerical simulations. These results provide direct and consistent evidence of the effect of wettability, and have important implications for scCO2 trapping in geologic carbon sequestration.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of supercritical gas flow in complex nanoporous media: Elucidating the relationship between permeability and pore space geometry (United States)

    Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.


    Mudrocks and shales are currently a significant source of natural gas and understanding the basic transport properties of these formations is critical to predicting long-term production, however, the nanoporous nature of mudrocks presents a unique challenge. Mudrock pores are predominantly in the range of 1-100 nm, and within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the slip-flow and early transition-flow regime (0.001 clays). Here we present a local effective viscosity lattice Boltzmann model (LEV-LBM) constructed for flow simulation in the slip- and early-transition flow regimes, adapted here for complex geometries. At the macroscopic scale the LEV-LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean free path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The LEV-LBM is first validated in simple tube geometries, where excellent agreement with linearized Boltzmann solutions is found for Knudsen numbers up to 1.0. The LEV-LBM is then employed to quantify the length effect on the apparent permeability of tubes, which suggests pore network modeling of flow in the slip and early-transition regime will result in overestimation unless the length effect is considered. Furthermore, the LEV-LBM is used to evaluate the predictive value of commonly measured pore geometry characteristics such as porosity, pore size distribution, and specific solid surface area for the calculation of permeability. We show that bundle of tubes models grossly overestimate apparent permeability, as well as underestimate the increase in apparent permeability with decreasing pressure as a result of excluding topology and pore shape from calculations.

  7. Study on Relation between Hydrodynamic Feature Size of HPAM and Pore Size of Reservoir Rock in Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fang


    Full Text Available The flow mechanism of the injected fluid was studied by the constant pressure core displacement experiments in the paper. It is assumed under condition of the constant pressure gradient in deep formation based on the characteristic of pressure gradient distribution between the injection and production wells and the mobility of different polymer systems in deep reservoir. Moreover, the flow rate of steady stream was quantitatively analyzed and the critical flow pressure gradient of different injection parameters polymer solutions in different permeability cores was measured. The result showed that polymer hydrodynamic feature size increases with the increasing molecular weight. If the concentration of polymer solutions overlaps beyond critical concentration, then molecular chains entanglement will be occur and cause the augment of its hydrodynamic feature size. The polymer hydrodynamic feature size decreased as the salinity of the dilution water increased. When the median radius of the core pore and throat was 5–10 times of the polymer system hydrodynamic feature size, the polymer solution had a better compatibility with the microscopic pore structure of the reservoir. The estimation of polymer solutions mobility in the porous media can be used to guide the polymer displacement plan and select the optimum injection parameters.

  8. Formation and decay of rudimentary penumbra around a pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroko [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan); Kitai, Reizaburo [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan); Otsuji, Kenichi, E-mail: [Solar Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We analyze the evolution of a pore in the active region NOAA 10940 using the data obtained by the Hinode satellite on 2007 February 3. The pore we analyzed showed the formation of a rudimentary penumbra structure, succeeded by an abrupt disappearance after about 5 hr. The pore had an approximate radius of 3.5 Mm and a total magnetic flux of 3.0 × 10{sup 19} Mx, which is a little smaller than the necessary magnetic flux for penumbral formation supposed by Rucklidge et al. (1-1.5 × 10{sup 20} Mx). Our observation describes a rare phenomenon which was in the unstable phase between a pore and a sunspot. The area of the dark umbra gradually decreased when the rudimentary penumbral filaments formed the penumbral structure, meaning that the penumbra develops at the expense of the umbral magnetic flux. This statement was confirmed by a rough estimation of the magnetic flux variation observed by the Hinode Fe I magnetogram. Five hours after the formation phase, the decay phase began. In this decaying phase, multiple opposite polarity patches are found to appear in the exterior of the pore (a different location from the penumbra formation site). We interpret these opposite polarities as signatures of the horizontal magnetic field, which preferably appears in the course of the unstable reconfiguration of the magnetic field structure. During the course of the disappearance of the penumbra, the horizontal penumbral field seems to become vertical because of the dark umbral area that recovered by about 10%.

  9. Predicting Reactive Transport Dynamics in Carbonates using Initial Pore Structure (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Nunes, J. P. P.; Blunt, M. J.


    Understanding rock-fluid interaction at the pore-scale is imperative for accurate predictive modelling of carbon storage permanence. However, coupled reactive transport models are computationally expensive, requiring either a sacrifice of resolution or high performance computing to solve relatively simple geometries. Many recent studies indicate that initial pore structure many be the dominant mechanism in determining the dissolution regime. Here we investigate how well the initial pore structure is predictive of distribution and amount of dissolution during reactive flow using particle tracking on the initial image. Two samples of carbonate rock with varying initial pore space heterogeneity were reacted with reservoir condition CO2-saturated brine and scanned dynamically during reactive flow at a 4-μm resolution between 4 and 40 times using 4D X-ray micro-tomography over the course of 1.5 hours using μ-CT. Flow was modelled on the initial binarized image using a Navier-Stokes solver. Particle tracking was then run on the velocity fields, the streamlines were traced, and the streamline density was calculated both on a voxel-by-voxel and a channel-by-channel basis. The density of streamlines was then compared to the amount of dissolution in subsequent time steps during reaction. It was found that for the flow and transport regimes studied, the streamline density distribution in the initial image accurately predicted the dominant pathways of dissolution and gave good indicators of the type of dissolution regime that would later develop. This work suggests that the eventual reaction-induced changes in pore structure are deterministic rather than stochastic and can be predicted with high resolution imaging of unreacted rock.

  10. X-ray Tomography and Impregnation Methods to Analyze Pore Space Hetrerogeneities at the Hydrated State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pret, D.; Ferrage, E.; Tertre, E.; Robinet, J.C.; Faurel, M.; Hubert, F.; Pelletier, M.; Bihannic, I.


    For clay based materials, the investigation of both mineral skeleton and pore space organization as well as water distribution remains a key and challenging task. Such information is however required in order to fully understand and model their macroscopic hydro-mechanical or transport properties. In particular, as far as swelling clay minerals are involved, even pure clay materials are well known to represent spatially heterogeneous, anisotropic and deformable media from the nanometre to the centimetre scale. Probing their organization over such extremely large scale range requires the combination of different techniques providing quantitative results that can be used to feed global balances of water and pore distributions. Bulk physical measurements have been used for decades for analyzing clay systems at the dry state or for hydrated states under free macroscopic swelling conditions of samples. These approaches need to be associated to reveal the complexity of the pore space network. Indeed, all probes exhibit contrasted accessibilities and provide data on the basis of simple geometrical models either about pore or neck/throat size for a given size range. The main interest of imaging techniques is their ability to reveal the spatial heterogeneities of organization as well as the real morphology of pores. Still, they are poorly documented in literature as preparation procedures and extraction of quantitative data are not straightforward for clay materials. Clay organization is highly reactive and is, for example, a function of the resin/water removal technique used during embedding process, the content/composition of pore water or the pressure applied. Imaging techniques based on electron beam generally requires vacuum conditions around the sample and imply its impregnation by a resin. It is then generally difficult to assess the hydration state corresponding to the organization observed. Coupling different techniques is thus only possible when similar

  11. Application of advanced irradiation analysis methods to light water reactor pressure vessel test and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, R.; Dudey, N.; McElroy, W.; Wullaert, R.; Fabry, A.


    Inaccurate characterization and inappropriate application of neutron irradiation exposure variables contribute a substantial amount of uncertainty to embrittlement analysis of light water reactor pressure vessels. Damage analysis involves characterization of the irradiation environment (dosimetry), correlation of test and surveillance metallurgical and dosimetry data, and projection of such data to service conditions. Errors in available test and surveillance dosimetry data are estimated to contribute a factor of approximately 2 to the data scatter. Non-physical (empirical) correlation procedures and the need to extrapolate to the vessel may add further error. Substantial reductions in these uncertainties in future programs can be obtained from a more complete application of available damage analysis tools which have been developed for the fast reactor program. An approach to reducing embrittlement analysis errors is described, and specific examples of potential applications are given. The approach is based on damage analysis techniques validated and calibrated in benchmark environments

  12. Investigation of pore-scale flow physics in porous media burners (United States)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Muhunthan, Priyanka; Boigne, Emeric; Mohaddes, Danyal; Ihme, Matthias; Stanford University Team


    Porous media burners (PMBs) operate on the principle that the solid porous matrix serves as a means of internally recirculating heat from the combustion products upstream to the reactants, enabling a reduction of the lean-flammability limit, higher power dynamic range, and lower NOx and CO emissions as compared to conventional systems. Accurate predictions of the flow features and properties such as pressure loss in reticulated ceramic foams is an important step in the characterization and optimization of combustion in porous media. In this work, an integrated framework is proposed from obtaining the porous sample to performing a computational fluid dynamics simulation, including X-ray microtomography scanning, digital topology rendering, and volume meshing. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow in the complex geometries of porous foams are obtained by solution of the Navier-Stokes equations using an unstructured, finite-volume solver. This capability enables the investigation of pore-scale flow physics in a wide range of porous materials used in PMBs. In this talk, results obtained at pore-scale Reynolds numbers of order 10 to 100 in a Silicone Carbide foam are presented to demonstrate this capability.

  13. Effect of Initial Hydraulic Conditions on Capillary Rise in a Porous Medium: Pore-Network Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.


    The dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium have been mostly studied in initially dry systems. As initial saturation and initial hydraulic conditions in many natural and industrial porous media can be variable, it is important to investigate the influence of initial conditions on the dynamics of the process. In this study, using dynamic pore-network modeling, we simulated capillary rise in a porous medium for different initial saturations (and consequently initial capillary pressures). Furthermore, the effect of hydraulic connectivity of the wetting phase in corners on the height and velocity of the wetting front was studied. Our simulation results show that there is a trade-off between capillary forces and trapping due to snap-off, which leads to a nonlinear dependence of wetting front velocity on initial saturation at the pore scale. This analysis may provide a possible answer to the experimental observations in the literature showing a non-monotonic dependency between initial saturation and the macroscopic front velocity. © Soil Science Society of America.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Single Phase α-Alumina Membranes with Tunable Pore Diameters (United States)

    Masuda, Tatsuya; Asoh, Hidetaka; Haraguchi, Satoshi; Ono, Sachiko


    Nanoporous and single phase α-alumina membranes with pore diameters tunable over a wide range of approximately 60–350 nm were successfully fabricated by optimizing the conditions for anodizing, subsequent detachment, and heat treatment. The pore diameter increased and the cell diameter shrunk upon crystallization to α-alumina by approximately 20% and 3%, respectively, in accordance with the 23% volume shrinkage resulting from the change in density associated with the transformation from the amorphous state to α-alumina. Nevertheless, flat α-alumina membranes, each with a diameter of 25 mm and a thickness of 50 μm, were obtained without thermal deformation. The α-alumina membranes exhibited high chemical resistance in various concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions as well as when exposed to high temperature steam under pressure. The Young’s modulus and hardness of the single phase α-alumina membranes formed by heat treatment at 1250 °C were notably decreased compared to the corresponding amorphous membranes, presumably because of the nodular crystallite structure of the cell walls and the substantial increase in porosity. Furthermore, when used for filtration, the α-alumina membrane exhibited a level of flux higher than that of the commercial ceramic membrane. PMID:28788005

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Single Phase α-Alumina Membranes with Tunable Pore Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Masuda


    Full Text Available Nanoporous and single phase α-alumina membranes with pore diameters tunable over a wide range of approximately 60–350 nm were successfully fabricated by optimizing the conditions for anodizing, subsequent detachment, and heat treatment. The pore diameter increased and the cell diameter shrunk upon crystallization to α-alumina by approximately 20% and 3%, respectively, in accordance with the 23% volume shrinkage resulting from the change in density associated with the transformation from the amorphous state to α-alumina. Nevertheless, flat α-alumina membranes, each with a diameter of 25 mm and a thickness of 50 μm, were obtained without thermal deformation. The α-alumina membranes exhibited high chemical resistance in various concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions as well as when exposed to high temperature steam under pressure. The Young’s modulus and hardness of the single phase α-alumina membranes formed by heat treatment at 1250 °C were notably decreased compared to the corresponding amorphous membranes, presumably because of the nodular crystallite structure of the cell walls and the substantial increase in porosity. Furthermore, when used for filtration, the α-alumina membrane exhibited a level of flux higher than that of the commercial ceramic membrane.

  16. Blood and interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue. (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis


    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Capillary pressure across a pore throat in the presence of surfactants

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong; Sun, Zhonghao; Santamarina, Carlos


    Capillarity controls the distribution and transport of multiphase and immiscible fluids in soils and fractured rocks; therefore, capillarity affects the migration of nonaqueous contaminants and remediation strategies for both LNAPLs and DNAPLs

  18. Study of pore closure during pressure-less sintering of advanced oxide ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spusta, T.; Svoboda, Jiří; Maca, K.


    Roč. 115, AUG (2016), s. 347-353 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ceramic material * Sintering * Porosity * Modelling * Hot isostatic pressing Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  19. Excess pore pressure generation due to pseudostatic tests in saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catala, M.A.


    Pile foundations are widely used, mainly to transmit structural load to an underlying stiffer soil or rock. This limit state load a certain pile can sustain without failure is known as pile ultimate bearing capacity. During design stage load-tests are performed in-situ on test piles to determine,

  20. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture. (United States)


    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  1. Sensitivity of stress inversion of focal mechanisms to pore pressure changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-Garzón, P.; Vavryčuk, Václav; Kwiatek, G.; Bohnhoff, M.


    Roč. 43, č. 16 (2016), s. 8441-8450 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : fault ing regime * fluid-induced seismicity * focal mechanisms Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016

  2. Preliminary investigation of the relationship between capillary pore pressure and early shrinkage cracking of concrete. (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to design experimental laboratory equipment and perform experiments to investigate the basic physical processes that occur in concrete for periods of several hours to several days after mixing. The study was conducted in...

  3. Influence of pore fluid and frequency on elastic properties of greensand as interpreted using NMR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Mukerj, Tapan; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    dispersion. However, Biot’s theory does not fully explain the frequency dispersion of sedimentary rocks. Greensands are composed of a mixture of quartz and micro-porous glauconite grains. In greensand, it is possible that the contrast between flow in macro-pores and micro-pores within glauconites gives rise....... Biot’s critical frequency and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) T2 spectrum were combined to describe the differences in fluid flow within macro-pores and within micro-pores. NMR data show that Biot’s flow should occur only in large pores in the greensand while, Biot’s flow should not occur in micro-pores....... Differences of fluid flow in macro-pores and micro-pores pores are described as high frequency squirt flow in greensand....

  4. Understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis in porous silicon: network effects within independent pores. (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; Khokhlov, Alexey; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg; Monson, Peter A


    The ability to exert a significant degree of pore structure control in porous silicon materials has made them attractive materials for the experimental investigation of the relationship between pore structure, capillary condensation, and hysteresis phenomena. Using both experimental measurements and a lattice gas model in mean field theory, we have investigated the role of pore size inhomogeneities and surface roughness on capillary condensation of N2 at 77K in porous silicon with linear pores. Our results resolve some puzzling features of earlier experimental work. We find that this material has more in common with disordered materials such as Vycor glass than the idealized smooth-walled cylindrical pores discussed in the classical adsorption literature. We provide strong evidence that this behavior comes from the complexity of the processes within independent linear pores, arising from the pore size inhomogeneities along the pore axis, rather than from cooperative effects between different pores.

  5. A free software for pore-scale modelling: solving Stokes equation for velocity fields and permeability values in 3D pore geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Khirevich, Siarhei; Karsanina, Marina; Collins, Daniel; Korost, Dmitry; Mallants, Dirk


    In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy's equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software's applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.

  6. A free software for pore-scale modelling: solving Stokes equation for velocity fields and permeability values in 3D pore geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Gerke, Kirill


    In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy\\'s equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes\\' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software\\'s applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.

  7. Pressure Sores (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  8. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))


    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  9. Dynamic pore-scale network model (PNM) of water imbibition in porous media (United States)

    Li, J.; McDougall, S. R.; Sorbie, K. S.


    A dynamic pore-scale network model is presented which simulates 2-phase oil/water displacement during water imbibition by explicitly modelling intra-pore dynamic bulk and film flows using a simple local model. A new dynamic switching parameter, λ, is proposed within this model which is able to simulate the competition between local capillary forces and viscous forces over a very wide range of flow conditions. This quantity (λ) determines the primary pore filling mechanism during imbibition; i.e. whether the dominant force is (i) piston-like displacement under viscous forces, (ii) film swelling/collapse and snap-off due to capillary forces, or (iii) some intermediate local combination of both mechanisms. A series of 2D dynamic pore network simulations is presented which shows that the λ-model can satisfactorily reproduce and explain different filling regimes of water imbibition over a wide range of capillary numbers (Ca) and viscosity ratios (M). These imbibition regimes are more complex than those presented under drainage by (Lenormand et al. (1983)), since they are determined by a wider group of control parameters. Our simulations show that there is a coupling between viscous and capillary forces that is much less important in drainage. The effects of viscosity ratio during imbibition are apparent even under conditions of very slow flow (low Ca)-displacements that would normally be expected to be completely capillary dominated. This occurs as a result of the wetting films having a much greater relative mobility in the higher M cases (e.g. M = 10) thus leading to a higher level of film swelling/snap-off, resulting in local oil cluster bypassing and trapping, and hence a poorer oil recovery. This deeper coupled viscous mechanism is the underlying reason why the microscopic displacement efficiency is lower for higher M cases in water imbibition processes. Additional results are presented from the dynamic model on the corresponding effluent fractional flows (fw

  10. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid


    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  11. Pressure Ulcers


    Monfre, Jill M.


    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  12. Monte-Carlo simulation of crystallographical pore growth in III-V-semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, Malte; Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut


    The growth of crystallographical pores in III-V-semiconductors can be understood in the framework of a simple model, which is based on the assumption that the branching of pores is proportional to the current density at the pore tips. The stochastic nature of this model allows its implementation into a three-dimensional Monte-Carlo-simulation of pore growth. The simulation is able to reproduce the experimentally observed crysto pore structures in III-V-semiconductors in full quantitative detail. The different branching probabilities for different semiconductors, as well as doping levels, can be deduced from the specific passivation behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte-interface at the pore tips.

  13. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands (United States)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.


    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  14. Pore connectivity effects on solute transport in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.


    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.5 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuff; and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  15. Pore Connectivity Effects on Solute Transport in Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oinhong Hu


    Retardation of nuclear contaminants in rock matrices can lead to long retention times, allowing substantial radionuclide decay prior to eventual release. Imbibition and diffusion into the rock matrix can move contaminants away from an active fracture, thereby contributing to their retardation. However, diffusive transport in some rocks may behave anomalously because of their sparsely connected porespace, in contrast to diffusion in rocks with denser pore connections. We examined imbibition of weakly sorbing tracers into welded tuff and Indiana sandstone, and water imbibition into metagraywacke and Berea sandstone. Tuff samples were initially equilibrated to 12% and 76% water (v/v) within controlled humidity chambers, while the other rocks were air-dried. For imbibition, one face was exposed to water, with or without tracer, and uptake was measured over time. Following imbibition, tracer concentration measurements were made at fine (1 mm) increments. Three anomalous results were observed: (1) Indiana sandstone and metagraywacke showed mass of imbibed water scaling as time 0.26 , while tuff and Berea sandstone showed the more classical scaling with time 0.05 ; (2) tracer movement into dry (2% initial saturation) Indiana sandstone showed a dispersion pattern similar to that expected during tracer movement into moist (76% initial saturation) tuft and (3) tracer concentrations at the inlet face of the tuff sample were approximately twice those deeper inside the sample. The experiment was then modeled using random walk methods on a 3-D lattice with different values of pore coordination. Network model simulations that used a pore coordination of 1.49 for Indiana sandstone and 1.56 for metagraywacke showed similar temporal scaling, a result of their porespace being close to the percolation threshold. Tracer concentration profiles in Indiana sandstone and tuff were closely matched by simulations that used pore coordinations of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, because of how low

  16. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu


    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  17. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification. (United States)

    Phelps, T J; Palumbo, A V; Bischoff, B L; Miller, C J; Fagan, L A; McNeilly, M S; Judkins, R R


    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 microm filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 microm filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1,000 fold.

  18. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang


    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  19. Dual pore-connectivity and flow-paths affect shale hydrocarbon production (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Barber, T.; Zhang, Y.; Md Golam, K.


    Aided with integrated characterization approaches of droplet contact angle measurement, mercury intrusion capillary pressure, low-pressure gas physisorption, scanning electron microscopy, and small angle neutron scattering, we have systematically studied how pore connectivity and wettability are associated with mineral and organic matter phases of shales (Barnett, Bakken, Eagle Ford), as well as their influence on macroscopic fluid flow and hydrocarbon movement, from the following complementary tests: vacuum saturation with vacuum-pulling on dry shale followed with tracer introduction and high-pressure intrusion, tracer diffusion into fluid-saturated shale, fluid and tracer imbibition into partially-saturated shale, and Wood's metal intrusion followed with imaging and elemental mapping. The first three tests use tracer-bearing fluids (hydrophilic API brine and hydrophobic n-decane) fluids with a suite of wettability tracers of different sizes and reactivities developed in our laboratory. These innovative and integrated approaches indicate a Dalmatian wettability behavior at a scale of microns, limited connectivity (50-100 nm), which is linked to the steep initial decline and low overall recovery because of the limited connection of hydrocarbon molecules in the shale matrix to the stimulated fracture network.

  20. Low-pressure argon adsorption assessment of micropore connectivities in activated carbons. (United States)

    Zimny, T; Villieras, F; Finqueneisel, G; Cossarutto, L; Weber, J V


    Low-pressure argon adsorption has been used to study the energetic distribution of microporous activated carbons differing by their burn-off. The collected isotherms were analyzed using the derivative isotherm summation method. Some oscillations on the experimental curves for very low partial pressures were detected. The results are analyzed and discussed according to the literature and could be attributed to local overheating caused by spontaneous mass transfer of argon through constrictions between former pores and the new opening pore or deadend pores. We used the dynamic character of the experimental method and mainly the discrepancy of the quasi-equilibrium state to deduce key parameters related to the porosity topology.

  1. Soil Pore Network Visualisation and Quantification using ImageJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Pajor, Radoslaw; Otten, Wilfred

    Abstract Soil is one of the most complex materials on the earth, within which many biological, physical and chemical processes that support life and affect climate change take place. A much more detailed knowledge of the soil system is required to improve our ability to develop soil management...... strategies to preserve this limited resource. Many of those processes occur at micro scales. For long our ability to study soils non-destructively at microscopic scales has been limited, but recent developments in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography has offered great opportunities to quantify the 3-D...... geometry of soil pores. In this study we look at how networks that summarize the geometry of pores in soil are affected by soil structure. One of the objectives is to develop a robust and reproducible image analysis technique to produce quantitative knowledge on soil architecture from high resolution 3D...

  2. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil


    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  3. Pore Space Connectivity and the Transport Properties of Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé Yves


    Full Text Available Pore connectivity is likely one of the most important factors affecting the permeability of reservoir rocks. Furthermore, connectivity effects are not restricted to materials approaching a percolation transition but can continuously and gradually occur in rocks undergoing geological processes such as mechanical and chemical diagenesis. In this study, we compiled sets of published measurements of porosity, permeability and formation factor, performed in samples of unconsolidated granular aggregates, in which connectivity does not change, and in two other materials, sintered glass beads and Fontainebleau sandstone, in which connectivity does change. We compared these data to the predictions of a Kozeny-Carman model of permeability, which does not account for variations in connectivity, and to those of Bernabé et al. (2010, 2011 model, which does [Bernabé Y., Li M., Maineult A. (2010 Permeability and pore connectivity: a new model based on network simulations, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10203; Bernabé Y., Zamora M., Li M., Maineult A., Tang Y.B. (2011 Pore connectivity, permeability and electrical formation factor: a new model and comparison to experimental data, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B11204]. Both models agreed equally well with experimental data obtained in unconsolidated granular media. But, in the other materials, especially in the low porosity samples that had undergone the greatest amount of sintering or diagenesis, only Bernabé et al. model matched the experimental data satisfactorily. In comparison, predictions of the Kozeny-Carman model differed by orders of magnitude. The advantage of the Bernabé et al. model was its ability to account for a continuous, gradual reduction in pore connectivity during sintering or diagenesis. Although we can only speculate at this juncture about the mechanisms responsible for the connectivity reduction, we propose two possible mechanisms, likely to be active at different stages of sintering and diagenesis

  4. Optimization of transdermal delivery using magainin pore-forming peptide


    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Ludovice, Peter J.; Prausnitz, Mark R.


    The skin's outer layer of stratum corneum, which is a thin tissue containing multilamellar lipid bilayers, is the main barrier to drug delivery to the skin. To increase skin permeability, our previous work has shown large enhancement of transdermal permeation using a pore-forming peptide, magainin, which was formulated with N-lauroyl sarcosine (NLS) in 50% ethanol-in-PBS. Mechanistic analysis suggested that magainin and NLS can increase skin permeability by disrupting stratum corneum lipid st...

  5. The Controls of Pore-Throat Structure on Fluid Performance in Tight Clastic Rock Reservoir: A Case from the Upper Triassic of Chang 7 Member, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Zhang


    Full Text Available The characteristics of porosity and permeability in tight clastic rock reservoir have significant difference from those in conventional reservoir. The increased exploitation of tight gas and oil requests further understanding of fluid performance in the nanoscale pore-throat network of the tight reservoir. Typical tight sandstone and siltstone samples from Ordos Basin were investigated, and rate-controlled mercury injection capillary pressure (RMICP and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were employed in this paper, combined with helium porosity and air permeability data, to analyze the impact of pore-throat structure on the storage and seepage capacity of these tight oil reservoirs, revealing the control factors of economic petroleum production. The researches indicate that, in the tight clastic rock reservoir, largest throat is the key control on the permeability and potentially dominates the movable water saturation in the reservoir. The storage capacity of the reservoir consists of effective throat and pore space. Although it has a relatively steady and significant proportion that resulted from the throats, its variation is still dominated by the effective pores. A combination parameter (ε that was established to be as an integrated characteristic of pore-throat structure shows effectively prediction of physical capability for hydrocarbon resource of the tight clastic rock reservoir.

  6. Analysis of nitrogen and carbon tetrachloride adsorption isotherms and pore size distribution for siliceous MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriluk Chiarakorn


    Full Text Available RH-MCM-41 particles were synthesized using sodium silicate prepared from rice husk as a silica source and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as a surfactant. The molar compositions were 1.0SiO2: 1.1NaOH: 0.13CTAB: 0.12H2O. This material was used for adsorption isotherm studies of carbon tetrachloride (CT at 25 oC using a magnetically coupled microbalance, and compared with adsorption isotherms using nitrogen at 77 K. The CT isotherms were classified as reversible Type V isotherms, and the nitrogen adsorption isotherm was Type IVc. Capillary condensation was found in a very narrow pressure range, indicating the presence of nearly uniform pores in the RH-MCM-41 particles, which agrees very well with TEM results. The surface area estimated by using the BET method was (800 ± 8 m2 g-1. Pore size distributions (PSD of nitrogen and CT adsorption isotherms for a series of MCM-41 were calculated by using method recommended by Naono and Hakuman (1997. The pore size distributions from the nitrogen isotherm using the BJH and Naono methods showed quite narrow pore diameter distributions, centered around 27 and 29 Å, respectively. Similarly, the peak pore diameters calculated from CT isotherms using the BJH and Naono methods were 24 and 28 Å. It was found that the PSDs analyzed by the BJH method were underestimated compared to that from Naono method.

  7. Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore (United States)

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.


    Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.

  8. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory (United States)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.


    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  9. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, Georgia (United States)

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.; Geitner, Harvey


    A chlor-alkali plant in Brunswick, Georgia, USA, discharged >2 kg mercury/d into a tributary of the Turtle River-Brunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in sediments collected in 1989 along the tributary near the chlor-alkali plant ranged from 1 to 27 μg/g (dry weight), with the highest concentrations found in surface (0–8 cm) sediments of subtidal zones in the vicinity of the discharge site. Toxicity screening in 1990 using Microtox® bioassays on pore water extracted on site from sediments collected at six stations distributed along the tributary indicated that pore water was highly toxic near the plant discharge. Ten-day toxicity tests on pore water from subsequent sediment samples collected near the plant discharge confirmed high toxicity to Hyalella azteca, and feeding activity was significantly reduced in whole-sediment tests. In addition to mercury in the sediments, other metals (chromium, lead, and zinc) exceeded 50 μg/g, and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 67 to 95 μg/g. On a molar basis, acid-volatile sulfide concentrations (20–45 μmol/g) in the sediments exceeded the metal concentrations. Because acid-volatile sulfides bind with cationic metals and form metal sulfides, which are generally not bioavailable, toxicities shown by these sediments were attributed to the high concentrations of PCBs and possibly methylmercury.

  10. Chemical modelling of pore water composition from PFBC residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.


    The concentration of trace elements varies depending on the source of the coal and also due to the combustion process used. Mercury is one important element among the trace elements in the coal residues, generally recognised as potentially harmful to the biological system. To predict the pore water concentrations of mercury and other important constituents leached from coal combustion residues disposal sites, mechanistic data on chemical reactions are required. The present study is an application of a basially thermodynamical approach using the geochemical code EQ3NR. The presence of discrete solid phases that control the aqueous concentrations of major elements such as aluminium, calcium and silicon are identified. Solid phases are modelled in equilibrium with a hypothetical pore water at a pH range of 7-11. In this study the thermodynamic database of EQ3NR has been complemented with data for cadmium, mercury and lead taken from the OECD/NEA Thermodynamic Database and from a compilation made by Lindsay. Possible solubility limiting phases for the important trace elements arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel and lead have been identified. Concentrations of these trace elements as a function of pH in the hypothetical pore water were calculated using mechanistic thermodynamial data. The thermodynamical approach in this study seems justified because most solid residues that are either present or expected to form during weathering have relatively fast precipitation/dissolution kinetics. (21 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.)

  11. Effects of pore design on mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Nicholas; Becton, Matthew; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao


    Nanoporous silicon has been emerging as a powerful building block for next-generation sensors, catalysts, transistors, and tissue scaffolds. The capability to design novel devices with desired mechanical properties is paramount to their reliability and serviceability. In order to bring further resolution to the highly variable mechanical characteristics of nanoporous silicon, here we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of ligament thickness, relative density, and pore geometry/orientation on the mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon, thereby determining its Young's modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness as well as the scaling laws versus the features of interior ligaments. Results show that pore shape and pattern dictate stress accumulation inside the designed structure, leading to the corresponding failure signature, such as stretching-dominated, bending-dominated, or stochastic failure signatures, in nanoporous silicon. The nanostructure of the material is also seen to drive or mute size effects such as “smaller is stronger” and “smaller is ductile”. This investigation provides useful insight into the behavior of nanoporous silicon and how one might leverage its promising applications. - Graphical abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effects of ligament thickness, relative density, and pore geometry/orientation on the mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon, thereby determining its Young's modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness as well as the scaling trends versus the features of interior ligaments.

  12. Influence factors on etching rate of PET nuclear pore membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhenzhong; Wu Zhendong; Liang Haiying; Ju Wei; Chen Dongfeng; Fu Yuanyong; Qu Guopu


    Background: The nuclear pore membrane is a kind of liquid filtration material manufactured by irradiation and chemical etching. Various conditions in etch process have a great influence on etch rate. Purpose: The influence factors of concentration and temperature of etch solution and the irradiation energy of heavy ions on etch rate was studied. Methods: Four layers of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films were stacked together and were irradiated with 140-MeV 32 S ions at room temperature under vacuum conditions. Utilizing conductivity measurement technique, the electrical current changes through the u:radiated PET film were monitored during etching, from which the breakthrough time and therefore the track etching rate was calculated. Results: The results show that there is an exponential correlation between etch rate and temperature, and a linear correlation between etch rate and concentration. The track etching rate increases linearly with energy loss rate. Empirical formula for the bulk etching rate as a function of etchant concentration and temperature was also established via fitting of measurements. Conclusion: It is concluded that by using 1.6-MeV·u -1 32 S ions, PET nuclear pore membrane with cylindrical pore shape can be prepared at 85℃ with etchant concentration of l mol·L -1 . (authors)

  13. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers as pore-blocking binary toxin inhibitors. (United States)

    Förstner, Philip; Bayer, Fabienne; Kalu, Nnanya; Felsen, Susanne; Förtsch, Christina; Aloufi, Abrar; Ng, David Y W; Weil, Tanja; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Barth, Holger


    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Pore Topology Effects in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Zeolites. (United States)

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Mitchell, Sharon; Gerchow, Lars; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier


    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful method to study the size and connectivity of pores in zeolites. The lifetime of positronium within the host material is commonly described by the Tao-Eldrup model. However, one of its largest limitations arises from the simple geometries considered for the shape of the pores, which cannot describe accurately the complex topologies in zeolites. Here, an atomic model that combines the Tao potential with the crystallographic structure is introduced to calculate the distribution and lifetime of Ps intrinsic to a given framework. A parametrization of the model is undertaken for a set of widely applied zeolite framework types (*BEA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, UTL), before extending the model to all known structures. The results are compared to structural and topological descriptors, and to the Tao-Eldrup model adapted for zeolites, demonstrating the intricate dependence of the lifetime on the pore architecture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea) from the head pores of arapaimas. (United States)

    Portes Santos, Cláudia; da Silva, Maralina Torres; Moravec, Franti Ek


    Arapaima gigas is one of the main cultured fish species in South America, and monogenean parasites of this species cause large economic losses to fish farmers. During surveys of the parasites of cultured arapaimas from Mexiana Island in the Amazon River Delta, Rio Branco, in northwestern Brazilian Amazonia, and Yurimaguas, Peru, the monogenean Dawestrema cycloancistrium was found in the gills of A. gigas as well as in previously unreported sites, i.e. the head pores and chambers. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission route of this parasite and its geographical distribution as