Sample records for nonphysical pore pressure

  1. Pore Pressure Measurements Inside Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.; Grüne, Joachim


    The present paper presents pore pressure measurements from large scale model tests performed at the Large Wave Channel, Hannover, Germany and small scale model test performed at the Hydraulic & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark. Information on pore pressure attenuation......, and compared to a damping model presented by Burcharth et al. (1999). Reasonable agreement is found when considering the difference in the grading and uniformity of the model core materials. Comparison between results obtained from small and large scale model tests showed no clear evidence of scale effects....

  2. Temperature induced pore fluid pressurization in geomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghabezloo, Siavash


    The theoretical basis of the thermal response of the fluid-saturated porous materials in undrained condition is presented. It has been demonstrated that the thermal pressurization phenomenon is controlled by the discrepancy between the thermal expansion of the pore fluid and of the solid phase, the stress-dependency of the compressibility and the non-elastic volume changes of the porous material. For evaluation of the undrained thermo-poro-elastic properties of saturated porous materials in conventional triaxial cells, it is important to take into account the effect of the dead volume of the drainage system. A simple correction method is presented to correct the measured pore pressure change and also the measured volumetric strain during an undrained heating test. It is shown that the porosity of the tested material, its drained compressibility and the ratio of the volume of the drainage system to the one of the tested sample, are the key parameters which influence the most the error induced on the measuremen...

  3. Experimental study on pore water pressure dissipation of mucky soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianwei ZHANG; Changming WANG; Junxia LI; Bin WANG


    Pore water pressure has an important influence on mechanical properties of soil. The authors studied the characteristics of pore water pressure dissipating of mucky soil under consolidated-drained condition by using refitted triaxial instrument and analyzed the variation of pore pressure coefficient with consolidation pressure. The results show that the dissipating of pore water pressure behaves in different ways depends on different styles of loading. What is more, the pore water pressure coefficient of mucky soil is less than 1. As the compactness of soil increases and moisture content reduces, the value of B reduces. There is a staggered dissipating in the process of consolidation, in which it is a mutate point when U/P is 80%. It is helpful to establish the pore water pressure model and study the strength-deformation of soil in process of consolidation.

  4. Pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate bearing sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shicai; LIU Changling; YE Yuguang; LIU Yufeng


    To better understand the relationship between the pore capillary pressure and hydrate saturation in sedi-ments, a new method was proposed. First, the phase equilibria of methane hydrate in fine-grained silica sands were measured. As to the equilibrium data, the pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate were calculated. The results showed that the phase equilibria of methane hydrates in fine-grained silica sands changed due to the depressed activity of pore water caused by the surface group and negatively charged characteristic of silica particles as well as the capillary pressure in small pores together. The capil-lary pressure increased with the increase of methane hydrate saturation due to the decrease of the available pore space. However, the capillary-saturation relationship could not yet be described quantitatively because of the stochastic habit of hydrate growth.

  5. Development of Pore Pressure and Material Damping during Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The behaviour of sand during cyclic loading can be characterized as "stabilization", "instant stabilization". "pore pressure buildup" and "liquefaction". The terminologies can be defined exactly by a simple mathematical formulation based on the existence of a cyclic stable state. By introducing a...

  6. Using Advanced Tensiometers to Monitor Temporal Variations in Pore Pressure (United States)

    Nichols, R. L.; Young, M. H.; Dixon, K. L.; Rossabi, J.; Hyde, W. K.; Holmes-Burns, H.


    The Savannah River Site has installed a comprehensive vadose zone monitoring system (VZMS) at it's low level radioactive waste disposal facility to collect the necessary information to calculate contaminant flux. The VZMS includes water content reflectometers, suction lysimeters, advanced tensiometers (ATs), water flux meters, access ports for neutron probes, and a tipping bucket rain gauge. Forty one ATs were installed from 1999 to 2001 at depths ranging from 2 to 60 feet and have been operated continuously. The installation depths were based on a hydrostatigraphic model developed from core logs, cone penetrometer logs, moisture content profiles, water retention curves model that were obtained during the phased installation of the VZMS. An AT consists of a porous cup installed at a prescribed depth with casing back to the surface and a pressure transducer that is lowered into the casing and connects with the porous cup. The pressure transducer transmits it's signal to a datalogger where the data is stored for future retrieval using a cellular phone communications package. Results from the 2 year operating period show that the AT calibrations are stable and t ATs are capable of extended monitoring of pore pressures in the 0 to 300 cm H2 O range. The ATs had sufficient resolution to detect the naturally occurring fluctuations in pore pressure (1 to 100 cm H2 O over 1 to 72 hours) that resulted from infiltration events at the site. The stable performance of the ATs combined with their ability to detect naturally occurring fluctuations in pore pressure make the ATs a useful tool in measuring temporal pore pressure variations for use in calibrating numerical models of fluid flow in variably saturated porous media.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T. N.; Houston, W. N.; Nur, A. M.


    A Penrose Conference entitled, "The Role of Pore Pressure in Deformation in Geologic Processes" was convened by the authors at San Diego, California between November 9 and 13, 1979. The conference was sponsored by the Geological Society of America. This report is a summary of the highlights of the issues discussed during the conference. In addition, this report also includes a topical reference list relating to the different subject areas relevant to pore pressure and deformation. The references were compiled from a list suggested by the participants and were available for consultation during the conference. Although the list is far from complete, it should prove to be a good starting point for one who is looking for key papers in the field.

  8. Pore pressure development in hybrid fibre-reinforced high strength concrete at elevated temperatures


    Bangi, Mugume Rodgers; HORIGUCHI, Takashi


    The present experimental work investigates the build-up of pore pressure at different depths of High Strength Concrete (HSC) and Hybrid-Fibre-Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HFRHSC) when exposed to different heating rates. First, the effect of the measurement technique on maximum pore pressures measured was evaluated. The pressure measurement technique which utilized a sintered metal and silicon oil was found to be the most effective technique for pore pressure measurement. Pore pressure m...

  9. Pore Water Pressure Contribution to Debris Flow Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Deangeli


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Debris flows are very to extremely rapid flows of saturated granular soils. Two main types of debris flow are generally recognized: Open slope debris flows and channelized debris flows. The former is the results of some form of slope failures, the latter can develop along preexisting stream courses by the mobilization of previously deposited debris blanket. The problem to be addressed is the influence of the mode of initiation on the subsequent mechanism of propagation. In particular the role of pore water pressure on debris flow mobility in both types was debated. Approach: Laboratory flume experiments were set up in order to analyze the behavior of debris flows generated by model sand slope failures. Failures were induced in sand slopes by raising the water level by seepage from a drain located at the top end of the flume, and by rainfall supplied by a set of pierced plastic pipes placed above the flume. Video recordings of the tests were performed to analyze debris flow characteristics. Results: In all the tests the sand water mixture flows were unsteady and non uniform and sand deposition along the channel bed was a relevant phenomenon. The flows were characterized by a behavioral stratification of the sand water mixture along the flow depth. Back analyzed pore water pressure were just in excess to the hydrostatic condition. The reliability of the experimental results was checked by comparison with other flume experiment data. Conclusion: Debris flow behavior was influenced by the mode of initiation, the inclination of the channel and grain size of the soils. These factors affected the attained velocities and the pore water pressure values. The mobility of debris flows was not always enhanced by high excess pore water pressure values.

  10. Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling of Wave Induced Pore Pressure Attenuation Inside a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; Rouck, Julien De; Burcharth, Hans Falk


    The main objective of this paper is to study the attenuation of the wave induced pore pressures inside the core of a rubble mound breakwater. The knowledge of the distribution and the attenuation of the pore pressures is important for the design of a stable and safe breakwater. The pore pressure...

  11. Pore pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation due to permeability enhancement by low-pressure subcritical fracture slip (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Moriya, Hirokazu; Ito, Takatoshi; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Häring, Markus


    Understanding the details of pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation is important for the design of an energy extraction system and reservoir management, as well as for the mitigation of hazardous-induced seismicity. Based on microseismic and regional stress information, we estimated the pore pressure increase required to generate shear slip on an existing fracture during stimulation. Spatiotemporal analysis of pore pressure migration revealed that lower pore pressure migrates farther and faster and that higher pore pressure migrates more slowly. These phenomena can be explained by the relationship between fracture permeability and stress state criticality. Subcritical fractures experience shear slip following smaller increases of pore pressure and promote migration of pore pressure because of their enhanced permeability. The difference in migration rates between lower and higher pore pressures suggests that the optimum wellhead pressure is the one that can stimulate relatively permeable fractures, selectively. Its selection optimizes economic benefits and minimizes seismic risk.

  12. Explicit Pore Pressure Material Model in Carbon-Cloth Phenolic (United States)

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; Ehle, Curt


    An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a finite-element model to predict phenomena specific to CCP components of solid-fuel-rocket nozzles subjected to high operating temperatures and to mechanical stresses that can be great enough to cause structural failures. Phenomena that can be predicted with the help of this model include failures of specimens in restrained-thermal-growth (RTG) tests, pocketing erosion, and ply lifting

  13. Experimental study on pore pressure in rock-soil slope during reservoir water level fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yuewu; CHEN; Huixin; LIU; Qingquan; GONG; Xin; ZHANG


    A test system was developed for measuring the pore pressure in porous media, and a new model was devised for the pore pressure testing in both saturated and unsaturated rock-soil. Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the pore pressure during water level fluctuation. The variations of transient pore pressure vs. time at different locations of the simulated rock-soil system were acquired and processed, and meanwhile the deformation and failure of the model are observed. The experiment results show that whether the porous media are saturated or not, the transient pore pressure is mainly dependent on the water level fluctuation, and coupled with the variation of the stress field.

  14. Wave-induced stresses and pore pressures near a mudline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sawicki


    Full Text Available Conventional methods for the determination of water-wave induced stresses inseabeds composed of granular soils are based on Biot-type models, in which the soilskeleton is treated as an elastic medium. Such methods predict effective stressesin the soil that are unacceptable from the physical point of view, as they permittensile stresses to occur near the upper surface of the seabed. Therefore, in thispaper the granular soil is assumed to behave as an elastic-ideally plastic material,with the Coulomb-Mohr yield criterion adopted to bound admissible stress states inthe seabed. The governing equations are solved numerically by a~finite differencemethod. The results of simulations, carried out for the case of time-harmonicwater waves, illustrate the depth distributions of the excess pore pressures and theeffective stresses in the seabed, and show the shapes of zones of soil in the plastic state.~In particular, the effects on the seabed behaviour of suchparameters as the degree of pore water saturation, the soil permeability, and theearth pressure coefficient, are illustrated.

  15. Integrated landslide monitoring: rainfalls, pore water pressures and surface movements (United States)

    Berti, M.; Casula, G.; Elmi, C.; Fabris, M.; Ghirotti, M.; Loddo, F.; Mora, P.; Pesci, A.; Simoni, A.


    Rainfall-induced landslides involving clay-rich soils are widely represented in the Apennines. They cover up to 30% of the slopes forming the relief constituted by chaotic clayey units and are typically subject to repeated reactivations of the movement which are often triggered by a series of discrete failures located in the upper part (headscarp). Failures and movement can then propagate downslope and reactivate the whole landslide deposit which displays a typical elongated body, limited depth and a fan-shaped toe as a result of successive slow earth-flow like movements. An experimental monitoring programme was designed and is currently operating on the Rocca Pitigliana landslide whose characteristics well represent the above described type of movements. Its last parossistic movement date back to 1999 and, since then, remedial works were realized on behalf of local authorities. They basically consist of surficial and deep drainage works located on the landslide body. Experimental activities focus on the main headscarp whose morphology and sub-surface water circulation scheme were unaffected by the interventions. The monitoring approach includes measuring rainfalls and pore-pressure responses in both saturated and unsaturated soils. Surficial movements are continuously measured by means of GPS permanent stations and by wire extensometers which allow real time control of headscarp activity. Main aim of the monitoring activities is to provide experimental data, which can be used to test various existing hydrologic models and to identify triggering conditions. Since the ‘70s, many hydrologic models have been proposed to describe the pore water pressure distribution within the soil and its response to precipitation. The topic has recently drawn growing attention because of the recognized importance in landslide triggering but still experimental data are very much needed in order to obtain and validate capable predicting tools. This is mostly due to the multiple and

  16. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores. (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi


    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  17. Measurements of non-physical quantities (United States)

    Shishkin, Igor F.


    The aim of the paper is to suggest an approach to development of a theory of measurements for non-physical quantities. For these measurements it is not possible to ensure traceability because of their exclusive nature as substantiated by the author. This theory is presented as particularly important one for social and human sciences.

  18. Network modelling of wettability and pore geometry effects on electrical resistivity and capillary pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, H.N.; Jing, X.D. [Centre for Petroleum Studies, T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London (United Kingdom)


    Recent research efforts have focused on using simple non-circular cross-sectional pore shapes to honour the physics observed at the pore scale. For example, there is evidence to suggest variations of wettability occur at this level. These pores can exhibit water-wet and oil-wet regions, depending on the physics of wetting films, and hence the porous medium maybe of mixed-wettability character. For low water saturations, electrical resistivity cannot be physically simulated at the pore scale using cylindrical tubes, even though wetting film thickness' and pore constrictions are taken into account. A three-dimensional network model that investigates the petrophysical characteristics, electrical resistivity and capillary pressure, is presented. The influence of saturation history is also modelled. Key pore geometrical attributes such as pore shape, aspect ratio, pore coordination number (pore connectivity) and pore size distribution are included in the model. In addition, pore constrictions are introduced which may result in phase trapping via snap-off within the tube itself. Analysis of our developing network model starting from representing the pore shape as circular is presented. Using a simple non-circular cross-sectional pore shape we show bulk water retained in the crevices give rise to predictions that are in close agreement with electrical resistivity and capillary pressure trends observed in experiments. Numerical results are presented and compared with experimental data.

  19. Some specifics of influence of pore pressure on physical properties of deformable rocks (United States)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Stakhovskaya, Z. I.; Mikayelyan, A. O.


    A study was made of a range of problems related to the physical and mechanical properties of limestones from the region of the Ingura hydroelectric powerplant under hydrostatic pore pressure with additional axial pressure. The purpose was to estimate the significance and effect of pore pressure on physical properties in rocks as a function of the stressed state under conditions of hydrostatic pressure and hydrostatic pressure with additional axial loading. The P wave velocity, resistivity and longitudinal deformation were measured under pressure with specimens which had been carefully dried and saturated under vacuum conditions with a 2 n solution of NaCl. Cyclical variations of pore pressure were found to cause compaction of the rock. Cyclical variations of pore pressure under complex stress conditions facilitate fracture and strength loss of the rock.

  20. A random-walk model for pore pressure accumulation in marine soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Cheng, Niang-Sheng


    waves. The model will apparently enable the researcher to handle complex geometries (such as a pipeline buried in a soil) relatively easily. Early results with regard to the latter example, namely the buildup of pore pressure around a buried pipeline subject to a progressive wave, are encouraging.......A numerical random-walk model has been developed for the pore-water pressure. The model is based on the analogy between the variation of the pore pressure and the diffusion process of any passive quantity such as concentration. The pore pressure in the former process is analogous...... to the concentration in the latter. In the simulation, particles are released in the soil, and followed as they travel through the statistical field variables. The model has been validated (1) against the Terzaghi consolidation process, and (2) against the process where the pore pressure builds up under progressive...

  1. Initial excess pore water pressures induced by tunnelling in soft ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁荣柱; 夏唐代; 林存刚; 俞峰; 吴世明


    Tunnelling-induced long-term consolidation settlement attracts a great interest of engineering practice. The distribution and magnitude of tunnelling-induced initial excess pore water pressure have significant effects on the long-term consolidation settlement. A simple and reliable method for predicting the tunnel-induced initial excess pore water pressure calculation in soft clay is proposed. This method is based on the theory of elasticity and SKEMPTON’s excess pore water pressure theory. Compared with the previously published field measurements and the finite-element modelling results, it is found that the suggested initial excess pore water pressure theory is in a good agreement with the measurements and the FE results. A series of parametric analyses are also carried out to investigate the influences of different factors on the distribution and magnitude of the initial excess pore water pressure in soft ground.

  2. A General Criterion for Liquefaction in Granular Layers with Heterogeneous Pore Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Liran; Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude


    Fluid-saturated granular and porous layers can undergo liquefaction and lose their shear resistance when subjected to shear forcing. In geosystems, such a process can lead to severe natural hazards of soil liquefaction, accelerating slope failure, and large earthquakes. Terzaghi's principle of effective stress predicts that liquefaction occurs when the pore pressure within the layer becomes equal to the applied normal stress on the layer. However, under dynamic loading and when the internal permeability is relatively small the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous and it is not clear what measurement of pore pressure should be used in Terzaghi's principle. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate using numerical simulations a general criterion for liquefaction that applies also for the cases in which the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous. The general criterion demands that the average pore pressure along a continuous surface within the fluid-saturated granular or porous layer is equal to the appl...

  3. Experimental investigation on the wave-induced pore pressure around shallowly embedded pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of regular wave experiments have been done in a large-scale wave flume to investigate the wave-induced pore pressure around the submarine shallowly embedded pipelines. The model pipelines are buried in three kinds of soils, including gravel, sand and silt with different burial depth. The input waves change with height and period. The results show that the amplitudes of wave-induced pore pressure increase as the wave period increase, and decay from the surface to the bottom of seabed. Higher pore pressures are recorded at the pipeline top and the lower pore pressures at the bottom, especially in the sand seabed. The normalized pressure around pipeline decreases as the relative water depth, burial depth or scattering parameters increase. For the silt seabed, the wavelet transform has been successfully used to analyze the signals of wave-induced pore pressure, and the oscillatory and residual pore pressure can be extracted by wavelet analysis. Higher oscillatory pressures are recorded at the bottom and the lower pressures at the top of the pipeline. However, higher residual pressures are recorded at the top and the lower pressures at the bottom of the pipeline.

  4. Pore Water Pressure Response of a Soil Subjected to Traffic Loading under Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions (United States)

    Cary, Carlos

    This study presents the results of one of the first attempts to characterize the pore water pressure response of soils subjected to traffic loading under saturated and unsaturated conditions. It is widely known that pore water pressure develops within the soil pores as a response to external stimulus. Also, it has been recognized that the development of pores water pressure contributes to the degradation of the resilient modulus of unbound materials. In the last decades several efforts have been directed to model the effect of air and water pore pressures upon resilient modulus. However, none of them consider dynamic variations in pressures but rather are based on equilibrium values corresponding to initial conditions. The measurement of this response is challenging especially in soils under unsaturated conditions. Models are needed not only to overcome testing limitations but also to understand the dynamic behavior of internal pore pressures that under critical conditions may even lead to failure. A testing program was conducted to characterize the pore water pressure response of a low plasticity fine clayey sand subjected to dynamic loading. The bulk stress, initial matric suction and dwelling time parameters were controlled and their effects were analyzed. The results were used to attempt models capable of predicting the accumulated excess pore pressure at any given time during the traffic loading and unloading phases. Important findings regarding the influence of the controlled variables challenge common beliefs. The accumulated excess pore water pressure was found to be higher for unsaturated soil specimens than for saturated soil specimens. The maximum pore water pressure always increased when the high bulk stress level was applied. Higher dwelling time was found to decelerate the accumulation of pore water pressure. In addition, it was found that the higher the dwelling time, the lower the maximum pore water pressure. It was concluded that upon further

  5. Experimental study on the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure under loading and unloading conditions (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Dingyi; Zhang, Cun; Wang, Chen


    In order to study the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure, seepage experiments under different simulated in situ stresses on loading and unloading paths are carried out using the self-developed Gas Flow and Displacement Testing Apparatus (GFDTA) system. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the relationship between average pore pressure and permeability is found to basically obey the function distribution of a two degree polynomial. In this paper, two aspects of the relationship between permeability and pore pressure are explained: the Klinbenberg effect and expansion, and the penetration of the initial fracture. Under low pore pressure, the decrease in the Klinbenberg effect is the main reason for the decrease in permeability with increased pore pressure. Under relatively high pore pressure, the increase in pore pressure leads to the initial fracture expansion and penetration of the coal sample, which causes an increase in permeability. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the permeability response to pore pressure changes, the permeability dispersion and pore pressure sensitivity coefficients are defined. After the sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the loading history changed the fracture structure of the original coal sample and reduced its permeability sensitivity to pore pressure. Under low pore pressure, the Klinbenberg effect is the reason for the decrease in pore pressure sensitivity. Lastly, the permeability-pore pressure relationship is divided into three stages to describe the different response characteristics individually.

  6. Methods of Pore Pressure Detection from Real-time Drilling Data


    Stunes, Sindre


    The knowledge of formation pore pressure, and how it changes throughout the length of a well, is crucial in terms of maintaining control of the wellbore. Failure to recognize deviations from the expected pressures can lead to problems and instabilities, which increases drilling costs. A worst case scenario may lead to loss of an entire well section. Thus maintaining a real-time knowledge of the formation pore pressure is beneficial regarding both the cost and the safety of a drilling operatio...

  7. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying


    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  8. Distribution of pore water pressure in an earthen dam considering unsaturated-saturated seepage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kumar


    Full Text Available The variation of pore water pressure in earthen dams plays an important role in maintaining its stability. The pore water pressure within the dam are altered by the external loading conditions like rapid drawdown of reservoir water, earthquake loading and raise of water table caused by infiltration of rainfall. The seepage through an earthen dam involves saturated and unsaturated flows but to avoid complexity in solving the non-linear partial differential equations, the flow in unsaturated zone is neglected and seepage analysis is carried by constructing the flow net in which the pore water pressures beyond the free surface is taken as zero. In actual conditions negative pore water pressure develops beyond the free surface due to the capillarity which leads development to the matrix suction of the soil. In this paper a comparative study on distribution of pore pressure in a zoned earthen dam under steady state and transient conditions had been carried out considering unsaturated-saturated seepage theory. To solve the non-linear partial differential equations, finite element method has been adopted in the present study. The earthen dam has been modeled in different stages. At each stage a new parameter was added and parametric analysis was carried out. The results indicate that negative pore water pressure developed at the downstream side and the pore pressures at the mid-levels of the core are high. This specifies that, soils with low permeability have higher pore pressure. The pore pressures appeared to be higher in upstream side during rapid drawdown compared to steady state.

  9. Compaction and Permeability Reduction of Castlegate Sandstone under Pore Pressure Cycling (United States)

    Bauer, S. J.


    We investigate time-dependent compaction and permeability changes by cycling pore pressure with application to compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a reservoir. Preliminary experiments capture the impacts of hydrostatic stress, pore water pressure, pore pressure cycling, chemical, and time-dependent considerations near a borehole in a CAES reservoir analog. CAES involves creating an air bubble in a reservoir. The high pressure bubble serves as a mechanical battery to store potential energy. When there is excess grid energy, bubble pressure is increased by air compression, and when there is energy needed on the grid, stored air pressure is released through turbines to generate electricity. The analog conditions considered are depth ~1 km, overburden stress ~20 MPa and a pore pressure ~10MPa. Pore pressure is cycled daily or more frequently between ~10 MPa and 6 MPa, consistent with operations of a CAES facility at this depth and may continue for operational lifetime (25 years). The rock can vary from initially fully-to-partially saturated. Pore pressure cycling changes the effective stress.Jacketed, room temperature tap water-saturated samples of Castlegate Sandstone are hydrostatically confined (20 MPa) and subjected to a pore pressure resulting in an effective pressure of ~10 MPa. Pore pressure is cycled between 6 to 10 MPa. Sample displacement measurements yielded determinations of volumetric strain and from water flow measurements permeability was determined. Experiments ran for two to four weeks, with 2 to 3 pore pressure cycles per day. The Castlegate is a fluvial high porosity (>20%) primarily quartz sandstone, loosely calcite cemented, containing a small amount of clay.Pore pressure cycling induces compaction (~.1%) and permeability decreases (~20%). The results imply that time-dependent compactive processes are operative. The load path, of increasing and decreasing pore pressure, may facilitate local loosening and grain readjustments that results in the

  10. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  11. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  12. Effect of Processing Pressure on Isolated Pore Formation during Controlled Directional Solidification in Small Channels (United States)

    Cox, Matthew C.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.; Grugel, RIchard N.; Lee, Chun P.


    Directional solidification experiments were performed, using succinonitrile saturated with nitrogen gas, to examine the effects of in-situ processing pressure changes on the formation growth, and evolution of an isolated, cylindrical gaseous pore. A novel solidification facility, capable of processing thin cylindrical samples (I.D. < 1.0 mm), under controlled pressure conditions, was used for the experiments. A new experimental method for growing the isolated pore from a seed bubble is introduced. The experimental results indicate that an in-situ processing pressure change will result in either a transient change in pore diameter or a complete termination of pore growth, indicating that pressure changes can be used as a control parameter to terminate bubble growth. A simple analytical model has been introduced to explain the experimental observations.

  13. Pore Pressure Under A Gravity Based Structure Under The Influence Of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Madsen, Mikael Thyge


    The total wave load on a gravity based foundation for offshore wind turbines is influenced by the pore pressure from beneath the structure. The pore pressure is induced by the wave–structure-seabed interaction. Often the uplift force is included in a simplified way in the design of the gravity ba...... analyses, it was possible to investigate the effect of air content in the pores, which turned out to have an effect on the distribution of the pore pressure.......The total wave load on a gravity based foundation for offshore wind turbines is influenced by the pore pressure from beneath the structure. The pore pressure is induced by the wave–structure-seabed interaction. Often the uplift force is included in a simplified way in the design of the gravity...... based foundation. This leads typically to very conservative designs in order to accommodate the uncertainties in the procedure. The experiments shall lead to better prediction models based on for instance CFD model’s with the direct calculation of pressure variations in the seabed and any erosion...

  14. Pore pressure prediction and well bore stability analysis in Lower Paleozoic shale formation, N Poland (United States)

    Słota-Valim, Małgorzata


    Pore pressure and wellbore stability sometimes pose a serious challenge while drilling, especially through rock formations of reduced strength or through intervals where abnormally high pore pressure was formed. Lack of prediction of pore pressure and lack of wellbore stability analysis introduce an element of uncertainty in selection of drilling fluid density. Too low density of drilling fluid can lead to uncontrolled flow of the reservoir fluid to the wellbore (kicks), washouts and occurrence of cavern like structures called breakouts. On the other hand too high density can lead to formation fracturing and further fluid loss. Therefore wellbore stability loss frequently prolongs the operating time, rising the costs of the drilling and in severe cases may end up well abandons loss. The above mentioned complications can be avoided or greatly reduced by reliable analysis of drilling conditions with the aspects to geomechanical characteristics of drilled rock formations. This study presents the results of analysis of pore pressure performed with the use of commonly used in oil industry methods. The analysis of pore pressure was carried out in almost entire profile of four boreholes drilled through lower Paleozoic shales, deposited in the southern part of the Baltic Basin. In addition wellbore stability analysis was performed in the well with most complete geomechanical input data base. Obtained results helped identifying intervals with elevated pore pressure could pose a risk during drilling operation. Elaborated 1D geomechanical model provides safe mud weight window helping to reduce the instabilities risk and constitute a great tool for geomechanical model validation.

  15. Influence of fluid pore pressure on chaotic sliding of tectonic faults (United States)

    Turuntaev, Sergey; Riga, Vasily


    The problem of permeable rock pore pressure variation influence on tectonic fault sliding and generation of seismic events was studied in the scope of rate-and-state friction model with two-parametric friction law. The coupled problem of pore-elasticity and fault sliding governed by two-parametric rate-and-state equation was studied numerically. The main modes of the fault sliding were found, and transitions from one mode to another due to the fluid pore pressure change were observed. The conditions for transition from stable to chaotic sliding (considered as an analog of seismic event generations) were found. It was shown, that chaotic sliding has features of Poincare stability and can be characterized by finite values of correlation integral and embedding dimension, which depend on critical shear stresses. Change of the effective critical stresses by the pore pressure variation will result in change of the tectonic fault sliding mode and consequently change of the seismic regime.

  16. Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well. (United States)

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit


    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth.

  17. Laboratory experiments on rainfall-induced flowslide from pore pressure and moisture content measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hakro


    Full Text Available During or immediately after rainfall many slope failures have been observed. The slope failure occurred due to rainfall infiltration that rapidly increase the pore pressure and trigger the slope failure. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the rainfall-induced slope failure, but the mechanism of slope failure is still not well clarified. To investigate mechanism of rainfall-induced slope failure laboratory experiments have been conducted in flume. The slope was prepared with sandy soil in flume with constant inclination of 45°, because most of rainfall-induced slope failure occurred in sandy soil and on steep slope. The hydrological parameters such as pore pressure and moisture content were measured with piezometers and advanced Imko TDRs respectively. The slope failure occurred due to increase in moisture content and rise in pore pressure. During the flowslide type of slope failure the sudden increase in pore pressure was observed. The higher moisture content and pore pressure was at the toe of the slope. The pore pressure was higher at the toe of the slope and smaller at the upper part of the slope. After the saturation the run-off was observed at the toe of the slope that erodes the toe and forming the gullies from toe to upper part of the slope. In the case antecedent moisture conditions the moisture content and the pore pressure increased quickly and producing the surface runoff at the horizontal part of the slope. The slope having less density suffer from flowslide type of the failure, however in dense slope no major failure was occurred even at higher rainfall intensity. The antecedent moisture accompanied with high rainfall intensity also not favors the initiation of flowslide in case of dense slope. The flowslide type of failure can be avoided by controlling the density of soil slope. Knowing such parameters that controls the large mass movement helpful in developing the early warning system for flowslide type of

  18. Capillary pressure across a pore throat in the presence of surfactants

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong


    Capillarity controls the distribution and transport of multiphase and immiscible fluids in soils and fractured rocks; therefore, capillarity affects the migration of nonaqueous contaminants and remediation strategies for both LNAPLs and DNAPLs, constrains gas and oil recovery, and regulates CO2 injection and geological storage. Surfactants alter interfacial tension and modify the invasion of pores by immiscible fluids. Experiments are conducted to explore the propagation of fluid interfaces along cylindrical capillary tubes and across pore constrictions in the presence of surfactants. Measured pressure signatures reflect the interaction between surface tension, contact angle, and the pore geometry. Various instabilities occur as the interface traverses the pore constriction, consequently, measured pressure signatures differ from theoretical trends predicted from geometry, lower capillary pressures are generated in advancing wetting fronts, and jumps are prone to under-sampling. Contact angle and instabilities are responsible for pronounced differences between pressure signatures recorded during advancing and receding tests. Pressure signatures gathered with surfactant solutions suggest changes in interfacial tension at the constriction; the transient surface tension is significantly lower than the value measured in quasi-static conditions. Interface stiffening is observed during receding fronts for solutions near the critical micelle concentration. Wetting liquids tend to form plugs at pore constrictions after the invasion of a nonwetting fluid; plugs split the nonwetting fluid into isolated globules and add resistance against fluid flow.

  19. Capillary pressure across a pore throat in the presence of surfactants (United States)

    Jang, Junbong; Sun, Zhonghao; Santamarina, J. Carlos


    Capillarity controls the distribution and transport of multiphase and immiscible fluids in soils and fractured rocks; therefore, capillarity affects the migration of nonaqueous contaminants and remediation strategies for both LNAPLs and DNAPLs, constrains gas and oil recovery, and regulates CO2 injection and geological storage. Surfactants alter interfacial tension and modify the invasion of pores by immiscible fluids. Experiments are conducted to explore the propagation of fluid interfaces along cylindrical capillary tubes and across pore constrictions in the presence of surfactants. Measured pressure signatures reflect the interaction between surface tension, contact angle, and the pore geometry. Various instabilities occur as the interface traverses the pore constriction, consequently, measured pressure signatures differ from theoretical trends predicted from geometry, lower capillary pressures are generated in advancing wetting fronts, and jumps are prone to under-sampling. Contact angle and instabilities are responsible for pronounced differences between pressure signatures recorded during advancing and receding tests. Pressure signatures gathered with surfactant solutions suggest changes in interfacial tension at the constriction; the transient surface tension is significantly lower than the value measured in quasi-static conditions. Interface stiffening is observed during receding fronts for solutions near the critical micelle concentration. Wetting liquids tend to form plugs at pore constrictions after the invasion of a nonwetting fluid; plugs split the nonwetting fluid into isolated globules and add resistance against fluid flow.

  20. Evolution of pore fluid pressures in a stimulated geothermal reservoir inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms (United States)

    Terakawa, T.; Deichmann, N.


    We developed an inversion method to estimate the evolution of pore fluid pressure fields from earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the Bayesian statistical inference and Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC). This method's application to induced seismicity in the Basel enhanced geothermal system in Switzerland shows the evolution of pore fluid pressures in response to fluid injection experiments. For a few days following the initiation of the fluid injection, overpressurized fluids are concentrated around the borehole and then anisotropically propagate within the reservoir until the bleed-off time. Then, the pore fluid pressure in the vicinity of the borehole drastically decreases, and overpressurized fluids become isolated in a few major fluid pockets. The pore fluid pressure in these pockets gradually decreases with time. The pore fluid pressure in the reservoir is less than the minimum principal stress at each depth, indicating that the hydraulic fracturing did not occur during stimulation. This suggests that seismic events may play an important role to promote the development of permeable channels, particularly southeast of the borehole where the largest seismic event (ML 3.4) occurred. This is not directly related to a drastic decrease in fault strength at the hypocenter, but rather the positive feedback between permeability enhancement and poro-elastic and stress transfer loading from slipping interfaces. These processes likely contribute to this event's nucleation.

  1. Influence of pore pressure to the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Sergey V


    In this paper we demonstrate the influence of the pore pressure to the development of a hydraulically-driven fracture in a poroelastic medium. We present a novel numerical model for propagation of a planar hydraulic fracture and prove its correctness by demonstration of the numerical convergence and by comparison with known solutions. The advantage of the algorithm is that it does not require the distinguishing of the fracture's tips and reconstruction of the numerical mesh according to the fracture propagation. Next, we perform a thorough analysis of the interplay of fluid filtration and redistribution of stresses near the fracture. We demonstrate that the fracture length decreases with the increase of the Biot's number (the parameter that determines the contribution of the pore pressure to the stress) and explain this effect by analysing the near-fracture pore pressure, rock deformation and stresses. We conclude, that the correct account for the fluid exchange between the fracture and the rock should be bas...

  2. Vibration pore water pressure characteristics of saturated fine sand under partially drained condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳辉; 陈国兴


    Vibration pore water pressure characteristics of saturated fine sand under partially drained condition were investigated through stress-controlled cyclic triaxial tests employed varied fine content of samples and loading frequency. In order to simulate the partially drained condition, one-way drainage for sample was implemented when cyclic loading was applied. The results show that the vibration pore water pressure’s response leads the axial stress and axial strain responses, and is lagged behind or simultaneous with axial strain-rate’s response for all samples in this research. In addition, the satisfactory linear relationship between vibration pore water pressure amplitude and axial strain-rate amplitude is also obtained. It means that the direct cause of vibration pore water pressure generation under partially drained conditions is not the axial stress or axial strain but the axial strain-rate. The lag-phase between pore water pressure and axial strain-rate increases with the increase of the fine content or the loading frequency.

  3. Prediction of pore-water pressure response to rainfall using support vector regression (United States)

    Babangida, Nuraddeen Muhammad; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Ul; Yusuf, Khamaruzaman Wan; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain


    Nonlinear complex behavior of pore-water pressure responses to rainfall was modelled using support vector regression (SVR). Pore-water pressure can rise to disturbing levels that may result in slope failure during or after rainfall. Traditionally, monitoring slope pore-water pressure responses to rainfall is tedious and expensive, in that the slope must be instrumented with necessary monitors. Data on rainfall and corresponding responses of pore-water pressure were collected from such a monitoring program at a slope site in Malaysia and used to develop SVR models to predict pore-water pressure fluctuations. Three models, based on their different input configurations, were developed. SVR optimum meta-parameters were obtained using k-fold cross validation and a grid search. Model type 3 was adjudged the best among the models and was used to predict three other points on the slope. For each point, lag intervals of 30 min, 1 h and 2 h were used to make the predictions. The SVR model predictions were compared with predictions made by an artificial neural network model; overall, the SVR model showed slightly better results. Uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed for further model assessment. The uncertainty components were found to be low and tolerable, with d-factor of 0.14 and 74 % of observed data falling within the 95 % confidence bound. The study demonstrated that the SVR model is effective in providing an accurate and quick means of obtaining pore-water pressure response, which may be vital in systems where response information is urgently needed.

  4. Prediction of pore-water pressure response to rainfall using support vector regression (United States)

    Babangida, Nuraddeen Muhammad; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Ul; Yusuf, Khamaruzaman Wan; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain


    Nonlinear complex behavior of pore-water pressure responses to rainfall was modelled using support vector regression (SVR). Pore-water pressure can rise to disturbing levels that may result in slope failure during or after rainfall. Traditionally, monitoring slope pore-water pressure responses to rainfall is tedious and expensive, in that the slope must be instrumented with necessary monitors. Data on rainfall and corresponding responses of pore-water pressure were collected from such a monitoring program at a slope site in Malaysia and used to develop SVR models to predict pore-water pressure fluctuations. Three models, based on their different input configurations, were developed. SVR optimum meta-parameters were obtained using k-fold cross validation and a grid search. Model type 3 was adjudged the best among the models and was used to predict three other points on the slope. For each point, lag intervals of 30 min, 1 h and 2 h were used to make the predictions. The SVR model predictions were compared with predictions made by an artificial neural network model; overall, the SVR model showed slightly better results. Uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed for further model assessment. The uncertainty components were found to be low and tolerable, with d-factor of 0.14 and 74 % of observed data falling within the 95 % confidence bound. The study demonstrated that the SVR model is effective in providing an accurate and quick means of obtaining pore-water pressure response, which may be vital in systems where response information is urgently needed.

  5. Pore pressure behavior at the shut-in phase and causality of large induced seismicity at Basel, Switzerland (United States)

    Mukuhira, Y.; Dinske, C.; Asanuma, H.; Ito, T.; Häring, M. O.


    Induced seismicity with unexpectedly large magnitude often occurs after shut-in or end of stimulation, generating concerns at the end of stimulation. We investigated the physical mechanism of large-magnitude induced seismicity during shut-in following the hydraulic stimulation at Basel, Switzerland. Larger postinjection events occurred at the periphery of the seismic cloud. We estimated the pore pressure required to cause shear slip using Coulomb failure criteria from stress information, geometry of the fault planes of microseismic events, and a constant coefficient of friction. Time series analysis of pore pressure distribution indicated that pore pressure migrated to the far field even after shut-in. Redistribution of pore pressure at shut-in brought sufficient pore pressure increase to induce seismicity in the peripheral region. After shut-in, the pore pressure gradient away from the well lessened and eventually pressure became uniform. These observations suggest that the higher pore pressure, which remained in the vicinity of the injection point, shifted to the farthest field. Shut-in pressure migration caused uniform pore pressure distribution at the edge of the seismic zone. Shut-in pressure destabilized a large part of the fault located at the edge of the seismic cloud, resulting in the shear slip of a large section of the fault. Meanwhile, during stimulation, only some parts of the fault entered the critical state because of the pressure gradient. The resulting shear slip on that specific part causes moderate magnitude events at most.

  6. Compaction-induced elevated pore pressure and creep pulsing in California faults (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, M.; Shirzaei, M.


    The creeping segment of San Andreas Fault (CSAF) is recognized as a weak fault, namely, cannot sustain large earthquake stress drops. Moreover, variable creep rate constrained using kinematic models of geodetic and seismic data implies that the fault frictional strength is both spatially and temporally variable. Intrinsic low friction of fault zone material and locally elevated pore pressure due to ascend of mantle-derived fluid are proposed as possible justifications for CSAF weakness. However, lack of plausible explanation for creep pulsing observed at seismogenic zone in both hypotheses, calls for rethinking of the underlying mechanisms and processes governing the CSAF behavior. Here we provide evidence for the role of pore pressure variation in changing the fault frictional strength, not primarily due to mantle fluids. Using a rate- and state-dependent friction model, we estimate fault frictional properties between 2003 and 2011, and link their apparent temporal variations to undulation of effective normal stress. Since there is no evidence that tectonic stressing rate varies during this study period, we conclude that the variation of effective normal stress is a result of pore pressure change in the fault zone. We show that temporally variable pore pressure and its inferred spatial heterogeneity correlate perfectly with the variation of surface creep rate obtained using InSAR observations. Furthermore, our analysis of microseismicity suggests that the temporal variation of Gutenberg-Richter b-value and released seismic moment has respectively positive and negative correlation with the pore pressure variations. Our results highlight the role of 3D seal-bounded compartments formed through the compaction of intergranular pore spaces, leading to spatially heterogeneous elevated pore pressure and initiation of accelerated creep events. Frictional dilation due to creep acceleration, on the other hand, causes redistribution and reduction of the pore pressure

  7. Pore pressure fluctuations of overlying aquifer during residual coal mining and water-soil stress coupling analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qing-hong; SUI Wang-hua; ZHANG Xiao-cui; MAO Zeng-min


    Three test models and a simulation model were constructed based on the prevailing conditions of the Taiping coalmine in order to analyze pore pressure fluctuations of an overlying aquifer during residual coal mining. As well, the relation between pore pressure and soil stress was evaluated. The model tests show the vibrations of pore pressure and soil stress as a result of mining activities. The simulation model tells of the response characteristics of pore pressure after mining and its distribution in the sand aquifer. The comparative analysis reveals that pore pressure and soil stress vibration are activated by unexpected events occurring in mines, such as collapsing roofs. An increased pore pressure zone always lies above the wall in front or behind the working face of a mine. Both pore pressure and vertical stress result in increasing and decreasing processes during movements of the working face of a mine. The vibration of pore pressure always precedes soil stress in the same area and ends with a sharp decline. Changes in pore pressure of sand aquifer are limited to the area of stress changes. Obvious changes are largely located in a very small frame over the mining face.

  8. Temporal pore pressure induced stress changes during injection and depletion (United States)

    Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Schilling, Frank; Fuchs, Karl; Röckel, Thomas


    Induced seismicity is observed during injection of fluids in oil, gas or geothermal wells as a rather immediate response close to the injection wells due to the often high-rate pressurization. It was recognized even earlier in connection with more moderate rate injection of fluid waste on a longer time frame but higher induced event magnitudes. Today, injection-related induced seismicity significantly increased the number of events with M>3 in the Mid U.S. However, induced seismicity is also observed during production of fluids and gas, even years after the onset of production. E.g. in the Groningen gas field production was required to be reduced due to the increase in felt and damaging seismicity after more than 50 years of exploitation of that field. Thus, injection and production induced seismicity can cause severe impact in terms of hazard but also on economic measures. In order to understand the different onset times of induced seismicity we built a generic model to quantify the role of poro-elasticity processes with special emphasis on the factors time, regional crustal stress conditions and fault parameters for three case studies (injection into a low permeable crystalline rock, hydrothermal circulation and production of fluids). With this approach we consider the spatial and temporal variation of reservoir stress paths, the "early" injection-related induced events during stimulation and the "late" production induced ones. Furthermore, in dependence of the undisturbed in situ stress field conditions the stress tensor can change significantly due to injection and long-term production with changes of the tectonic stress regime in which previously not critically stressed faults could turn to be optimally oriented for fault reactivation.

  9. Development of Pore Pressure in Cohesionless Soils with Initial Shear Stresses during Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jacobsen, H. Moust


    A number of triaxial tests with the loading harmonically oscillating around an initial and anisotropic stress state have been performed. Hereby the influence of the initial shear stress on the development of pore pressure in a cohesionless  sand specimen have been clarified. A simple theory descr...

  10. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.


    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various aspha

  11. Elastic response of mesoporous silicon to capillary pressures in the pores (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Bertinetti, Luca; Bernstein, Noam; Hofmann, Tommy; Fratzl, Peter; Huber, Patrick


    We study water adsorption-induced deformation of a monolithic, mesoporous silicon membrane traversed by independent channels of ˜8 nm diameter. We focus on the elastic constant associated with the Laplace pressure-induced deformation of the membrane upon capillary condensation, i.e., the pore-load modulus. We perform finite-element method (FEM) simulations of the adsorption-induced deformation of hexagonal and square lattices of cylindrical pores representing the membrane. We find that the pore-load modulus weakly depends on the geometrical arrangement of pores, and can be expressed as a function of porosity. We propose an analytical model which relates the pore-load modulus to the porosity and to the elastic properties of bulk silicon (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio), and provides an excellent agreement with FEM results. We find good agreement between our experimental data and the predictions of the analytical model, with the Young's modulus of the pore walls slightly lower than the bulk value. This model is applicable to a large class of materials with morphologies similar to mesoporous silicon. Moreover, our findings suggest that liquid condensation experiments allow one to elegantly access the elastic constants of a mesoporous medium.

  12. Constraints on Pore Pressure in Subduction Zones From Geotechnical Tests and Physical Properties Data (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; McKiernan, A. W.


    At subduction zones, as incoming sediments are either offscraped or underthrust at the trench, elevated pore pressures result from the combination of rapid loading and low permeability. Pore pressure within underthrust sediment is especially important for the mechanical strength of the plate boundary fault system, because the main décollement localizes immediately above this sediment, and at many subduction zones steps downward into it. Because the underthrust sediment undergoes progressive uniaxial (vertical) strain, quantitative estimates of in situ pore pressure can be obtained by several methods, including: (1) maximum past burial stress ( Pv'}) from laboratory consolidation tests on core samples, and (2) observed compaction trends in boreholes. These methods allow a detailed view of pore pressure and its variability down-section, providing insight into dewatering processes and the evolution of shear strength relevant to early development of the décollement. Geotechnical tests also provide independent measurement of the coefficient of consolidation ( Cv), compressibility ( mv), and permeability (k) of sediment samples, which can be used to parameterize forward models of pressure generation. Here, I discuss pore pressure estimates derived from (1) consolidation tests on core samples, and (2) observed porosity profiles, along transects where ODP drilling has sampled sediment at the Nankai, N. Barbados, and Costa Rican subduction zones. At all three margins, the two independent methods yield consistent results, and indicate development of significant overpressures that increase systematically with distance from the trench. The values are in good agreement with direct measurements in 2 instrumented boreholes at Barbados, maximum and minimum bounds from the known loading rate, and results of 2-D numerical models of fluid flow. Inferred pressures document nearly undrained conditions at the base of the section (excess pressures equal to the load emplaced by

  13. Deformation of a Volcanic Edifice by Pore Pressurization: An Analog Approach (United States)

    Hyman, D.; Bursik, M. I.


    Volcanic flank destabilization, preceded by pressurization-induced surface deformation or weakening, presents a significant hazard at stratovolcanoes with ample supply of magmatic volatiles or preexisting hydrothermal systems as in Bezymianny- and Bandai-type eruptions, respectively. Deformation is also an important sign of the nature of unrest at large calderas such as Long Valley, USA. Previous studies of volcanic inflation have focused primarily on the role of ascending magma. Relatively few studies have centered on surface deformation caused by pressurization from other volcanic fluids, including exsolved volatiles and pressurized hydrothermal systems. Most investigations of pore-pressurization have focused on numerical modelling of pore pressure transients. In analog experiments presented here, pore-filling fluids are injected into the base of a damp sand medium without exceeding dike propagating pressures, simulating the pressurization and bulk-permeable flow of volatile fluids through volcanic systems. The experiments examine surface deformation from a range of source depths and pressures as well as edifice geometries. 3D imaging is possible through use of the Microsoft® Kinect™ sensor, which allows for the generation of high-resolution, high frame rate, lab-scale Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). After initial processing to increase signal-to-noise ratio, surface deformation is measured using the DEM time-series generated by the Kinect™. Analysis of preliminary experiments suggests that inflation is possible up to approx. 10 % of pressure source depth. We also show that the Kinect™ sensor is useful in analog volcanological studies, an environment to which it is well-suited.

  14. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.


    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  15. Gas Breakthrough Pressure (GBP through Claystones: Correlation with FIB/SEM Imaging of the Pore Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang


    Full Text Available This contribution uses six claystone samples imaged by FIB/SEM (Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy, within micrometric volumes located in the clay matrix; their 3D connected pore network is identified down to 17-22 nm pore size. All samples are gently dried to minimize damage, and several are impregnated with Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA resin to avoid further damage during FIB/SEM observations. Three pore volumes out of six are connected between two parallel end surfaces through crack-like pores; two are not connected between any two parallel end surfaces; only one sample has a connected pore network distinct from cracks. By assuming varied pathways for gas to migrate by capillarity through the connected pore volumes (either by taking the shortest path, or through the largest path, or through the most frequent pore size, or by simulating the ingress of a non wetting fluid, we determine the Gas Breakthrough Pressure (GBP through the initially fully liquid saturated claystone, from these micrometric volumes. The scale change (from the micrometric to the macroscopic scale is assumed possible without changing the GBP value, and clay/water interactions are not accounted for. By comparison with GBP values measured in the laboratory on centimetric-sized claystone samples, it is concluded that breakthrough occurs most probably by capillary digitation; micro-cracks are the most probable pathways for gas, so that gas does not progress in a homogeneous manner through the claystone, as standard macroscopic finite element models would represent it. For intact claystone, predictions based on the capillary ingress of a non wetting fluid provide a GBP value ranging between 7-14 MPa.

  16. Transient pore pressure response to confining stress excursions in Berea sandstone flooded with an aqueous solution of CO2 (United States)

    Crews, Jackson B.; Cooper, Clay A.


    We measured the pore pressure response due to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas bubble nucleation and growth in a Berea sandstone core flooded with an initially subsaturated aqueous solution of CO2, in response to a rapid drop in confining stress, under conditions representative of a confined aquifer. A portion of the CO2 in the Earth's crust, derived from volcanic, magmatic, and biogenic sources, dissolves in groundwater. Sudden reductions in confining stress in the Earth's crust occur due to dilational strain generated by the propagation of seismic Rayleigh and P waves, or aseismic slip in the near field of earthquakes. A drop in confining stress produces a proportional drop in pore fluid pressure. When the pore fluid contains dissolved CO2, the pore pressure responds to a drop in confining stress like it does in the dissolved gas-free case, until the pore pressure falls below the bubble pressure. Gas bubble nucleation and diffusive growth in the pore space trigger spontaneous, transient buildup of the pore fluid pressure, and reduction of effective stress. We measured the rate of pore fluid pressure buildup in the 100 s immediately following the confining stress drop, as a function of the saturation with respect to CO2 at the lowest pore pressure realized during the confining stress drop, using five different CO2 partial pressures. The rate scales with the saturation with respect to dissolved CO2, from 10 kPa/min at 1.25 to 166 kPa/min at 1.8. The net pore pressure rise was as large as 0.7 MPa (100 psi) over 5 h.

  17. Assessment of pore pressures and specific storage within sedimentary strata overlying underground mines (United States)

    Timms, W.; David, K.; Barbour, L. S.


    Realistic values of specific storage (Ss) for groundwater systems are important to determine the spatial extent and timing of c pore pressure changes when the groundwater system is stressed. However, numerical groundwater models of underground excavations typically assume constant literature values of Ss. One part of our research program utilised high frequency pore pressure data to evaluate variability and changes in Ss within sedimentary strata overlying a longwall coal mine. Pore pressure data from a vertical series of 6 vibrating wire piezometers (50 to 278 m depth) recording at hourly intervals were compared with barometric pressure data over a period of several years, including data before and during mining. The site was located near the centre of a longwall panel that extracted 3 m of coal at a depth of 330 m. The data was processed to calculate loading efficiency and Ss values by multi-method analyses of barometric and earth tide responses. In situ Ss results varied over one to two orders of magnitude and indicated that Ss changed before and after excavation of underlying coal seams. The vertical leakage of groundwater within the constrained zone ( 10 to 150 m depth) was found to be limited, although some degree of vertical hydraulic connectivity was observed. Depressurization was evident in the fractured zone directly overlying the coal seam, and Ss changes at 250 m depth indicated this confined aquifer may have become unconfined. Our results demonstrate that high frequency pore pressure data can provide realistic Ss values. In situ Ss values were an order of magnitude lower than Ss measured by geomechnical tests of cores, and were significantly different to textbook values set in most local groundwater models. The timing and extent of groundwater level drawdown predicted by models may therefore be underestimated. We have shown, for the first time, that variability of Ss can be significant, and that these changes can provide important insights into how

  18. Simulation of pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading using Finite Volume Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Hededal, Ole


    This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model with an adv...... mapping algorithm is used to calculate the stress and strain relation in each control volume level. Test cases show very good performance of the model.......This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model...... with an advanced elastoplastic model suitable for describing monotonic as well as cyclic loading conditions. The finite volume method is applied to discretize these formulations. The resulting set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations are then solved by a ’segregated’ solution procedure. An efficient return...

  19. Evaluation of low degree polynomial kernel support vector machines for modelling Pore-water pressure responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babangida Nuraddeen Muhammad


    Full Text Available Pore-water pressure (PWP is influenced by climatic changes, especially rainfall. These changes may affect the stability of, particularly unsaturated slopes. Thus monitoring the changes in PWP resulting from climatic factors has become an important part of effective slope management. However, this monitoring requires field instrumentation program, which is resource and labour expensive. Recently, soft computing modelling has become an alternative. Low degree polynomial kernel support vector machine (SVM was evaluated in modelling the PWP changes. The developed model used pore-water pressure and rainfall data collected from an instrumented slope. Wrapper technique was used to select input features and k-fold cross validation was used to calibrate the model parameters. The developed model showed great promise in modelling the pore-water pressure changes. High correlation, with coefficient of determination of 0.9694 between the predicted and observed changes was obtained. The one degree polynomial SVM model yielded competitive result, and can be used to provide lead time records of PWP which can aid in better slope management.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Fan; Mary Toney; Jorgen Gullbrand; Fawaad Qamar


    New procedures for measuring the pressure uniformity and pore size of press fabrics have been developed to study their role in the dewatering efficiency of a wet paper sheet and fabric system during pressing. The press nip profile of a single nip can be simulated in the laboratory using a custom built Servo-hydraulic Press Nip Simulator (SPNS) and is used to evaluate the final dryness and rewet of a handsheet with press fabric(s). Pressure uniformity can be measured with a flexible high-resolution transducer and pore size; both tests measured using water as the fluid are performed on compressed press fabric samples. A strong correlation is found between pressure uniformity parameters, mean flow pore size and final dryness for different sheets. Rewet is measured "directly" using a tracer fluid in the press fabric in our SPNS tester. Preliminary results indicate a significant reduction in rewet for some sheets with the use of an anti-rewet layer in combination withcertain press fabric designs.

  1. Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Spatial and Temporal Variations of Pore-Water Pressure Responses to Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mustafa


    Full Text Available Knowledge of spatial and temporal variations of soil pore-water pressure in a slope is vital in hydrogeological and hillslope related processes (i.e., slope failure, slope stability analysis, etc.. Measurements of soil pore-water pressure data are challenging, expensive, time consuming, and difficult task. This paper evaluates the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN technique for modeling soil pore-water pressure variations at multiple soil depths from the knowledge of rainfall patterns. A multilayer perceptron neural network model was constructed using Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm for prediction of soil pore-water pressure variations. Time series records of rainfall and pore-water pressures at soil depth of 0.5 m were used to develop the ANN model. To investigate applicability of the model for prediction of spatial and temporal variations of pore-water pressure, the model was tested for the time series data of pore-water pressure at multiple soil depths (i.e., 0.5 m, 1.1 m, 1.7 m, 2.3 m, and 2.9 m. The performance of the ANN model was evaluated by root mean square error, mean absolute error, coefficient of correlation, and coefficient of efficiency. The results revealed that the ANN performed satisfactorily implying that the model can be used to examine the spatial and temporal behavior of time series of pore-water pressures with respect to multiple soil depths from knowledge of rainfall patterns and pore-water pressure with some antecedent conditions.

  2. Pore-pressure sensitivities to dynamic strains: observations in active tectonic regions (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.


    Triggered seismicity arising from dynamic stresses is often explained by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, where elevated pore pressures reduce the effective strength of faults in fluid-saturated rock. The seismic response of a fluid-rock system naturally depends on its hydro-mechanical properties, but accurately assessing how pore-fluid pressure responds to applied stress over large scales in situ remains a challenging task; hence, spatial variations in response are not well understood, especially around active faults. Here I analyze previously unutilized records of dynamic strain and pore-pressure from regional and teleseismic earthquakes at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations from 2006 through 2012 to investigate variations in response along the Pacific/North American tectonic plate boundary. I find robust scaling-response coefficients between excess pore pressure and dynamic strain at each station that are spatially correlated: around the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault systems, the response is lowest in regions of the crust undergoing the highest rates of secular shear strain. PBO stations in the Parkfield instrument cluster are at comparable distances to the San Andreas fault (SAF), and spatial variations there follow patterns in dextral creep rates along the fault, with the highest response in the actively creeping section, which is consistent with a narrowing zone of strain accumulation seen in geodetic velocity profiles. At stations in the San Juan Bautista (SJB) and Anza instrument clusters, the response depends non-linearly on the inverse fault-perpendicular distance, with the response decreasing towards the fault; the SJB cluster is at the northern transition from creeping-to-locked behavior along the SAF, where creep rates are at moderate to low levels, and the Anza cluster is around the San Jacinto fault, where to date there have been no statistically significant creep rates observed at the surface. These results suggest that the strength

  3. Elucidating the mechanical effects of pore water pressure increase on the stability of unsaturated soil slopes (United States)

    Buscarnera, G.


    The increase of the pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope failures. This paper shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of suction removal promotes the initiation of mechanical instabilities. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure, and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. In order to account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order work criterion is used and different stability indices are devised. The paper shows that the theory of material stability can assess the risk of shear failure and static liquefaction in both saturated and unsaturated contexts. It is shown that the combined use of an enhanced definition of second-order work for unsaturated porous media and a hydro-mechanical constitutive framework enables to retrieve bifurcation conditions for water-infiltration processes in unsaturated deposits. This finding discloses the importance of the coupling terms that incorporate the interaction between the solid skeleton and the pore fluids. As a consequence, these theoretical results suggest that some material properties that are not directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) can play an important role in the initiation of slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be understood as a trigger of uncontrolled strains, which at material point level are reflected by the onset of bifurcation conditions.

  4. Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J, E-mail:, E-mail: [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.

  5. Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics (United States)

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.


    We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.

  6. The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in Westerly granite. [for seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Spencer, J. W., Jr.; Nur, A. M.


    A description is presented of an experimental assembly which has been developed to conduct concurrent measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities in rocks at high temperatures and confining pressures and with independent control of the pore pressure. The apparatus was used in studies of the joint effects of temperature, external confining pressure, and internal pore water on sonic velocities in Westerly granite. It was found that at a given temperature, confining pressure has a larger accelerating effect on compressional waves in dry rock, whereas at a given confining pressure, temperature has a larger retarding effect on shear waves.

  7. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U. A.; Mody, F. K.; Mese, A. I. [Haliburton Energy Services, TX (United States)


    In order to develop a real-time wellbore (in)stability modelling capability, experimental work was carried out to investigate the role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations. Time-dependent alterations in the pore pressure, acoustic and rock properties of formations subjected to compressive tri-axial test were recorded during the experiments involving the Pore Pressure Transmission (PPT) test. Based on the transient pore pressure of shale exposed to the test fluid presented here, the 20 per cent calcium chloride showed a very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. The need for a thorough understanding of the drilling fluid/shale interaction prior to applying any chemical potential wellbore (in)stability model to real-time drilling operations was emphasized. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  8. The Electrostatic Component of the Disjoining Pressure and the Pore Creation Rate in Electroporation Models and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko


    Under externally applied electric fields, lipid membranes tend to permeate and change their electrical resistance by the combined processes of pore creation and pore evolution (expansion or contraction). This study is focused on the pore creation process, represented by an empirical expression currently used in the electroporation (EP) models, for which an alternative theoretically based expression was provided. The choice of this expression was motivated by the role the DLVO's (disjoining) pressures may play in the process of EP. The electrostatic energy effects on each sides of a lipid membrane were evaluated in terms of the electrostatic component of the disjoining pressure. Thus the pore creation energy considerations in the current EP models, associated with the necessity of an idealized non conducting circular pre-pore were avoided. As a result, a new expression for the onset of the electroporation was proposed. It was found that this new theoretically determined expression is in good agreement with the...

  9. 3-D Modeling of Pore Pressure Diffusion Beneath Koyna and Warna Reservoirs, Western India (United States)

    Yadav, Amrita; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Purnachandra Rao, N.


    The mechanism of reservoir-triggered seismicity is well-understood and explains the earthquake occurrence at different reservoir sites. It can be attributed to the stresses due to water loading and to changes in fluid pressure in pores within the rock matrix. In the present study a 3-D fluid flow numerical model is used to investigate the pore pressure diffusion as a cause for continued seismicity in the Koyna-Warna region in western India. It is shown that reservoir water level fluctuations are sufficient to trigger earthquakes at the seismogenic depths in the region. Our numerical model suggests that a vertical fault with hydraulic conductivity in the range 2-6 m/day facilitates the diffusion of pressure at focal depths of earthquakes in the Koyna-Warna region. Also, for triggering of earthquakes a higher vertical conductivity is required for the Warna region than for the Koyna region. A lag of two months period is found between the maximum water level and the significant hydraulic head required to trigger earthquakes at the focal depth using the appropriate hydraulic conductivity for both the reservoirs.

  10. Nonlinear Creep Model for Deep Rock under High Stress and High Pore Water Pressure Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yuanguang


    Full Text Available Conventional triaxial compression creep experiments for deep sandstone under high confining pressure and high pore water pressure were carried out, in order to predict the creep response of deep rock under these conditions. A nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep constitutive model was proposed based on the experimental results. The theory of component model was used as a basis for the formulation of this model. First, by using mathematical fitting and analogy, a new nonlinear viscous component was introduced based on the properties of the creep curves during the tertiary stage. Second, a timer component to judge whether the creep can get into the tertiary stage was presented. Finally, a nonlinear creep model was proposed. Results showed good agreement between theory curves from the nonlinear creep model and experimental data. This model can be applied to predict deep rock creep responses under high stress and high pore water pressure conditions. Hence, the obtained conclusions in this study are beneficial to deep rock engineering.

  11. Effect of pore pressure on deformation and unstable snap-back for shear band and elastic rock system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin


    Fast Lagrangian analysis of continua(FLAC) was used to study the influence of pore pressure on the mechanical behavior of rock specimen in plane strain direct shear, the distribution of yielded elements, the distribution of displacement and velocity across shear band as well as the snap-back (elastic rebound) instability. The effective stress law was used to represent the weakening of rock containing pore fluid under pressure. Numerical results show that rock specimen becomes soft (lower strength and hardening modulus) as pore pressure increases, leading to higher displacement skip across shear band. Higher pore pressure results in larger area of plastic zone, higher concentration of shear strain, more apparent precursor to snap-back (unstable failure) and slower snap-back. For higher pore pressure, the formation of shear band-elastic body system and the snap-back are earlier; the distance of snap-back decreases; the capacity of snap-back decreases, leading to lower elastic strain energy liberated beyond the instability and lower earthquake or rockburst magnitude. In the process of snap-back, the velocity skip across shear band is lower for rock specimen at higher pore pressure, showing the slower velocity of snap-back.

  12. Estimation of the pore pressure distribution from three dimensional groundwater flow model at mine sites in Korea (United States)

    Kang, Sangsoo; Jang, Myounghwan; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Hwanjo


    Mining activities continually change the groundwater flow and associated pore pressure distributions within the rockmass around the mine openings or the open-pit bench during the operational periods. As the pore pressure distributions may substantially affect the mechanical behaviour or stability of the rockmass, it is important to monitor the variation of pore pressure incurred by mining operation. The pore pressure distributions within the rockmass can be derived using a two- or three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow model, adopted to simulate the groundwater flow. While the groundwater inflow at mines has generally been dealt with respect to the working environment, detailed case studies on the distribution of pore water pressure related to the stability analysis of mine openings have been relatively rare in Korea. Recently, however, as the health and safety problems are emerged for sustainable mining practice, these issues are of the major concerns for the mining industries. This study aims to establish a three dimensional groundwater flow model to estimate the pore pressure distributions in order to employ as an input parameter for numerical codes such as the FLAC 3D. Also, the groundwater flow simulated can be used for de-watering design at a mine site. The MINEDW code, a groundwater flow model code specifically developed to simulate the complicated hydro-geologic conditions related to mining, has mainly been used in this study. Based on the data collected from field surveys and literature reviews, a conceptual model was established and sensitivity analysis was performed.

  13. Hydromechanical Rock Mass Fatigue in Deep-Seated Landslides Accompanying Seasonal Variations in Pore Pressures (United States)

    Preisig, Giona; Eberhardt, Erik; Smithyman, Megan; Preh, Alexander; Bonzanigo, Luca


    The episodic movement of deep-seated landslides is often governed by the presence of high pore pressures and reduced effective stresses along active shear surfaces. Pore pressures are subject to cyclic fluctuation under seasonal variations of groundwater recharge, resulting in an intermittent movement characterized by acceleration-deceleration phases. However, it is not always clear why certain acceleration phases reach alarming levels without a clear trigger (i.e., in the absence of an exceptional pore pressure event). This paper presents a conceptual framework linking hydromechanical cycling, progressive failure and fatigue to investigate and explain the episodic behavior of deep-seated landslides using the Campo Vallemaggia landslide in Switzerland as a case study. A combination of monitoring data and advanced numerical modeling is used. The principal processes forcing the slope into a critical disequilibrium state are analyzed as a function of rock mass damage and fatigue. Modeling results suggest that during periods of slope acceleration, the rock slope experiences localized fatigue and gradual weakening through slip along pre-existing natural fractures and yield of critically stressed intact rock bridges. At certain intervals, pockets of critically weakened rock may produce a period of enhanced slope movement in response to a small pore pressure increase similar to those routinely experienced each year. Accordingly, the distribution and connectivity of pre-existing permeable planes of weakness play a central role. These structures are often related to the rock mass's tectonic history or initiate (and dilate) in response to stress changes that disturb the entire slope, such as glacial unloading or seismic loading via large earthquakes. The latter is discussed in detail in a companion paper to this (Gischig et al., Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015). The results and framework presented further demonstrate that episodic movement and progressive failure of deep

  14. Experimental Studies of Dynamic Fault Weakening Due to Thermal Pressurization of Pore Fluids (United States)

    Goldsby, David; Tullis, Terry; Platt, John; Okazaki, Keishi


    High-velocity friction experiments and geophysical observations suggest that mature faults weaken dramatically during seismic slip. However, while many coseismic weakening mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear which mechanisms are most important or how the efficiency of weakening varies within the seismogenic zone. Thermal pressurization is one possible coseismic weakening mechanism driven by the thermal expansion of native pore fluids, which leads to elevated pore pressures and significant coseismic weakening. While thermal pressurization has been studied theoretically for many decades, and invoked in recent earthquake simulations, its activation in laboratory experiments has remained elusive. Several high-speed friction studies have yielded indirect evidence for thermal pressurization, yet none has directly linked with existing theoretical models or the relevant physical parameters, such as permeability, slip, and slip rate, that control the weakening rate. To fill this gap, we are conducting thermal pressurization experiments on fluid-saturated, low-permeability rocks (Frederick diabase) at slip rates up to ~5 mm/s, at constant confining pressures in the range 21-149 MPa and initial imposed pore pressures in the range 10-25 MPa. The impractically low permeability of the as-is diabase, ~10-23 m2, is increased prior to the test by thermal cracking, yielding measured permeabilities in the range 1.3*10-18 to 6.1*10-19 m2. These values of permeability are high enough to allow sample saturation over one to several days, but low enough to confine the elevated pore pressures generated by frictional heating during rapid sliding. Our experiments reveal a rapid decay of shear stress following a step-change in velocity from 10 μm/s to 4.8 mm/s. In one test, the decrease in shear stress of ~25% over the first 28 mm of slip at 4.8 mm/s agrees closely with the theoretical solution for slip on a plane (Rice [2006]), with an inferred slip-weakening distance of ~500

  15. Modeling wave-induced pore pressure and effective stress in a granular seabed (United States)

    Scholtès, Luc; Chareyre, Bruno; Michallet, Hervé; Catalano, Emanuele; Marzougui, Donia


    The response of a sandy seabed under wave loading is investigated on the basis of numerical modeling using a multi-scale approach. To that aim, the discrete element method is coupled to a finite volume method specially enhanced to describe compressible fluid flow. Both solid and fluid phase mechanics are upscaled from considerations established at the pore level. Model's predictions are validated against poroelasticity theory and discussed in comparison with experiments where a sediment analog is subjected to wave action in a flume. Special emphasis is put on the mechanisms leading the seabed to liquefy under wave-induced pressure variation on its surface. Liquefaction is observed in both dilative and compactive regimes. It is shown that the instability can be triggered for a well-identified range of hydraulic conditions. Particularly, the results confirm that the gas content, together with the permeability of the medium are key parameters affecting the transmission of pressure inside the soil.

  16. A laboratory investigation of thermally induced pore pressures in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajerani, Mehrdokht; Sulem, Jean; Monfared, Mohammad; Tang, Anh-Minh; Gatmiri, Behrouz


    In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate the thermally induce pore pressure occurring in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. Thermal pore pressures appear in low permeability soils and rocks because the thermal expansion coefficient of water is significantly higher than that of the solid grains (Campanella and Mitchell; 1968 [1], Ghabezloo and Sulem; 2009 [2]). This phenomenon has clearly been observed in various in-situ heating tests conducted in Opalinus claystone in the Mont-Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland (HE-D test) and in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone in the Bure URL in France (TER test, Wileveau and Su; 2007 [3]) The processes of coring, transportation, storage and specimen trimming induce some desaturation in the sample. Due to the very low permeability (10-20 m2) of the COx claystone, a long period of time is necessa...

  17. Experimental Study of Pore Pressure and Deformation of Suction Bucket Foundations Under Horizontal Dynamic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-bing; WANG Shu-yun; ZHANG Jian-hong; SUN Guo-liang; SHI Zhong-min


    Centrifuge experiments are carried out to investigate the responses of suction bucket foundations under horizontal dynamic loading. The effects of loading amplitude, the size of the bucket and the structural weight on the dynamic responses are investigated. It is shown that, when the loading amplitude is over a critical value, the sand at the upper part around the bucket softens or even liquefies. The liquefaction index (excess pore pressure divided by initial effective stress. In this paper, the developmental degree of excess pore pressure is described by liquefaction index) decreases from the upper part to the lower part of the sand foundation in the vertical direction and decreases from near to far away from the bucket′s side wall in the horizontal direction. Large settlements of the bucket and the sand around the bucket are induced by the horizontal dynamic loading. The dynamic responses of the bucket of a smaller height (when the diameter is the same) are heavier. A cyclic crack some distance near the bucket occurs in the sand.

  18. Effect of Pore Pressure on Slip Failure of an Impermeable Fault: A Coupled Micro Hydro-Geomechanical Model (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.


    The geomechanical processes associated with subsurface fluid injection/extraction is of central importance for many industrial operations related to energy and water resources. However, the mechanisms controlling the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood and are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a coupled hydro-geomechanical model to investigate the effect of fluid injection induced pressure perturbation on the slip behavior of a sealing fault. The model couples single-phase flow in the pores and mechanics of the solid phase. Granular packs (see example in Fig. 1a) are numerically generated where the grains can be either bonded or not, depending on the degree of cementation. A pore network is extracted for each granular pack with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on geometry of the local pore space. The pore fluid pressure is solved via an explicit scheme, taking into account the effect of deformation of the solid matrix. The mechanics part of the model is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). We first test the validity of the model with regard to the classical one-dimensional consolidation problem where an analytical solution exists. We then demonstrate the ability of the coupled model to reproduce rock deformation behavior measured in triaxial laboratory tests under the influence of pore pressure. We proceed to study the fault stability in presence of a pressure discontinuity across the impermeable fault which is implemented as a plane with its intersected pore throats being deactivated and thus obstructing fluid flow (Fig. 1b, c). We focus on the onset of shear failure along preexisting faults. We discuss the fault stability criterion in light of the numerical results obtained from the DEM simulations coupled with pore fluid flow. The implication on how should faults be treated in a large-scale continuum model is also presented.

  19. Experimental investigation of wave-driven pore-water pressure and wave attenuation in a sandy seabed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Wave–seabed interaction has become a big concern of coastal researchers and engineers in the past decades as it may largely contribute to the seabed instability and failure of marine foundations. A series of laboratory experiments are carried out in a wave flume to study the wave-driven pore-water pressure in a sandy seabed and the attenuation of wave height. Waves propagating over a sandy seabed lead to oscillatory excess pore-water pressures within the porous seabed. Amplitude of pore-water pressure within the seabed decreases toward the bottom. A phase lag of pore-water pressure is clearly observed, and it contributes to net upward pressure related to seabed instability. Height of the incident wave is reduced as part of wave energy is dissipated by bottom friction, and a maximum attenuation of the incident wave height is up to 7.23% in the experiments. The influences of wave period and height of the incident wave on pore-water pressure and wave attenuation are also analyzed and discussed.

  20. Pore water pressure variations in Subpermafrost groundwater : Numerical modeling compared with experimental modeling (United States)

    Rivière, Agnès.; Goncalves, Julio; Jost, Anne; Font, Marianne


    Development and degradation of permafrost directly affect numerous hydrogeological processes such as thermal regime, exchange between river and groundwater, groundwater flows patterns and groundwater recharge (Michel, 1994). Groundwater in permafrost area is subdivided into two zones: suprapermafrost and subpermafrost which are separated by permafrost. As a result of the volumetric expansion of water upon freezing and assuming ice lenses and frost heave do not form freezing in a saturated aquifer, the progressive formation of permafrost leads to the pressurization of the subpermafrost groundwater (Wang, 2006). Therefore disappearance or aggradation of permafrost modifies the confined or unconfined state of subpermafrost groundwater. Our study focuses on modifications of pore water pressure of subpermafrost groundwater which could appear during thawing and freezing of soil. Numerical simulation allows elucidation of some of these processes. Our numerical model accounts for phase changes for coupled heat transport and variably saturated flow involving cycles of freezing and thawing. The flow model is a combination of a one-dimensional channel flow model which uses Manning-Strickler equation and a two-dimensional vertically groundwater flow model using Richards equation. Numerical simulation of heat transport consisted in a two dimensional model accounting for the effects of latent heat of phase change of water associated with melting/freezing cycles which incorporated the advection-diffusion equation describing heat-transfer in porous media. The change of hydraulic conductivity and thermal conductivity are considered by our numerical model. The model was evaluated by comparing predictions with data from laboratory freezing experiments. Experimental design was undertaken at the Laboratory M2C (Univesité de Caen-Basse Normandie, CNRS, France). The device consisted of a Plexiglas box insulated on all sides except on the top. Precipitation and ambient temperature are

  1. A thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures considering pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior (United States)

    Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi


    A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.

  2. Pore-lining composition and capillary breakthrough pressure of mudstone caprocks : sealing efficiency at geologic CO2 storage sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Nemer, Martin B.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Dewers, Thomas A.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel


    Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < {approx}800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock - thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Southeast and Southwest Carbon Sequestration Partnerships for supporting this work.

  3. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui


    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  4. Monitoring and Analysis of Transient Pore Water Pressures in Large Suspended Rock Slides near Poschiavo, CH (United States)

    de Palézieux, Larissa; Loew, Simon; Zwahlen, Peter


    Many mountain slopes in the Alps exhibit large compound rock slides or Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations. Due to the basal rupture plane geometry and the cumulative displacement magnitude such landslide bodies are often strongly deformed, highly fractured and - at least locally - very permeable. This can lead to high infiltration rates and low phreatic groundwater tables. This is also the situation in the studied mountain slopes southwest of Poschiavo, where large suspended rockslides occur, with very little surface runoff at high elevations, and torrents developing only at the elevation of the basal rupture planes. Below the landslide toes, at altitudes below ca. 1700 m a.s.l., groundwater appears forming spring lines or distributed spring clusters. Within the scope of the design of a hydropower pump storage plant in the Poschiavo valley by Lagobianco SA (Repower AG), numerous cored and deep boreholes (of 50 to 300 m depth) have been drilled along the planned pressure tunnel alignement at elevations ranging from 963 to 2538 m a.s.l. in the years 2010 and 2012. In several boreholes Lugeon and transient pressure tests were executed and pore water pressure sensors installed in short monitoring sections at various depths. Most of these boreholes intersect deep rockslides in crystalline rocks and limestones, showing highly fragmented rock masses and cohesionless cataclastic shear zones of several tens of meters thickness. This study explores these borehole observations in landslides and adjacent stable slopes and links them to the general hydrologic and hydrogeologic framework. The analysis of the pore water pressure data shows significant variability in seasonal trends and short-term events (from snow melt and summer rain storms) and remarkable pressure differences over short horizontal and vertical distances. This reflects rock mass damage within landslide bodies and important sealing horizons at their base. Based on water balances, the estimated effective

  5. Investigation of Microseismicity Triggered by Raised Pore Pressure through Laboratory CO2 Injection Tests in Berea Sandstone (United States)

    Lee, S.; Chang, C.


    One of the critical problems for carbon dioxide capture and storage projects is the occurrence of microseismicity due to increased pore pressure during CO2 injection. The mechanism of microseismicity can be explained by the notion that the injection-induced pore pressure increase can potentially alter the reservoir rock in the form of either creating fractures or triggering slip on pre-existing discontinuities by reducing the effective normal stress. Therefore, it is important to estimate the critical pore pressure (Pcr) to prevent excessive seismicity. The purpose of this study is to attempt to simulate the microseismicity induced from increased pore pressure by CO2 injection into Berea sandstone. Cylindrical specimens were saw-cut at 30° from the specimen axis. Specimens were either dry or saturated by tap water. The frictional coefficients of the fractures were determined from triaxial shear tests to be 0.71 (dry) and 0.65 (water-saturated). With the frictional coefficients known, we then injected CO2 (either gaseous of liquid state) into the specimens (either dry or water-saturated) subjected to triaxial stress conditions. Under the conditions of constant confining pressures and axial stresses, we increased pore pressure in steps by injecting CO2 using a syringe pump. We monitored shear slip along the fracture using axial LVDTs and microseismicity using an acoustic emission sensor. The critical pore pressure that would initiate shear slip along the fracture was calculated from the Coulomb friction law. When CO2 was injected into dry specimens, shear slip and associated microseismicity started to occur at the pore pressure levels exactly estimated from the Coulomb theory. However, when CO2 (both gaseous and liquid states) was injected into water-saturated specimens, the same were initiated at pore pressures slightly higher (by 1.2-3.7 MPa) than that estimated from the Coulomb friction law. These results suggest that the presence of water and associated water

  6. An Experimental and Modeling Study on the Response to Varying Pore Pressure and Reservoir Fluids in the Morrow A Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V. Wandler


    Full Text Available In mature oil fields undergoing enhanced oil recovery methods, such as CO2 injection, monitoring the reservoir changes becomes important. To understand how reservoir changes influence compressional wave (P and shear wave (S velocities, we conducted laboratory core experiments on five core samples taken from the Morrow A sandstone at Postle Field, Oklahoma. The laboratory experiments measured P- and S-wave velocities as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure, and fluid type (which included CO2 in the gas and supercritical phase. P-wave velocity shows a response that is sensitive to both pore pressure and fluid saturation. However, S-wave velocity is primarily sensitive to changes in pore pressure. We use the fluid and pore pressure response measured from the core samples to modify velocity well logs through a log facies model correlation. The modified well logs simulate the brine- and CO2-saturated cases at minimum and maximum reservoir pressure and are inputs for full waveform seismic modeling. Modeling shows how P- and S-waves have a different time-lapse amplitude response with offset. The results from the laboratory experiments and modeling show the advantages of combining P- and S-wave attributes in recognizing the mechanism responsible for time-lapse changes due to CO2 injection.

  7. Pore-pressure diffusion based on analysis and characterization of microseismicity in central Arkansas (United States)

    Ogwari, Paul Otieno

    Part 1: Between August 2010 and June 2011, an intense sequence of induced earthquakes occurred along the Guy-Greenbrier fault in central Arkansas due to fluid injection at nearby waste disposal wells. A previous study by Horton (2010) limited to ˜1,000 earthquakes having md > ˜2.0 illuminated the ˜13km fault. We present an updated catalogue of 17,395 earthquakes that appears complete between 0 2 events. During this period of time, the seismicity migrated from north to south enhancing the resolution of three joined sections that form the northern ˜7.3km portion of the fault, which plunges southwards. The seismogenic zone covers the lower portion of the Paleozoic sedimentary layers and extends into the crystalline Precambrian basement (˜3km CERI catalog. We apply the template-matching method to determine relative earthquakes locations using relocated events in the CERI catalog as master events. We locate a total of 387,698 recognizable earthquakes between 07/01/2010 and 09/30/2011, that migrate from north to south as earlier indicated using traditionally located earthquakes. A clear correlation between seismicity rate and well pressure changes shows interaction of pore pressure from the SRE and Edgmon wells. A highly sampled well history provides a powerful tool of analyzing suspected induced seismicity following subsurface injection.

  8. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian


    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments. Contrary to previous studies

  9. Elasto-plasticity and pore-pressure coupled analysis on the pullout behaviors of a plate anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun Hu


    Full Text Available A numerical method is proposed for the elasto-plasticity and pore-pressure coupled analysis on the pullout behaviors of a plate anchor. The bounding-surface plasticity (BSP model combined with Biot’s consolidation theory is employed to simulate the cyclic loading induced elasto-plastic deformation of the soil skeleton and the accompanying generation/dissipation of the excess pore water pressure. The suction force generated around the anchor due to the cyclic variation of the pore water pressure has much effect on the pullout capacity of the plate anchor. The calculated pullout capacity with the proposed method (i.e., the coupled analysis gets lower than that with the conventional total stress analysis for the case of long-term sustained loading, but slightly higher for the case of short-term monotonic loading. The cyclic loading induced accumulation of pore water pressure may result in an obvious decrease of the stiffness of the soil-plate anchor system.

  10. Determination of the relationship among capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area: a pore unit assembly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikooee E.


    Full Text Available Three state variables namely, degree of saturation (Sw, capillary pressure (Pc and specific air-water interfacial area (aaw are indispensable for modelling coupled processes relevant to unsaturated soils mechanics, agriculture, and contaminant hydrology. They play a key role in simulating various phenomena and the determination of various parameters and physical characteristics such as the unsaturated soil shear strength, field capacity, wilting point, air and water diffusivity and the rate of dissolution of contaminants. The determination of soil water retention curve (Sw-Pc as well as the specific interfacial area (aaw using available experimental techniques is a challenging and time consuming task. Therefore, a numerical technique that employs basic soil properties to obtain these variables is of much value and high practical and theoretical importance. In the current study, the porous network extracted from a discrete element model (the so-called pore unit-assembly has been used to directly model the drying and wetting processes inside a granular soil packing and to obtain the values of Pc, Sw and aaw. The results of the simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data, which points to the efficacy and adequacy of the introduced algorithms and involved assumptions for this purpose.

  11. A Tilt, Soil Moisture, and Pore Water Pressure Sensor System for Slope Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanno de Dios


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and characterization of a sensor network intended for monitoring of slope deformation and potential failures. The sensor network system consists of a tilt and moisture sensor column, a pore water pressure sensor column and a personal computer for data storage and processing. The tilt sensor column consists of several pipe segments containing tri-axial accelerometers and signal processing electronics. Each segment is joined together by flexible joints to allow for the column to deform and subsequently track underground movement. Capacitive-type sensors for soil moisture measurement are also included in the sensor column, which are used to measure the soil moisture at different depths. The measurements at each segment are transferred via a Controller Area Network (CAN bus, where the CAN master node is located at the top of the column above ground. The CAN master node transmits the collected data from the slave nodes via a wireless connection to a personal computer that performs data storage, processing and display via a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI. The entire system was deployed and characterized on a small-scale slope model. Slope failure was induced via water seepage and the system was demonstrated to ably measure the inclination and soil moisture content throughout the landslide event.

  12. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U.A.; Mody, F.K.; Mese, A.I. [Halliburton Energy Services, Cairo (Egypt)


    Experimental studies were conducted to explain the concept of a real-time wellbore (in)stability logging methodology. The role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations was examined by providing details about a pore pressure transmission (PPT) test. The PPT experiments exposed formation (shale) cores under simulated downhole conditions to various salt solutions and drilling fluids. The main objective was to translate the results of the PPT tests to actual drilling conditions. A 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution was exposed to a Pierre II shale under high pressure in the PPT apparatus. The PPT test was used to estimate the impact of a drilling fluid on shale pore pressure. The efficiency of the salt solution/shale system was also estimated. Estimates of the dynamic rock properties were made based on the obtained acoustic data. It was determined that in order to accurately model time-dependent wellbore (in)stability in the field, it is important to calibrate representative shale core response to drilling fluids under realistic in-situ conditions. The 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution showed very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. It was concluded that changes in the shale dynamic rock properties as a function of test fluid exposure can be obtained from the simultaneous acquisition of sonic compression and shear wave velocity data. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Geostress and Pore Pressure Evolution around Oil or Water Well under Different Injection-Production Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jian-jun


    Full Text Available Geostress evolution in the process of oil field development can directly influence wellbore stability. Therefore, it is significant to strengthen the research of the evolution rule for well drilling and casing protection. Considering the interaction between reservoir seepage and stress fields, a mathematical model to characterize the stress evolution around wellbore was built. Using the FEM Software ABAQUS, through numerical simulation, the authors studied the evolution features of pore pressure and stress changes with time under different injection-production ratio, which disclosed the dynamic change regulation of pore pressure and stress of surrounding rock nearby the injection and production wells. These results may have implications in the treatment of wellbore stability and optimizing the injection and production processes during oil and gas production.

  14. Differential equations governing slip-induced pore-pressure fluctuations in a water-saturated granular medium (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.


    Macroscopic frictional slip in water-saturated granular media occurs commonly during landsliding, surface faulting, and intense bedload transport. A mathematical model of dynamic pore-pressure fluctuations that accompany and influence such sliding is derived here by both inductive and deductive methods. The inductive derivation shows how the governing differential equations represent the physics of the steadily sliding array of cylindrical fiberglass rods investigated experimentally by Iverson and LaHusen (1989). The deductive derivation shows how the same equations result from a novel application of Biot's (1956) dynamic mixture theory to macroscopic deformation. The model consists of two linear differential equations and five initial and boundary conditions that govern solid displacements and pore-water pressures. Solid displacements and water pressures are strongly coupled, in part through a boundary condition that ensures mass conservation during irreversible pore deformation that occurs along the bumpy slip surface. Feedback between this deformation and the pore-pressure field may yield complex system responses. The dual derivations of the model help explicate key assumptions. For example, the model requires that the dimensionless parameter B, defined here through normalization of Biot's equations, is much larger than one. This indicates that solid-fluid coupling forces are dominated by viscous rather than inertial effects. A tabulation of physical and kinematic variables for the rod-array experiments of Iverson and LaHusen and for various geologic phenomena shows that the model assumptions commonly are satisfied. A subsequent paper will describe model tests against experimental data. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Pre-drill Pore pressure estimation in shale gas reservoirs using seismic genetic inversion: Application to Barnett shale. (United States)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila; Eladj, Said


    In this paper, the seismic genetic inversion is used for estimation of the pore pressure before drilling, the first stage is to invert the 3D seismic cube recorded in the Fot Worth basin located in the United States of America using the artificial neural network. The Multilayer Perceptron neural network is trained in a supervised mode using the stacked 3D seismic amplitudes near three wells as an input and the calculated acoustic impedances derived from the density and sonic logs recorded in these wells as an output. During the training the weights of connections between neurons are optimized, then the whole seismic cube is propagated though the neural machine. The output of this machine is the cube of the acoustic impedance. A linear relationship between the depth and velocity are derived using sonic well-log data of a vertical well, this relationship will be us ed as a vertical trend in the Eaton's model. The acoustic impedances are used to deduce the pore pressure from the Eaton's model. The proposed process is applied to derive the pore pressure in the Lower Barnett shale, obtained results can be used for well-bore stability and hydraulic fracture planning and simulation.

  16. Generalized Lagrangian dynamics of physical and non-physical systems (United States)

    Sandler, U.


    In this paper, we show how to study the evolution of a complex system, given imprecise knowledge about the state of the system and the dynamics laws. It will be shown that dynamics of these systems is equivalent to Lagrangian (or Hamiltonian) mechanics in a n+1-dimensional space, where n is a system's dimensionality. In some cases, however, the corresponding Lagrangian is more general than the usual one and could depend on the action. In this case, Lagrange's equations gain a non-zero right side proportional to the derivative of the Lagrangian with respect to the action. Examples of such systems are unstable systems, systems with dissipation and systems which can remember their history. Moreover, in certain situations, the Lagrangian could be a set-valued function. The corresponding equations of motion then become differential inclusions instead of differential equations. We will also show that the principal of least action is a consequence of the causality principle and the local topology of the state space and not an independent axiom of classical mechanics. We emphasize that our adaptation of Lagrangian mechanics does not use or depend on specific properties of the physical system being modeled. Therefore, this Lagrangian approach may be equally applied to non-physical systems. An example of such an application is presented as well.

  17. Water content dynamics at plot scale - comparison of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography monitoring and pore pressure modelling (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Markart, Gerhard; Ottowitz, David; Römer, Alexander; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Geitner, Clemens


    Physically-based dynamic modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility rests on several assumptions and simplifications. However, the applicability of physically-based models is only rarely tested in the field at the appropriate scale. This paper presents results of a spray irrigation experiment conducted on a plot of 100 m2 on an Alpine slope susceptible to shallow landsliding. Infiltrating precipitation applied at a constant rate (27.5 mm/h for 5.3 h) was monitored by means of 2D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography, combined with time-domain reflectometry sensors installed at various depths. In addition, regolith characteristics were assessed by dynamic cone penetration tests using a light-weight cone penetrometer. The spray irrigation experiment resulted in a vertically progressing wetting front to a depth of 80-100 cm. Below that, the unconsolidated material was already saturated by rainfall in the previous days. The observed mean resistivity reduction attributed to infiltrating water during irrigation was scaled to pressure head. Mean variations in pore pressure were reproduced by a linear diffusion model also used in physically-based dynamic landslide susceptibility modelling. Sensitive parameters (hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) were tested over selected value ranges and calibrated. Calibrated parameter values are within published and experimentally derived ranges. The results of the comparison of observations and model results suggest that the model is capable of reproducing mean changes of pore pressure at a suitable scale for physically-based modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility. However, small-scale variations in pore pressure that may facilitate the triggering of shallow landslides are not captured by the model.

  18. Rainfall-induced landslide stability analysis in response to transient pore pressure--A case study of natural terrain landslide in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Hengxing; ZHOU Chenghu; C.F.Lee; WANG Sijing; WU Faquan


    Transient pore pressure in response to short intense rainfall process plays an important role in shallow landslide occurrence. Using GIS technology, we carry out the rainfall-induced landslide stability analysis in response to transient pore pressure by means of transient and unsaturated rainfall infiltration modeling. A case study is performed on the shallow landslide stability analysis in Hong Kong. Detailed analysis and discussion reached some useful conclusions on the tempo-spatial behavior and characteristics of slope stability response and pore pressure response to typical rainfall process. Comparison analysis is performed on some important issues including landslide stability response in different types of slopes with different hydraulic properties, antecedent rainfall and landslide stability, and the nature of pore pressure response time. These studies might give us an important insight into landslide tringgering mechanism and the hydrological process in response to rainfall, and provide systematic information and evidences for effective risk assessment and warning system establishment.

  19. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu


    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  20. Ethics and the Non-physical Self in Ndorobo World View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ndorobo, non-physical self, Ethical principle, Social unity. Introduction ... social customary law as the basis for moral duty among the Ndorobo people of ..... These facilitate business type arrangements needed for economic success.

  1. In situ measurement of soil moisture and pore-water pressures in an 'incipient' landslide: Lake Tutira, New Zealand. (United States)

    Hawke, Richard; McConchie, Jack


    The immediate cost of shallow regolith landslides in New Zealand has been estimated to exceed US$33M annually. Since the majority of these landslides occur during prolonged wet conditions, or intense rainstorms, moisture conditions are a critical control. The nature, dynamics, and character of soil moisture conditions, and the piezometric response to rainfall, have been recorded within an 'incipient' landslide for more than 5 years. The study site, on pastoral hill country within the Lake Tutira catchment in northern Hawkes Bay, is typical of large areas of New Zealand episodically affected by extensive landsliding. Detailed continuous measurements show that both the soil moisture and piezometric response within the regolith are highly storm- and site-specific. The development of positive pore pressures is infrequent; they form only during intense rainstorms, and persist for a short time. The hydraulic response of the soil is primarily a function of storm characteristics, but this response can be modified by antecedent moisture conditions, topographic position, and heterogeneity of soil properties. Stability analysis shows that most slopes in the study area are significantly steeper than can be explained by the frictional strength of the regolith. Measured hydraulic conditions also show that positive pore-water pressures alone do not trigger slope instability. A recent slope failure followed a period of extremely high antecedent moisture conditions, and occurred when maximum soil moisture conditions, though not pore-water pressures, were recorded. Increased moisture content of the regolith reduces matric tension, and therefore effective cohesion of the soil. This cohesion is critical to maintaining stability of the regolith on these slopes. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the carbon pore size and topology on the equilibrium quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes at zero coverage and finite pressures. (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester


    Carbonaceous slit-shaped and square-shaped pores efficiently differentiate adsorbed hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K. Extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the square-shaped carbon pores enhanced the selectivity of deuterium over hydrogen in comparison to equivalent slit-shaped carbon pores at zero coverage as well as at finite pressures (i.e. quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes is pore-topology-dependent). We show that this enhancement of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity results from larger localization of hydrogen isotopes in square-shaped pores. The operating pressures for efficient quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes are strongly dependent on the topology as well as on the size of the carbon pores. However, for both considered carbon pore topologies the highest D(2)/H(2) separation factor is observed at zero-coverage limit. Depending on carbon pore size and topology we predicted monotonic decreasing and non-monotonic shape of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity at finite pressures. For both kinds of carbonaceous pores of molecular sizes we predict high compression of hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K (for example, the pore density of compressed hydrogen isotopes at 77 K and 0.25 MPa in a square-shaped carbon pore of size 2.6 Å exceeds 60 mmol cm(-3); for comparison, the liquid density of para-H(2) at 30 K and 30 MPa is 42 mmol cm(-3)). Finally, by direct comparison of simulation results with experimental data it is explained why 'ordinary' carbonaceous materials are not efficient quantum sieves.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of effective fluid and rock bulk modulus due to changes in pore pressure, temperature and saturation (United States)

    Bhakta, Tuhin; Avseth, Per; Landrø, Martin


    Fluid substitution plays a vital role in time-lapse seismic modeling and interpretation. It is, therefore, very important to quantify as exactly as possible the changes in fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters. In this paper, we analyze the sensitivities in effective fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters like saturation, pore-pressure and temperature. The sensitivities are analyzed for two extreme bounds, i.e. the Voigt average and the Reuss average, for various fluid combinations (i.e. oil-water, gas-water and gas-oil). We quantify that the effects of pore-pressure and saturation changes are highest in the case of gas-water combination, while the effect of temperature is highest for oil-gas combination. Our results show that sensitivities vary with the bounds, even for same amount of changes in any reservoir parameter. In 4D rock physics studies, we often neglect the effects of pore-pressure or temperature changes assuming that those effects are negligible compare to the effect due to saturation change. Our analysis shows that pore-pressure and temperature changes can be vital and sometimes higher than the effect of saturation change. We investigate these effects on saturated rock bulk modulus. We first compute frame bulk modulus using the Modified Hashin Shtrikman (MHS) model for carbonate rocks and then perform fluid substitution using the Gassmann equation. We consider upper bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for stiffer rocks and lower bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for softer rocks. We then investigate four various combinations: stiff rock with upper bound (the Voigt bound) as effective fluid modulus, stiff rock with lower bound (Reuss bound) as effective fluid modulus, soft rock with upper bound as effective fluid modulus and soft rock with lower bound as effective fluid modulus. Our results show that the effect of any reservoir parameter change is highest for soft rock and lower bound combination and lowest

  4. Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Barker, Erin; Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Forsmark, Joy; Li, Mei


    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results. This indicates that the developed 3D extrinsic modeling method may be used to examine the influence of various aspects of pore sizes/distributions as well as intrinsic properties (i.e., matrix properties) on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings.

  5. In-situ Stresses, Pore-fluid Pressures and Uplift Erosion in Relation to Active Thrust Faulting in western Taiwan (United States)

    Hung, J.; Yen, P.; Wang, L.


    We have studied the in-situ stresses, pore-fluid pressures and amounts of uplift erosion (UE) from petroleum wells drilled in the Hsinchu-Taichung area of western Taiwan Fold-thrust Belt. The average gradient of regional vertical stress (Sv) calculated from formation density logs is about 23 MPa/km. The magnitude of pore pressure (Pp) is estimated from mud pressure, gas cut and repeat formation test (RFT) in reservoir sandstone, and sonic logs. P-wave travel time in shale (STT) is used to determine the fluid-retention depth (ZFRD) which defines current fully compacted sediments with hydrostatic pressures above and undercompacted, overpressured zones below. Regional ZFRD is ~ 3 km except in the Chuhuangkeng anticline, where ZFRD is at shallower depth (~ 2.2 km) and extremely high pore pressure (λ=0.8) is also observed.. Calculated amounts of UE increase from 0.6 to 4.6 km eastward from outer to inner Foothills belt and correspond to stratigraphy downward and depth upward migration of the ZFRD. Along-strike variation of UE is insignificant. Hydraulic fracturing data including leak-off tests (LOTs) and mini-fracs, as well as qualitative data such as mud loss, are used to constrain the minimum horizontal stress (Shmin). The linear gradient of Shmin is about 17~19 MPa/km, relatively less than that of Sv (~23.60 MPa/km). This implies the in-situ stresses are at strike-slip (SHmax>SV>Shmin) to reverse fault considering focal mechanisms of seismicity are dominant by these two stress regimes in the study area. An upper-bound value of the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) constrained by frictional limits and the coefficient of friction (μ=0.6) can be estimated from Anderson (1951) faulting criterion. Caliper logs from 8 wells are used to calculate the orientations of the maximum horizontal stresses following the definitions of borehole breakout in World Stress Map. The maximum horizontal stress axis is oriented in NW-SE but local variations occur when passing through

  6. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides (United States)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia


    Shallow landslides can be defined as slope movements affecting superficial deposits of small thicknesses which are usually triggered due to extreme rainfall events, also very concentrated in time. Shallow landslides are hazardous phenomena: in particular, if they happen close to urbanized areas they could cause significant damages to cultivations, structures, infrastructures and, sometimes, human losses. The triggering mechanism of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is strictly linked with the hydrological and mechanical responses of usually unsaturated soils to rainfall events. For this reason, it is fundamental knowing the intrinsic hydro-mechanical properties of the soils in order to assess both susceptibility and hazard of shallow landslide and to develop early-warning systems at large scale. The hydrological data collected by a 20 months monitoring on a slope susceptible to shallow landslides in an area of the North -Eastern Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Apennines, Italy) were used to identify the hydrological behaviors of the investigated soils towards rainfall events. Field conditions under different rainfall trends have also been modeled by using both hydrological and physically-based stability models for the evaluation of the slope safety factor . The main objectives of this research are: (a) to compare the field measured pore water pressures at different depths with results of hydrological models, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the tested models and to determine how precipitations affect pore pressure development; (b) to compare the time trends of the safety factor that have been obtained by applying different stability models; (c) to evaluate, through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of soil hydrological properties on modeling pore water pressure and safety factor. The test site slope where field measurements were acquired is representative of other sites in Northern Apennines affected by shallow landslides and is characterized by medium

  7. Pore pressure regime leading to shallow failures in a mountain slope: monitoring and interpretation by soil-atmosphere coupled model. (United States)

    Vaunat, Jean; Hürlimann, Marcel; Luna, Boris


    The study deals with the onset of debris flows in the "El Rebaixader" basin, located in South Central Pyrenees. The initiation area of debris flows is located on a lateral moraine with a thickness of tens of meters, in which torrential processes and other shallow mass movements have generated a large scarp with steep slopes. To follow slope evolution towards shallow failure, different sensors have been installed to monitor meteorological data and hydraulic variables at shallow depths (positive and negative pore pressure, water content). Measurements are interpreted by means of a thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled Finite Element code provided with a specific boundary condition to model water mass and heat flux exchanged between the ground and the atmosphere, including infiltration, evaporation, sensible heat and solar radiation. Results evidence the different modes of pore regime variation imposed, on the one hand, by surface infiltration and evaporation and, on the other hand, by the settlement of a slope parallel flow in a loose layer at some decimetres depth. As a conclusion, the analysis highlights the strong dependency of slope stability to the water regime taking place in slightly more permeable horizons connected to the top of the catchment area rather than to surficial climatic input. On this basis, some keys about debris flow mitigation are finally put forward.

  8. Bubble snap-off and capillary-back pressure during counter-current spontaneous imbibition into model pores. (United States)

    Unsal, Evren; Mason, Geoffrey; Morrow, Norman R; Ruth, Douglas W


    A previous paper (Unsal, E.; Mason, G.; Ruth, D. W.; Morrow, N. R. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 315, 200-209) reported experiments involving counter-current spontaneous imbibition into a model pore system consisting of a rod in an angled slot covered by a glass plate. Such an arrangement gives two tubes with different cross-sections (both size and shape) with an interconnection through the gap between the rod and the plate. In the previous experiments, the wetting phase advanced in the small tube and nonwetting phase retreated in the large tube. No bubbles were formed. In this paper, we study experimentally and theoretically the formation of bubbles at the open end of the large tube and their subsequent snap-off. Such bubbles reduce the capillary back pressure produced by the larger tube and can thus have an effect on the local rate of imbibition. In the model pore system, the rod was either in contact with the glass, forming two independent tubes, or the rod was spaced from the glass to allow cross-flow between the tubes. For small gaps, there were three distinct menisci. The one with the highest curvature was between the rod and the plate. The next most highly curved was in the smaller tube, and the least highly curved meniscus was in the large tube and this was the tube from which the bubbles developed. The pressure in the dead end of the system was recorded during imbibition. Once the bubble starts to form outside of the tube, the pressure drops rapidly and then steadies. After the bubble snaps off, the pressure rises to almost the initial value and stays essentially constant until the next bubble starts to form. After snap-off, the meniscus in the large tube appears to invade the large tube for some distance. The snap-off is the result of capillary instability; it takes place significantly inside the large tube with flow of wetting phase moving in the angular corners. As imbibition into the small tube progresses, the rate of imbibition decreases and the

  9. Pore Characterization of Shale Rock and Shale Interaction with Fluids at Reservoir Pressure-Temperature Conditions Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (United States)

    Ding, M.; Hjelm, R.; Watkins, E.; Xu, H.; Pawar, R.


    Oil/gas produced from unconventional reservoirs has become strategically important for the US domestic energy independence. In unconventional realm, hydrocarbons are generated and stored in nanopores media ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Fundamental knowledge of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes that control fluid flow and propagation within nano-pore confinement is critical for maximizing unconventional oil/gas production. The size and confinement of the nanometer pores creates many complex rock-fluid interface interactions. It is imperative to promote innovative experimental studies to decipher physical and chemical processes at the nanopore scale that govern hydrocarbon generation and mass transport of hydrocarbon mixtures in tight shale and other low permeability formations at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions. We have carried out laboratory investigations exploring quantitative relationship between pore characteristics of the Wolfcamp shale from Western Texas and the shale interaction with fluids at reservoir P-T conditions using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have performed SANS measurements of the shale rock in single fluid (e.g., H2O and D2O) and multifluid (CH4/(30% H2O+70% D2O)) systems at various pressures up to 20000 psi and temperature up to 150 oF. Figure 1 shows our SANS data at different pressures with H2O as the pressure medium. Our data analysis using IRENA software suggests that the principal changes of pore volume in the shale occurred on smaller than 50 nm pores and pressure at 5000 psi (Figure 2). Our results also suggest that with increasing P, more water flows into pores; with decreasing P, water is retained in the pores.

  10. A simulation of earthquake induced undrained pore pressure changes with bearing on some soil liquefaction observations following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Irene Sarkar; Ramesh Chander


    The Bhuj earthquake of January 26th, 2001, induced wide spread liquefaction within the Kachch peninsula. It has been pointed out that inundation due to soil liquefaction was short lived in some parts than in others in the affected region. Several geological, seismological and hydrological factors would have cumulatively contributed to these observed changes. We simulate in this article, undrained or short-term change in pore pressure in a poroelastic half space, in response to a simplified model of the Bhuj earthquake source. We find that the regions of relatively shorter lived inundation due to soil liquefaction may fall in the region where pore pressure responsible for soil liquefaction attributable to strong ground shaking was counteracted by pore pressure changes due to undrained poroelastic effect and vice versa.

  11. A Multilevel Investigation of the Association between School Context and Adolescent Nonphysical Bullying (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Molnar, Beth E.


    Although researchers have identified individual-level predictors of nonphysical bullying among children and youth, school-level predictors (i.e., characteristics of the school environment that influence bullying exposure) remain largely unstudied. Using data from a survey of 1,838 students in 21 Boston public high schools, we used multilevel…

  12. The electrical conductivity of CO2-bearing pore waters at elevated pressure and temperature: a laboratory study and its implications in CO2 storage monitoring and leakage detection (United States)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus


    The electrical rock conductivity is a sensitive indicator for carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and migration processes. For a reliable balancing of the free CO2 in pore space with petrophysical models such as Archie's law or for the detection of migrating CO2, detailed knowledge of the pore water conductivity during interaction with CO2 is essential but not available yet. Contrary to common assumptions, pore water conductivity cannot be assumed constant since CO2 is a reactive gas that dissolves into the pore water in large amounts and provides additional charge carriers due to the dissociation of carbonic acid. We consequently carried out systematic laboratory experiments to quantify and analyse the changes in saline pore water conductivity caused by CO2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. Electrical conductivity is measured on pore water samples for pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 80 °C. The parameter range covers the gaseous, liquid and supercritical state of the CO2 involved. Pore water salinities from 0.006 up to 57.27 g L-1 sodium chloride were investigated as well as selective other ion species. At the same time, the CO2 concentration in the salt solution was determined by a wet-chemical procedure. A two-regime behaviour appears: for small salinities, we observe an increase of up to more than factor 3 in the electrical pore water conductivity, which strongly depends on the solution salinity (low-salinity regime). This is an expected behaviour, since the additional ions originating from the dissociation of carbonic acid positively contribute to the solution conductivity. However, when increasing salinities are considered this effect is completely diminished. For highly saline solutions, the increased mutual impeding causes the mobility of all ions to decrease, which may result in a significant reduction of conductivity by up to 15 per cent despite the added CO2 (high-salinity regime). We present the data set covering the pressure, temperature, salinity

  13. A semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and fluid configurations in uniformly-wet pore spaces from 2D rock images (United States)

    Frette, O. I.; Helland, J. O.


    A novel semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and associated fluid configurations in arbitrary, potentially non-convex, 2D pore space geometries at uniform wettability is developed. The model computes all possible centre positions of circular arcs, and physically sound criteria are implemented to determine the set of these arcs that correspond to geometrically allowed interfaces. Interfaces and pore boundary segments are connected to form closed boundaries of identified geometrical regions. These regions are classified as either oil regions, located in the wider parts of the pore space, or as water regions located in pore space constrictions. All possible region combinations are identified and evaluated for each radius value in an iterative procedure to determine the favourable entry radius and corresponding configuration based on minimisation of free energy. The model has been validated by comparison with known analytical solutions in idealised pore geometries. In cases where different analytical solutions are geometrically possible, the model generates several oil and water regions, and the valid solution is determined by the region combination that corresponds to the most favourable entry pressure, consistent with the analytical solution. Entry pressure radii and configurations are computed in strongly non-convex pore spaces extracted from an image of Bentheimer sandstone, which demonstrates that the model captures successfully well-known characteristics of capillary behaviour at different wetting conditions. The computations also demonstrate the importance of selecting the fluid configuration of minimum change in free energy. In some cases, a merged region formed by a combination of oil and water regions corresponds to the favourable entry configuration of oil, whereas in other cases, an individual oil region may correspond to the favourable oil entry configuration. It is also demonstrated that oil entry configurations may

  14. Broadband hydroseismograms observed by closed borehole wells in the Kamioka mine, central Japan: Response of pore pressure to seismic waves from 0.05 to 2 Hz (United States)

    Kano, Yasuyuki; Yanagidani, Takashi


    We obtained broadband hydroseismograms by monitoring the pore pressure changes of a rock mass in the Kamioka mine, using borehole wells. The wellhead was sealed to maintain an undrained condition, under which there is no flow of water through the interface between the well and the rock mass. This reduces the wellbore storage effect, which can cause a high-frequency cutoff response for systems of conventional open wells and rock mass. Using these closed borehole wells, 16 hydroseismograms were recorded for earthquakes in a range of magnitudes of 4.5-7.9 and epicentral distances of 1.0°-71.6°. Direct P waves, SV waves converted to P, and Rayleigh phases are clearly observed on the hydroseismograms. The similarity between hydroseismograms and seismograms reveals a clear relationship between radial ground velocity and pore pressure. The relationship is expressed as a zero-order system, which is characterized by no distortion or time lag between the input and output, and the pore pressure has no coupling with shear deformation. These results are consistent with an undrained constitutive relation of linear poroelastic theory and confirm that the relation is valid for the seismic frequency range. We determined in situ values of pore pressure sensitivity to volumetric change of the rock mass, which were then used to estimate in situ Skempton coefficients with values of 0.70-0.85.

  15. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model. (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina


    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced.

  16. Studies of in Situ Pore Pressure Fluctuations At Various Scales Études des fluctuations in situ de la pression de pore à différentes échelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kümpel H. J.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure fluctuations in fluid saturated geological formations, either of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be observed at different scales. Natural fluctuations, e. g. , due to tidal, barometric or seismogenic forcing, or man-made effects as through use of underground fluid reservoirs, or initial filling and cyclic loading of lake reservoirs may have wavelengths from meters to kilometers. In situ monitoring of processes, in which both rock deformation and pore pressure changes are significant, improves our knowledge on the mechanical behaviour and the role of pore pressure in porous rocks and sedimentary layers. Pressure transducers for continuous recording of fluid level variations in wells, reflecting pore pressure changes at depth, or borehole tiltmeters that are sensitive to ground deformation caused by gradients of pore pressure fluctuations are relatively simple means to trace the dynamics of such rock-fluid interactions. The obtained data series are usually interpreted in two ways: by application of analytical solutions-adopting homogeneous poroelastic conditions or single fracture models in a uniform, elastic medium-and by simulation through numerical calculations allowing for some heterogeneity in the model volume. Field cases presented in this article include tilt measurements in the vicinity of pumped wells (1 to 100 m scale, fluid level monitoring in wells (borehole scale, and studies of pore pressure effects induced by seismic events (1 to 100 km scale. Specific rock parameters that can be constrained are the Skempton ratio, the hydraulic diffusivity, and the type of the effective rheology. In cases of tiltmeter studies, anisotropy of pore fluid flow can also be detected. Keywords: fluids in rocks, pore pressure, poroelasticity, hydrology. Les fluctuations de la pression de pore dans les formations géologiques saturées en fluides, d'origine naturelle ou anthropogéniques, peuvent être observées à différentes

  17. Pore pressure propagation in a permeable thin-layer coal seam based on a dual porosity model: A case of risk prediction of water inrush in coalmines (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Gao, F.; Yang, J. W.; Zhou, G. Q.


    Thin-layer coal seams, a type of filling coal rock body, are considered aquifer systems made up of dual porosity medium with immediate floor. A numerical simulation for the pore pressure propagation along a thin-layer coal seam was carried out for the case of the Zhaogezhuang coalmine in China. By valuing the permeability (Kf ) of the thin-layer coal seam, pore pressure variation with time was simulated and compared to the analytical solutions of a dual porosity model (DPM). The main conclusions were drawn as follow: (1) Seepage in the thin-layer coal seam was predominant in the whole process, and the distance of seepage was lengthened and the pore pressure decreased with increased Kf , (2) A series of simulated hydraulic graphs demonstrated that the pore pressure characteristics of peak-occurring and time-lag effects agreed with the analytical solutions of DPM; (3) By adjusting the parameters of DPM, two results of analytical solutions and numerical solutions fit well, particularly in the thin-layer coal seam, (4) The power law relationship between the peak-values and lag time of pore pressure were derived statistically under consideration of the Kf parameter in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 m2/pa-s orders, and it was reasonable that the Kf of the thin-layer coal seam was in the range of 10-8 m2/pa-s orders. The results were significantly helpful in decision-making for mining water prevention and prediction in practice.

  18. A Multilevel Investigation of the Association between School Context and Adolescent Nonphysical Bullying. (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Dunn, Erin C; Johnson, Renee M; Molnar, Beth E


    Although researchers have identified individual-level predictors of nonphysical bullying among children and youth, school-level predictors (i.e., characteristics of the school environment that influence bullying exposure) remain largely unstudied. Using data from a survey of 1,838 students in 21 Boston public high schools, we used multilevel modeling techniques to estimate the level of variation across schools in student reports of nonphysical bully victimization and identify school-level predictors of bullying. We found significant between school variation in youth reports of nonphysical bullying, with estimates ranging from 25-58%. We tested school-level indicators of academic performance, emotional well-being, and school safety. After controlling for individual-level covariates and demographic controls, the percent of students in the school who met with a mental health counselor was significantly associated with bullying (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.06). There was no significant association between school-level academic performance and perceptions of school safety on individual reports of bullying. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention programs may benefit from attending to the emotional well-being of students and support the importance of understanding the role of the school environment in shaping student experiences with bullying.

  19. Magnetic and electric fields associated with changes in high pore pressure in fault zones: Application to the Loma Prieta ULF emissions (United States)

    Fenoglio, Mark A.; Johnston, Malcom J. S.; Byerlee, Jim D.


    We determined the electric and magnetic fields generated during failure of faults containing sealed compartments with pore pressures ranging from hydrostatic to lithostatic levels. Exhumed fault studies and strain measurement data limit the possible size of these compartments to less than 1 km in extent. Rupture of seals between compartments produces rapid pore pressure changes and fluid flow and may create fractures that propagate away from the high-pressure compartment, along the fault face. Nonuniform fluid flow results from pressure decrease in the fracture from crack-generated dilatancy, partial blockage by silica deposition, and clearing as pressure increases. A direct consequence of this unsteady fluid flow may be associated transient magnetic signals caused by electrokinetic, piezomagnetic, and magnetohydrodynamic effects. Models of these processes for fault geometries with 1-km-high pressure compartments show that electrokinetic effects are several orders of magnitude larger than the other mechanisms. The electrokinetic signals produced by this unsteady flow are comparable in magnitude and frequency to the magnetic signals observed prior to the ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of October 18, 1989, provided fracture lengths are less than 200 m.

  20. Spectral Analysis of Pore Pressure Data Recorded from the 2010 Sierra EL Mayor (baja California) Earthquake at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Field Site (United States)

    Seale, S. H.; Lavallee, D.; Steidl, J. H.; Ratzesberger, H.; Hegarty, P.


    On 4 April 2010, the M7.2 Sierra el Mayor event occurred in Baja California, Mexico. The NEES@UCSB Wildlife field site in the Imperial Basin is located 110 km NNW of the hypocenter. The event was recorded on all channels: by three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and by pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. We have computed the spectra of the pore pressure response in the frequency domain for signals recorded at different depths. At each depth, the spectrum is attenuated as a power law with a sharp discontinuity at a frequency close to 1 Hz. We report the value of the exponents that characterize the power-law behavior of these spectra. We also computed cross-spectral analysis of the pore pressure records from different depths. The functional behaviors of the curves of the cross-spectra are similar to that of the original spectra. For comparison, we present the spectrum of each component of the ground motion recorded at a nearby accelerometer. Partially due to the late arrival of the surface waves, the frequency content of the recorded pore pressure signal is a function of time. To gain a better understanding of the time-dependence of the frequency content, we performed spectral analysis of the signal in a moving window and wavelet transforms of the full signals. The spectral analysis suggests that, except for high frequencies, the curves exhibit a complex behavior as a function of the window position. We interpret and discuss the consequences of the estimated spectra, the cross-spectra, and the wavelet transforms.

  1. Episodic Sediment Failure in Northern Flemish Pass, Eastern Canadian Margin: Interplay of Seismicity, Contour Current Winnowing, and Excess Pore Pressures (United States)

    Piper, D.


    preconditioned the slope for earthquake triggering. There is circumstantial evidence that such preconditioning is related to excess pore pressures, released by fluid drainage at head scarps.

  2. Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavko, G.; Vanorio, T.; Vialle, S.; Saxena, N.


    Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured over a range of confining pressures while injecting CO2 and brine into the samples. Pore fluid pressure was also varied and monitored together with porosity during injection. Effective medium models were developed to understand the mechanisms and impact of observed changes and to provide the means for implementation of the interpretation methodologies in the field. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities in carbonate rocks show as much as 20-50% decrease after injection of the reactive CO2-brine mixture; the changes were caused by permanent changes to the rock elastic frame associated with dissolution of mineral. Velocity decreases were observed under both dry and fluid-saturated conditions, and the amount of change was correlated with the initial pore fabrics. Scanning Electron Microscope images of carbonate rock microstructures were taken before and after injection of CO2-rich water. The images reveal enlargement of the pores, dissolution of micrite (micron-scale calcite crystals), and pitting of grain surfaces caused by the fluid- solid chemical reactivity. The magnitude of the changes correlates with the rock microtexture – tight, high surface area samples showed the largest changes in permeability and smallest changes in porosity and elastic stiffness compared to those in rocks with looser texture and larger intergranular pore space. Changes to the pore space also occurred from flow of fine particles with the injected fluid. Carbonates with grain-coating materials, such as residual oil, experienced very little permanent change during injection. In the tight micrite/spar cement component, dissolution is controlled by diffusion: the mass transfer of products and reactants is thus slow and the fluid is expected to be close to thermodynamical equilibrium with the calcite, leading to very little dissolution, or even precipitation. In the microporous rounded micrite and macropores, dissolution is controlled by

  3. Modeling seismic stimulation: Enhanced non-aqueous fluid extraction from saturated porous media under pore-pressure pulsing at low frequencies (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Huang, Yu-Han


    Seismic stimulation, the application of low-frequency stress-pulsing to the boundary of a porous medium containing water and a non-aqueous fluid to enhance the removal of the latter, shows great promise for both contaminated groundwater remediation and enhanced oil recovery, but theory to elucidate the underlying mechanisms lag significantly behind the progress achieved in experimental research. We address this conceptual lacuna by formulating a boundary-value problem to describe pore-pressure pulsing at seismic frequencies that is based on the continuum theory of poroelasticity for an elastic porous medium permeated by two immiscible fluids. An exact analytical solution is presented that is applied numerically using elasticity parameters and hydraulic data relevant to recent proof-of-principle laboratory experiments investigating the stimulation-induced mobilization of trichloroethene (TCE) in water flowing through a compressed sand core. The numerical results indicated that significant stimulation-induced increases of the TCE concentration in effluent can be expected from pore-pressure pulsing in the frequency range of 25-100 Hz, which is in good agreement with what was observed in the laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analysis of our numerical results revealed that the TCE concentration in the effluent increases with the porous medium framework compressibility and the pulsing pressure. Increasing compressibility also leads to an optimal stimulation response at lower frequencies, whereas changing the pulsing pressure does not affect the optimal stimulation frequency. Within the context of our model, the dominant physical cause for enhancement of non-aqueous fluid mobility by seismic stimulation is the dilatory motion of the porous medium in which the solid and fluid phases undergo opposite displacements, resulting in stress-induced changes of the pore volume.

  4. Pedagogical changes in an astronomy course for non-physics majors: Student and professor perspectives (United States)

    MacLeod, Katarin; Razul, Mohamed Shajahan Gulam; Powell, Jamie


    Pedagogical changes were made in the delivery of a three-credit, first-year astronomy course offered to non-physics majors by a department of physics at a small undergraduate university in Canada. The professor of the course initiated this change to better meet the needs of the students enrolled. A brief description of some of the activities and teaching strategies is given, along with student and professor perceptions. Results indicate that it is possible to develop and deliver a rigorous, conceptually based astronomy course and that the effort is worth the result.

  5. Parameterization of Finite-Element Cryo-Hydrologic Sand Dune Model to Constrain Debris-Flow-Initiating Subsurface Temperatures and Pore-Water Pressures, Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska (United States)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; Hooper, D. M.


    To explain how debris flows form at subfreezing air temperatures, we present meteorology-driven, numerical simulation-derived subsurface temperature and pore-water pressure profiles in the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes of Alaska, for incipient flow events.

  6. Micro-mechanical modeling of the growth/percolation of pressurized pores in a ceramic matrix at high temperatures; Modelisation micromecanique de la croissance et de la percolation de pores sous pression dans une matrice ceramique a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, P.G


    The aim of this work is to propose an elasto-plastic model of damage in a porous ceramics containing two populations of saturated cavities: the nuclear fuel uranium dioxide highly irradiated and at high temperature. The followed approach consists in a multi-scale approach based on the hypothesis of separation of the scales between the two populations of cavities (spherical intragranular pores and spheroidal intergranular pores) and of those of the macroscopic isotropy. The proposed elasto-plastic model of damage treats separately of the elasticity, of the surface of plasticity and of the evolution of the internal parameters of the model with load. The taking into account of different pressures in each population of cavity is carried out for elasticity-plasticity-damage. The model developed for the elastic behaviour takes into account the two populations of cavity, their morphology, their distribution and the pore pressures inside them. The proposed plasticity criteria is based on homogenization methods for non linear behaviours. At the grain scale, the first population of cavity is taken into account by a plasticity criteria of Gurson-Tvegaard-Needleman type. At the scale of grains collection, the presence of a second population of cavity inside a compressible matrix leads to the development of new superior boundaries and pertaining estimations for the effective plasticity surface. These models depend on the morphology and of the distribution of cavities. In the case of drained cavities, an analytical estimation, based on the writing of the classical variational principle with a compressible velocity field and an average on the equiprobable orientations is developed. In the case of saturated cavity, another estimation, based on the variational approach of Ponte Castaneda (1991) with a linear N phases comparison composite is proposed. These models are compared to numerical simulations by finite elements and to numerical simulations using the fast Fourier

  7. Mechanical Properties of Rocks: Pore Pressure and Scale Effects Propriétés mécaniques des roches : pression de pore et effets d'échelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueguen Y.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure plays a major role when considering rocks mechanical properties. In that field, the concept of effective pressure is a key one to deal with fluids mechanical effects. However, its frequent use has been the source of frequent confusing statements. Because of the various meanings which have been attached to that concept, an attempt is made in this paper to clarify it and examine the validity of its various uses relative to rock mechanical behaviour or rock properties. At a macroscopic scale, thermodynamics provides a powerful tool to investigate this. Reversible or irreversible thermodynamics provide general relationships of great interest. But because real rocks are non homogeneous systems, a microscopic approach is also required in order to analyze the mechanical properties from a description of the small scale processes. The microscopic approach is complementary of the macroscopic thermodynamic one as it leads to the calculation of the effective properties of the medium. In this last approach, effective medium theory is a powerful tool. The effective properties as derived from the microscale can be nicely combined to thermodynamic relations to interpret pore fluid pressure effects and scale effects. The example of elastic properties of porous rocks is more specifically emphasized to illustrate this because of both its intrinsic interest and importance as far as applications are concerned. La pression de pore joue un rôle de première importance dans la considération des propriétés mécaniques des roches. Dans ce domaine, le concept de contrainte effective est essentiel pour aborder les effets mécaniques. Toutefois, son utilisation fréquente a conduit à de nombreuses affirmations trompeuses. Compte tenu des significations diverses accordées à ce concept, nous tentons ici de le clarifier et examinons le domaine d'application de ses divers emplois dans le cadre du comportement mécanique ou des propriétés des roches. À l


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marza Danila Danut Nicu


    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the physical fitness of the non-physical education students by using prophylactic physiotherapy elements. The study tried to confirm the following hypothesis: If prophylactic physiotherapy is applied correctly to the non-physical education students, according to their assessed level of fitness, their health is improved, and a prevention of various disorders is achieved. Thirty students were comprised in the study (males and females, aged between 21 and 24; for 15 of them we created and applied an adapted program of aerobic exercises, over the course of the second semester of the academic year, 2012-2013. The other 15 subjects participated in the physical education classes, following the regular syllabus. The Ruffier and the Hettinger tests were applied to both groups of students, initially and finally. After the final tests, we observed that the students in the experimental group have improved their fitness after the application of the aerobic exercise programs, while the control group students remained at the same level.

  9. 心墙水力劈裂与孔压关系的探讨%The analysis of the relationship between hydraulic fracture and the pore pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红日; 党发宁; 兰素恋; 魏见海


    基于Biot固结理论的有效应力二维数值模拟方法,研究了堆石坝的粘土心墙水力劈裂过程中孔隙水压力的变化.分析了坝体竣工期粘土心墙中的拱效应,探讨了从竣工固结到蓄水过程和稳定渗流期粘土心墙中孔隙水压力的变化分布特点,并对心墙发生水力劈裂的可能性进行判断.研究结果表明:堆石坝粘土心墙内部孔隙水压力梯度的模拟分析能更加合理地解释水力劈裂发生与蓄水速度和心墙低渗透性的关系,因此,分析考虑水位上升过程中粘土心墙内孔隙水压力分布情况是研究心墙水力劈裂发生机理的重点.%Based on the consolidation theory of Biot effective stress analysis method, two-dimensional numerical simulation is adopted to study the dam from the completion of the dam to the clay core run-time pore pressure changes in the process. Arching effect of the completion period and the changes with the completion of the process of consolidation on the stability of the water flow in the pore water pressure distribution are analyzed based on the analysis of clay core dams, the mechanism of hydraulic fracture on the basis of the core wall of the dam occurred in the hydraulic is determined with the possibility of splitting. The results show that the simulation of gradient internal pore water pressure for the clay core of rockfilled dam core can reasonably explain the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing with water speed, and the low permeability of the core wall has great effects. When hydraulic fracture occurred with the core wall mechanism of the core wall, the distribution of clay pore water pressure must be taken into account.

  10. Pore Pressure Evolution in Shallow Subduction Earthquake Sequences and Effects on Aseismic Slip Transients -- Numerical Modeling With Rate and State Friction (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Rice, J. R.


    In 3D modeling of long tectonic loading and earthquake sequences on a shallow subduction fault [Liu and Rice, 2005], with depth-variable rate and state friction properties, we found that aseismic transient slip episodes emerge spontaneously with only a simplified representation of effects of metamorphic fluid release. That involved assumption of a constant in time but uniformly low effective normal stress in the downdip region. As suggested by observations in several major subduction zones [Obara, 2002; Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Kodaira et al, 2004], the presence of fluids, possibly released from dehydration reactions beneath the seismogenic zone, and their pressurization within the fault zone may play an important role in causing aseismic transients and associated non-volcanic tremors. To investigate the effects of fluids in the subduction zone, particularly on the generation of aseismic transients and their various features, we develop a more complete physical description of the pore pressure evolution (specifically, pore pressure increase due to supply from dehydration reactions and shear heating, decrease due to transport and dilatancy during slip), and incorporate that into the rate and state based 3D modeling. We first incorporated two important factors, dilatancy and shear heating, following Segall and Rice [1995, 2004] and Taylor [1998]. In the 2D simulations (slip varies with depth only), a dilatancy-stabilizing effect is seen which slows down the seismic rupture front and can prevent rapid slip from extending all the way to the trench, similarly to Taylor [1998]. Shear heating increases the pore pressure, and results in faster coseismic rupture propagation and larger final slips. In the 3D simulations, dilatancy also stabilizes the along-strike rupture propagation of both seismic and aseismic slips. That is, aseismic slip transients migrate along the strike faster with a shorter Tp (the characteristic time for pore pressure in the fault core to re

  11. A comparison of physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid ARAZI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare physical self-concept between physical education and non-physical education university students. The target population of this study was all male and female physical education and non-physical education university students in Rasht city of Iran. After translating the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ and adjusting some of the questions, the questionnaire was evaluated by the specialists in the context of validity and the reliability achieved by test-retest (Cronbach Alpha value of 0.84. We then, according to the Odineski table selected 180 physical education and non-physical education males and 190 physical education and non-physical education females opportunistically. The collected data was analyzed by 2×2 MANOVA for determine differences between genders and major. The results showed mean vector scores of physical education in the following scales: physical activity; global physical; competence; sports; strength; endurance and flexibility were significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of non-physical education major students. Also, the results shows that mean vector scores of male in the following scales: health; coordination; physical activity; body fat; global physical; competence; sports; global physical self-concept and global esteem were significantly (p<0.05 higher than female. Based on the result of our study the physical self-concept non-physical education and female is lower, than that physical education and male. The results may reflect that male and physical major education students, who usually spend more time on physical activity and sport training to have better fitness and skill oriented self concept than their counterparts.

  12. Effects of particle size and forming pressure on pore properties of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal by pressureless sintering (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Uk; Yi, Yujeong; Lee, Minjeong; Kim, Byoung-Kee


    With increased hydrogen consumption in ammonia production, refining and synthesis, fuel cells and vehicle industries, development of the material components related to hydrogen production is becoming an important factor in industry growth. Porous metals for fabrication of hydrogen are commonly known for their relative excellence in terms of large area, lightness, lower heat capacity, high toughness, and permeability. Fe-Cr-Al alloys not only have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and chemical stability but also ductility, excellent mechanical properties. In order to control powder size and sintering temperature effects of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal fabrication, Fe-Cr-Al powder was classified into 25-35 μm, 35-45 μm, 45-75 μm using an auto shaking sieve machine and then classified Fe-Cr-Al powders were pressed into disk shapes using a uniaxial press machine and CIP. The pelletized Fe-Cr-Al specimens were sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum. Properties such as pore size, porosity, and air permeability were evaluated using perm-porosimetry. Microstructure and phase changes were observed with SEM and XRD. Porosity and relative density were proportionated to increasing sintering temperature. With sufficient sintering at increasing temperatures, the pore size is expected to be gradually reduced. Porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperature and gradually increased necking of the powder.

  13. 埋入式微型孔压计在真空预压模型试验中的应用%Application of embedded micro pore water pressure gauges in model tests of vacuum preloading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文君; 刘松玉; 章定文; 朱小丹


    孔隙水压力的测量和分析对研究真空预压法具有重要意义。实际工程中的孔隙水压力计已经得到广泛应用,但是由于制造工艺上的限制,目前能用于真空预压室内模型试验的微型孔隙水压力计国内还比较少见。本文介绍了两种埋入式微型孔隙水压力计,利用自行设计和组装的仪器进行孔隙水压力计负压量程的标定,并进行了真空预压室内模型试验,从而评价微型孔隙水压力计的测量效果。标定试验结果表明,两种埋入式微型孔隙水压力计能准确地测量正压,并且对负压的测量结果精度也非常高。应用试验结果表明,排水板中的微型孔隙水压力计测量结果与膜下真空度变化规律一致;利用土体中的孔隙水压力计测量结果计算得到土体的固结度略小于由实测沉降数据计算的固结度,但变化规律一致,这充分说明这两种微型孔隙水压力计能够精确地测量真空预压中的负孔隙水压力。%The measurement and analysis of pore water pressure is of great significance for the studies on the vacuum preloading. In practical engineering, the pore water pressure gauge has been widely used. However, due to restrictions of the manufacturing process, the micro pore water pressure gauge that can be used for vacuum preloading model tests in laboratory is still relatively rare in China. Two kinds of embedded micro-pore water pressure gauges are introduced. The design, fabrication and assembly of a new laboratory apparatus for the investigation of the fundamental behavior of the embedded micro-pore water pressure gauge measuring negative excess pore water pressure are presented in this paper. The results from the calibration tests show that the two kinds of embedded micro-pore water pressure gauges can accurately measure the pressure. The results from the model tests show that in micro-drain pore water the variation of the pressure measured by micro pore water

  14. How changes in pore pressure affect fluid circulation in volcanoes: three examples from Vulcano Island, Mt. Etna and Mt Vesuvius (Italy) (United States)

    Federico, C.; Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; D'Alessandro, W.; Bellomo, S.; Brusca, L.; Cusano, P.; Longo, M.; Paonita, A.; Petrosino, S.


    Fluids circulating in volcanic edifices are attracting increasing interest from scientists, mostly because their role in triggering flank instability, phreatic explosions, and eruptions has been documented in several cases worldwide [Newhall et al. 2001, Thomas et al. 2004]. Fluid pore pressure can change as an effect of either external (meteoric recharge, variation of the stress field), or endogenous causes (e.g. internal pressurization of magmatic volatiles and hydrothermal systems). The reciprocal roles of tectonics and magmatic/hydrothermal activity are still under investigation [Gottsman et al. 2007, Roeloffs et al. 2003]. We discuss the results of decennial data records collected in the aquifers of Mt Etna, Vulcano Island and Mt Vesuvius, and get insights on the role of tectonics and volcanic activity on the observed variations of water level and chemical composition. In Vulcano Island, the shallow thermal aquifer is deeply concerned by deep volcanic fluids. The most significant variations were observed during the 1988-96 crisis, due to the large input of steam and acidic gases from depth. In addition, the record of the water table elevation provided remarkable insights on the pressure of the volcano-hydrothermal system, which can be envisaged as the cause for the onset of the phase of higher vapor output in the fumarolic field in late 2004. On Mt. Vesuvius, the geochemical behavior of the aquifer appears strictly controlled by the input of volcanic gases and variations in the stress field. These latter, which were responsible for the seismic crisis of 1999, and the almost simultaneous increased input of CO2-rich vapor, significantly affected water chemistry and temperature, until 2006. The recent observations of low salinity, temperature, and dissolved carbon contents in groundwater provide strong evidence for reduced pressure in the volcano-hydrothermal system. The record of water chemistry available on Mt. Etna since 1994 shows coeval changes in almost all

  15. Numerical Models of Pore Pressure and Stress Changes along Basement Faults due to Wastewater Injection: Applications to Potentially Induced Seismicity in Southern Kansas (United States)

    Koltermann, C.; Hearn, E. H.


    As hydrocarbon extraction techniques that generate large volumes of wastewater have come into widespread use in the central United States, increased volumes have been injected into deep disposal wells, with a corresponding dramatic increase in seismicity rates. South-central Kansas is of particular scientific interest because fluid injection rates have recently increased due to renewed gas and oil production from the Mississippi Lime Play, and the local seismicity is being monitored with a seismometer network deployed by the USGS. In addition, since only a small percentage of injection wells seem to induce seismicity, it is important to characterize contributing factors. We have developed groundwater flow models using MODFLOW-USG to (1) assess hydrogeologic conditions under which seismicity may be triggered, for cases in which wastewater is injected into sedimentary strata overlying fractured crystalline basement rock and to (2) explore the possible relationship between wastewater injection and the November 2014 M 4.8 Milan, Kansas earthquake. The USG version of MODFLOW allows us to use unstructured meshes, which vastly reduces computation time while allowing dense meshing near injection wells and faults. Our single-well test model has been benchmarked to published models (Zhang et al., 2013) and will be used to evaluate sensitivity pore pressures and stresses to model parameters. Our south Kansas model represents high-rate injection wells, as well as oil and gas wells producing from the Arbuckle and overlying Mississippian formations in a 40-km square region. Based on modeled pore pressure and stress changes along the target fault, we will identify conditions that would be consistent with inducing an earthquake at the Milan hypocenter. Parameters to be varied include hydraulic properties of sedimentary rock units, crystalline basement and the fault zone, as well as the (poorly resolved) Milan earthquake hypocenter depth.

  16. Nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being: a comprehensive systematic review. (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Aikasalo, Anna; Suvitie, Anne


    Exergames have the potential to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. They also have other important benefits, but knowledge about other than the physical effects of exergaming remains thin. To report the findings of a review of ten studies on the nonphysical effects of exergames on child and adolescent well-being. A broad search strategy was employed to identify relevant studies in CINAHL Ebsco Host, Ovid MEDLINE, Psycinfo ProQuest, Eric ProQuest, Scopus and Cochrane Library. The search timeframe was from January 2004 to April 2015. A comprehensive systematic review without meta-analysis was conducted on 10 quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods intervention studies. The quality of these studies was assessed following the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data were analysed using a narrative synthesis approach. Exergaming was found to have some positive effects on self-concept, situational interest and motivation, enjoyment, psychological and social well-being, symptomatology and different learning experiences. However, two studies reported no effect on self-efficacy, and one study showed no intervention effect on self-esteem. The only follow-up study indicated that the enjoyment effect lasted for a few months. Most of the studies reviewed found that exergaming had positive effects. However, more research evidence is still needed. In particular, there is a need for better-validated instruments and follow-up research. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Seaward- Versus Landward-Verging Thrusts in Accretionary Wedges: A Numerical Modeling Study of the Effects of Heterogeneity in Pore Fluid Pressure and Frictional Strength (United States)

    Ito, G.; Moore, G. F.; Olive, J. A. L.; Weiss, J. R.


    Whereas seaward-verging thrust faults are, by far, the most common large faults associated with accretionary wedges, the importance of the globally rare, landward verging thrusts has recently been highlighted given the prominence of landward vergence along the Cascadia margin as well as along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, especially in the rupture area of the great 2004 earthquake. The mechanical processes that lead to seaward- versus landward-verging thrusts in accretionary wedges has long been a topic of debate. A weak frictional décollement is one explanation that indeed promotes landward vergence, but not only so, because the typical pattern is of dual verging conjugate faults. A non-brittle, ductile décollement is a second explanation that has been shown in the laboratory to produce a wide sequence of only landward-verging thrusts, but the mechanical causes are not well understood and numerical modeling studies have yet to reproduce this behavior. A seaward-dipping backstop is a third explanation; it promotes landward vergence locally, but more distally the backstop effects diminish and the sense of vergence transitions back to seaward. Mohr-Coulomb and minimum work theory predict that landward vergence should predominate when the direction of maximum principal compression dips landward. We hypothesize that such a condition can arise due to the migration of pore fluids and the associated spatial heterogeneity in frictional strength within the wedge. We test this hypothesis using 2-D numerical models that use a finite-difference, particle-in-cell method for simulating the deformation of an accretionary wedge with a viscoelastic-plastic rheology. With a uniform internal frictional strength, the calculations reproduce many of the faulting behaviors seen in prior laboratory and numerical modeling studies. We are exploring the impacts of heterogeneity in pore fluid pressure and frictional strength on the pattern and vergence of thrust faults.

  18. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training. (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin


    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of "rigid" postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients.

  19. Pore Fluid Pressure and State of Stress Above the Plate Interface from Observations in a 3 Kilometer Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Subduction Zone (United States)

    Tobin, H. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Hirose, T.; Castillo, D. A.; Kitajima, H.; Sone, H.


    During IODP Expedition 348 from October 2013 to January 2014, Site C0002 was drilled to more than 3000 meters' depth into the inner accretionary wedge at the Nankai Trough, setting a new depth record for scientific ocean drilling. It is the first hole to access the deep interior of an active convergent margin. Site C0002 is part of the NanTroSEIZE project off the Kii-Kumano region of Japan, designed to shed light on plate boundary fault zone processes near the up-dip edge of seismogenic locking and slip. The zone from 865 - 3056 meters below the sea floor was sampled via logging-while-drilling measurements, continuous sampling of drill cuttings, and limited coring. This interval was composed of lithified middle to late Miocene hemipelagic sediments and turbidites that are markedly deformed and dip steeply. P-wave speeds from sonic logs increase with depth to ~ 1600 meters, but are constant to slightly decreasing with depth from 1600 to 3050 meters. We hypothesize that this change in trend indicates the onset of elevated pore fluid pressure, but structural and lithologic factors may also play a role. We explore several methods for quantitative estimation of sonic-derived fluid pressure conditions in the inner wedge. A borehole leak-off test (LOT) and a series of borehole pressurization and injection tests were also performed, which we synthesize to estimate the least principal stress, or Shmin. Furthermore, downhole pressure while drilling (PWD) measurements recorded during borehole packoff events provide information on the maximum principal stress, SHmax. Taken together, the LOT and PWD observations suggest that the inner wedge at ~ 2000 meters depth is currently in a strike-slip stress regime, despite its position as the hanging wall of a main plate boundary thrust. This may be a transitional stress regime between shallow normal and deep thrust, controlled by depth-dependent magnitude of the tectonic convergence-related principal stress. Our results document for

  20. The connectivity of pore space in mudstones: insights from high-pressure Wood's metal injection, BIB-SEM imaging, and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, J.; Hemes, S.; Houben, M.; Desbois, G.; Radi, Z.; Urai, J.L.


    Study of the pore space in mudstones by mercury intrusion porosimetry is a common but indirect technique and it is not clear which part of the pore space is actually filled with mercury. We studied samples from the Opalinus Clay, Boom Clay, Haynesville Shale, and Bossier Shale Formations using Wood'


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷金波; 万梦华; 易飞; 杨金尤


    In order to study the sinking-pile effect of the pipe-pile with holes,the analytic solution of the excess pore water pressure and the radius of plastic zone were deduced during the static sinking pipe -pile with holes on the base of cylindrical cavity expansion theory.According to earth pressure theory,the expression between excess pore water pressure and overlying effective stress were also derived.Finally,the varieties of excess pore water pressure were contrastively analyzed between pipe-pile without hole and pipe-pile with holes during static sinking-pile by combining with engineering cases.The change regulation of excess pore water pressure was revealed during the static sinking pipe-pile with holes.The research results showed that the pipe-pile with holes could accelerate the dissipation of the excess pore water pressure during static sinking pile,and reduced the maximum of excess pore water pressure.%为研究有孔管桩静压沉桩效应,基于圆孔扩张理论,推导出有孔管桩静压沉桩产生的超孔隙水压力、塑性区半径等解析表达式.同时根据土压力理论,推导出超孔隙水压力与上覆有效压力关系的表达式.最后结合工程案例,比较分析静压无孔管桩和有孔管桩超孔隙水压力的变化情况,揭示出有孔管桩静压沉桩产生的超孔隙水压力变化规律,验证了有孔管桩能够加速超孔隙水压力的消散,并降低超孔隙水压力最大值.

  2. 有孔管桩超孔隙水压力的数值模拟分析%The Numerical Simulation Analysis for Excess Pore Water Pressure of Pipe-pile with Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易飞; 雷金波; 何利军; 乐腾胜; 周星


    In order to explore a new way to reduce the adverse influence on the effect of sinking-pile process, the technique of pipe-pile with hole has been proposed. Based on model constructed by FLAC3D, the varieties of the relationship of excess pore water pressure have been compared and analyzed between pipe-pile without hole and the star of pipe-pile with hole during static sinking-pile. Simulation results show that the maximum of static pressure pipe-pile with hole of excess pore water pressure is smaller than the maximum of static pressure pipe-pile without hole of excess pore water pressure. It is proved that pipe-pile with hole is more conducive to the dissipation of excess pore water pressure, and provided a reliable theoretical basis for the application technology of pipe-pile with hole.%为探索减轻静压沉桩效应不利影响的新途径,提出了一种有孔管桩技术。基于FLAC3D软件建立的模型,比较分析了静压无孔管桩和星状对穿有孔管桩沉桩过程超孔隙水压力的变化情况。模拟分析结果表明:静压沉桩过程中有孔管桩超孔隙水压力的最大值小于无孔管桩超孔隙水压力的最大值,证明了有孔管桩有利于超孔隙水压力消散,从而为有孔管桩技术设计、开发及工程应用研究提供可靠的依据。

  3. 吹填土真空预压工程中孔压计改进埋设方法的研究%Improvement of Laying Pore Water Pressure Gauge for Vacuum Preloading of Dredger Fill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永辉; 汤明礼; 俞炯奇; 王文双


    This paper introduced two laying methods of pore water pressure gauge for vacuum preloading of dredger fill , i . e . traditional method of laying by drilling and an improved one of laying by spile machine , and compared monitoring data of the two methods . Results show that the gauge laid by spile machine will produce excess pore water pressure and the dissipation time of this pressure at deep measuring points is longer than that of pressure gauge laid by drilling . For pore water pressure gauge at shallow levels , using spile machine is convenient and cost -effective;while for pore water pressure gauge below 15m , traditional method of laying by drilling should be adopted .%介绍了吹填土真空预压工程中孔隙水压力计(以下简称“孔压计”)的传统钻孔埋设方法和改进埋设方法-插板机埋设,对使用改进埋设方法的监测数据进行了分析,并与钻孔埋设方法的监测数据进行比较。分析表明,采用插板机埋设的孔压计中产生明显超静孔隙水压力,且深部测点超静孔隙水压力消散所需时间较钻孔埋设的长;对于浅层深度的孔压计可采用插板机埋设,节省施工成本,方便快捷,而超过15 m深度的孔压计埋设则需采用常规钻孔。

  4. Fast fluid-flow events within a subduction-related vein system in oceanic eclogite: implications for pore fluid pressure at the plate interface (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas


    been completed within ca. 3 years. The short-lived, pulse-like character of this process is in accordance with the notion that fluid flow related to oceanic crust dehydration at the blueschist-to-eclogite transition contributes to or even dominates episodic pore fluid pressure increases at the plate interface which may trigger slip events reported from many subduction zones.

  5. Anaylysis and Application of Pore Water Pressure Gauge in Beiyekou Reservoir%柏叶口水库工程孔隙水压力计的分析与运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为了柏叶口水库大坝的安全运行,需要监测大坝的坝基渗流状况,为此文中比较了几种孔隙水压力计的性能,通过比较选定了振弦式孔隙水压力计,并叙述了具体布置情况。%In order to ensure the security operation of Beiyekou Reservoir,it is necessary to monitor the seepage situation through dam base.For this purpose,the performances of several kinds of pore water pressure gauges are compared.At last the vibrating string pore water pressure gauge is selected,and its allocation situation is introduced.

  6. One Dimensional Consolidation Behavior of Double-Layered Ground with Non-uniform Distribution of Initial Pore Water Pressure%初始孔压非均布双层地基一维固结性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江唯伟; 张军辉


    According to the consolidation theory of double-layered ground,a solution is given to the problem of onedimensional consolidation in consideration of instant load,singleside drain and non-uniform distribution of initial pore water pressure.The simplified diagram of initial pore water pressure distribution under different working conditions is given for engineering practice.The influence of initial pore water pressure distribution on one-dimensional consolidation behavior of double-layered ground is analyzed through computer program.The impact of stress spreading in dry crust on the consolidation curves is illustrated by calculating examples.%根据双层地基固结理论,推导出瞬时加载、单面排水、初始孔压非均布的一维固结解答.给出了双层地基不同工况对应的简化初始孔压分布图,以便实际运用.通过编制的计算程序,分析了不同初始孔压分布对双层地基一维固结性状的影响.结合硬壳层地基固结的计算实例,分析了硬壳层应力扩散效应对固结曲线影响.

  7. Effectiveness of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention on marital satisfaction and partner abuse (Non-physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Heshmati


    Full Text Available the aim of this research was to investigate effectiveness self-regulation couple therapy intervention on marital and partner abuse. in a semi-experimental with experimental and control group design, 24 couples were selected by convenient sampling method from Family Counseling Center of Ardabil city and were divided into two experimental (12 couples and control groups (12 couples through random assignment. Before the treatment, participants completed the Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS and Partner Abuse Scale (Non-physical (PASNP. Then, Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention protocol was implemented for the experimental group in 7 sessions of 90 minutes, and again the questionnaires were completed by both groups after eight weeks. The results showed that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention had a significant increase in marital satisfaction scores and significant reduction in non-physical partner abuse scores in experimental group compared with control group. These results suggest that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention is an effective way to improve marital conflicts and marital satisfaction. Key words: Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention, marital satisfaction, partner abuse

  8. Does Extension Play a Role in Ionian Tectonics? Potential Effects of Preexisting Bounding Faults, Local Brittle Failure, and Sulfur Pore Pressure on Crustal Stresses (United States)

    McKinnon, William B.; Kirchoff, M.; Bland, M.


    The majority of mountains observed on Io are tectonic, upthrusted blocks. Their formation is generally thought to be related to Io’s heat-pipe volcanism, crustal subsidence, and accompanying lateral confinement. In previous work, we demonstrated that compressional thermal stresses from sustained local or regional shut down of Io’s heat-pipe volcanism could also play a vital role in mountain formation, and help explain the anticorrelation between Io’s mountains and volcanic centers [Kirchoff and McKinnon 2009, Formation of mountains on Io: Variable volcanism and thermal stresses, Icarus 201, 598-614; Kirchoff et al. 2011, Global distribution of volcanoes and mountains on Io: Control by asthenospheric heating and implications for mountain formation, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 301, 22-30]. Here we refine our previous model by using an “unconfined” horizontal boundary condition (zero average lateral stress), including brittle failure (crustal plasticity), and adding sulfur to our rheological model. The unconfined horizontal boundary condition accounts for stresses released on preexisting, more distant faults; including crustal plasticity allows us to more realistically represent stresses that would exceed the brittle failure limit otherwise, and addition of sulfur to the model composition of Io’s crust further improves the rheological model of the crust. Heated and melted at depth, liquid sulfur creates pore pressure in the lower crust and profoundly reduces the brittle failure limit. Including these modifications when the volcanic eruption rate decreases introduces a region of tensional failure in the upper crust and increases the size of the region in compressional failure in the lower crust. Finite element models show that increasing compression at depth imparts substantial bending stresses, which can drive surface faulting and block rotation. Such conditions further facilitate mountain formation at the surface, and highlight the difference between Io

  9. Using regional pore-fluid pressure response following the 3 Sep 2016 M­­w5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake to constrain far-field seismicity rate forecasts (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Murray, K. E.; Cochran, E. S.


    The 3 Sep 2016 M­­w5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake was the largest event to occur in recorded history of the state. Widespread shaking from the event was felt in seven central U.S. states and caused damage as far away as Oklahoma City ( 115 km SSW). The Pawnee earthquake occurred soon after the deployment of a subsurface pore-fluid pressure monitoring network in Aug 2016. Eight pressure transducers were installed downhole in inactive saltwater disposal wells that were completed in the basal sedimentary zone (the Arbuckle Group). The transducers are located in Alfalfa, Grant, and Payne Counties at distances of 48 to 140 km from the Pawnee earthquake. We observed coseismic fluid pressure changes in all monitoring wells, indicating a large-scale poroelastic response in the Arbuckle. Two wells in Payne County lie in a zone of volumetric compression 48-52 km SSE of the rupture and experienced a co-seismic rise in fluid pressures that we conclude was related to poroelastic rebound of the Arbuckle reservoir. We compare measurements of the pore-fluid pressure change to estimated values given by the product of the volumetric strain, a Skempton's coefficient of 0.33, and a Bulk modulus of 25 GPa for fractured granitic basement rocks. We explore the possibility that the small increase in pore-fluid pressure may increase the rate of seismicity in regions outside of the mainshock region. We test this hypothesis by supplementing the Oklahoma Geological Survey earthquake catalog by semi-automated detection smaller magnitude (<2.6 M) earthquakes on seismic stations that are located in the vicinity of the wells. Using the events that occur in the week before the mainshock (27 Aug to 3 Sep 2016) as the background seismicity rate and the estimated pore-fluid pressure increase, we use a rate-state model to predict the seismicity rate change in the week following the event. We then compare the model predictions to the observed seismicity in the week following the Pawnee earthquake

  10. Research on distribution of initial excess pore water pressure due to shield tunnelling%盾构隧道施工引起的土体初始超孔隙水压力分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏新江; 陈伟军; 魏纲; 洪杰


    Excess pore water pressure is generated during shield tunnelling, resulting in consolidation settlement. Assuming the disturbance range shape of shield tunnelling is circular arc, the distribution range of excess pore water pressure is determined. The formula of initial excess pore water pressure of soil around tunnel lining is deduced by stress relief theory; and the formula of initial excess pore water pressure of soil within the region of its distribution at any point is subsequently deduced by stress transfer theory. By comparing calculated and measured data, it is shown that they are in good agreement. Based on practical example, a conclusion is drawn that the distribution shape of initial excess pore water pressure of soil around shield tunnel circle is roughly circular (top of small, bottom of large). With the increase of distance from shield tunnel central axis, the initial excess pore water pressure of soil shows a concave curve shape. At the same time, the isopleths at the bottom of shield tunnel changes fastest. Above the top of the tunnel, the initial excess pore water pressure of soil gets the maximum at the tunnel axis in different depths, showing a similar Peck shape.%盾构施工会对周围土体产生扰动,形成超孔隙水压力,引起工后固结沉降.运用应力释放理论推导与衬砌相邻的土体初始超孔隙水压力计算公式.假定扰动范围边界呈圆弧状,确定初始超孔隙水压力的分布范围;同时运用应力传递理论,推导分布范围内任一点土体的初始超孔隙水压力计算公式.通过对实测资料的分析可知,计算值与实测值吻合较好.算例分析表明,与衬砌相邻的土体初始超孔隙水压力呈近似圆形(顶部小、底部大);随着到衬砌的径向距离增加,土体初始超孔隙水压力呈凹曲线形状;隧道底部的等值线最密,即变化最快:隧道顶部上方土体、不同深度处土体初始超孔隙水压力,以隧道轴线处为最大,呈现类似Peck曲线形状.

  11. Field test and research on vehicle load induced dynamic pore pressure in asphalt pavement%车载引起的沥青路面内动水压力现场试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤潍泽; 欧金秋; 崔新壮; 楼俊杰; 肖溟; 张炯; 黄丹; 侯飞


    In order to study the influence on moisture damage of asphalt pavement caused by dynamic pore pressure due to moving vehicle loads,and explore the time histories of dynamic stress and dynamic pore pressure in the pavement surface layers,the heat-resistant dynamic stress and pore pressure sensors were developed and used to measure the dynamic stresses and pore pressures in the field,and the field measured data of dynamic pore pressure was acquired. Based on the Biot’s consolidation theory,a numerical fluid-solid coupling simulation method reflecting mobile effect of wheel load was used to analyze the response of pavement under the actual condition.The time history of dynamic pore pressure in pavement was quantitatively analyzed.Numerical simulation results matched well with in situ test data.The pump-suction effect of dynamic pore pressure that continuously generated in pavement void under cyclical vehicle loads led to the reduce of the asphalt-aggregate bond strength and further triggered the moisture damage.This study verified the hydraulic drive mechanism of moisture damage,and provided a theoretical guild for the moisture damage research and pavement design.%为了研究移动车载引起的动水压力对沥青路面水损坏产生的影响,探究路面层内动应力变化及动水压力的长消规律,利用自主研制的耐高温动应力和动水压力传感器,对现场行车荷载引起的动应力及动水压力进行实测,获取了动水压力的实测数据;并且基于 Biot 固结理论,利用一种反映移动效应的车轮荷载数值模拟方法,对实测工况下路面情况进行了动态流固耦合分析,定量研究了路面层内的动水压力长消规律。发现现场实测与数值模拟结果基本一致。沥青路面在周期行车荷载作用下,路面空隙中不断产生动水压力的泵吸作用,导致沥青混合料强度下降,进而引发水损坏。该成果验证了水损坏的水力驱动机理,

  12. Development of a numerical workflow based on μ-CT imaging for the determination of capillary pressure-saturation-specific interfacial area relationship in 2-phase flow pore-scale porous-media systems: a case study on Heletz sandstone (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Halisch, Matthias; Bogdan Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    In this case study, we present the implementation of a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical pore-scale model that is able to track and quantify the propagating fluid-fluid interfacial area on highly complex micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)-obtained geometries. Special focus is drawn to the relationship between reservoir-specific capillary pressure (pc), wetting phase saturation (Sw) and interfacial area (awn). The basis of this approach is high-resolution μ-CT images representing the geometrical characteristics of a georeservoir sample. The successfully validated 2-phase flow model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, including the surface tension force, in order to consider capillary effects for the computation of flow and the phase-field method for the emulation of a sharp fluid-fluid interface. In combination with specialized software packages, a complex high-resolution modelling domain can be obtained. A numerical workflow based on representative elementary volume (REV)-scale pore-size distributions is introduced. This workflow aims at the successive modification of model and model set-up for simulating, such as a type of 2-phase problem on asymmetric μ-CT-based model domains. The geometrical complexity is gradually increased, starting from idealized pore geometries until complex μ-CT-based pore network domains, whereas all domains represent geostatistics of the REV-scale core sample pore-size distribution. Finally, the model can be applied to a complex μ-CT-based model domain and the pc-Sw-awn relationship can be computed.

  13. 考虑碎石桩排水能力复合地基中孔压长消解析解%Analytic Solution of Pore Pressure of Liquefiable Composite Foundation Considering Drainage Capacity of Gravel Drains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武刚; 闫澍旺; 刘润; 徐余


    由于地震作用时间较短,且碎石桩渗透能力和土体渗透能力相比并不是无限大,因此本文考虑碎石桩排水能力研究了碎石桩桩体材料由地震引起的孔压的长消规律.根据比奥固结理论综合考虑碎石桩的排水能力和相应的初始条件及边界条件,推导出了能够真实反映碎石桩排水减压作用在地震期超孔隙水压力产生、扩散、消散过程中的贡献作用的一般解析解公式.同时讨论了碎石桩渗透能力的不同对抗震液化的影响作用.%Compared to the drainage capacity of soil, the drainage capacity of gravel drains is not infinite. Herein, the generation and dissipation rule of pore water pressure induced by earthquake in the gravel drains composite foundation is studied considering the drainage capacity of gravel drains. Based on the theory of Biot consolidation, a new analytic solution of excess pore water pressure during earthquake is deduced taking account of the drainage capacity, the initial and boundary condition of gravel drains, which can actually describe the contribution of gravel drains to the process of generation, diffusion and dissipation of the excess pore water pressure. Besides, the effect of drain permeability of the gravel drains on the liquefaction resistance of the foundation is discussed in accordance with the analytic solution.

  14. Evolution of Pore Size Distribution and Mean Pore Size in Lotus-type Porous Magnesium Fabricated with Gasar Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan LIU; Yanxiang LI; Huawei ZHANG; Jiang WAN


    The effect of gas pressures on the mean pore size, the porosity and the pore size distribution of lotus-type porous magnesium fabricated with Gasar process were investigated. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results all indicate that there exists an optimal ratio of the partial pressures of hydrogen pH2 to argon pAr for producing lotus-type structures with narrower pore size distribution and smaller pore size. The effect of solidification mode on the pore size distribution and pore size was also discussed.

  15. An experimental investigation into the influence of specimen size, in-situ pore pressures and temperatures on the spalling of difference size concrete panels when exposed to a hydrocarbon fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri M.


    Full Text Available Small and large scale reinforced concrete panels/walls were tested under hydrocarbon fire conditions to investigate concrete spalling. Results indicated that spalling is caused by the combination of thermal stresses and pore water pressure build-up. The degree and magnitude of spalling is governed by a number of inter-dependent factors including panel size, thickness and compressive strengths, all of which are investigated in this research. High strength concrete panels of increased surface area and thickness had higher degrees of concrete spalling.

  16. 考虑超孔压随深度变化一维固结计算式的推导%Derivation of One-dimensional Consolidation Formula Considering Changes of Excess Pore Pressure along Vertical Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松岩; 吉晓朋


    For saturated foundation with deep clay, additional stress along compression layer caused by subgrade load approximately decays in irregular curve.In order to further improve the accuracy of consolidation calculation, based on Ter aghi theory of one-dimensional consolidation, pore pressure formula in which the nonlinear change of initial excess pore pressure along vertical profile is taken into account, is derived in this paper.The convergence rate of the formula is discussed.Through certain simplification on the basis of ensuring accuracy, an equation of average consolidation degree of the whole compression layer is obtained.%对于含有深厚粘土的饱和地基,路基荷载引起的压缩层中的附加应力近似呈折线形衰减.为了进一步提高固结计算精度,以太沙基一维固结理论为基础,推导出了初始超孔压随深度变化为折线形的孔隙水压力计算式,并讨论了计算式的收敛速度,在保证精度的基础上适当进行一定的简化,得出了整个压缩层的平均固结度计算式.

  17. Modeling of N2 adsorption in MCM-41 materials: hexagonal pores versus cylindrical pores. (United States)

    Ustinov, Eugene A


    Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption in hexagonal pores and equivalent cylindrical pores is analyzed using nonlocal density functional theory extended to amorphous solids (NLDFT-AS). It is found that, despite significant difference of the density distribution over the cross-section of the pore, the capillary condensation/evaporation pressure is not considerably affected by the pore shape being slightly lower in the case of hexagonal geometry. However, the condensation/evaporation step in the hexagonal pore is slightly larger than that in the equivalent cylindrical pore because in the latter case the pore wall surface area and, hence, the amount adsorbed at pressures below the evaporation pressure are underestimated by 5%. We show that a dimensionless parameter defined as the ratio of the condensation/evaporation step and the upper value of the amount adsorbed at the condensation/evaporation pressure can be used as an additional criterion of the correct choice of the gas-solid molecular parameters along with the dependence of condensation/evaporation pressure on the pore diameter. Application of the criteria to experimental data on nitrogen adsorption on a series of MCM-41 silica at 77 K corroborates some evidence that the capillary condensation occurs at equilibrium conditions.

  18. In search of evidence of deep fluid discharges and pore pressure evolution in the crust to explain the seismicity style of the Umbria-Marche 1997-1998 seismic sequence (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Quattrocchi


    Full Text Available Starting soon after the first main-shocks of the long seismic sequence which has occurred along the Umbria-Marche boundary since September 1997, fluid geochemistry surveying was accomplished (around 200 samples over the epicentre area as a whole, collecting information on hydrological variations too. The collected experimental data allowed to discuss the spatial and temporal evolution of the circulating fluids, either in the chemistry or in the dynamic paths, during the different stages of the seismic sequence. All the geo-structural, seismological and fluid geochemistry information gathered in this sector of the Central Apennines are discussed together in an attempt to speculate about the possible role and evolution of pore-pressure at depth up to surface within the seismogenic process recalling the "Fault Valve Activity Model", the "Coseismic Strain Model", the "frictional heating-frictional stress coupling model" and the "Dilatancy Model". This overview may also explain the geochemical and hydrological experimentally observed anomalies, in occurrence of the seismic sequence. The seismic style of the long sequence is revised in terms of pore-pressure regime down to seismogenic depth (2-10 km, within the poly-phase Evaporite Triassic Basement (ETB and the Paleozoic Crystalline Basement (PCB, corresponding to the horizons of transient dehydration reactions: process triggered and enhanced during the seismogenic process, involving further fluid overpressure, and consequently further seismicity (chain effect. All the recalled processes and models may explain fluid remobilization and over-pressuring in the upper crust starting soon after the main-shocks, along relict low angle planes (close Apennine and anti-Apennine fault segments, rendering the Umbria-Marche boundary a "transiently weakened frictional instability zone", for a period spanning more than one year.

  19. The Study on the Pore Water Pressure and Deformation Rule in the Procedure of Mucky Soil's Consolidation%淤泥质土固结过程孔压及变形规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先伟; 兰孝龙; 田洪琴


    In-depth comprehending of the pore water pressure and the deformation in the procedure of mucky soil's consolidation has a significant meaning to study the theory of soil's drainage and consolidation. Though the text of the mucky soil in Huangshi Area ,by using the graded loading and once loading into same directional stress consolidation and unidirectional consolidation, to analysis the pore water pressure and the transformative rule during the whole process. The result indicates that two loading methods bring to different rules. Meanwhile the consolidation process will slow gradually when the pressure is lower to the threshold. The pressure will not as distinctive as the initial stage, even when the load is great. The mucky soil's consolidation in drainage has phases, it is caused by the change of the drainage speed about the free water and the leaked water. The main consolidation speed of the mucky soil is around 5minutes to 100minutes. If the consolidation pressure is close to the initial pressure, the consolidation coefficient is at the min. but the secondary consolidation coefficient is the max.%对深入了解土在外荷作用下的孔隙水压力与变形变化规律对研究土的排水固结机理具有重要意义.对黄石地区淤泥质土进行分级加荷与一次性加荷的各向等压固结试验及单向固结试验,分析全过程孔压与变形的变化规律,结果表明:两种加荷方式孔压消散的规律并不相同,当孔压降到相应某临界值以下时,固结过程会变得缓慢,即使在较大的外荷载作用下,土中孔压反映也远不如加载初期明显.固结排水过程具有阶段性,这主要是自由水与孔隙水排水速度变化所引起的.黄石淤泥质土的主固结时间总体在5~100 min范围内,当固结压力接近先期固结压力时固结系数最小,而次固结系数约为最大值.

  20. 长沙岭构造带三维地层压力计算方法及分布规律%Calculation method and distribution of three-dimensional pore pressure in Changshaling Structural Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶志; 樊洪海; 张国斌; 唐守宝


      长沙岭构造带是酒东盆地重要的油气勘探区,构造带内普遍存在异常高压。提出了一种基于单点假设的三维地层压力计算方法,能够利用三维层速度数据准确计算三维地层压力,并运用该方法对长沙岭构造带的三维地层压力进行计算分析。首先建立了构造带内几口重点探井的单井地层压力剖面,确定了合适的模型参数;其次对构造带的三维地震资料进行反演,获得了该区域的三维层速度数据;然后根据三维地层压力计算方法编制了相应的计算机程序,计算了长沙岭构造带的三维地层压力;最后结合计算的三维地层压力数据,对长沙岭构造带地层压力分布规律进行了系统分析。分析结果符合地层实际。%Changshaling Structural Belt is an important oil and gas exploration area in Jiudong Basin, and abnormal high pressure is universal in the zone. The paper proposes a new three-dimensional (3D)pore pressure calculation method based on single point hypothesis, which can use 3D interval velocity data to estimate 3D pore pressure. The novel method was applied to the 3D pore pressure calculation and analysis of Changshaling Structural Belt. Firstly, the pore pressure profile and model parameters of several key explor-atory wells were established. Secondly, the 3D interval velocity data of the structural belt was obtained by seismic inversion. Further, the computer program was developed, and it was used to calculate the 3D pore pressure of Changshaling Structural Belt. Finally, with the 3D pressure results of Changshaling Structural Belt, the pore pressure distribution of this zone was systematically analyzed, with positive results.

  1. An integral-free expression for short-term changes in fault stability due to pore pressure induced when a point load is placed on the pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space containing a fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh Chander; S K Tomar


    A concentrated load with step-function time behaviour is placed normal to the planar, pervious boundary of a porous elastic half space (PEHS) with compressible constituents. A planar fault exists in the PEHS in such a way that the poroelastic behaviour of the medium is unhindered. We derive an approximate but integral-free expression for CFSCPP, i.e., changes in fault stability due to changes in pore pressure, at a point not too far off the line along which the load acts. But, in the interest of simplicity, the main discussion is focussed on a consideration of CFSCPP at a point located on the fault at depth directly beneath the load. It is convenient to introduce dimensionless time directly proportional to real time . The constant of proportionality is 4c/z2, where is hydraulic diffusivity. The derived approximate expression gives results with an accuracy of greater than 99% for limited values of after the load is imposed. We learn from the derived expression that, for a given , fault stability undergoes an initial sudden decrease commensurate with the undrained pore pressure induced in the PEHS. This is followed by a more gradual decrease in fault stability with increasing until a minimum is reached. The real time to minimum fault stability increases with . The magnitude of CFSCPP decreases with as −2 for a given in the permissible range. The derived expression and the inferences based on it should be useful during earth science investigations of the possible hazards due to reactivation of a pre-existing shallow fault when a civil engineering project involving imposition of a heavy load on the earth’s surface is to be executed nearby. They should be useful also for investigations if a shallow earthquake occurs near such a project soon after its execution.

  2. Modified gradient ratio (GR) test system with micro pore pressure transducer measurement%结合微孔隙水压力计改良型GR试验系统分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张达德; 郦能惠; 陈柏麟; 傅新民


    本研究针对结合微孔隙水压力计改良型GR试验系统与一般GR试验系统进行了一系列的试验分析比较,研究中所使用的试验材料包含4种不同针轧不织布及5种不同比例渥太华砂与风化泥岩混合土壤.试验结果发现,由改良型GR试验系统所得的GR试验值都高于一般GR试验系统所得结果,同时也验证了微孔隙水压力计在GR试验系统中可提供较好的孔隙水压力量测与抗阻塞潜势评估.%A series of gradient ratio (GR) tests with conventional GR test device, modified implanted GR test device with and without micro pore pressure transducers were done. 4 different types of needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles and 5 mixtures of Ottawa sand and weathered mudstone with various percentages were used as testing materials. It was found that the GR values from modified GR tests are generally greater than that obtained from the conventional GR tests. It is believed the transducers installed in the GR test systems provide better measurement on pore pressure distribution and better evaluation of the clogging potential.

  3. Study of consolidation theory of composite ground with granular columns under nonuniform distribution of initial excess pore water pressure%初始孔压非均布条件下散体材料桩复合地基固结理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉国; 岳峰; 谢康和


    Aiming at the shortcoming of the existing consolidation theories of composite ground without considering nonuniform distribution of initial excess pore water pressure in practical engineering, the consolidation theory of composite ground with granular columns is studied in-depth by analytical method; and a general analytical solution is given to the consolidation problem for the composite ground with granular columns under nonuniform distribution of initial excess pore water pressure. The three special cases for nonuniform distribution of initial excess pore water pressure are discussed; and the expressions of average excess pore pressure and average degree of consolidation are derived under the rectangular (uniform), triangle and inverted triangle distribution of initial excess pore pressures. The results show that the distribution of initial excess pore water pressures has obvious influence on the consolidation of the composite ground with single drainage boundary. Under the uniform and triangle distribution of initial excess pore pressure, the excess pore water pressure dissipates gradually with the increase of Tv, and the one is always maximal at the bottom of foundation during consolidation; under the inverted triangle and trapezoidal (pB/pT =0-5) distribution of the initial pore water pressure, the Tv value is bigger, the excess pore water pressure isochrones are gentler, and the position of maximal excess pore pressure shifts from the top of foundation to the bottom; the change of excess pore water pressure reflects the characteristic "from small to big, and then smaller" in the consolidation process.%针对现有复合地基固结理论仍不能考虑实际工程中存在的初始孔压非均布情况的不足,采用解析方法对散体材料桩复合地基进行深入研究,给出了考虑初始孔压非均布的散体材料桩复合地基固结一般解.探讨了初始孔压非均布的3种特殊情况,导出了初始孔压矩形分布(均布)、正三

  4. Dilated pore of winer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R


    Full Text Available Two cases of dilated pore of Winer were observed. First case had single defined black papule with well defined margin, central pore and discharge of black powdery material from nose since 3 years. The second case had one 9mm, black well-defined papule with central pore discharging black powdery material on right forearm since 9 months and 9 similar smaller papules were seen on forearm and lower abdomen. Histopathologically both revealed greatly dilated infundibulum lined by acanthotic epidermis and atrophic subinfundibular hair structures thus confirming diagnosis of dilated pore of Winer

  5. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses. (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D


    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided.

  6. Fingerprint pores extractor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA


    Full Text Available alone. Sweat pores have been less utilized in the past due to constraints imposed by fingerprint scanning devices and resolution standards. Recently, progress has been made on both scanning devices and resolution standards to support the use of pores...

  7. Pore size distribution mapping


    Strange, John H.; J. Beau W. WEBBER; Schmidt, S.D.


    Pore size distribution mapping has been demonstrated using NMR cryoporometry\\ud in the presence of a magnetic field gradient, This novel method is extendable to 2D and 3D mapping. It offers a unique nondestructive method of obtaining full pore-size distributions in the range 3 to 100 nm at any point within a bulk sample. \\ud

  8. 可压缩流体饱和孔隙介质中孔隙压力波传播数值分析%Numerical analysis of propagation of pore pressure waves in compressible fluid saturated porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨多兴; 李琦; 王舒


    首次将高精度时空守恒元/解元方法推广到可压缩流体饱和孔隙介质中孔隙压力波传播的数值计算中。将孔隙度梯度从源(汇)项中分离,直接引入流通量,改进了理论模型。通过对孔隙介质激波问题的数值模拟,验证了方法的精度和有效性。在此基础上,提出了孔隙介质中二维黎曼问题,并揭示了孔隙压力波存在接触间断、激波、膨胀波、压缩波等复杂的结构特征。该成果对二氧化碳地质封存、二氧化碳提高石油采收率、页岩气压裂开采以及地震破裂过程的研究具有重要的理论与应用意义。%The governing equations of the propagation of shock waves in compressible fluid saturated deformable porous media are improved by the way the porosity gradient terms are treated in the flow flux vector. An updated space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, which is a new approach in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is presented to depict global and local flux conservation in space-time domain. The physical model and the CE/SE method are both validated with the experimental study based on the head-on collision of a planar shock wave through a rigid porous material;and then good agreements are found to be evident. After that, the two-dimensional Riemann problem in the porous media is established. It is found that the wave structures of the pore pressure consist of shock waves, compaction waves, expansion waves and the contact discontinuity. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that pore pressure waves have been successfully simulated with the CE/SE method inside a multiphase deformable porous medium. The findings are potentially applicable to CO2 geological storage, CO2 enhanced oil recovery, shale gas exploration and earthquake rupture processes.

  9. Velocities in Solar Pores (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.


    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  10. Pore Structure Characterization of Indiana Limestone and Pink Dolomite from Pore Network Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire-Gormaly Marina


    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in deep underground saline aquifers holds significant promise for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, challenges remain in predicting the long term migration of injected CO2. Addressing these challenges requires an understanding of pore-scale transport of CO2 within existing brine-filled geological reservoirs. Studies on the transport of fluids through geological porous media have predominantly focused on oil-bearing formations such as sandstone. However, few studies have considered pore-scale transport within limestone and other carbonate formations, which are found in potential storage sites. In this work, high-resolution micro-Computed Tomography (microCT was used to obtain pore-scale structural information of two model carbonates: Indiana Limestone and Pink Dolomite. A modified watershed algorithm was applied to extract pore network from the reconstructed microCT volumetric images of rock samples and compile a list of pore-scale characteristics from the extracted networks. These include statistical distributions of pore size and radius, pore-pore separation, throat radius, and network coordination. Finally, invasion percolation algorithms were applied to determine saturation-pressure curves for the rock samples. The statistical distributions were comparable to literature values for the Indiana Limestone. This served as validation for the network extraction approach for Pink Dolomite, which has not been considered previously. Based on the connectivity and the pore-pore separation, formations such as Pink Dolomite may present suitable storage sites for carbon storage. The pore structural distributions and saturation curves obtained in this study can be used to inform core- and reservoir-scale modeling and experimental studies of sequestration feasibility.

  11. Consideraciones termodinámicas entre la formación de poros y la presión hidrostática durante la soldadura subacuatica mojada Thermodynamic considerations between pores formation and hydrostatic pressure during underwater wet welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Quintana Puchol


    Full Text Available Las formaciones de poros y grietas en los cordones de soldadura durante la soldadura subacuatica mojada son las principales causas que impiden alcanzar las propiedades mecánicas requeridas en el metal de soldadura para que estas possam ser utilizadas em aplicações de responsabilidade. Estos defectos están estrechamente asociados a la descomposición de la molécula de agua en las condiciones del arco eléctrico. En el presente trabajo se expone los cálculos termodinámicos sobre el complejo proceso de la descomposición del agua en las condiciones de las altas temperaturas de arco eléctrico a una presión de una atmósfera de vapor. Los valores de las presiones parciales de los cinco principales productos de la evaporización y descomposición del agua (H2O(g, H2, O2, H y O son calculados a temperaturas entre 1870 y 4000 K. Debido a que el hidrógeno atómico es el principal responsable de la formación de poros en el metal de soldadura es que se expresa finalmente su presión parcial en función de las presiones parciales del oxígeno atómico y vapor de agua. Se expone valores de la solubilidad del hidrógeno en el metal líquido en las condiciones de la soldadura subacuatica mojada a 50 y 100 m de profundidad y finalmente se compara los resultados obtenidos por cálculos termodinámicos con las mediciones efectuadas en soldaduras realizadas a 50 y 100m de profundidad.The pores and cracks formations in weld bead during underwater wet welding are the main cause that prevent to reach the required mechanical properties of the weld metal. These defects are closely associated with the decomposition of the water molecule under conditions of electric arc. In this paper the thermodynamic calculations of the complex process of the water decomposition under the conditions of high temperatures of electric arc to a pressure of one atmosphere of steam is exposed. The values of the partial pressures of the five main products of the vaporizations and

  12. Vapor intrusion in soils with multimodal pore-size distribution


    Alfaro Soto Miguel; Hung Kiang Chang


    The Johnson and Ettinger [1] model and its extensions are at this time the most widely used algorithms for estimating subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings (API [2]). The functions which describe capillary pressure curves are utilized in quantitative analyses, although these are applicable for porous media with a unimodal or lognormal pore-size distribution. However, unaltered soils may have a heterogeneous pore distribution and consequently a multimodal pore-size distribution [3], which ...

  13. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.


    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  14. Pore Pressure Measurements inside Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.; Grüne, Joachim

    Large scale model tests have been performed in the LARGE WAVE CHANNEL (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK).......Large scale model tests have been performed in the LARGE WAVE CHANNEL (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK)....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  16. Properties of solar pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, Peter


    We present the results of an extensive investigation of the properties of solar pores. Spectra of all 4 Stokes parameters of several magnetic sensitive absorption lines as well as Stokes I only spectra of lines with low or vanishing Landéfactor have been observed. An inversion code based on the Leve

  17. Dependence of CO2 Reactivity of Carbon Anodes on Pore Structure (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Liu, Rui; Gao, Shoulei; Wang, Zengjie


    The correlation between the CO2 reactivity and pore structure of carbon anodes was experimentally investigated. The pore structures of the anodes before and after CO2 oxidation were characterized using image analysis. The porosity, mean pore diameter, and the number of micro-cracks decreased with increasing anode forming pressure, while they increased with over-compaction. With prolonged CO2 oxidation time, the porosity, pore density, mean pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and the number of micro-cracks increased due to the merging of small pores, increased pore connectivity, and generation of new pores. The activation energy decreased with increasing porosity of the anodes' pitch phase due to easier CO2 penetration and reaction within the anodes. The results confirm that the fine pitch-coke phase of anodes is preferentially consumed, a cause of carbon dusting. Optimization of the pore structures to balance the pitch, coke, and butt phases may potentially further reduce carbon dusting.

  18. Modeling branching pore structures in membrane filters (United States)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.


    Membrane filters are in widespread industrial use, and mathematical models to predict their efficacy are potentially very useful, as such models can suggest design modifications to improve filter performance and lifetime. Many models have been proposed to describe particle capture by membrane filters and the associated fluid dynamics, but most such models are based on a very simple structure in which the pores of the membrane are assumed to be simple circularly-cylindrical tubes spanning the depth of the membrane. Real membranes used in applications usually have much more complex geometry, with interconnected pores which may branch and bifurcate. Pores are also typically larger on the upstream side of the membrane than on the downstream side. We present an idealized mathematical model, in which a membrane consists of a series of bifurcating pores, which decrease in size as the membrane is traversed. Feed solution is forced through the membrane by applied pressure, and particles are removed from the feed either by sieving, or by particle adsorption within pores (which shrinks them). Thus the membrane's permeability decreases as the filtration progresses, ultimately falling to zero. We discuss how filtration efficiency depends on the characteristics of the branching structure. Partial support from NSF DMS 1261596 is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. The pore space scramble (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils


    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  20. Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of Closure and Contact Bonding of Pores During Hot Rolling of Steel (United States)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Chun, Myung Sik; Moon, Chang Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop


    The closure and contact bonding behavior of internal pores in steel slabs during hot rolling was studied using experiments and the finite element method (FEM). Effects of pore size and shape were investigated, and three different cases of pore closure results were observed: no closure, partial closure, and full closure. The FEM results well reproduced various closure events. Bonding strengths of unsuccessfully closed pores, measured by tensile tests, showed critical effects. Also, there was a difference in bonding strengths of several fully closed pores. Fracture surfaces showed that welded regions could be divided into three (not, partially, and perfectly) welded regions. The pressure-time curves obtained from the FEM results indicate that pore surface contact time and deformed surface length are important parameters in pore welding. Pore size, pore shape, time of pressure contact, and deformed surface length should be considered to completely eliminate pores in final products.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桥学; 竹村贵人; 林为人; 漆松雪彦


    To visualize in detail the manner of deformation in rocks under various confining and pore water pressures,a micro X-ray CT system is used to obtain three-dimensional images with a high resolution of 5 (m. A new pressure vessel is developed to simultaneously supply both confining pressure and pore water pressure to rock specimens. Berea sandstone and Noto diatomaceous mudstone specimens with diameter of 10 mm and length of 20 mm are deformed hydrostatically. The diameters at every 15° are measured under various conditions of confining and pore water pressures. The average diameter decreases monotonically with increasing effective confining pressure,which is defined as the difference between confining pressure and pore water pressure. Sensitive orientation around the specimen diameter during pressurization is recognized,deformation anisotropy during pressurization then emerges and the anisotropic ratios reach a maximum value of 8% in the case of Noto diatomaceous mudstone. The method of micro X-ray CT is applicable for deformation measurements of small and irregular rock specimens under various confining and pore water pressures.%为得到岩石试样在各种围压和孔隙水压条件下的成像并分析其变形,利用显微X光CT系统获得具有5 (m高分辨率的三维图像.为此,设计和制造了一个可以对岩石试样同时加围压和孔隙水压的新型压力容器.用此容器,对高20 mm、直径10 mm的Berea砂岩及Noto硅藻泥岩试样施加静水压并使之变形.在各种围压和孔隙水压条件下,每隔15°测试其径向尺寸.试样的平均直径随着有效围压的增长而单调减小.在此,有效围压被定义为围压和孔隙水压之差.随着有效围压的增加,其直径的变化根据不同的方向而不同,即其变形的各向异性特征得到了证实.Noto硅藻泥岩试样的各向异性比最大,达8%.实验结果表明,此显微X光CT方法可用来测试在各种围压和孔隙水压条件下一般方法

  2. Vapor intrusion in soils with multimodal pore-size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Soto Miguel


    Full Text Available The Johnson and Ettinger [1] model and its extensions are at this time the most widely used algorithms for estimating subsurface vapor intrusion into buildings (API [2]. The functions which describe capillary pressure curves are utilized in quantitative analyses, although these are applicable for porous media with a unimodal or lognormal pore-size distribution. However, unaltered soils may have a heterogeneous pore distribution and consequently a multimodal pore-size distribution [3], which may be the result of specific granulometry or the formation of secondary porosity related to genetic processes. The present paper was designed to present the application of the Vapor Intrusion Model (SVI_Model to unsaturated soils with multimodal pore-size distribution. Simulations with data from the literature show that the use of a multimodal model in soils with such pore distribution characteristics could provide more reliable results for indoor air concentration, rather than conventional models.

  3. Pore dynamics in lipid membranes (United States)

    Gozen, I.; Dommersnes, P.


    Transient circular pores can open in plasma membrane of cells due to mechanical stress, and failure to repair such pores lead to cell death. Similar pores in the form of defects also exist among smectic membranes, such as in myelin sheaths or mitochondrial membranes. The formation and growth of membrane defects are associated with diseases, for example multiple sclerosis. A deeper understanding of membrane pore dynamics can provide a more refined picture of membrane integrity-related disease development, and possibly also treatment options and strategies. Pore dynamics is also of great importance regarding healthcare applications such as drug delivery, gene or as recently been implied, cancer therapy. The dynamics of pores significantly differ in stacks which are confined in 2D compared to those in cells or vesicles. In this short review, we will summarize the dynamics of different types of pores that can be observed in biological membranes, which include circular transient, fusion and hemi-fusion pores. We will dedicate a section to floral and fractal pores which were discovered a few years ago and have highly peculiar characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the repair mechanisms of large area pores in conjunction with the current cell membrane repair hypotheses.

  4. Soils, Pores, and NMR (United States)

    Pohlmeier, Andreas; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Haber, Agnes; Sucre, Oscar; Stingaciu, Laura; Stapf, Siegfried; Blümich, Bernhard


    Within Cluster A, Partial Project A1, the pore space exploration by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) plays a central role. NMR is especially convenient since it probes directly the state and dynamics of the substance of interest: water. First, NMR is applied as relaxometry, where the degree of saturation but also the pore geometry controls the NMR signature of natural porous systems. Examples are presented where soil samples from the Selhausen, Merzenhausen (silt loams), and Kaldenkirchen (sandy loam) test sites are investigated by means of Fast Field Cycling Relaxometry at different degrees of saturation. From the change of the relaxation time distributions with decreasing water content and by comparison with conventional water retention curves we conclude that the fraction of immobile water is characterized by T1 samples (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010). Third, relaxometric information forms the basis of understanding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The general difficulty of imaging in soils are the inherent fast T2 relaxation times due to i) the small pore sizes, ii) presence of paramagnetic ions in the solid matrix, and iii) diffusion in internal gradients. The last point is important, since echo times can not set shorter than about 1ms for imaging purposes. The way out is either the usage of low fields for imaging in soils or special ultra-short pulse sequences, which do not create echoes. In this presentation we will give examples on conventional imaging of macropore fluxes in soil cores (Haber-Pohlmeier et al. 2010), and the combination with relaxometric imaging, as well as the advantages and drawbacks of low-field and ultra-fast pulse imaging. Also first results on the imaging of soil columns measured by SIP in Project A3 are given. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Waterflow Monitored by Tracer Transport in Natural Porous Media Using MRI." Vadose Zone J.: submitted. Haber-Pohlmeier, S., S. Stapf, et al. (2010). "Relaxation in a

  5. Size dependent pore size distribution of shales by gas physisorption (United States)

    Roshan, Hamid; Andersen, Martin S.; Yu, Lu; Masoumi, Hossein; Arandian, Hamid


    Gas physisorption, in particular nitrogen adsorption-desorption, is a traditional technique for characterization of geomaterials including the organic rich shales. The low pressure nitrogen is used together with adsorption-desorption physical models to study the pore size distribution (PSD) and porosity of the porous samples. The samples are usually crushed to a certain fragment size to measure these properties however there is not yet a consistent standard size proposed for sample crushing. Crushing significantly increases the surface area of the fragments e.g. the created surface area is differentiated from that of pores using BET technique. In this study, we show that the smaller fragment sizes lead to higher cumulative pore volume and smaller pore diameters. It is also shown that some of the micro-pores are left unaccounted because of the correction of the external surface area. In order to illustrate this, the nitrogen physisorption is first conducted on the identical organic rich shale samples with different sizes: 20-25, 45-50 and 63-71 µm. We then show that such effects are not only a function of pore structure changes induced by crushing, but is linked to the inability of the physical models in differentiating between the external surface area (BET) and micro-pores for different crushing sizes at relatively low nitrogen pressure. We also discuss models currently used in nano-technology such as t-method to address this issue and their advantages and shortcoming for shale rock characterization.

  6. Effects of supersaturation on pore shape in solid (United States)

    Wei, P. S.; Hsiao, S. Y.


    The shape of a pore resulting from a bubble entrapped by a solidification front with different supersaturation ratios is predicted in this work. Supersaturation ratio, representing the ratio between solute concentration and saturation solute concentration, determines nucleation of a bubble and development of the pore shape in the early stage. Pore formation and its shape in solid influence contemporary issues of biology, engineering, foods, geophysics and climate change, etc. This work extends and combines previous models accounting for realistic mass and momentum transport, and physico-chemical equilibrium of solute gas across the bubble cap to self-consistently determine shape of the bubble cap beyond the solidification front and the pore shape in solid. The study also deal with that pore formation can be resulted from three different mechanisms, depending on the directions and magnitude of solute gas transport across the bubble cap. Case 1 is subject to solute transport from the pore across the cap into the surrounding liquid in the early stage. Cases 2a and 2b indicate opposite direction of solute transport. In contrast to Case 2b, the effect of solute transport on solute gas pressure in the pore in Case 2a is stronger than that of pore volume expansionin the last stage. The results find that an increase in supersaturation ratio decreases pore radius and time for bubble entrapment in Case 1. The bubble cannot be entrapped in Case 2. The predicted pore shape in solid agrees with experimental data. Understanding, prediction and control of the growth of the pore shape have therefore been obtained.

  7. Pore networks in continental and marine mudstones: Characteristics and controls on sealing behavior (United States)

    Heath, J.E.; Dewers, T.A.; McPherson, B.J.O.L.; Petrusak, R.; Chidsey, T.C.; Rinehart, A.J.; Mozley, P.S.


    Mudstone pore networks are strong modifiers of sedimentary basin fluid dynamics and have a critical role in the distribution of hydrocarbons and containment of injected fluids. Using core samples from continental and marine mudstones, we investigate properties of pore types and networks from a variety of geologic environments, together with estimates of capillary beam- scanning electron microscopy, suggest seven dominant mudstone pore types distinguished by geometry and connectivity. A dominant planar pore type occurs in all investigated mudstones and generally has high coordination numbers (i.e., number of neighboring connected pores). Connected networks of pores of this type contribute to high mercury capillary pressures due to small pore throats at the junctions of connected pores and likely control most matrix transport in these mudstones. Other pore types are related to authigenic (e.g., replacement or pore-lining precipitation) clay minerals and pyrite nodules; pores in clay packets adjacent to larger, more competent clastic grains; pores in organic phases; and stylolitic and microfracture-related pores. Pores within regions of authigenic clay minerals often form small isolated networks (environments and greater maximum depth of burial. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  8. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  9. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.


    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  10. Ion transport across transmembrane pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontiadou, Hari; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan


    To study the pore-mediated transport of ionic species across a lipid membrane, a series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed of a dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline bilayer containing a preformed water pore in the presence of sodium and chloride ions. It is found that the stability of

  11. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films. (United States)

    LeClere, D J; Thompson, G E; Derby, B


    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  12. Superplastically foaming method to make closed pores inclusive porous ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Hidetaka, E-mail: [Division of Molecular and Material Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University Okayama (Japan)


    Porous ceramics incorporates pores to improve several properties including thermal insulation maintaining inherenet ceramic properties such as corrosion resistance and large mechanical strength. Conventional porous ceramics is usually fabricated through an insufficient sintering. Since the sintering accompanies the exclusion of pores, it must be terminated at the early stage to maintain the high porosity, leading to degraded strength and durability. Contrary to this, we have innovated superplastically foaming method to make ceramic foams only in the solid state. In this method, the previously inserted foam agent evaporates after the full densification of matrix at around the sintering temperature. Closed pores expand utilizing the superplastic deformation driven by the evolved gas pressure. The typical features of this superplastically foaming method are listed as follows, 1. The pores are introduced after sintering the solid polycrystal. 2. Only closed pores are introduced, improving the insulation of gas and sound in addition to heat. 3. The pore walls are fully densified expecting a large mechanical strength. 4. Compared with the melt foaming method, this method is practical because the fabrication temperature is far below the melting point and it does not need molds. 5. The size and the location pores can be controlled by the amount and position of the foam agent.

  13. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng


    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. PMID:24955384

  14. Preparation of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer and Its Three- dimensional Pore Structural Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunsheng; ZHANG Wenhua; SUN Wei; LI Zongjin; LIU Zhiyong


    Three types of pure geopolymer pastes (poly-sialate PS, poly- sialate-siloxo PSS, and poly-sialate-siloxo PSDS) werefi rst prepared by alkali (NaOH and KOH) activated metakaolin. Then a void space network was employed to simulate the 3-D pore-throat distribution across the unit cell of the various hardened geopolymer pastes with reference to their experimental mercury intrusion curves. Based on the simulated 3-D pore-throat structure models, a wide range of pore-level properties such as porosity, connectivity, permeability and tortuosity of various geopolymer pastes were calculated. The 3-D structural model and calculated parameters showed that most of the pores in Na-PS geopolymer paste was very small size pores ranging from 0 to 100 nm. A few very large pores were spread amongst the small pores, resulting in a very high penetration pressure, permeability resistance. Unlike Na-PS geopolymer paste, pore size with medium size of Na-PSS, K-PS and K-PSS geopolymer pastes distributed uniformly across the unit cell, and the size changes of adjacent pores in the 3 geopolymer pastes were little, producing higher penetration pressure, lower permeability, smaller connectivity and larger tortuosity. In contrast, pores in Na-PSDS and K-PSDS geopolymer pastes were relatively large and distributed concentratively, which caused samples to be easily penetrated by mercury, methane and nitrogenetc under relatively low pressures.

  15. Computational modeling of electrokinetic transport in random networks of micro-pores and nano-pores (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Mani, Ali


    A reduced order model has been developed to study the nonlinear electrokinetic behaviors emerging in the transport of ionic species through micro-scale and nano-scale porous media. In this approach a porous structure is modeled as a network of long and thin pores. By assuming transport equilibrium in the thin dimensions for each pore, a 1D transport equation is developed in the longitudinal direction covering a wide range of conditions including extreme limits of thick and thin electric double layers. This 1D model includes transport via diffusion, electromigration and wide range of advection mechanisms including pressure driven flow, electroosmosis, and diffusion osmosis. The area-averaged equations governing the axial transport from different pores are coupled at the pore intersections using the proper conservation laws. Moreover, an asymptotic treatment has been included in order to remove singularities in the limit of small concentration. The proposed method provides an efficient framework for insightful simulations of porous electrokinetic systems with applications in water desalination and energy storage. PhD student in Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University. She received her Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford at 2013. Her research interests include CFD, high performance computing, and optimization.

  16. 波浪导致黄河口海床沉积物超孔压响应现场试验研究%In situ experiment of wave-induced excess pore pressure in the seabed sediment in Yellow River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓磊; 贾永刚; 郑杰文


    黄河口海床特殊的工程地质性质与复杂的工程动力稳定性问题,均与海床沉积物在波浪荷载作用下的孔压动力响应密切相关。在现代黄河水下三角洲潮间带岸滩选择4个典型研究点,现场模拟波浪作用对原状海床沉积物实施循环加载,利用孔隙水压力观测、沉积物强度测试、样品采集与实验室土工测试等方法手段,测定黄河口原状海床沉积物在循环荷载作用不同阶段的孔压响应与强度变化。研究发现,黄河口原状海床沉积物在经历循环加载过程中,典型的超孔压响应可分为逐渐累积、部分消散、快速累积、累积液化和完全消散5个阶段,分别对应沉积物强度的衰减、增大、衰减、丧失和恢复过程,沉积物的粒度组成与结构性强弱决定了超孔压的具体响应模式。波浪导致原状海床液化深度受沉积物的干密度、孔隙比、饱和度等初始物理性质影响显著,细颗粒组分的相对含量高低也在很大程度上控制着沉积物的液化特性。%Both the special engineering geological properties and the complex engineering dynamic stability problems are closely related to the wave-induced dynamic response of pore pressure in seabed sediment in the Yellow River estuary. Four typical sites on the intertidal flats of the Yellow River delta are selected to simulate the wave action on the intact seabed sediments. Various testing methods, such as pore water piezometer test, field sediment strength test and sampling/laboratory geotechnical experiments, are employed to determine the variations in pore pressure and strength of the undisturbed seabed sediments at different stages under the cyclic loading. It is shown that during the cyclic loading process, the excess pore pressure response of undisturbed seabed sediment can be separated into 5 stages including gradual accumulation, partial dissipation, rapid accumulation, accumulated

  17. Improvement of the Kruk-Jaroniec-Sayari method for pore size analysis of ordered silicas with cylindrical mesopores. (United States)

    Jaroniec, Mietek; Solovyov, Leonid A


    In this work, the X-ray diffraction structure modeling was employed for analysis of hexagonally ordered large-pore silicas, SBA-15, to determine their pore width independently of adsorption measurements. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to evaluate the relative pressure of capillary condensation in cylindrical mesopores of these materials. This approach allowed us to extend the original Kruk-Jaroniec-Sayari (KJS) relation (Langmuir 1997, 13, 6267) between the pore width and capillary condensation pressure up to 10 nm instead of previously established range from 2 to 6.5 nm for a series of MCM-41 and to improve the KJS pore size analysis of large pore silicas.

  18. Formation of spherical stomatocyte of high-genus vesicle under pore-size constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Noguchi, Hiroshi


    Nuclear pores have an approximately uniform distribution in the nuclear envelope of most living cells. Hence, the morphology of the nuclear envelope is a spherical stomatocyte with a high genus. We have investigated the morphology of high-genus vesicles under pore-size constraint using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations. Bending-energy minimization without volume or other constraints produces a circular-cage stomatocyte, where the pores are aligned in a circular line on an oblate inner bud. As the pore radius is reduced, the circular-pore alignment is more stabilized than a random pore distribution on a spherical bud. However, we have clarified the conditions for the formation of a spherical stomatocyte: a small reduced volume, osmotic pressure within the inner bud, and repulsion between the pores. When area-difference elasticity is taken into account, the formation of cylindrical or budded tubules from the stomatocyte and discoidal stomatocyte is found.

  19. Pore-scale Modelling of Capillarity in Swelling Granular Materials (United States)

    Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Sweijen, T.; Nikooee, E.; Chareyre, B.


    Capillarity in granular porous media is a common and important phenomenon in earth materials and industrial products, and therefore has been studied extensively. To model capillarity in granular porous media, one needs to go beyond current models which simulate either two-phase flow in porous media or mechanical behaviour in granular media. Current pore-scale models for two-phase flow such as pore-network models are tailored for rigid pore-skeletons, even though in many applications, namely hydro-mechanical coupling in soils, printing, and hygienic products, the porous structure does change during two-phase flow. On the other hand, models such as Discrete Element Method (DEM), which simulate the deformable porous media, have mostly been employed for dry or saturated granular media. Here, the effects of porosity change and swelling on the retention properties was studied, for swelling granular materials. A pore-unit model that was capable to construct the capillary pressure - saturation curve was coupled to DEM. Such that the capillary pressure - saturation curve could be constructed for varying porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The study material was super absorbent polymer particles, which are capable to absorb water 10's to 200 times their initial weight. We have simulated quasi-static primary imbibition for different porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The results reveal a 3 dimensional surface between capillary pressure, saturation, and porosity, which can be normalized by means of the entry pressure and the effective water saturation to a unique curve.

  20. 中地壳断层带内微裂隙愈合与高压流体形成条件的模拟实验研究%A simulating experimental study on crack healing and the formation of high pore fluid pressure in faults of middle crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮; 周永胜; 姚文明


    中地壳断层带内发现的接近静岩压力的高压流体能够合理解释汶川Ms8.0级地震断层的高角度逆冲滑动,而高压流体的产生与断层带的微裂隙愈合紧密相关.利用熔融盐固体介质三轴高温高压实验系统,我们采用含水和烘干的Carrara大理岩样品开展了微裂隙愈合实验,研究中地壳断层带内高压流体的形成条件.实验分为三类:A类、A+B类和A+B+C类,其中A阶段实验在室温条件下将样品压裂,形成一系列共轭破裂面,B阶段实验在600℃、围压700 MPa和应变速率10-6s-1条件下愈合了A阶段破碎的样品,实验样品从以碎裂变形为主向以韧性变形为主转变,C阶段实验通过快速降低轴压模拟一个扩容过程,再以相同实验条件重新加载样品,通过比较实验样品强度来检验样品的愈合程度.样品显微结构和实验样品强度表明,动态重结晶作用能够愈合微裂隙和孔隙,水能促进矿物的动态重结晶作用,较高的水含量和较大的应变有利于微裂隙和孔隙的愈合,从而有利于高压流体的形成.%Sublithostatic pore fluid pressure in faults cutting the middle crust is considered to trigger slip on the high-angle reverse fault slip for the Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake, the mechanism of which is suggested to be related to crack healing. We conducted microcrack healing experiments on Carrara marble samples with different water contents to reveal the formation conditions of high pore fluid pressure using a molten-cell solid medium triaxial apparatus under high temperature and pressure. The experiments were designed to be three types as A, A+B and A+B+C, respectively. All the samples were fractured at room temperature in phase A, leading to conjugate fractures as the result of brittle deformation, and then healed at a constant temperature of 600 C , confining pressure of 700 Mpa and a strain rate of 10-6s-1 in phase B, causing a transition from cataclastic flow to plastic

  1. Analysis of the effect of pore geometry in the physical properties of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque


    Full Text Available Pore geometry is one of the main factors influencing the flow of reservoir fluids under pressure. Pores with narrower formats are more easily compressed when subject to pressure. Pressure modifies pore geometry by opening or closing cracks, causing increase or decrease in the elastic modulus, porosity, permeability, and other parameters. Rock physical properties depend on the size and shape of pores. Thus, in order to analyze changes on the physical properties behavior according to the pores geometry, it is necessary to study and improve mathematical models of the porous media by taking into account the pore shape factor for estimating rock elastic properties. Differential effective medium model (DEM, Hertz-Mindlin theory and coherent potential approximation (CPA are some of the theoretical paradigms that take into account pore geometry in changes in elastic moduli. Given the importance of the pore structure effect on the behavior of physical parameters, this article proposes an analysis of some mathematical models that consider the influence of pore shapes in the physical properties of rocks.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐腾胜; 雷金波; 周星; 易飞; 廖幼孙; 陈科林; 柳俊; 杨康


    By the use of the method of model test, the excess pore water pressure produced during static-sinking pipe-pile without hole and that of the pipe-pile with 6 kinds of methods to distribute holes were measured and analyzed respectively.This paper obtained the rules of change in the excess pore water pressure of each pipe-pile with the depth, radial distance and the distribution of holes.By comparison and analysis, the conclusion was found that the best distributed mode of holes was to make radial holes on the wall of pipe-pile, which could reduce the squeezing effect during sinking pipe-pile.This research result, to some degree, would provide a valuable guide for promoting the application of pipe-pile with hole in actual projects.%采用室内模型试验方法,通过在软土中静力压入无孔管桩和6种不同布孔方式的有孔管桩,分别对其沉桩时引起的超孔隙水压力进行了监测和分析,获得了各种管桩静压沉桩时超孔隙水压力随深度、径向距离和开孔的分布位置变化的规律.通过对比分析,得出按照星状布孔的方式在桩壁开孔是桩壁开孔位置的最优分布方式,有利于减小沉桩挤土效应,对促进有孔管桩技术工程应用有一定的指导价值.

  3. Understanding the microscopic moisture migration in pore space using DEM simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guo; Xiong Bill Yu


    The deformation of soil skeleton and migration of pore fluid are the major factors relevant to the trig-gering of and damages by liquefaction. The influence of pore fluid migration during earthquake has been demonstrated from recent model experiments and field case studies. Most of the current liquefaction assessment models are based on testing of isotropic liquefiable materials. However the recent New Zealand earthquake shows much severer damages than those predicted by existing models. A funda-mental cause has been contributed to the embedded layers of low permeability silts. The existence of these silt layers inhibits water migration under seismic loads, which accelerated liquefaction and caused a much larger settlement than that predicted by existing theories. This study intends to understand the process of moisture migration in the pore space of sand using discrete element method (DEM) simu-lation. Simulations were conducted on consolidated undrained triaxial testing of sand where a cylinder sample of sand was built and subjected to a constant confining pressure and axial loading. The porosity distribution was monitored during the axial loading process. The spatial distribution of porosity change was determined, which had a direct relationship with the distribution of excess pore water pressure. The non-uniform distribution of excess pore water pressure causes moisture migration. From this, the migration of pore water during the loading process can be estimated. The results of DEM simulation show a few important observations:(1) External forces are mainly carried and transmitted by the particle chains of the soil sample; (2) Porosity distribution during loading is not uniform due to non-homogeneous soil fabric (i.e. the initial particle arrangement and existence of particle chains); (3) Excess pore water pressure develops differently at different loading stages. At the early stage of loading, zones with a high initial porosity feature higher porosity changes

  4. Understanding the microscopic moisture migration in pore space using DEM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo


    Full Text Available The deformation of soil skeleton and migration of pore fluid are the major factors relevant to the triggering of and damages by liquefaction. The influence of pore fluid migration during earthquake has been demonstrated from recent model experiments and field case studies. Most of the current liquefaction assessment models are based on testing of isotropic liquefiable materials. However the recent New Zealand earthquake shows much severer damages than those predicted by existing models. A fundamental cause has been contributed to the embedded layers of low permeability silts. The existence of these silt layers inhibits water migration under seismic loads, which accelerated liquefaction and caused a much larger settlement than that predicted by existing theories. This study intends to understand the process of moisture migration in the pore space of sand using discrete element method (DEM simulation. Simulations were conducted on consolidated undrained triaxial testing of sand where a cylinder sample of sand was built and subjected to a constant confining pressure and axial loading. The porosity distribution was monitored during the axial loading process. The spatial distribution of porosity change was determined, which had a direct relationship with the distribution of excess pore water pressure. The non-uniform distribution of excess pore water pressure causes moisture migration. From this, the migration of pore water during the loading process can be estimated. The results of DEM simulation show a few important observations: (1 External forces are mainly carried and transmitted by the particle chains of the soil sample; (2 Porosity distribution during loading is not uniform due to non-homogeneous soil fabric (i.e. the initial particle arrangement and existence of particle chains; (3 Excess pore water pressure develops differently at different loading stages. At the early stage of loading, zones with a high initial porosity feature higher

  5. Pore morphologies of root induced biopores from single pore to network scale investigated by XRCT (United States)

    Peth, Stephan; Wittig, Marlen C.; Uteau Puschmann, Daniel; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Horn, Rainer


    Biopores are assumed to be an important factor for nutrient acquisition by providing biologically highly active soil-root interfaces to re-colonizing roots and controlling oxygen and water flows at the pedon scale and within the rhizosphere through the formation of branching channel networks which potentially enhance microbial turnover processes. Characteristic differences in pore morphologies are to be expected depending on the genesis of biopores which, for example, can be earthworm-induced or root-induced or subsequently modified by one of the two. Our understanding of biophysical interactions between plants and soil can be significantly improved by quantifying 3D biopore architectures across scales ranging from single biopores to pedon scale pore networks and linking pore morphologies to microscale measurements of transport processes (e.g. oxygen diffusion). While a few studies in the past have investigated biopore networks on a larger scale yet little is known on the micro-morphology of root-induces biopores and their associated rhizosphere. Also little data is available on lateral transport of oxygen through the rhizosphere which will strongly influence microbial turnover processes and consequently control the release and uptake of nutrients. This paper highlights results gathered within a research unit on nutrient acquisition from the subsoil. Here we focus on X-ray microtomography (XRCT) studies ranging from large soil columns (70 cm length and 20 cm diameter) to individual biopores and its surrounding rhizosphere. Samples were collected from sites with different preceding crops (fescue, chicory, alfalfa) and various cropping durations (1-3 years). We will present an approach for quantitative image analysis combined with micro-sensor measurements of oxygen diffusion and spatial gradients of O2 partial pressures to relate pore structure with transport functions. Implications of various biopore architectures for the accessibility of nutrient resources in

  6. Impact of pore size variability and network coupling on electrokinetic transport in porous media (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali


    We have developed and validated an efficient and robust computational model to study the coupled fluid and ion transport through electrokinetic porous media, which are exposed to external gradients of pressure, electric potential, and concentration. In our approach a porous media is modeled as a network of many pores through which the transport is described by the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. When the pore sizes are random, the interactions between various modes of transport may provoke complexities such as concentration polarization shocks and internal flow circulations. These phenomena impact mixing and transport in various systems including deionization and filtration systems, supercapacitors, and lab-on-a-chip devices. In this work, we present simulations of massive networks of pores and we demonstrate the impact of pore size variation, and pore-pore coupling on the overall electrokinetic transport in porous media.

  7. Storage of hydrogen at 303 K in graphite slitlike pores from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Tanaka, Hideki; Hołyst, Robert; Kaneko, Katsumi; Ohmori, Takumi; Miyamoto, Junichi


    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were used for the modeling of the hydrogen adsorption in idealized graphite slitlike pores. In all simulations, quantum effects were included through the Feynman and Hibbs second-order effective potential. The simulated surface excess isotherms of hydrogen were used for the determination of the total hydrogen storage, density of hydrogen in graphite slitlike pores, distribution of pore sizes and volumes, enthalpy of adsorption per mole, total surface area, total pore volume, and average pore size of pitch-based activated carbon fibers. Combining experimental results with simulations reveals that the density of hydrogen in graphite slitlike pores at 303 K does not exceed 0.014 g/cm(3), that is, 21% of the liquid-hydrogen density at the triple point. The optimal pore size for the storage of hydrogen at 303 K in the considered pore geometry depends on the pressure of storage. For lower storage pressures, p optimal pore width is equal to a 2.2 collision diameter of hydrogen (i.e., 0.65 nm), whereas, for p congruent with 50MPa, the pore width is equal to an approximately 7.2 collision diameter of hydrogen (i.e., 2.13 nm). For the wider pores, that is, the pore width exceeds a 7.2 collision diameter of hydrogen, the surface excess of hydrogen adsorption is constant. The importance of quantum effects is recognized in narrow graphite slitlike pores in the whole range of the hydrogen pressure as well as in wider ones at high pressures of bulk hydrogen. The enthalpies of adsorption per mole for the considered carbonaceous materials are practically constant with hydrogen loading and vary within the narrow range q(st) congruent with 7.28-7.85 kJ/mol. Our systematic study of hydrogen adsorption at 303 K in graphite slitlike pores gives deep insight into the timely problem of hydrogen storage as the most promising source of clean energy. The calculated maximum storage of hydrogen is equal to approximately 1.4 wt %, which is far from

  8. Measuring Method of a Surface Property inside the Pore: Application of Kelvin's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, Ken-ichi


    Surface analyses inside the nanopore, micropore, and a very narrow pipe are important topics for development of the chemical engineering. Here, we propose a measuring method which evaluates the surface coverage of the chemically modified pore surface and the corrosion rate of the inner surface of the narrow pipe, etc. The method uses Kelvin's equation that expresses saturated vapor pressure of a liquid in the pore (pipe). The surface coverage and the corrosion rate are calculated by measuring saturated vapor pressure of the liquid in the pore and the pipe, respectively. In this letter, we explain the concept of the method briefly.

  9. Pore invasion dynamics during fluid front displacement in porous media determine functional pore size distribution and phase entrapment (United States)

    Moebius, F.; Or, D.


    Dynamics of fluid fronts in porous media shape transport properties of the unsaturated zone and affect management of petroleum reservoirs and their storage properties. What appears macroscopically as smooth and continuous motion of a displacement fluid front may involve numerous rapid interfacial jumps often resembling avalanches of invasion events. Direct observations using high-speed camera and pressure sensors in sintered glass micro-models provide new insights on the influence of flow rates, pore size, and gravity on invasion events and on burst size distribution. Fundamental differences emerge between geometrically-defined pores and "functional" pores invaded during a single burst (invasion event). The waiting times distribution of individual invasion events and decay times of inertial oscillations (following a rapid interfacial jump) are characteristics of different displacement regimes. An invasion percolation model with gradients and including the role of inertia provide a framework for linking flow regimes with invasion sequences and phase entrapment. Model results were compared with measurements and with early studies on invasion burst sizes and waiting times distribution during slow drainage processes by Måløy et al. [1992]. The study provides new insights into the discrete invasion events and their weak links with geometrically-deduced pore geometry. Results highlight factors controlling pore invasion events that exert strong influence on macroscopic phenomena such as front morphology and residual phase entrapment shaping hydraulic properties after the passage of a fluid front.


    Field studies were conducted over several years at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing line pore diffused aeration systems. These studies were designed to produce reliable information on the performance and operational requirements of fine pore devices under process ...

  11. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.


    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  12. Electron microscopic time-lapse visualization of surface pore filtration on particulate matter trapping process. (United States)

    Sanui, Ryoko; Hanamura, Katsunori


    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the particulate matter (PM) trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) walls at a micro scale as 'time-lapse' images corresponding to the increase in pressure drop simultaneously measured through the DPF. This visualization and pressure drop measurement led to the conclusion that the PM trapping in surface pores was driven by PM bridging and stacking at constricted areas in porous channels. This caused a drastic increase in the pressure drop during PM accumulation at the beginning of the PM trapping process. The relationship between the porous structure of the DPF and the depth of the surface pore was investigated in terms of the porosity distribution and PM penetration depth near the wall surface with respect to depth. The pressure drop calculated with an assumed surface pore depth showed a good correspondence to the measured pressure drop.

  13. Pore formation by Cry toxins. (United States)

    Soberón, Mario; Pardo, Liliana; Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Sánchez, Jorge; Gómez, Isabel; Porta, Helena; Bravo, Alejandra


    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce insecticidal Cry and Cyt proteins used in the biological control of different insect pests. In this review, we will focus on the 3d-Cry toxins that represent the biggest group of Cry proteins and also on Cyt toxins. The 3d-Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that induce cell death by forming ionic pores into the membrane of the midgut epithelial cells in their target insect. The initial steps in the mode of action include ingestion of the protoxin, activation by midgut proteases to produce the toxin fragment and the interaction with the primary cadherin receptor. The interaction of the monomeric CrylA toxin with the cadherin receptor promotes an extra proteolytic cleavage, where helix alpha-1 of domain I is eliminated and the toxin oligomerization is induced, forming a structure of 250 kDa. The oligomeric structure binds to a secondary receptor, aminopeptidase N or alkaline phosphatase. The secondary receptor drives the toxin into detergent resistant membrane microdomains formingpores that cause osmotic shock, burst of the midgut cells and insect death. Regarding to Cyt toxins, these proteins have a synergistic effect on the toxicity of some Cry toxins. Cyt proteins are also proteolytic activated in the midgut lumen of their target, they bind to some phospholipids present in the mosquito midgut cells. The proposed mechanism of synergism between Cry and Cyt toxins is that Cyt1Aa function as a receptor for Cry toxins. The Cyt1A inserts into midgut epithelium membrane and exposes protein regions that are recognized by Cry11Aa. It was demonstrated that this interaction facilitates the oligomerization of Cry11Aa and also its pore formation activity.

  14. Study into the correlation of dominant pore throat size and SIP relaxation frequency (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Sabine; Prinz, Carsten; Zimathies, Annett


    There is currently a debate within the SIP community about the characteristic textural length scale controlling relaxation time of consolidated porous media. One idea is that the relaxation time is dominated by the pore throat size distribution or more specifically the modal pore throat size as determined in mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests. Recently new studies on inverting pore size distributions from SIP data were published implying that the relaxation mechanisms and controlling length scale are well understood. In contrast new analytical model studies based on the Marshall-Madden membrane polarization theory suggested that two relaxation processes might compete: the one along the short narrow pore (the throat) with one across the wider pore in case the narrow pores become relatively long. This paper presents a first systematically focused study into the relationship of pore throat sizes and SIP relaxation times. The generality of predicted trends is investigated across a wide range of materials differing considerably in chemical composition, specific surface and pore space characteristics. Three different groups of relaxation behaviors can be clearly distinguished. The different behaviors are related to clay content and type, carbonate content, size of the grains and the wide pores in the samples.

  15. An elliptical-pore model for late-stage planar viscous sintering (United States)

    Crowdy, Darren G.


    A simple ‘elliptical-pore model’ of the shrinkage of compressible pores in late-stage planar viscous sintering is proposed. The model is in the spirit of matched asymptotics and relies on splitting the flow into an ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ problem. The inner problem in the vicinity of any given pore involves solving for its free-surface evolution exactly using complex-variable methods. The outer flow due to all other pores is assumed to be given by an assembly of point sinks/sources. As a test of the model, the evolution of a singly infinite periodic row of compressible pores is considered in detail. The effectiveness of the simple model is tested by comparison with a full numerical simulation. A novel boundary integral method based on Cauchy potentials and conformal mapping is used. In the case of pores with constant pressure, it is found that pores shrink faster than if in isolation. Compressible pores obeying the ideal gas law are also studied and are found to tend to a quasi-steady non-circular state. A higher-order model is also presented and compared with numerical simulations of the viscous sintering of a doubly periodic array of pores in Stokes flow.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagiello, Jacek [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Kenvin, Jeffrey [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Oliver, James P [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL


    In this work, we present a model for analyzing activated carbon micropore structures based on graphene sheet walls of finite thickness and extent. This is a two-dimensional modification of the widely used infinite slit pore model that assumes graphite-like infinitely extended pore walls. The proposed model has two versions: (1) a strip pore constructed with graphene strip walls that have finite length L in the x direction and are infinite in the y direction. Strip pores are open on both sides in the x direction. (2) A channel pore is a strip pore partially closed along one edge by a perpendicularly oriented graphene wall. This more realistic model allows pore termination via both physical pore entrances and pore blockage. The model consequently introduces heterogeneity of the adsorption potential that is reduced near pore entrances and enhanced near corners of pore walls. These energetically heterogeneous structures fill with adsorbate more gradually than homogeneous pores of the same width. As a result, the calculated adsorption isotherms are smoother and less steep for the finite versus the infinite pore model. In the application of this model for carbon characterization it is necessary to make an assumption about the pore length. In this work we made this assumption based on the high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. We find the agreement between the experiment and the model significantly better for the finite than for the infinite pore model.

  17. Pore Characteristics of Chitosan Scaffolds Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (United States)

    Tully-Dartez, Stephanie; Cardenas, Henry E.


    In this study, a novel approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), was used to examine the pore characteristics of chitosan scaffolds under aqueous conditions. The EIS was run with a constant current of 0.1 mA with the frequency sweep of 106 to 10−4 Hz. The resulting complex impedance measurement was then used to calculate porosity, which was determined to be 71%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), two commonly used methods for scaffold characterization, were used to independently evaluate the pore characteristics and compare with that of EIS. The SEM and MIP were performed and analyzed under standard conditions. The pore diameter values found by SEM and MIP are 107 μm and 82 μm, respectively, indicating that both the image-based (SEM) and pressure-based (MIP) analyses provide similar results. The porosity of 73% calculated by MIP is comparable to that of EIS. From these results, it can be suggested that EIS, a relatively nondestructive test, is able to obtain comparable data on pore characteristics, as compared to SEM and MIP. The advantage of the EIS as an nondestructive test is that it can be performed under physiologically relevant conditions, whereas SEM and MIP require dry samples and vacuum conditions for measurement. These benefits make EIS a viable option for the characterization and long-term observation of tissue-engineered scaffolds. PMID:19580421

  18. Inversion of Seismic Velocities to obtain the Crack and Pore Aspect Ratio Distribution (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; David, E. C.


    During a hydrostatic experiment, in the elastic regime, P and S elastic wave velocities measured on rock samples generally increase with pressure and reach asymptotic values at high pressures. This increase of seismic velocities with confining pressure is known to be caused by the closure of compliant pores, such as flat “cracks”, and therefore the high-pressure values of the velocities must reflect only the influence of stiff, “equant” pores. If the pores are assumed to be spheroids, the use of an effective medium theory, combined with a crack closure model, gives a model to relate the elastic properties to the microstructure at each pressure. Therefore, the pressure dependence of elastic velocities can be inverted to obtain the pore aspect ratio distribution. This is done more easily using data obtained in dry experiments, since pore fluids have a strong effect on velocities and to some extent mask the effect of the pore geometry. However, thus far most models have used restrictive assumptions, such as assuming that the stiff pores are spherical, or the interactions between inclusions can be neglected (such as Morlier’s method), which is unfortunately not realistic in most cases. Others methods, such as the one developed by Cheng and Toksoz (1979), assume that the rock contains a discrete distribution of crack aspect ratios, and are complicated to implement numerically. Moreover, in most work only the dry data have been inverted, or jointly the dry and wet data, but it seems that few works have tried to look in detail at a consistent pore model, that remains simple and is able to predict the dependence of Vp and Vs under saturated conditions, based on data collected on dry rocks. We assume that the rock contains a distribution of cracks with different aspect ratios, and two families of stiff pores, each with their own finite aspect ratio. We use this model to invert the wavespeeds to obtain aspect ratio distributions of some isotropic sandstones (Berea

  19. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarchuk Olga


    Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

  20. The one-dimensional compression method for extraction of pore water from unsaturated tuff and effects on pore-water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.D.; Burger, P.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Yang, L.C. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)


    Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires extraction of pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff bedrock. Two generations of compression cells have been designed and tested for extracting representative, unaltered pore-water samples from unsaturated tuff cores. The one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 552 MPa. Results from 86 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 14% for non welded tuff and about 61% for densely welded tuff. The high-pressure, one-dimensional compression cell has a maximum compressive stress rating of 827 MPa. Results from 109 tests show that the minimum degree of saturation for successful extraction of pore water was about 7.5% for non welded tuff and about 34% for densely welded tuff. Geochemical analyses show that, in general, there is a decrease in ion concentration of pore waters as extraction pressures increase. Only small changes in pore-water composition occur during the one-dimensional extraction test.

  1. Microlens arrays with integrated pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang


    Full Text Available Microlenses are important optical components that image, detect, and couple light. But most synthetic microlenses have fixed position and shape once they are fabricated, so their possible range of tunability and complexity is rather limited. By comparison, biology provides many varied, new paradigms for the development of adaptive optical networks. Here, we discuss inspirational examples of biological lenses and their synthetic analogs. We focus on the fabrication and characterization of biomimetic microlens arrays with integrated pores, whose appearance and function are similar to highly efficient optical elements formed by brittlestars. The complex design can be created by three-beam interference lithography. The synthetic lens has strong focusing ability for use as an adjustable lithographic mask and a tunable optical device coupled with the microfluidic system. Replacing rigid microlenses with soft hydrogels provides a way of changing the lens geometry and refractive index continuously in response to external stimuli, resulting in intelligent, multifunctional, tunable optics.

  2. Influence of Stone Column’s Drainage Capacity and Well-resistance Effect on Pore-pressure Calculation of Composite Foundation%碎石桩排水能力和井阻效应对复合地基孔压计算的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳辉; 王武刚


    Based on the assumption that the pile material’s drainage capacity is infinite ,many scholars at home and abroad have researched on the earthquake-resistance liquefaction characteristics of the stone column’s drainage capacity on saturated silt foundation .However ,in practical projects ,the drainage capacity of stone column is not infinite .Here , by using Barron consolidation theory ,and comprehensively considering that the dissipation velocity of the excess pore pressure induced by earthquake during the extremely short time is limited and the dispersed material has a certain resis -tance effect on verticle infiltration ,the drainage and pressure-reducing action of the stone column during earthquake was studied ,and the fitting formula for the development of the excess pore pressure was proposed including its generation , diffusion and dissipation .Meanwhile ,the action of the stone column for raising the earthquake-resistance liquefaction was evaluated through the comparison and analysis of engineering examples ,which would provide a certain reference for the design of saturated silt foundation .%国内外许多学者基于假定桩体材料排水能力为无限大基础上,研究了碎石桩复合地基排水减压作用在饱和粉土地基抗震液化方面的特性。在实际工程中,碎石桩的排水能力与地基土体相比是在一个可比的数量级上,并不是无限大的。利用巴隆固结理论,优化相应的边界条件和初始条件,综合考虑在地震作用时间极短的状况下,引起的超孔压消散速度是有限的,以及散体材料本身会对进入桩体中的水的垂直渗流有一定的阻力作用等条件下,研究了碎石桩在地震作用期间的排水减压作用,并提出了由地震引起的碎石桩复合地基中超孔压发展规律的拟合公式。经过工程实例的对比分析,对碎石桩排水减压作用在抗震液化能力提高方面进行评价,为饱和粉土地基抗

  3. Atomic Structure of Graphene Subnanometer Pores. (United States)

    Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Gun-Do; He, Kuang; Gong, Chuncheng; Chen, Qu; Yoon, Euijoon; Kirkland, Angus I; Warner, Jamie H


    The atomic structure of subnanometer pores in graphene, of interest due to graphene's potential as a desalination and gas filtration membrane, is demonstrated by atomic resolution aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. High temperatures of 500 °C and over are used to prevent self-healing of the pores, permitting the successful imaging of open pore geometries consisting of between -4 to -13 atoms, all exhibiting subnanometer diameters. Picometer resolution bond length measurements are used to confirm reconstruction of five-membered ring projections that often decorate the pore perimeter, knowledge which is used to explore the viability of completely self-passivated subnanometer pore structures; bonding configurations where the pore would not require external passivation by, for example, hydrogen to be chemically inert.

  4. Synthesis of thermally stable extra-large pore crystalline materials: a uranyl germanate with 12-ring channels. (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Lii, Kwang-Hwa


    A thermally stable extra-large pore uranyl germanate is synthesized under high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal conditions at 585 degrees C and 150 MPa. The structure contains U(6+)O(6) tetragonal bipyramids which are interconnected by digermanate groups to form a 3D framework with 12-ring pore openings.

  5. Hydrodynamic Stresses Driving Pore Pressure Changes in Sandy Coastal Sediments (United States)


    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...nature of the sediment properties (Mei and Foda , 1981, Bennett et al. 1982, 1992a and b). A serious deficiency exist in the available in situ data bases

  6. Pore Water Pressure Contribution to Debris Flow Mobility


    Chiara Deangeli


    Problem statement: Debris flows are very to extremely rapid flows of saturated granular soils. Two main types of debris flow are generally recognized: Open slope debris flows and channelized debris flows. The former is the results of some form of slope failures, the latter can develop along preexisting stream courses by the mobilization of previously deposited debris blanket. The problem to be addressed is the influence of the mode of initiation on the subsequent mechanism of propagation. In ...

  7. New general pore size distribution model by classical thermodynamics application: Activated carbon (United States)

    Lordgooei, M.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.


    A model is developed using classical thermodynamics to characterize pore size distributions (PSDs) of materials containing micropores and mesopores. The thermal equation of equilibrium adsorption (TEEA) is used to provide thermodynamic properties and relate the relative pore filling pressure of vapors to the characteristic pore energies of the adsorbent/adsorbate system for micropore sizes. Pore characteristic energies are calculated by averaging of interaction energies between adsorbate molecules and adsorbent pore walls as well as considering adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. A modified Kelvin equation is used to characterize mesopore sizes by considering variation of the adsorbate surface tension and by excluding the adsorbed film layer for the pore size. The modified-Kelvin equation provides similar pore filling pressures as predicted by density functional theory. Combination of these models provides a complete PSD of the adsorbent for the micropores and mesopores. The resulting PSD is compared with the PSDs from Jaroniec and Choma and Horvath and Kawazoe models as well as a first-order approximation model using Polanyi theory. The major importance of this model is its basis on classical thermodynamic properties, less simplifying assumptions in its derivation compared to other methods, and ease of use.

  8. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.


    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  9. Nonlinear transport of soft droplets in pore networks (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck; Benet Cerda, Eduard; Koo, Kanghyeon

    A large number of biological and technological processes depend on the transport of soft colloidal particles through porous media; this includes the transport and separation of cells, viruses or drugs through tissues, membranes and microfluidic devices. In these systems, the interactions between soft particles, background fluid and the surrounding pore space yield complex, nonlinear behaviors such as non-Darcy flows, localization and jamming. We devise a computational strategy to investigate the transport of non-wetting and deformable water droplets in a microfluidic device made of a random distribution of cylindrical obstacles. We first derive scaling laws for the entry of the droplet in a single pore and discuss the role of surface tension, contact angle and size in this process. This information is then used to study the transport of multiple droplets in an obstacle network. We find that when the droplet size is close to the pore size, fluid flow and droplet trafficking strongly interact, leading to local redistributions in pressure fields, intermittent clogging and jamming. Importantly, it is found that the overall droplet and fluid transport display three different scaling regimes depending on the forcing pressure, and that these regimes can be related to droplet properties.

  10. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.


    We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.

  11. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.


    to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order......We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results...

  12. 含不同孔隙流体的砂岩地震波速度随压力变化的实验研究%A laboratory study of seismic wave velocity in sandstone bearing differential pore fluids at different pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔二伟; 赵卫华; 龙长兴


    core samples of sandstone, mainly because rock elastic modulus, pore fluid property, and rock structure are different. For the different kinds of sandstone, the pressure dependence of the Vp, Vs1 and VS2 in the same pore fluid is controlled by the porosity and grain size, and for the same kind of sandstone, the pressure dependence of the VP ,VS1 and Vs2 in the different pore fluids is affected by the effective modulus of elasticity and density. Moreover, Vs1 and Vs2 hardly vary with water and oil saturation. The experimental results can provide an important basis for the interpretation of seismic data and comparison with well log data in that region.

  13. Methane adsorption behavior on coal having different pore structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Yi; Jiang; Chengfa; Chu; Wei


    The adsorption of methane onto five dry coal samples was measured at 298 K over the pressure range from 0 to 3.5 MPa using a volumetric method.The isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations.The kinetic data were fitted to a pseudo second order equation,the linear driving force equation(LDF),and an intra-particle diffusion model.These results showed that higher methane adsorption is correlated with larger micro-pore volumes and specific surface areas.The adsorption was related to the narrow micro-pore size distribution when the previous two parameters are large.The kinetics study showed that the kinetics of methane adsorption onto these five dry coal samples followed a pseudo second order model very well.Methane adsorption rates are controlled by intra-particle diffusion.The faster the intra-particle diffusion,the faster the methane adsorption rate will be.

  14. Laboratory tidal triggering in the presence of pore fluid (United States)

    Bartlow, N. M.; Lockner, D. A.; Beeler, N. M.


    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, it is consistently observed that LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not (e.g. Thomas et al., Nature, 2009; Vidale et al., JGR, 1998). Here we build upon the work of Lockner and Beeler, JGR, 1999, and Beeler and Lockner, JGR, 2003, which investigated the response of laboratory stick-slip to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments determined ranges of amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory loading that resulted in tidally correlated populations, and explained the results in a theoretical framework. Two modes were found: the threshold failure mode in which the necessary amplitude for correlated populations decreased with increasing frequency, and the delayed failure mode in which the amplitude stayed the same or increased with increasing frequency. The frequency of transition between the two modes, which scales with event nucleation time, is predicted to depend on effective stress. This dependence was never tested, since all previous experiments were carried out at one effective stress. The previous experiments were also carried out using room dry samples of Westerly granite. Here we update these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress and pore fluid at two pressures. The addition of pore fluid is especially important as pore fluid pressure is thought to be high in LFE regions. We verify the effective stress dependence of the mode transition predicted in Beeler and Lockner, JGR, 2003, allowing extrapolation of the results to other effective stresses. We also find that pore fluid effects become important at high frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time over the sample. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs

  15. Pore structure characterization of Chang-7 tight sandstone using MICP combined with N2GA techniques and its geological control factors (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Liu, Guangdi; Zhan, Hongbin; Li, Chaozheng; You, Yuan; Yang, Chengyu; Jiang, Hang


    Understanding the pore networks of unconventional tight reservoirs such as tight sandstones and shales is crucial for extracting oil/gas from such reservoirs. Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and N2 gas adsorption (N2GA) are performed to evaluate pore structure of Chang-7 tight sandstone. Thin section observation, scanning electron microscope, grain size analysis, mineral composition analysis, and porosity measurement are applied to investigate geological control factors of pore structure. Grain size is positively correlated with detrital mineral content and grain size standard deviation while negatively related to clay content. Detrital mineral content and grain size are positively correlated with porosity, pore throat radius and withdrawal efficiency and negatively related to capillary pressure and pore-to-throat size ratio; while interstitial material is negatively correlated with above mentioned factors. Well sorted sediments with high debris usually possess strong compaction resistance to preserve original pores. Although many inter-crystalline pores are produced in clay minerals, this type of pores is not the most important contributor to porosity. Besides this, pore shape determined by N2GA hysteresis loop is consistent with SEM observation on clay inter-crystalline pores while BJH pore volume is positively related with clay content, suggesting N2GA is suitable for describing clay inter-crystalline pores in tight sandstones.

  16. Gas transport and subsoil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas


    Arrangements of elementary soil particles during soil deposition and subsequent biological and physical processes in long-term pedogenesis are expected to lead to anisotropy of the non-tilled subsoil pore system. Soil compaction by agricultural machinery is known to affect soil pore characteristi...

  17. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland


    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...... that there will be coating only between the ribs and not in the area where bonding takes place. The paper includes description of the mounting jig and how to align the mask on top of the plate. We will also present energy scans from Si plates coated through a mask....

  18. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini


    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  19. Pore-fluid migration and the timing of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake (United States)

    Hughes, K.L.H.; Masterlark, Timothy; Mooney, W.D.


    Two great earthquakes have occurred recently along the Sunda Trench, the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake. These earthquakes ruptured over 1600 km of adjacent crust within 3 mo of each other. We quantitatively present poroelastic deformation analyses suggesting that postseismic fluid flow and recovery induced by the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake advanced the timing of the Nias earthquake. Simple back-slip simulations indicate that the megapascal (MPa)-scale pore-pressure recovery is equivalent to 7 yr of interseismic Coulomb stress accumulation near the Nias earthquake hypocenter, implying that pore-pressure recovery of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake advanced the timing of the Nias earthquake by ~7 yr. That is, in the absence of postseismic pore-pressure recovery, we predict that the Nias earthquake would have occurred in 2011 instead of 2005. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. Particle diffusion in complex nanoscale pore networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müter, Dirk; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Bock, H.


    decreased to as much as 60% when particle size increased from 1% to 35% of the average pore diameter. When particles were attracted to the pore surfaces, even very small particles, diffusion was drastically inhibited, by as much as a factor of 100. Thus, the size of particles and their interaction......We studied the diffusion of particles in the highly irregular pore networks of chalk, a very fine-grained rock, by combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. X-ray imaging data were collected at 25 nm voxel dimension for two chalk samples...... with very different porosities (4% and 26%). The three-dimensional pore systems derived from the tomograms were imported into DPD simulations and filled with spherical particles of variable diameter and with an optional attractive interaction to the pore surfaces. We found that diffusion significantly...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  2. Density profile of nitrogen in cylindrical pores of MCM-41 (United States)

    Soper, Alan K.; Bowron, Daniel T.


    A straightforward approach using radiation scattering (X-ray or neutron) combined with atomistic modelling is used to accurately assess the pore dimensions in the porous silica, MCM-41. The method is used to calculate the density profile of nitrogen absorbed in this material at a variety of fractional pressures, p/p0, where p0 is the saturated vapour pressure, up to p/p0 = 0.36 at T = 87 K in the present instance. At this pressure two distinct layers of liquid nitrogen occur on the silica surface, with a relatively sharp gas-liquid interface. It is suggested surface tension effects at this interface strongly influence the growth of further layers.

  3. Examining the effect of pore size distribution and shape on flow through unsaturated peat using 3-D computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezanezhad


    Full Text Available The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated peat soils is controlled by the peat structure which affects the air-filled porosity, pore size distribution and shape. This study investigates how the size and shape of pores affects the flow of water through peat soils. In this study we used X-ray Computed Tomography (CT, at 45 µm resolution under 5 specific soil-water pressure head levels to provide 3-D, high-resolution images that were used to detect the inner pore structure of peat samples under a changing water regime. Pore structure and configuration were found to be irregular, which affected the rate of water transmission through peat soils. The 3-D analysis suggested that pore distribution is dominated by a single large pore-space. At low pressure head, this single large air-filled pore imparted a more effective flowpath compared to smaller pores. Smaller pores were disconnected and the flowpath was more tortuous than in the single large air-filled pore, and their contribution to flow was negligible when the single large pore was active. We quantify the pore structure of peat soil that affects the hydraulic conductivity in the unsaturated condition, and demonstrate the validity of our estimation of peat unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by making a comparison with a standard permeameter-based method. Estimates of unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were made for the purpose of testing the sensitivity of pore shape and geometry parameters on the hydraulic properties of peats and how to evaluate the structure of the peat and its affects on parameterization. We also studied the ability to quantify these factors for different soil moisture contents in order to define how the factors controlling the shape coefficient vary with changes in soil water pressure head. The relation between measured and estimated unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at various heads shows that rapid initial drainage, that changes the air-filled pore properties, creates a

  4. Examining the effect of pore size distribution and shape on flow through unsaturated peat using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezanezhad


    Full Text Available The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated peat soil is controlled by the air-filled porosity, pore size and geometric distribution as well as other physical properties of peat materials. This study investigates how the size and shape of pores affects the flow of water through peat soils. In this study we used X-ray Computed Tomography (CT, at 45 μm resolution under 5 specific soil-water pressure head levels to provide 3-D, high-resolution images that were used to detect the inner pore structure of peat samples under a changing water regime. Pore structure and configuration were found to be irregular, which affected the rate of water transmission through peat soils. The 3-D analysis suggested that pore distribution is dominated by a single large pore-space. At low pressure head, this single large air-filled pore imparted a more effective flowpath compared to smaller pores. Smaller pores were disconnected and the flowpath was more tortuous than in the single large air-filled pore, and their contribution to flow was negligible when the single large pore was active. We quantify the pore structure of peat soil that affects the hydraulic conductivity in the unsaturated condition, and demonstrate the validity of our estimation of peat unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by making a comparison with a standard permeameter-based method. Estimates of unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were made for the purpose of testing the sensitivity of pore shape and geometry parameters on the hydraulic properties of peats and how to evaluate the structure of the peat and its affects on parameterization. We also studied the ability to quantify these factors for different soil moisture contents in order to define how the factors controlling the shape coefficient vary with changes in soil water pressure head. The relation between measured and estimated unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at various heads shows that rapid initial drainage, that changes the air

  5. The Effects of Swelling and Porosity Change on Capillarity: DEM Coupled with a Pore-Unit Assembly Method. (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Nikooee, Ehsan; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; Chareyre, Bruno

    In this study, a grain-scale modelling technique has been developed to generate the capillary pressure-saturation curves for swelling granular materials. This model employs only basic granular properties such as particles size distribution, porosity, and the amount of absorbed water for swelling materials. Using this model, both drainage and imbibition curves are directly obtained by pore-scale simulations of fluid invasion. This allows us to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for a large number of different packings of granular materials with varying porosity and/or amount of absorbed water. The algorithm is based on combining the Discrete Element Method for generating different particle packings with a pore-unit assembly approach. The pore space is extracted using a regular triangulation, with the centres of four neighbouring particles forming a tetrahedron. The pore space within each tetrahedron is referred to as a pore unit. Thus, the pore space of a particle packing is represented by an assembly of pore units for which we construct drainage and imbibition capillary pressure-saturation curves. A case study on Hostun sand is conducted to test the model against experimental data from literature and to investigate the required minimum number of particles to have a Representative Elementary Volume. Then, the capillary pressure-saturation curves are constructed for Absorbent Gelling Material particles, for different combinations of porosity values and amounts of absorbed water. Each combination yields a different configuration of pore units, and thus distinctly different capillary pressure-saturation curves. All these curves are shown to collapse into one curve for drainage and one curve for imbibition when we normalize capillary pressure and saturation values. We have developed a formula for the Van Genuchten parameter [Formula: see text] (which is related to the inverse of the entry pressure) as a function of porosity and the amount of absorbed water.

  6. Designing Nonwovens to Meet Pore Size Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Simmonds


    Full Text Available New nonwovens applications in areas such as filtration require a media designed to particular pore size specifications in the 3 to 20 micron range. The purpose of this work was to develop a basis by which to design and construct a fabric with given pore size specifications. While doing so we have provided a validation for two different mathematical models. We have also found that bicomponent spunbonded islands-in-the-sea nonwoven fabrics can be designed very precisely to achieve target pore diameters and porosity. Mathematical models can be used to develop fabric specifications in the standard manufacturing terms of basis weight and fiber diameter. Measured mean flow pore diameters for the test fabrics showed excellent correlation to targeted mean flow pore diameters for both models. The experimental fit to the Bryner model is the better of the two, but requires specification of fabric thickness in addition to basis weight and fiber diameter to achieve actual mean pore diameters that closely match target values. Experimental validation of the influence of fabric thickness on the mean flow pore diameter at constant basis weight and fiber diameter remains open for further investigation. In addition, achieving complete separation of the island and sea polymers along with unbundling of the island fibers remain areas for improvement.

  7. Generalized formula for the surface stiffness of fluid-saturated porous media containing parallel pore channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, P.B.; Nayfeh, A.H. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)


    The surface stiffness of a fluid-saturated porous solid is defined as the ratio between a small change in capillary pressure and the average displacement of the boundary due to the resulting rise or fall of the fluid level in the pore channels. When the surface pores are structurally open, the surface stiffness is entirely due to the stiffness of the microscopic fluid membranes extended by capillary forces over the surface pores. Due to interfacial tension between the immiscible wetting fluid in the pores and nonwetting fluid (air) above the surface, essentially closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at the interface. It has recently been shown that the surface stiffness of a porous material containing cylindrical pores can be calculated simply as the surface tension of the saturating fluid divided by the static permeability of the porous solid [P. B. Nagy, Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 60}, 2735 (1992)]. In this letter, we show that the same simple relationship can be generalized for the surface stiffness of fluid-saturated porous media containing parallel prismatic pore channels of any number, size, or shape. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Evolution of pore space in sandstones in relation to diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.


    Results are described from studying the collector properties of a bed of sandstones of Yan-10 at the oil field Malin of the Ordosskiy oil and gas basin. The bed is represented by ancient river sandstones of the Jurassic age occurring on eroded surface of the Triassic deposits (Yangan series) and covered with bed of coal deposits Yan-9. The following conclusions were drawn from the results of the studies. Evolution of the pore space actually is the process of gradual substitution of the primary pores by secondary; in this case decrease in porosity in the quartz sandstones occurs mainly because of depositing in the pores of authigenic minerals, and in the sandstones whose grains consist of minerals with lower mechanical strength, because of packing. Secondary porosity develops because of dissolving and kaolinization in the sandstones with high content of feldspars. This process is possibly associated with decarboxilation of organic matter of interlayers of coal and calcareous shales under the influence of increased temperature in the submersion process. Since it has been established that considerable influence on porosity comes from the mineralogical position of the sandstones controlled by the sources of formation, in order to reveal the zones for development of primary and secondary porosity, it is very important to reveal the sources of removal of detrital rocks. A study was also made of the influence of diagenesis on uniformity and texture of the sandstones (by the methods of curves of capillary pressure).

  9. Pool boiling on rectangular fins with tunnel-pore structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszko A.


    Full Text Available Complex experimental investigations were conducted in the area of pool boiling heat transfer on extended surfaces with internal tunnels limited by perforated foil. The experiments were carried out for water and R-123 at atmospheric pressure. The tunnel surfaces were fabricated from 0.05 – 0.1 mm thick perforated copper foil (pore diameters: 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mm sintered with mini-fins formed by 5 and 10 mm high rectangular fins and horizontal inter-fin surface. The effect of the main fin height, pore diameters and tunnel pitch on nucleate pool boiling was examined. Substantial enhancement of heat transfer coefficient was observed for the investigated surfaces. The highest increase in the heat transfer coefficient was obtained for the 10 mm high fins – about 50kW/m2K for water and 15 kW/m2K for R-123. The investigated surfaces showed boiling heat transfer coefficients similar to those of existing tunnel-pore structures.

  10. A new method of evaluating tight gas sands pore structure from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong


    Tight gas sands always display such characteristics of ultra-low porosity, permeability, high irreducible water, low resistivity contrast, complicated pore structure and strong heterogeneity, these make that the conventional methods are invalid. Many effective gas bearing formations are considered as dry zones or water saturated layers, and cannot be identified and exploited. To improve tight gas sands evaluation, the best method is quantitative characterizing rock pore structure. The mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves are advantageous in predicting formation pore structure. However, the MICP experimental measurements are limited due to the environment and economy factors, this leads formation pore structure cannot be consecutively evaluated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs are considered to be promising in evaluating rock pore structure. Generally, to consecutively quantitatively evaluate tight gas sands pore structure, the best method is constructing pseudo Pc curves from NMR logs. In this paper, based on the analysis of lab experimental results for 20 core samples, which were drilled from tight gas sandstone reservoirs of Sichuan basin, and simultaneously applied for lab MICP and NMR measurements, the relationships of piecewise power function between nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation T2 time and pore-throat radius Rc are established. A novel method, which is used to transform NMR reverse cumulative curve as pseudo capillary pressure (Pc) curve is proposed, and the corresponding model is established based on formation classification. By using this model, formation pseudo Pc curves can be consecutively synthesized. The pore throat radius distribution, and pore structure evaluation parameters, such as the average pore throat radius (Rm), the threshold pressure (Pd), the maximum pore throat radius (Rmax) and so on, can also be precisely extracted. After this method is extended into field applications, several tight gas

  11. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.


    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  12. Analytical applications for pore-forming proteins. (United States)

    Kasianowicz, John J; Balijepalli, Arvind K; Ettedgui, Jessica; Forstater, Jacob H; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huisheng; Robertson, Joseph W F


    Proteinaceous nanometer-scale pores are ubiquitous in biology. The canonical ionic channels (e.g., those that transport Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) across cell membranes) play key roles in many cellular processes, including nerve and muscle activity. Another class of channels includes bacterial pore-forming toxins, which disrupt cell function, and can lead to cell death. We describe here the recent development of these toxins for a wide range of biological sensing applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  13. Influence of pore fluid and frequency on elastic properties of greensand as interpreted using NMR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Mukerj, Tapan; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of pore fluid on elastic properties of greensand. Gassmann’s equations generally work at low frequency and do not take into consideration the fluid related dispersion. In some cases Biot’s theory is used to describe the fluid related...... dispersion. However, Biot’s theory does not fully explain the frequency dispersion of sedimentary rocks. Greensands are composed of a mixture of quartz and micro-porous glauconite grains. In greensand, it is possible that the contrast between flow in macro-pores and micro-pores within glauconites gives rise...... to a local stiffening pressure gradient in the fluid. Then fluid flow in greensand could then be described as a kind of squirt flow. Greensand data from the North Nini filed was included in this study. Gassmann’s, Biot’s and squirt models were used to discuss the influence of pore fluid on elastic moduli...

  14. Mesoporous Si-MCM-48 membrane prepared by pore-filling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mesoporous MCM-48 membranes were prepared on asymmetric zirconia tubular support with an average pore size of 0.2 μm by hydrothermal method.The support should be pretreated with H2O as a pore-filling substance to prevent the sol solution from infiltrating into the support pores.The SEM showed that the MCM-48 membrane was composed of tightly-connected spherical crystal.The single gas N2 and H2 permeation experiments confirm that crack-free membrane could be prepared by pore-filling method.N2 permeance of MCM-48 membrane,synthesized by secondary growth,can reach 5.66×10-7 mol/Pa·s·m2,and the H2/N2 separation factor was 3.47 under trans-membrane pressure of 0.05 MPa.

  15. Monitoring CO2 invasion processes at the pore scale using geological labs on chip. (United States)

    Morais, S; Liu, N; Diouf, A; Bernard, D; Lecoutre, C; Garrabos, Y; Marre, S


    In order to investigate at the pore scale the mechanisms involved during CO2 injection in a water saturated pore network, a series of displacement experiments is reported using high pressure micromodels (geological labs on chip - GLoCs) working under real geological conditions (25 < T (°C) < 75 and 4.5 < p (MPa) < 8). The experiments were focused on the influence of three experimental parameters: (i) the p, T conditions, (ii) the injection flow rates and (iii) the pore network characteristics. By using on-chip optical characterization and imaging approaches, the CO2 saturation curves as a function of either time or the number of pore volume injected were determined. Three main mechanisms were observed during CO2 injection, namely, invasion, percolation and drying, which are discussed in this paper. Interestingly, besides conventional mechanisms, two counterintuitive situations were observed during the invasion and drying processes.

  16. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.


    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  17. Straight Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is directed toward development of a novel microfiltration filter that has distinctively narrow pore size...

  18. Straight Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is directed toward development of a novel microfiltration filter that has distinctively narrow pore size...

  19. A Potential Model for Cylindrical Pores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张现仁; 汪文川


    An analytical potential for cylindrical pores has been derived by introducing a variational method into the integration for the calculation of the interaction energy between the wall molecules and a test molecule, all of which are represented by Lennard-Jones potential. The model proposed gives good fit to the results from the cylindrical surface model and the pseudoatom model. To test the potential proposed rigorously, we have carried out grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo(GCMC) simulation of nitrogen in the MCM-41 pore at 77 K, and compared the simulated adsorption isotherm with the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated isotherm from our model is in almost qualitative agreement with experiment. Consequently, the model proposed provides an explicit and accurate description of cylindrical pores represented by the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, the model can be easily applied to a variety of cylindrical pores, ranging from cylindrical surface to finite thickness walls, in both theoretical studies and computer simulations.

  20. Pore structure in blended cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canut, Mariana Moreira Cavalcanti

    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as slag and fly ash, are increasingly used as a substitute for Portland cement in the interests of improvement of engineering properties and sustainability of concrete. According to studies improvement of engineering properties can be explained...... supplement each other. Cement pastes (w/b=0.4) with and without slag and fly ash cured at two moisture (sealed and saturated) and temperature (20 and 55ºC) conditions were used to investigate the combined impact of SCMs addition and curing on the pore structure of pastes cured up to two years. Also...... volume and threshold pore size were found when comparing with plain cement paste at the same curing conditions. The porosity methods MIP, LTC and SEM have been shown to be suitable to characterise pore parameters of the pastes. MIP is a simple and fast method which covers a large range of pore sizes...

  1. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Cobo, B Ruiz; Suematsu, Y; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K


    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the p...

  2. Pore-network study of the mechanisms of foam generation in porous media (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yortsos, Yannis C.; Rossen, William R.


    Understanding the role of pore-level mechanisms is essential to the mechanistic modeling and simulation of foam processes in porous media. Three different pore-level events can lead to foam formation: snapoff, leave behind, and lamella division. The initial state of the porous medium (fully saturated with liquid or already partially drained), as surfactant is introduced, also affects the different foam-generation mechanisms. Bubbles created by any of these mechanisms cause the formation of new bubbles by snapoff and leave behind as gas drains liquid-saturated pores. Lamellae are stranded unless the pressure gradient is sufficient to mobilize those that have been created. To appreciate the roles of these mechanisms, their interaction at the pore-network level was studied. We report an extensive pore-network study that incorporates the above pore-level mechanisms, as foam is created by drainage or by the continuous injection of gas and liquid in porous media. Pore networks with up to 10 000 pores are considered. The study explores the roles of the pore-level events, and by implication, the appropriate form of the foam-generation function for mechanistic foam simulation. Results are compared with previous studies. In particular, the network simulations reconcile an apparent contradiction in the foam-generation model of Rossen and Gauglitz [AIChE J. 36, 1176 (1990)], and identify how foam is created near the inlet of the porous medium when lamella division controls foam generation. In the process, we also identify a new mechanism of snap-off and foam generation near the inlet of the medium.

  3. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.


    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  4. Pore geometry of ceramic device: The key factor of drug release kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović B.


    Full Text Available Release kinetics of tigecycline, a potential antibiotic in treatment of osteomyelitis, from calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA, as one of the most important ceramic materials in bone tissue engineering, was investigated in this study. Tigecycline, in solid state, was mixed with CHA powder and the obtained mixture was compressed into tablets using two different pressures. These tablets were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution and tigecycline release was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The total release time was 5 or 28 days, depending on the pressure applied during compression. It was shown that there is a close relationship between pore sizes and drug release rate. The drug release kinetics was interpreted on the base of pore sizes and pore size distribution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  5. Onsager's irreversible thermodynamics of the dynamics of transient pores in spherical lipid vesicles. (United States)

    Martínez-Balbuena, L; Hernández-Zapata, E; Santamaría-Holek, I


    Onsager's irreversible thermodynamics is used to perform a systematic deduction of the kinetic equations governing the opening and collapse of transient pores in spherical vesicles. We show that the edge tension has to be determined from the initial stage of the pore relaxation and that in the final state the vesicle membrane is not completely relaxed, since the surface tension and the pressure difference are about 25% of its initial value. We also show that the pore life-time is controlled by the solution viscosity and its opening is driven by the solution leak-out and the surface tension drop. The final collapse is due to a non-linear interplay between the edge and the surface tensions together with the pressure difference. We also discuss the connection with previous models.

  6. The effect of pore fluid on seismicity: a computer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of fluid on seismicity of a computerized system is analyzed in this paper. The diffusion equation of fluid in a crustal fault area is developed and used in the calculation of a spring-slide-damper model. With mirror imagin boundary condition and three initial conditions, the equation is solved for a dynamic model that consists of six seismic belts and eight seismogenous sources in each belt with both explicit algorithm and implicit algorithm. The analysis of the model with water sources shows that the implicit algorithm is better to be used to calculate the model. Taking a constant proportion of the pore pressure of a broken element to that of its neighboring elements, the seismicity of the model is calculated with mirror boundary condition and no-water-source initial condition. The results shows that the frequency and magnitude of shocks are both higher than those in the model with no water pore pressure, which provides more complexity to earthquake prediction.

  7. Pore REconstruction and Segmentation (PORES) method for improved porosity quantification of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyndhoven, G., E-mail: [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Kurttepeli, M. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Oers, C.J.; Cool, P. [Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 1, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)


    Electron tomography is currently a versatile tool to investigate the connection between the structure and properties of nanomaterials. However, a quantitative interpretation of electron tomography results is still far from straightforward. Especially accurate quantification of pore-space is hampered by artifacts introduced in all steps of the processing chain, i.e., acquisition, reconstruction, segmentation and quantification. Furthermore, most common approaches require subjective manual user input. In this paper, the PORES algorithm “POre REconstruction and Segmentation” is introduced; it is a tailor-made, integral approach, for the reconstruction, segmentation, and quantification of porous nanomaterials. The PORES processing chain starts by calculating a reconstruction with a nanoporous-specific reconstruction algorithm: the Simultaneous Update of Pore Pixels by iterative REconstruction and Simple Segmentation algorithm (SUPPRESS). It classifies the interior region to the pores during reconstruction, while reconstructing the remaining region by reducing the error with respect to the acquired electron microscopy data. The SUPPRESS reconstruction can be directly plugged into the remaining processing chain of the PORES algorithm, resulting in accurate individual pore quantification and full sample pore statistics. The proposed approach was extensively validated on both simulated and experimental data, indicating its ability to generate accurate statistics of nanoporous materials. - Highlights: • An electron tomography reconstruction/segmentation method for nanoporous materials. • The method exploits the porous nature of the scanned material. • Validated extensively on both simulation and real data experiments. • Results in increased image resolution and improved porosity quantification.

  8. Pore Size Effect on Methane Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica Materials Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering. (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Jin-Hong; Liu, Yun


    Methane adsorption in model mesoporous silica materials with the size range characteristic of shale is studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Size effect on the temperature-dependent gas adsorption at methane pressure about 100 kPa is investigated by SANS using MCM-41 and SBA-15 as adsorbents. Above the gas-liquid condensation temperature, the thickness of the adsorption layer is found to be roughly constant as a function of the temperature. Moreover, the gas adsorption properties, such as the adsorbed layer thickness and the specific amount of adsorbed gas, have little dependence on the pore size being studied, i.e., pore radius of 16.5 and 34.1 Å, but are mainly affected by the roughness of the pore surfaces. Hence, the surface properties of the pore wall are more dominant than the pore size in determining the methane gas adsorption of pores at the nanometer size range. Not surprisingly, the gas-liquid condensation temperature is observed to be sensitive to pore size and shifts to higher temperature when the pore size is smaller. Below the gas-liquid condensation temperature, even though the majority of gas adsorption experiments/simulations have assumed the density of confined liquid to be the same as the bulk density, the measured methane mass density in our samples is found to be appreciably smaller than the bulk methane density regardless of the pore sizes studied here. The mass density of liquid/solid methane in pores with different sizes shows different temperature dependence below the condensation temperature. With decreasing temperature, the methane density in larger pores (SBA-15) abruptly increases at approximately 65 K and then plateaus. In contrast, the density in smaller pores (MCM-41) monotonically increases with decreasing temperature before reaching a plateau at approximately 30 K.

  9. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan


    As repositories for CO₂ and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  10. Low pore connectivity in natural rock. (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P; Dultz, Stefan


    As repositories for CO(2) and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  11. Pore Capture in Shales Due to Pervasive Micro-fracturing (United States)

    Hayman, N. W.; Daigle, H.; Kelly, E. D.; Milliken, K. L.; Jiang, H.


    Unconventional production from mudrock reservoirs is associated with steep production declines in individual wells. The decline curves may partly stem from the induced fracture spacing which is on the order of meters, whereas most of the hydrocarbon-bearing pores are at the nanoscale. Previous analysis of production data, however, indicates some permeability enhancement between the more widely spaced fractures that may be due to a small-scale microfracture network. In order to test the microfracture hypothesis, we fractured samples of shale under shear deformation and observed (post-experimental) changes in microstructure through scanning electron microscopy, CT-scanning and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging, low-pressure nitrogen sorption, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results indicate that a system of microcracks with apertures ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns forms in response to shear failure, which in some cases propagate into organic matter and intersect the organic-hosted pores, a process we refer to as "pore capture". This micromechanical process presumably underlies the bulk porosity response (increase) which is directly affected by the abundance of organic matter (OM), the fabric of the rock, and the direction of loading relative to any fabric. The trajectory of the fractures is governed by the contrasts in mechanical strength (and, potentially, the brittle-vs.-ductile response) among the different components of the shale and within the OM. Specifically, the fractures tend to follow trajectories through weaker material, which favors their propagation along grain contacts and into OM. However, such grain-boundary fractures do not typically intersect intergranular pores, possibly because these are preferentially located in mechanically stronger areas that resist deformation. The fractures we observed do not appear to contribute to enhanced connectivity of the overall intergranular pore system, potentially explaining why fracking yields

  12. Performance of Small Pore Microchannel Plates (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Ravinett, T.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Edgar, M.


    Small pore size microchannel plates (MCP's) are needed to satisfy the requirements for future high resolution small and large format detectors for astronomy. MCP's with pore sizes in the range 5 micron to 8 micron are now being manufactured, but they are of limited availability and are of small size. We have obtained sets of Galileo 8 micron and 6.5 micron MCP's, and Philips 6 micron and 7 micron pore MCP's, and compared them to our larger pore MCP Z stacks. We have tested back to back MCP stacks of four of these MCP's and achieved gains greater than 2 x 1O(exp 7) with pulse height distributions of less than 40% FWHM, and background rates of less than 0.3 events sec(exp -1) cm(exp -2). Local counting rates up to approx. 100 events/pore/sec have been attained with little drop of the MCP gain. The bare MCP quantum efficiencies are somewhat lower than those expected, however. Flat field images are characterized by an absence of MCP fixed pattern noise.

  13. Modeling Tissue Growth Within Nonwoven Scaffolds Pores (United States)

    Church, Jeffrey S.; Alexander, David L.J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Ingham, Eileen; Ramshaw, John A.M.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.


    In this study we present a novel approach for predicting tissue growth within the pores of fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds. Thin nonwoven polyethylene terephthalate scaffolds were prepared to characterize tissue growth within scaffold pores, by mouse NR6 fibroblast cells. On the basis of measurements of tissue lengths at fiber crossovers and along fiber segments, mathematical models were determined during the proliferative phase of cell growth. Tissue growth at fiber crossovers decreased with increasing interfiber angle, with exponential relationships determined on day 6 and 10 of culture. Analysis of tissue growth along fiber segments determined two growth profiles, one with enhanced growth as a result of increased tissue lengths near the fiber crossover, achieved in the latter stage of culture. Derived mathematical models were used in the development of a software program to visualize predicted tissue growth within a pore. This study identifies key pore parameters that contribute toward tissue growth, and suggests models for predicting this growth, based on fibroblast cells. Such models may be used in aiding scaffold design, for optimum pore infiltration during the tissue engineering process. PMID:20687775

  14. Analysis of a spatially deconvolved solar pore (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.


    Solar pores are active regions with large magnetic field strengths and apparent simple magnetic configurations. Their properties resemble the ones found for the sunspot umbra although pores do not show penumbra. Therefore, solar pores present themselves as an intriguing phenomenon that is not completely understood. We examine in this work a solar pore observed with Hinode/SP using two state of the art techniques. The first one is the spatial deconvolution of the spectropolarimetric data that allows removing the stray light contamination induced by the spatial point spread function of the telescope. The second one is the inversion of the Stokes profiles assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium that let us to infer the atmospheric physical parameters. After applying these techniques, we found that the spatial deconvolution method does not introduce artefacts, even at the edges of the magnetic structure, where large horizontal gradients are detected on the atmospheric parameters. Moreover, we also describe the physical properties of the magnetic structure at different heights finding that, in the inner part of the solar pore, the temperature is lower than outside, the magnetic field strength is larger than 2 kG and unipolar, and the line-of-sight velocity is almost null. At neighbouring pixels, we found low magnetic field strengths of same polarity and strong downward motions that only occur at the low photosphere, below the continuum optical depth log τ = -1. Finally, we studied the spatial relation between different atmospheric parameters at different heights corroborating the physical properties described before.

  15. Pore mutations of the Escherichia coli MscS channel affect desensitization but not ionic preference. (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle D; Bartlett, Wendy; Booth, Ian R


    Mechanosensitive channels rescue bacterial cells from a fate of lysis when they transfer from a high- to low-osmolarity environment. Of three Escherichia coli mechanosensitive proteins studied to date, only MscS-Ec demonstrates a small anionic preference and a desensitized, nonconducting state under sustained pressure. Little is known about the mechanisms generating these distinctive properties. Eliminating the sole positive charge in the MscS-Ec pore region (Arg(88)) did not alter anionic preference. Adding positive charges at either end of the pore did not augment anionic preference, and placing negative charges within the pore did not diminish it. Thus, pore charges do not control this characteristic. However, from this analysis we identified mutations in the hinge region of the MscS-Ec pore helix (at Gly(113)) that profoundly affected ability of the channel to desensitize. Substitution with nonpolar (Ala, Pro) or polar (Asp, Arg, Ser) residues inhibited transition to the desensitized state. Interestingly, Gly(113) replaced with Met did not impede desensitization. Thus, although Gly is not specifically required at position 113, MscS desensitization is strongly influenced by the residue situated here. Mutations at residues further into the pore also regulated desensitization. Transition to this unique mechanosensitive channel state is discussed in terms of existing data.

  16. Pore space analysis of NAPL distribution in sand-clay media (United States)

    Matmon, D.; Hayden, N.J.


    This paper introduces a conceptual model of clays and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at the pore scale that has been developed from a mathematical unit cell model, and direct micromodel observation and measurement of clay-containing porous media. The mathematical model uses a unit cell concept with uniform spherical grains for simulating the sand in the sand-clay matrix (???10% clay). Micromodels made with glass slides and including different clay-containing porous media were used to investigate the two clays (kaolinite and montmorillonite) and NAPL distribution within the pore space. The results were used to understand the distribution of NAPL advancing into initially saturated sand and sand-clay media, and provided a detailed analysis of the pore-scale geometry, pore size distribution, NAPL entry pressures, and the effect of clay on this geometry. Interesting NAPL saturation profiles were observed as a result of the complexity of the pore space geometry with the different packing angles and the presence of clays. The unit cell approach has applications for enhancing the mechanistic understanding and conceptualization, both visually and mathematically, of pore-scale processes such as NAPL and clay distribution. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pore to Core Scale Simulation of the Mass Transfer with Mineral Reaction in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekri S.


    Full Text Available Pore Network Model (PNM is used to simulate mass transfer with mineral reaction in a single phase flow through porous medium which is here a sandstone sample from the reservoir formation of the Pakoslaw gas field. The void space of the porous medium is represented by an idealized geometry of pore-bodies joined by pore-throats. Parameters defining the pore-bodies and the pore-throats distribution are determined by an optimization process aiming to match the experimental Mercury Intrusion Capillary Pressure (MICP curve and petrophysical properties of the rock such as intrinsic permeability and formation factor. The generated network is used first to simulate the multiphase flow by solving Kirchhoff’s laws. The capillary pressure and relative permeability curves are derived. Then, reactive transport is addressed under asymptotic regime where the solute concentration undergoes an exponential evolution with time. The porosity/permeability relationship and the three phenomenological coefficients of transport, namely the solute velocity, the dispersion and the mean reaction rate are determined as functions of Peclet and Peclet-Damköhler dimensionless numbers. Finally, the role of the dimensionless numbers on the reactive flow properties is highlighted.

  18. Demixing and confinement of non-additive hard-sphere mixtures in slit pores. (United States)

    Almarza, N G; Martín, C; Lomba, E; Bores, C


    Using Monte Carlo simulation, we study the influence of geometric confinement on demixing for a series of symmetric non-additive hard spheres mixtures confined in slit pores. We consider both a wide range of positive non-additivities and a series of pore widths, ranging from the pure two dimensional limit to a large pore width where results are close to the bulk three dimensional case. Critical parameters are extracted by means of finite size analysis. As a general trend, we find that for this particular case in which demixing is induced by volume effects, the critical demixing densities (and pressures) increase due to confinement between neutral walls, following the expected behavior for phase equilibria of systems confined by pure repulsive walls: i.e., confinement generally enhances miscibility. However, a non-monotonous dependence of the critical pressure and density with pore size is found for small non-additivities. In this latter case, it turns out that an otherwise stable bulk mixture can be unexpectedly forced to demix by simple geometric confinement when the pore width decreases down to approximately one and a half molecular diameters.

  19. Limestone characterization to model damage from acidic precipitation: Effect of pore structure on mass transfer (United States)

    Leith, S.D.; Reddy, M.M.; Irez, W.F.; Heymans, M.J.


    The pore structure of Salem limestone is investigated, and conclusions regarding the effect of the pore geometry on modeling moisture and contaminant transport are discussed based on thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption analyses. These investigations are compared to and shown to compliment permeability and capillary pressure measurements for this common building stone. Salem limestone exhibits a bimodal pore size distribution in which the larger pores provide routes for convective mass transfer of contaminants into the material and the smaller pores lead to high surface area adsorption and reaction sites. Relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements of the air/water system indicate that Salem limestone exhibits high capillarity end low effective permeability to water. Based on stone characterization, aqueous diffusion and convection are believed to be the primary transport mechanisms for pollutants in this stone. The extent of contaminant accumulation in the stone depends on the mechanism of partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. The described characterization techniques and modeling approach can be applied to many systems of interest such as acidic damage to limestone, mass transfer of contaminants in concrete and other porous building materials, and modeling pollutant transport in subsurface moisture zones.

  20. TIG Dressing Effects on Weld Pores and Pore Cracking of Titanium Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jun Yi


    Full Text Available Weld pores redistribution, the effectiveness of using tungsten inert gas (TIG dressing to remove weld pores, and changes in the mechanical properties due to the TIG dressing of Ti-3Al-2.5V weldments were studied. Moreover, weld cracks due to pores were investigated. The results show that weld pores less than 300 μm in size are redistributed or removed via remelting due to TIG dressing. Regardless of the temperature condition, TIG dressing welding showed ductility, and there was a loss of 7% tensile strength of the weldments. Additionally, it was considered that porosity redistribution by TIG dressing was due to fluid flow during the remelting of the weld pool. Weld cracks in titanium weldment create branch cracks around pores that propagate via the intragranular fracture, and oxygen is dispersed around the pores. It is suggested that the pore locations around the LBZ (local brittle zone and stress concentration due to the pores have significant effects on crack initiation and propagation.

  1. Chromatographic performance of large-pore versus small-pore columns in micellar liquid chromatography. (United States)

    McCormick, Timothy J; Foley, Joe P; Lloyd, David K


    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is useful in bioanalysis because proteinaceous biofluids can be directly injected onto the column. The technique has been limited in part because of the apparently weak eluting power of micellar mobile phases. It has recently been shown [Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 294] that this may be overcome by the use of large pore size stationary phases. In this work, large-pore (1000 A) C(18) stationary phases were evaluated relative to conventional small-pore (100 A) C(18) stationary phases for the direct sample injection of drugs in plasma. Furthermore, the difference between the large and small pore phases in gradient elution separations of mixtures of widely varying hydrophobicities was investigated. Large-pore stationary phases were found to be very effective for eluting moderately to highly hydrophobic compounds such as ibuprofen, crotamiton, propranolol, and dodecanophenone, which were highly retained on the small-pore stationary phases typically used in MLC. The advantages of direct introduction of biological samples (drugs in plasma) and rapid column re-equilibration after gradient elution in MLC were maintained with large-pore phases. Finally, recoveries, precision, linearity, and detection limits for the determination of quinidine and DPC 961 in spiked bovine plasma were somewhat better using MLC with wide pore phases.

  2. Moving Magnetic Features around a Pore

    CERN Document Server

    Kaithakkal, A J; Solanki, S K; Lagg, A; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; vanNoort, M; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M


    Spectropolarimetric observations from Sunrise II/IMaX obtained in June 2013 are used for a statistical analysis to determine the physical properties of moving magnetic features (MMFs) observed near a pore. MMFs of the same and opposite polarity with respect to the pore are found to stream from its border at an average speed of 1.3 km s$^{-1}$ and 1.2 km s$^{-1}$ respectively, with mainly same-polarity MMFs found further away from the pore. MMFs of both polarities are found to harbor rather weak, inclined magnetic fields. Opposite-polarity MMFs are blue-shifted, while same-polarity MMFs do not show any preference for up- or downflows. Most of the MMFs are found to be of sub-arcsecond size and carry a mean flux of $\\sim$ 1.2$\\times 10^{17}$ Mx.

  3. Optical detection of pores in adipocyte membrane (United States)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Tuchin, V. V.


    Structures that can be interpreted as cytoplasm droplets leaking through the membrane are experimentally detected on the membranes of adipocytes using optical digital microscopy. The effect of an aqueous alcohol solution of brilliant green on the amount and sizes of structures is studied. It is demonstrated that the optical irradiation of the adipocytes that are sensitized with the aid of the brilliant green leads to an increase in the amount of structures (pores) after the irradiation. The experimental results confirm the existence of an earlier-proposed effect of photochemical action on the sensitized cells of adipose tissue that involves additional formation of pores in the membrane of the sensitized cell under selective optical irradiation. The proposed method for the detection of micropores in the membrane of adipose tissue based on the detection of the cytoplasm droplets leaking from the cell can be considered as a method for the optical detection of nanosized pores.

  4. Pore Network Modeling: Alternative Methods to Account for Trapping and Spatial Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    De La Garza Martinez, Pablo


    Pore network models have served as a predictive tool for soil and rock properties with a broad range of applications, particularly in oil recovery, geothermal energy from underground reservoirs, and pollutant transport in soils and aquifers [39]. They rely on the representation of the void space within porous materials as a network of interconnected pores with idealised geometries. Typically, a two-phase flow simulation of a drainage (or imbibition) process is employed, and by averaging the physical properties at the pore scale, macroscopic parameters such as capillary pressure and relative permeability can be estimated. One of the most demanding tasks in these models is to include the possibility of fluids to remain trapped inside the pore space. In this work I proposed a trapping rule which uses the information of neighboring pores instead of a search algorithm. This approximation reduces the simulation time significantly and does not perturb the accuracy of results. Additionally, I included spatial correlation to generate the pore sizes using a matrix decomposition method. Results show higher relative permeabilities and smaller values for irreducible saturation, which emphasizes the effects of ignoring the intrinsic correlation seen in pore sizes from actual porous media. Finally, I implemented the algorithm from Raoof et al. (2010) [38] to generate the topology of a Fontainebleau sandstone by solving an optimization problem using the steepest descent algorithm with a stochastic approximation for the gradient. A drainage simulation is performed on this representative network and relative permeability is compared with published results. The limitations of this algorithm are discussed and other methods are suggested to create a more faithful representation of the pore space.

  5. Porous media fluid transport and pore structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dullien, F A L


    This book examines the relationship between transport properties and pore structure of porous material. Models of pore structure are presented with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict the transport properties of porous media. Portions of the book are devoted to interpretations of experimental results in this area and directions for future research. Practical applications are given where applicable, and are expected to be useful for a large number of different fields, including reservoir engineering, geology, hydrogeology, soil science, chemical process engineering, biomedica

  6. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte


    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  7. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    of quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage...... air permeability and pore continuity index. Generally, residue input, especially when combined with direct drilling at the Foulum site, decreased bulk density and the volume of blocked air porosity, and increased air-filled porosity, volumetric water content, air permeability and gas diffusivity. Our...

  8. A fiber matrix model for the filtration through fenestral pores in a compressible arterial intima. (United States)

    Huang, Y; Rumschitzki, D; Chien, S; Weinbaum, S


    We advance a new hypothesis to explain the changes in hydraulic conductivity of an intact artery wall with transmural pressure previously observed by Tedgui and Lever [Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 16): H784-H791, 1984] and Baldwin and Wilson [Am. J. Physiol. 264 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 33): H26-H32, 1993]. This hypothesis suggests that compaction due to pressure loading of the proteoglycan matrix in the arterial intima near fenestral pores of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) leads to a narrowing of the pore entrance area and a large decrease in local intrinsic Darcy permeability of the matrix. To quantitatively assess the feasibility of this mechanism, a local two-dimensional model is proposed to study filtration flow in the vicinity of fenestral pores in a compressible intima. Using a heterogenous fiber matrix theory, we first predict the change in Darcy permeability with intimal thickness (Li). The model then calculates local velocity profiles and pressure distributions in the intima and media. The results show a marked nonlinear steepening of intimal pressure profiles near fenestral pores when the intima thins at higher luminal pressures. The predicted relative change in resistances of the IEL (with intima, R(I)) and of the media (Rm) shows a steep increase in R(I)/Rm when Li is <20% of its unstressed value. Numerical results also suggest that intimal compression has a limiting behavior in which the much stiffer collagen fibrils inhibit further compaction at high pressures after the proteoglycan matrix is maximally compressed. Predictions are also presented to show how different transmural pressures alter growth of an intimal horseradish peroxidase spot that derives from a localized (a single cell's boundary) endothelial leakage. Such a prediction is amenable to experimental verification.

  9. Fluctuations of a fluid inside a pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Zatovsky, AV

    The correlation theory of the thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of compressible viscous fluids within a spherical pore has been developed. The fluctuation motions ape described by the linearized Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations, containing spontaneous viscous stresses and heat fluxes. The

  10. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tousheh


    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  11. Particle diffusion in complex nanoscale pore networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müter, Dirk; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Bock, H.;


    We studied the diffusion of particles in the highly irregular pore networks of chalk, a very fine-grained rock, by combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. X-ray imaging data were collected at 25 nm voxel dimension for two chalk samples with v...

  12. Maximal pore size in UF membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkhangelsky, E.; Duek, A.; Gitis, V.


    The ultrafiltration membrane rejection capability is most often characterized by molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The value is found by rejection of organic solutes and the evaluation of particle retention requires a conversion of either MWCO to pore size or particle diameter to molecular weight. The

  13. Silicon Pore Optics development for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Guenther, Ramses


    ) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m(2) at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building...

  14. Observations of sausage modes in magnetic pores

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M


    We present here evidence for the observation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 {\\AA} 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magneto-acoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage type magneto-acoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  15. Fluctuations of a fluid inside a pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Zatovsky, AV


    The correlation theory of the thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of compressible viscous fluids within a spherical pore has been developed. The fluctuation motions ape described by the linearized Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations, containing spontaneous viscous stresses and heat fluxes. The e

  16. Fluctuations of a fluid inside a pore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Zatovsky, AV


    The correlation theory of the thermal hydrodynamic fluctuations of compressible viscous fluids within a spherical pore has been developed. The fluctuation motions ape described by the linearized Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations, containing spontaneous viscous stresses and heat fluxes. The e

  17. Pore-Forming Toxins Trigger the Purge. (United States)

    Bonfini, Alessandro; Buchon, Nicolas


    The intestinal epithelium responds to pathogens by coordinating microbial elimination with tissue repair, both required to survive an infection. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2016) discover a rapid and evolutionarily conserved response to pore-forming toxins in the gut, involving cytoplasm ejection and enterocyte regrowth.

  18. Silicon Pore Optics development for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Guenther, Ramses;


    ) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m(2) at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building...

  19. Nucleation of frictional instability caused by fluid pressurization in subducted blueschist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, M.; Niemeijer, A.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Plümper, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37155960X; Hirose, T.; Spiers, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323


    Pore pressure is an important factor in controlling the slip instability of faults and thus the generation of earthquakes. Particularly slow earthquakes are widespread in subduction zones and usually linked to the occurrence of high pore pressure. Yet the influence of fluid pressure and effective st

  20. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study (United States)

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland


    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  1. Pore Structure of Cement Pastes Blended with Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lehua; ZHOU Shuangxi; LI Liling


    The pore parameters of cement pastes blended with volcanic rock at the curing age of 1, 28 and 90 d were de-termined by a mercury intrusion porosimetry. The pore structure of the pastes was characterized through the analysis of porosity, average pore diameter, the most probable pore aperture, pore size distribution, as well as total pore volume. For the improvement of mechanical property and durability of cement-based material, the correlation of the formed pore structure with hydration time and replacement level of volcanic rock for cement was revealed. The results indicate that volcanic rock can diminish porosity and reduce pore size in cement paste when curing time prolongs, which is particu-larly prominent with replacement level of less than 20% in late period. The more harmful pores (i.e., capillary pore) are gradually transformed into harmless pore (i.e., gel pores or micropore), even fully filled and disappeared when hydration products increase. The pore structure of the cement paste is thus refined. The beneficial effect of volcanic rock on the pore structure of cement paste could enhance the mechanical property and durability of cement-based material.

  2. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.

  3. Modeling of adsorption of CO2 in the deformed pores of MIL-53(Al). (United States)

    Dundar, Ege; Chanut, Nicolas; Formalik, Filip; Boulet, Pascal; Llewellyn, Philip L; Kuchta, Bogdan


    Molecular simulations were performed to predict CO2 adsorption in flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). A generic force field was fitted to our experimental data to describe the non-bonded (electrostatic and van der Waals) interactions between CO2 molecules and the large pore (lp) and narrow pore (np) forms of the MIL-53(Al) framework. With the new validated force field, it is possible to predict CO2 uptake and enthalpy of adsorption at various applied external pressures that will modify the structure's pore configuration and allow us to have more control over the adsorption/desorption process. A sensitivity analysis of MOF adsorption properties to the variation of the force field parameters was also intensively studied. It was shown that relatively small variations of the adsorbate gas model can improve the quality of the numerical predictions of the experimental data. However, the variations must be kept small enough to not modify the properties of the gas itself.

  4. Boiling visualization on vertical fins with tunnel-pore structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental studies of nucleate boiling heat transfer from a system of connected horizontal and vertical subsurface tunnels. The experiments were carried out for water at atmospheric pressure. The tunnel external covers were manufactured out of perforated copper foil (holes diameter 0.3 mm, sintered with the mini-fins, formed on the vertical side of the 10 mm high rectangular fins and horizontal inter-fin surface. The image acquisition speed was 493 fps (at resolution 400 × 300 pixels with Photonfocus PHOT MV-D1024-160-CL camera. Visualization investigations aimed to identify nucleation sites and flow patterns and to determine the bubble departure diameter and frequency at various superheats for vertical tunnels. At low superheat vapor bubbles are generated nearly exclusively by the vertical tunnel. At medium values of superheat, pores of the horizontal tunnel activate.

  5. Study of pores produced in underwater wet welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Xiaoqin; Liu Shiming


    This paper deals with the effect of water depth in the range of 10 m to 80 m upon the formation of pores produced during underwater wet welding. The results show that it is easy for the inner pores to occur owing to the particularity of the molten metal solidification that the outer pores begin to appear when the water depth increases to about 60 m, that the porosity increases and pore grows up as the water depth increases, and that pores are all hydrogen-cont aining ones through the examination of the variation of number of pores with the residual hydrogen and oxygen content in the weld metal.

  6. Inertial forces affect fluid front displacement dynamics in a pore-throat network model. (United States)

    Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani


    The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights

  7. Chloride content and pH value in the pore solution of concrete under carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-mei WAN; Folker H.WITTMANN; Tie-jun ZHAO; Hong FAN


    Chloride content and the pH value of the pore solution in the neighborhood of steel reinforcement are decisive parameters for initiation and rate of corrosion.The pore solution of cement mortar and hardened cement paste has been expressed from the pore space by high pressure in the investigation.The influence of the water-cement ratio,age,and addition of chloride to the fresh mix on chloride content in the pore solution has been determined by ion chromatography.At the same time the pH value of the pore solution has been determined.The dissolved chloride content decreases with increase in the water-cement ratio.The amount of bound chloride increases with time,but it decreases with decreasing content of dissolved chloride in the pore solution.A significant influence of carbonation on the dissolved chloride content of the pore solution has been observed.With complete carbonation,the dissolved chloride content in cement mortar and hardened cement paste increases by a factor between 2 and 12.The bound chloride decreases by 27%-54%.As expected,the pH value decreases from around 13.2 to as low as 8.0 due to carbonation.It can be concluded that carbonation not only lowers the pH value but liberates bound chloride.This is one obvious reason why the combined action of chloride penetration and carbonation accelerates steel corrosion and shortens the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

  8. Pore space connectivity and porosity using CT scans of tropical soils (United States)

    Previatello da Silva, Livia; de Jong Van Lier, Quirijn


    Microtomography has been used in soil physics for characterization and allows non-destructive analysis with high-resolution, yielding a three-dimensional representation of pore space and fluid distribution. It also allows quantitative characterization of pore space, including pore size distribution, shape, connectivity, porosity, tortuosity, orientation, preferential pathways and is also possible predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity using Darcy's equation and a modified Poiseuille's equation. Connectivity of pore space is an important topological property of soil. Together with porosity and pore-size distribution, it governs transport of water, solutes and gases. In order to quantify and analyze pore space (quantifying connectivity of pores and porosity) of four tropical soils from Brazil with different texture and land use, undisturbed samples were collected in São Paulo State, Brazil, with PVC ring with 7.5 cm in height and diameter of 7.5 cm, depth of 10 - 30 cm from soil surface. Image acquisition was performed with a CT system Nikon XT H 225, with technical specifications of dual reflection-transmission target system including a 225 kV, 225 W high performance Xray source equipped with a reflection target with pot size of 3 μm combined with a nano-focus transmission module with a spot size of 1 μm. The images were acquired at specific energy level for each soil type, according to soil texture, and external copper filters were used in order to allow the attenuation of low frequency X-ray photons and passage of one monoenergetic beam. This step was performed aiming minimize artifacts such as beam hardening that may occur during the attenuation in the material interface with different densities within the same sample. Images were processed and analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Retention curve (tension table and the pressure chamber methods), saturated hydraulic conductivity (constant head permeameter), granulometry, soil density and particle density

  9. A fast Laplace solver approach to pore scale permeability (United States)

    Arns, Christoph; Adler, Pierre


    The permeability of a porous medium can be derived by solving the Stokes equations in the pore space with no slip at the walls. The resulting velocity averaged over the pore volume yields the permeability KS by application of the Darcy law. The Stokes equations can be solved by a number of different techniques such as finite differences, finite volume, Lattice Boltzmann, but whatever the technique it remains a heavy task since there are four unknowns at each node (the three velocity components and the pressure) which necessitate the solution of four equations (the projection of Newton's law on each axis and mass conservation). By comparison, the Laplace equation is scalar with a single unknown at each node. The objective of this work is to replace the Stokes equations by an elliptical equation with a space dependent permeability. More precisely, the local permeability k is supposed to be proportional to (r-alpha)**2 where r is the distance of the voxel to the closest wall, and alpha a constant; k is zero in the solid phase. The elliptical equation is div(k gradp)=0. A macroscopic pressure gradient is assumed to be exerted on the medium and again the resulting velocity averaged over space yields a permeability K_L. In order to validate this method, systematic calculations have been performed. First, elementary shapes (plane channel, circular pipe, rectangular channels) were studied for which flow occurs along parallel lines in which case KL is the arithmetic average of the k's. KL was calculated for various discretizations of the pore space and various values of alpha. For alpha=0.5, the agreement with the exact analytical value of KS is excellent for the plane and rectangular channels while it is only approximate for circular pipes. Second, the permeability KL of channels with sinusoidal walls was calculated and compared with analytical results and numerical ones provided by a Lattice Boltzmann algorithm. Generally speaking, the discrepancy does not exceed 25% when

  10. Experimental Study on Mechanism of Depressurizing Dissociation of Methane Hydrate under Saturated Pore Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youhong; Su Kai; Guo Wei; Li Bing; Jia Rui


    Sediment-hosted hydrate reservoir often contains saturated pore lfuid, which changes the heat transfer and mass transfer characteristics of the hydrate reservoir. The exploitation of hydrate under saturated pore lfuid using depressurization is simulated experimentally to investigate the inlfuence of particle size of porous media, dissociation temperature, pressure drop and injected lfuid type on gas production behavior. Homogeneous methane hydrate was ifrstly formed in frozen quartz sand. With the formed hydrate sample, hydrate dissociation experiments by depressurization were conducted. The test results showed that the gas production rate of hydrate under saturated pore lfuid was substantially inlfuenced by the particle size, the pressure drop and the injected lfuid type, while it was inlfuenced little by the dissociation temperature. The hydrate dissociates faster under larger pressure drop and in the presence of smaller porous media within the experimental region. The dissociation rate increases with an increasing lfuid salinity in the initial stage, while it decreases in the later stage. The increase of gas diffusion resistance resulted from ionic hydration atmosphere in saturated chloride solution impeded the dissociation of hydrate. It can be solved by increasing the pressure drop and decreasing the lfuid salinity in the process of gas recovery from hydrate reservoir.

  11. Mineral dissolution kinetics at the pore scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.


    Mineral dissolution rates in the field have been reported to be orders of magnitude slower than those measured in the laboratory, an unresolved discrepancy that severely limits our ability to develop scientifically defensible predictive or even interpretive models for many geochemical processes in the earth and environmental sciences. One suggestion links this discrepancy to the role of physical and chemical heterogeneities typically found in subsurface soils and aquifers in producing scale-dependent rates where concentration gradients develop. In this paper, we examine the possibility that scale-dependent mineral dissolution rates can develop even at the single pore and fracture scale, the smallest and most fundamental building block of porous media. To do so, we develop two models to analyze mineral dissolution kinetics at the single pore scale: (1) a Poiseuille Flow model that applies laboratory-measured dissolution kinetics at the pore or fracture wall and couples this to a rigorous treatment of both advective and diffusive transport, and (2) a Well-Mixed Reactor model that assumes complete mixing within the pore, while maintaining the same reactive surface area, average flow rate, and geometry as the Poiseuille Flow model. For a fracture, a 1D Plug Flow Reactor model is considered in addition to quantify the effects of longitudinal versus transverse mixing. The comparison of averaged dissolution rates under various conditions of flow, pore size, and fracture length from the three models is used as a means to quantify the extent to which concentration gradients at the single pore and fracture scale can develop and render rates scale-dependent. Three important minerals that dissolve at widely different rates, calcite, plagioclase, and iron hydroxide, are considered. The modeling indicates that rate discrepancies arise primarily where concentration gradients develop due to comparable rates of reaction and advective transport, and incomplete mixing via molecular

  12. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin


    Mojtaba Tousheh; Giti Emtiazi; Peyman Derikvand


    Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested fo...

  13. Biomimetic collagen scaffolds with anisotropic pore architecture. (United States)

    Davidenko, N; Gibb, T; Schuster, C; Best, S M; Campbell, J J; Watson, C J; Cameron, R E


    Sponge-like matrices with a specific three-dimensional structural design resembling the actual extracellular matrix of a particular tissue show significant potential for the regeneration and repair of a broad range of damaged anisotropic tissues. The manipulation of the structure of collagen scaffolds using a freeze-drying technique was explored in this work as an intrinsically biocompatible way of tailoring the inner architecture of the scaffold. The research focused on the influence of temperature gradients, imposed during the phase of crystallisation of collagen suspensions, upon the degree of anisotropy in the microstructures of the scaffolds produced. Moulding technology was employed to achieve differences in heat transfer rates during the freezing processes. For this purpose various moulds with different configurations were developed with a view to producing uniaxial and multi-directional temperature gradients across the sample during this process. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of different cross-sections (longitudinal and horizontal) of scaffolds revealed that highly aligned matrices with axially directed pore architectures were obtained where single unidirectional temperature gradients were induced. Altering the freezing conditions by the introduction of multiple temperature gradients allowed collagen scaffolds to be produced with complex pore orientations, and anisotropy in pore size and alignment.

  14. Pore morphology study of silica aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, D.W.; Anderson, J.; Haereid, S.; Smith, D.M. [UNM/NSF Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beaucage, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Silica aerogels have numerous properties which suggest applications such as ultra high efficiency thermal insulation. These properties relate directly to the aerogel`s pore size distribution. The micro and meso pore size ranges can be investigated by normal small angle x-ray scattering and possibly, nitrogen adsorption. However, the measurement of larger pores (> 250 {angstrom}) is more difficult. Due to their limited mechanical strength, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen condensation can disrupt the gel structure and electron microscopy provides only limited large scale structure information. The use of small angle light scattering techniques seems to have promise, the only hurdle is that aerogels exhibit significant multiple scattering. This can be avoided if one observes the gels in the wet stage since the structure of the aerogel should be very similar to the wet gel (as the result of supercritical drying). Thus, if one can match the refractive index, the morphology can be probed. The combination of certain alcoholic solvents fit this index matching criteria. Preliminary results for the gel network (micron range) and primary particle structure (manometer) are reported by using small angle light scattering and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The effects on structure over the length scale range of <1 nm to >5 {mu}m under different conditions (precursors, pH, etc.) are presented. The change in structure of an aerogel during isostatic compaction to 228 MPa (to simulate drying from wetting solvents) are also discussed.

  15. Functionalized bioinspired microstructured optical fiber pores for applications in chemical vapor sensing (United States)

    Calkins, Jacob A.

    Chemical vapor sensing for defense, homeland security, environmental, and agricultural application is a challenge, which due combined requirements of ppt sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid response, cannot be met using conventional analytical chemistry techniques. New sensing approaches and platforms are necessary in order to make progress in this rapidly evolving field. Inspired by the functionalized nanopores on moth sensilla hairs that contribute to the high selectivity and sensitivity of this biological system, a chemical vapor sensor based on the micro to nanoscale pores in microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) was designed. This MOF based chemical vapor sensor design utilizes MOF pores functionalized with organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for selectivity and separations and a gold plasmonic sensor for detection and discrimination. Thin well-controlled gold films in MOF pores are critical components for the fabrication of structured plasmonic chemical vapor sensors. Thermal decomposition of dimethyl Au(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in near-critical CO2 was used to deposit gold island films within the MOF pores. Using a 3mercatopropyltrimethoxysilane adhesion layer, continuous gold thin films as thin as 20--30 nm were deposited within MOF pores as small as 500 nm in diameter. The gold island films proved to be SERS active and were used to detect 900 ppt 2,4 DNT vapor in high pressure nitrogen and 6 ppm benzaldehyde. MOF based waveguide Raman (WGR), which can probe the air/silica interface between a waveguiding core and surrounding pores, was developed to detect and characterize SAMs and other thin films deposited in micro to nanoscale MOF pores. MOF based WGR was used to characterize an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAM deposited in 1.6 mum diameter pores iv to demonstrate that the SAM was well-formed, uniform along the pore length, and only a single layer. MOF based WGR was used to detect a human serum albumin monolayer deposited on the


    Microbiologically-based procedures were used to describe biofouling phenomena on fine pore aeration devices and to determine whether biofilm characteristics could be related to diffuser process performance parameters. Fine pore diffusers were obtained from five municipal wastewa...

  17. Stress dependent thermal pressurization of a fluid-saturated rock

    CERN Document Server

    Ghabezloo, Siavash


    Temperature increase in saturated porous materials under undrained conditions leads to thermal pressurization of the pore fluid due to the discrepancy between the thermal expansion coefficients of the pore fluid and of the solid matrix. This increase in the pore fluid pressure induces a reduction of the effective mean stress and can lead to shear failure or hydraulic fracturing. The equations governing the phenomenon of thermal pressurization are presented and this phenomenon is studied experimentally for a saturated granular rock in an undrained heating test under constant isotropic stress. Careful analysis of the effect of mechanical and thermal deformation of the drainage and pressure measurement system is performed and a correction of the measured pore pressure is introduced. The test results are modelled using a non-linear thermo-poro-elastic constitutive model of the granular rock with emphasis on the stress-dependent character of the rock compressibility. The effects of stress and temperature on therma...

  18. New ultrasonic technique for the study of the pore shape of track-etched pores in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Alvarez-Arenas, T.E., E-mail: tgomez@ia.cetef.csic.e [Instituto de Acustica, CSIC, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Apel, P.Yu.; Orelovitch, O.L. [Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Munoz, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, CSIC, Serrano 144, Madrid (Spain)


    A new technique for the study of the pore shape of track-etched pores in polymer films is presented. This technique is based on the use of air-coupled ultrasounds and phase and magnitude spectral analysis. Transmission of ultrasounds through these membranes is made up of two contributions: propagation through the solid part and propagation along the pore channels. A time-domain procedure to separate these to contributions is presented. Sensitivity of ultrasounds propagation in the pore channels to variations of pore shape is studied. Membranes with similar properties (gas flow rate values) but slight differences in the pore shape are studied. The proposed technique reveals to be sensitive to such differences; unlike other techniques, it is capable to provide information in a separate way about pore aperture at the surface and pore diameter inside the membrane, in addition the technique is non-destructive.

  19. Models for Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity Based on Truncated Lognormal Pore-size Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Malama, Bwalya


    We develop a closed-form three-parameter model for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity associated with a three-parameter lognormal model of moisture retention, which is based on lognormal grainsize distribution. The derivation of the model is made possible by a slight modification to the theory of Mualem. We extend the three-parameter lognormal distribution to a four-parameter model that also truncates the pore size distribution at a minimum pore radius. We then develop the corresponding four-parameter model for moisture retention and the associated closed-form expression for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The four-parameter model is fitted to experimental data, similar to the models of Kosugi and van Genuchten. The proposed four-parameter model retains the physical basis of Kosugi's model, while improving fit to observed data especially when simultaneously fitting pressure-saturation and pressure-conductivity data.

  20. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries (United States)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.


    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24571

  1. Cleavage of oligodeoxyribonucleotides from controlled-pore glass supports and their rapid deprotection by gaseous amines. (United States)

    Boal, J H; Wilk, A; Harindranath, N; Max, E E; Kempe, T; Beaucage, S L


    A novel method for the deprotection of oligodeoxyribonucleotides has been developed. Gaseous amines such as ammonia or methylamine were employed under pressure to achieve mild and rapid deprotection conditions. For example, oligodeoxyribonucleotides having a (tert-butyl)phenoxyacetyl group for the protection of the exocyclic amino function of cytosine, adenine and guanine were released from controlled-pore glass supports and fully deprotected by ammonia or methylamine under gas phase conditions, at room temperature, within 35 or 2 min respectively.

  2. Pore network and pore scale modeling of reactive transport in porous media (United States)

    Adler, P. M.; Vu, T. M.; Varloteaux, C.; Bekri, S.


    The study of the evolution of a porous medium where a reactive fluid flows is conditioned by the accurate determination of three macroscopic parameters governing the solute displacement, namely the solute velocity, dispersion and mean reaction rate. Of course, a possible application of such studies is CO2 sequestration. This presentation proposes to approach the determination of these parameters by two different ways and to compare them; both are on the pore scale. In the first one called PNM (for pore-network model), a pore-network is extracted from micro tomography images of a real porous medium. This network is composed of spherical pores joined by circular tubes; it is used to calculate transport macroscopic parameters and porosity-permeability evolution during the reactive transport flow as functions of dimensionless numbers representing the reaction and flow rate regimes. The flow is calculated by using Kirchhoff laws. Transport is determined in the asymptotic regime where the solute concentration undergoes an exponential evolution with time. In the second approach called PSM (for pore scale model), the pore-network model is used as a three dimensional medium which is discretized by the Level Set Method. The Stokes equations are solved in order to determine the local flow field and the corresponding permeability. The solute concentration is obtained by solving the local convection-diffusion equation in the 3D pore-network; numerical dispersion is reduced by a Flux Limiting Scheme. Two different geometries of porous media are addressed by both numerical codes. The first pore-network geometry is used to validate the PNM assumptions, whereas the second pore-network is defined for a better understanding of the dominant solute distribution. One of the main results obtained with the first pore-network is the dependence of the concentration profile on the Péclet number Pe in the pore-bodies. When this number increases, one has to switch from an assumption of

  3. Soil Pore Network Visualisation and Quantification using ImageJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Pajor, Radoslaw; Otten, Wilfred

    Computed Tomography data. We used ImageJ to analyze images of pore geometries in soils generated by X-ray micro Computed Tomography. Soil samples were scanned at 30 μm resolution, and we produced replicated samples with different pore geometries by packing different sized soil aggregates at pre......-defined densities. First, scanned grayscale data of soil volumes were thresholded to separate solid and pore phases. Then, pore networks were extracted with the Skeletonize3D plug-in (Ignacio Arganda-Carreras), exploiting an ITK algorithm: binary thinning was used for finding the centerlines (”skeleton”) of pores...

  4. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO


    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  5. Effect of Stepwise Pressure Change on Porosity Evolution during Directional Solidification in Small Cylindrical Channels (United States)

    Grugel, R.N.; Lee, C.P.; Cox, M.C.; Blandford, B.T.; Anilkumar, A.V.


    Controlled directional solidification experiments were performed in capillary channels, using nitrogen-saturated succinonitrile, to examine the effect of an in-situ stepwise processing pressure increase on an isolated pore evolution. Two experiments were performed using different processing pressure input profiles. The results indicate that a processing pressure increase has a transient effect on pore growth geometry characterized by an initial phase of decreasing pore diameter, followed by a recovery phase of increasing pore diameter. The experimental results also show that processing pressure can be used as a control parameter to either increase or terminate porosity formation. A theoretical model is introduced which indicates that the pore formation process is limited by the diffusion of solute-gas through the melt, and that the observed response toa pressure increase is attributed to the re-equilibration of solute concentration in the melt associated with the increased melt pressure.

  6. Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.


    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

  7. Silicon pore optics developments and status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Wallace, Kotska;


    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a lightweight high performance X-ray optics technology being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class high energy astrophysics missions. An example of such application is the former ESA science mission candidate ATHENA (Advanced Telescope...... of the SPO technology. The technology development programme has succeeded in maturing the SPO further and achieving important milestones, in each of the main activity streams: environmental compatibility, industrial production and optical performance. In order to accurately characterise the increasing...... performance of this innovative optical technology, the associated X-ray test facilities and beam-lines have been refined and upgraded. © 2012 SPIE....

  8. Viral Subversion of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Le Sage


    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC acts as a selective barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and is responsible for mediating communication by regulating the transport of RNA and proteins. Numerous viral pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to hijack the NPC in order to regulate trafficking of viral proteins, genomes and even capsids into and out of the nucleus thus promoting virus replication. The present review examines the different strategies and the specific nucleoporins utilized during viral infections as a means of promoting their life cycle and inhibiting host viral defenses.

  9. Analysis of quantitative pore features based on mathematical morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Heng-nian; CHEN Feng-nong; WANG Hang-jun


    Wood identification is a basic technique of wood science and industry. Pore features are among the most important identification features for hardwoods. We have used a method based on an analysis of quantitative pore feature, which differs from traditional qualitative methods. We applies mathematical morphology methods such as dilation and erosion, open and close transformation of wood cross-sections, image repairing, noise filtering and edge detection to segment the pores from their background. Then the mean square errors (MSE) of pores were computed to describe the distribution of pores. Our experiment shows that it is easy to classift the pore features into three basic types, just as in traditional qualitative methods, but with the use of MSE of pores. This quantitative method improves wood identification considerably.

  10. Quantifying similarity of pore-geometry in nanoporous materials (United States)

    Lee, Yongjin; Barthel, Senja D.; Dłotko, Paweł; Moosavi, S. Mohamad; Hess, Kathryn; Smit, Berend


    In most applications of nanoporous materials the pore structure is as important as the chemical composition as a determinant of performance. For example, one can alter performance in applications like carbon capture or methane storage by orders of magnitude by only modifying the pore structure. For these applications it is therefore important to identify the optimal pore geometry and use this information to find similar materials. However, the mathematical language and tools to identify materials with similar pore structures, but different composition, has been lacking. We develop a pore recognition approach to quantify similarity of pore structures and classify them using topological data analysis. This allows us to identify materials with similar pore geometries, and to screen for materials that are similar to given top-performing structures. Using methane storage as a case study, we also show that materials can be divided into topologically distinct classes requiring different optimization strategies.

  11. Statistical mechanics of two hard spheres in a spherical pore, exact analytic results in D dimension (United States)

    Urrutia, Ignacio; Szybisz, Leszek


    This work is devoted to the exact statistical mechanics treatment of simple inhomogeneous few-body systems. The system of two hard spheres (HSs) confined in a hard spherical pore is systematically analyzed in terms of its dimensionality D. The canonical partition function and the one- and two-body distribution functions are analytically evaluated and a scheme of iterative construction of the D +1 system properties is presented. We analyze in detail both the effect of high confinement, when particles become caged, and the low density limit. Other confinement situations are also studied analytically and several relations between the two HSs in a spherical pore, two sticked HSs in a spherical pore, and two HSs on a spherical surface partition functions are traced. These relations make meaningful the limiting caging and low density behavior. Turning to the system of two HSs in a spherical pore, we also analytically evaluate the pressure tensor. The thermodynamic properties of the system are discussed. To accomplish this statement we purposely focus in the overall characteristics of the inhomogeneous fluid system, instead of concentrate in the peculiarities of a few-body system. Hence, we analyze the equation of state, the pressure at the wall, and the fluid-substrate surface tension. The consequences of new results about the spherically confined system of two HSs in D dimension on the confined many HS system are investigated. New constant coefficients involved in the low density limit properties of the open and closed systems of many HS in a spherical pore are obtained for arbitrary D. The complementary system of many HS which surrounds a HS (a cavity inside of a bulk HS system) is also discussed.

  12. Developing an Effective Model for Shale Gas Flow in Nano-scale Pore Clusters based on FIB-SEM Images (United States)

    Jiang, W. B.; Lin, M.; Yi, Z. X.; Li, H. S.


    Nano-scale pores existed in the form of clusters are the controlling void space in shale gas reservoir. Gas transport in nanopores which has a significant influence on shale gas' recoverability displays multiple transport regimes, including viscous, slippage flow and Knudsen diffusion. In addition, it is also influenced by pore space characteristics. For convenience and efficiency consideration, it is necessary to develop an upscaling model from nano pore to pore cluster scale. Existing models are more like framework functions that provide a format, because the parameters that represent pore space characteristics are underdetermined and may have multiple possibilities. Therefore, it is urgent to make them clear and obtained a model that is closer to reality. FIB-SEM imaging technology is able to acquire three dimensional images with nanometer resolution that nano pores can be visible. Based on the images of two shale samples, we used a high-precision pore network extraction algorithm to generate equivalent pore networks and simulate multiple regime (non-Darcy) flow in it. Several structural parameters can be obtained through pore network modelling. It is found that although the throat-radius distributions are very close, throat flux-radius distributions of different samples can be divided into two categories. The variation of tortuosity with pressure and the overall trend of throat-flux distribution changes with pressure are disclosed. A deeper understanding of shale gas flow in nano-scale pore clusters is obtained. After all, an upscaling model that connects absolute permeability, apparent permeability and other characteristic parameters is proposed, and the best parameter scheme considering throat number-radius distribution and flowing porosity for this model is selected out of three schemes based on pore scale results, and it can avoid multiple-solution problem and is useful in reservoir modelling and experiment result analysis, etc. This work is supported by

  13. Atmosphere above a large solar pore

    CERN Document Server

    Sobotka, M; Jurcak, J; Heinzel, P; Del Moro, D


    A large solar pore with a granular light bridge was observed on October 15, 2008 with the IBIS spectrometer at the Dunn Solar Telescope and a 69-min long time series of spectral scans in the lines Ca II 854.2 nm and Fe I 617.3 nm was obtained. The intensity and Doppler signals in the Ca II line were separated. This line samples the middle chromosphere in the core and the middle photosphere in the wings. Although no indication of a penumbra is seen in the photosphere, an extended filamentary structure, both in intensity and Doppler signals, is observed in the Ca II line core. An analysis of morphological and dynamical properties of the structure shows a close similarity to a superpenumbra of a sunspot with developed penumbra. A special attention is paid to the light bridge, which is the brightest feature in the pore seen in the Ca II line centre and shows an enhanced power of chromospheric oscillations at 3-5 mHz. Although the acoustic power flux in the light bridge is five times higher than in the "quiet" chr...

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of flow in pores (United States)

    Blömer, Jan


    The gaseous flow in nano-scale pores is of wide interest for many today's industrial applications, e.g., in microelectronics, nano-mechanical devices (Knudsen compressor) and reaction and adsorption at porous surfaces. This can be seen from a variety of papers of recent RGD Symposia. Furthermore it is possible to separate gases by porous membranes. Although the fundamental problem of all these applications is same, namely the important role of the gas-surface interaction in such small structures, we will primarily concentrate on the separation of different gas species by porous membranes. These membranes are typically very robust (temperature, chemical resistance) because they are made from ceramics which offers new application fields. Porous flow can roughly be divided in several flow regimes by the Knudsen number: From viscous flow to Knudsen diffusion to surface diffusion and up to capillary condensation. A Molecular Dynamics (MD) model for the gas as well as the surface is formulated to investigate the interaction of gas atoms or molecules with internal degrees of freedom and the pore. The MD method seems to be well suited to study these phenomena because it can deal with the high density and the many-body-interactions, which occur during the multilayer adsorption and condensation at the surface, although it is clear that it is limited to a small physical space because of its high computational consumption.

  15. Pore formation in lipid membrane I: Continuous reversible trajectory from intact bilayer through hydrophobic defect to transversal pore. (United States)

    Akimov, Sergey A; Volynsky, Pavel E; Galimzyanov, Timur R; Kuzmin, Peter I; Pavlov, Konstantin V; Batishchev, Oleg V


    Lipid membranes serve as effective barriers allowing cells to maintain internal composition differing from that of extracellular medium. Membrane permeation, both natural and artificial, can take place via appearance of transversal pores. The rearrangements of lipids leading to pore formation in the intact membrane are not yet understood in details. We applied continuum elasticity theory to obtain continuous trajectory of pore formation and closure, and analyzed molecular dynamics trajectories of pre-formed pore reseal. We hypothesized that a transversal pore is preceded by a hydrophobic defect: intermediate structure spanning through the membrane, the side walls of which are partially aligned by lipid tails. This prediction was confirmed by our molecular dynamics simulations. Conversion of the hydrophobic defect into the hydrophilic pore required surmounting some energy barrier. A metastable state was found for the hydrophilic pore at the radius of a few nanometers. The dependence of the energy on radius was approximately quadratic for hydrophobic defect and small hydrophilic pore, while for large radii it depended on the radius linearly. The pore energy related to its perimeter, line tension, thus depends of the pore radius. Calculated values of the line tension for large pores were in quantitative agreement with available experimental data.

  16. An emerging pore-making strategy: confined swelling-induced pore generation in block copolymer materials. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Fengbin


    Block copolymers (BCPs) composed of two or more thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers self-assemble into periodic microdomains. Exposing self-assembled BCPs with solvents selective to one block causes a swelling of the domains composed of this block. Strong swelling in the confinement imposed by the matrix of the other glassy block leads to well-defined porous structures via morphology reconstruction. This confined swelling-induced pore-making process has emerged recently as a new strategy to produce porous materials due to synergic advantages that include extreme simplicity, high pore regularity, involvement of no chemical reactions, no weight loss, reversibility of the pore forming process, etc. The mechanism, kinetics, morphology, and governing parameters of the confined swelling-induced pore-making process in BCP thin films are discussed, and the main applications of nanoporous thin films in the fields of template synthesis, surface patterning, and guidance for the areal arrangements of nanomaterials and biomolecules are summarized. Recent, promising results of extending this mechanism to produce BCP nanofibers or nanotubes and bulk materials with well-defined porosity, which makes this strategy also attractive to researchers outside the nanocommunity, are also presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores (United States)

    Qian, Shuo

    This thesis reports the studies of the structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores by antimicrobial peptide alamethicin and by a peptide named Baxalpha5, which is derived from Bax protein. Alamethicin is one of best known antimicrobial peptides, which are ubiquitous throughout the biological world. Bax-alpha5 peptide is the pore-forming domain of apoptosis regulator protein Bax, which activates pore formation on outer mitochondrial membrane to release cytochrome c to initiate programmed cell death. Both peptides as well as many other pore-forming peptides, induce pores in membrane, however the structure and mechanism of the pore formation were unknown. By utilizing grazing angle x-ray diffraction, I was able to reconstruct the electron density profile of the membrane pores induced by both peptides. The fully hydrated multiple bilayers of peptide-lipid mixture on solid substrate were prepared in the condition that pores were present, as established previously by neutron in-plane scattering and oriented circular dichroism. At dehydrated conditions, the inter bilayer distance of the sample shortened and the interactions between bilayers caused the membrane pores to become long-ranged correlated and formed a periodically ordered lattice of rhombohedral symmetry, so that x-ray diffraction can be applied. To help solving the phase problem of diffraction, a brominated lipid was used and multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction was performed below the bromine K-edge. The reconstructed electron density profiles unambiguously revealed that the alamethicin-induced membrane pore is of barrel-stave type, while the Bax-alpha5 induced pore is of lipidic toroidal (wormhole) type. The underlying mechanism of pore formation was resolved by observing the time-dependent process of pore formation in vesicles exposed to Bax-alpha5 solutions, as well as the membrane thinning experiment. This demonstrated that Bax-alpha5 exhibited the same sigmoidal concentration dependence as

  18. Effects of solid-gas coupling and pore and particle microstructures on the effective gaseous thermal conductivity in aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Junjie; Duan Yuanyuan, E-mail: [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education (China); Wang Xiaodong, E-mail: [North China Electric Power University, State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power Systems with Renewable Energy Sources (China); Wang Buxuan [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education (China)


    An analytical model was developed to predict the pressure-dependent gaseous thermal conductivity in aerogels based on the spherical porous secondary particle aggregate structure. The model includes the effects of particle size, pore and particle microstructures, and solid-gas coupling including the quasi lattice vibrations for solid-like vibrating gas molecules in the gaps between adjacent secondary particles that are not included in previous models. The results show that the pressure-dependent effective gaseous thermal conductivities of RF and silica aerogels predicted by the present model agree well with experimental results. The solid-gas coupling significantly increases the effective gaseous thermal conductivity in the aerogels as the quasi lattice vibrating gas molecules in the gaps more effectively bridge adjacent particles. The effects of solid-gas coupling and pore and particle microstructures are significant for particle aggregate structures with mean pore and particle diameters in the range of 100 nm-10 {mu}m while the Knudsen formula and the Zeng's model have limited applicability in this size range. Micron and millimeter-scale pores that can occur in nanoporous silica aerogel samples due to the mechanical fragility of these nanostructures can be well represented by the present three pore size model.

  19. A Stereolithography Pore-Throat Model (United States)

    Crandall, D.; Ahmadi, G.; Ferer, M.; Smith, D. H.


    A new experimental, heterogeneous pore-throat model has been designed and fabricated using stereolithography (SL). In SL production, a laser cures a thin layer of photo-sensitive resin on the surface of a vat of liquid resin; a moveable platform then submerges the cured layer and a new layer is cured on top of the previous one, creating a physical model from a computer generated model. This layered fabrication of a computer generated model has enabled the production of an experimental porous medium with improved fluid resistance properties, as compared to previously studied, constant-height etched cells. A uniform distribution of throat widths was randomly placed throughout the pore-throat matrix and the throat height of each throat was assigned to increase the range of viscous and capillary resistances within the physical model. This variation in both throat height and width generated a porous medium with fairly low porosity (43%), permeability (~400 D), and wide range of geometric resistance properties. Experimental, two-phase immiscible drainage studies in the porous flowcell were performed. Analysis of the captured images was performed with open-source image processing software. These analysis techniques utilized the capability of both ImageJ and the Gnu Image Manipulation Program to be customized with ancillary codes. This enabled batch procedures to be created that converted the original grey-scale bitmaps to binary data sets, which were then analyzed with in-house codes. The fractal dimension, Df, (measured with box-counting) and percent saturation of these experiments were calculated and shown to compare favorably to fractal predictions and previous flowcell studies. Additionally, using the computer generated pore-throat geometry, a computational fluid dynamics model of two- phase flow through the porous medium was created. This model was created using FLUENT code and the Volume of Fluid method. The percent saturation of the less-viscous invading fluid

  20. Adsorption and Diffusion Properties of Ethylene, Benzene and Ethylbenzene in the Cylindrical Pore under Alkylation Reaction near Critical Regions by DCV-GCMD Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 刘洪来; 袁渭康


    A cylindrical pore model was used to represent approximately the pore of β-zeolite catalyst that had been used in the alkylation of benzene with ethylene and spherical Lennard-Jones molecules represented the components of the reaction system-ethylene, benzene and ethylbenzene. The dual control volume-grand canonical molecular dynamics (DCV-GCMD) method was used to simulate the adsorption and transport properties of three components under reaction in the cylindrical pore at 250℃ and 270℃ in the pressure range from 1 MPa to 8 MPa. The state map of the reactant mixture in the bulk phase could be divided into several different regions around its critical points. The simulated adsorption and transport properties in the pore were compared between the different near-critical regions. The thorough analysis suggested that the high pressure liquid region is the most suitable region for the alkylation reaction of benzene under the near-critical condition.

  1. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías


    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  2. Silicon pore optics development for ATHENA (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Barrière, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Vervest, Mark; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Leenstra, Anne; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Conconi, Paolo; Christensen, Finn E.


    The ATHENA mission, a European large (L) class X-ray observatory to be launched in 2028, will essentially consist of an X-ray lens and two focal plane instruments. The lens, based on a Wolter-I type double reflection grazing incidence angle design, will be very large (~ 3 m in diameter) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m2 at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building such a lens and thus enabling the ATHENA mission. We will report in this paper on the latest status of the development, including details of X-ray test campaigns.

  3. Silicon pore optics for the ATHENA telescope (United States)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Vervest, Mark; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; van der Hoeven, Roy; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; van Baren, Coen; Eigenraam, Alexander; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Conconi, Paolo; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Valsecchi, Giuseppe


    Silicon Pore Optics is a high-energy optics technology, invented to enable the next generation of high-resolution, large area X-ray telescopes such as the ATHENA observatory, a European large (L) class mission with a launch date of 2028. The technology development is carried out by a consortium of industrial and academic partners and focuses on building an optics with a focal length of 12 m that shall achieve an angular resolution better than 5". So far we have built optics with a focal length of 50 m and 20 m. This paper presents details of the work carried out to build silicon stacks for a 12 m optics and to integrate them into mirror modules. It will also present results of x-ray tests taking place at PTB's XPBF with synchrotron radiation and the PANTER test facility.

  4. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)


    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge. wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  5. Evaluating transport in irregular pore networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, Dimitri A; Klimenko, Alexander Y; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011112


    A general approach for investigating transport phenomena in porous media is presented. This approach has the capacity to represent various kinds of irregularity in porous media without the need for excessive detail or computational effort. The overall method combines a generalized Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) with a macroscopic continuum model in order to derive a transport equation with explicit analytical expressions for the transport coefficients. The proposed form of the EMA is an anisotropic and heterogeneous extension of Kirkpatrick's EMA [Rev. Mod. Phys. 45, 574 (1973)] which allows the overall model to account for microscopic alterations in connectivity (with the locations of the pores and the orientation and length of the throat) as well as macroscopic variations in transport properties. A comparison to numerical results for randomly generated networks with different properties is given, indicating the potential for this methodology to handle cases that would pose significant difficulties to ...

  6. Factors Determining the Pore Shape in Polycarbonate Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, P Yu; Orelovich, O L; Akimenko, S N; Sartowska, B; Dmitriev, S N


    The process of pore formation in ion-irradiated polycarbonate films on treatment with alkali solutions in the presence of a surfactant is studied. It is found that the pore shape depends on both the structure of the initial films and the peculiarities of the interaction of the surfactant with the polymer surface and the transport of the surfactant into tracks. Due to heterogeneity of the films the cross-section of a track pore channel changes along its length. The presence of the surfactant results in a further effect. Surfactant molecules adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entries and reduce the etch rate which leads to formation of cigar-like pore channels. The use of surfactant as a component of chemical etchant enables one to control the pore shape in track membranes thus optimizing their retention and permeation characteristics.

  7. Permeability and pressure measurements in Lesser Antilles submarine slides: Evidence for pressure-driven slow-slip failure (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Manga, Michael; Genecov, Michael; Valdez, Robert; Miller, Peter; Saffer, Demian; Adelstein, Esther; Lafuerza, Sara; Adachi, Tatsuya; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Jutzeler, Martin; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu; Morgan, Sally; Slagle, Angela; Talling, Peter J.; Fraass, Andrew; Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Stroncik, Nicole A.; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Kataoka, Kyoko; Maeno, Fukashi; Martinez-Colon, Michael; McCanta, Molly; Palmer, Martin; Stinton, Adam; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Villemant, Benoît; Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Wang, Fei


    Recent studies hypothesize that some submarine slides fail via pressure-driven slow-slip deformation. To test this hypothesis, this study derives pore pressures in failed and adjacent unfailed deep marine sediments by integrating rock physics models, physical property measurements on recovered sediment core, and wireline logs. Two drill sites (U1394 and U1399) drilled through interpreted slide debris; a third (U1395) drilled into normal marine sediment. Near-hydrostatic fluid pressure exists in sediments at site U1395. In contrast, results at both sites U1394 and U1399 indicate elevated pore fluid pressures in some sediment. We suggest that high pore pressure at the base of a submarine slide deposit at site U1394 results from slide shearing. High pore pressure exists throughout much of site U1399, and Mohr circle analysis suggests that only slight changes in the stress regime will trigger motion. Consolidation tests and permeability measurements indicate moderately low (~10-16-10-17 m2) permeability and overconsolidation in fine-grained slide debris, implying that these sediments act as seals. Three mechanisms, in isolation or in combination, may produce the observed elevated pore fluid pressures at site U1399: (1) rapid sedimentation, (2) lateral fluid flow, and (3) shearing that causes sediments to contract, increasing pore pressure. Our preferred hypothesis is this third mechanism because it explains both elevated fluid pressure and sediment overconsolidation without requiring high sedimentation rates. Our combined analysis of subsurface pore pressures, drilling data, and regional seismic images indicates that slope failure offshore Martinique is perhaps an ongoing, creep-like process where small stress changes trigger motion.

  8. Pore-scale visualization of the mobilization of a partially wetting droplet (United States)

    Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Hilpert, Markus


    We experimentally investigated the mobilization process of a partially wetting droplet in a pore doublet model. The process, involving contact line movement, liquid film generation, and interface deformation, has not been fully understood and modeled. In equilibrium, the droplet sat in one of the capillary tubes of the pore doublet, and the contact lines of the droplet were pinned with nonzero contact angles. The droplet was subject to pressure differences that were generated by pumping the continuous liquid into the pore doublet at different flow rates. At low flow rates, the droplet moved with sliding contact lines, and the shapes of the droplet's menisci roughly resembled spherical caps. When the flow rate increased, the velocity of the droplet increased, and the shapes of the liquid-liquid interfaces changed dramatically forming finger-like structures and films. Once films form, the classical Young-Laplace equation, which assumes a spherical interface, is not sufficient to describe droplet mobilization and the corresponding pressure drops. The films ruptured as the droplet moved forward, and a certain amount of droplet liquid was left behind. When the flow rates reached a certain level, the droplet snapped off from the tube wall and rolled while being surrounded by thin films formed by the continuous liquid.

  9. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso


    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  10. Enzyme screening with synthetic multifunctional pores: Focus on biopolymers (United States)

    Sordé, Nathalie; Das, Gopal; Matile, Stefan


    This report demonstrates that a single set of identical synthetic multifunctional pores can detect the activity of many different enzymes. Enzymes catalyzing either synthesis or degradation of DNA (exonuclease III or polymerase I), RNA (RNase A), polysaccharides (heparinase I, hyaluronidase, and galactosyltransferase), and proteins (papain, ficin, elastase, subtilisin, and pronase) are selected to exemplify this key characteristic of synthetic multifunctional pore sensors. Because anionic, cationic, and neutral substrates can gain access to the interior of complementarily functionalized pores, such pores can be the basis for very user-friendly screening of a broad range of enzymes. PMID:14530413

  11. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.


    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  12. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.


    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  13. Ultrafast laser fabrication of submicrometer pores in borosilicate glass. (United States)

    An, Ran; Uram, Jeffrey D; Yusko, Erik C; Ke, Kevin; Mayer, Michael; Hunt, Alan J


    We demonstrate rapid fabrication of submicrometer-diameter pores in borosilicate glass using femtosecond laser machining and subsequent wet-etch techniques. This approach allows direct and repeatable fabrication of high-quality pores with diameters of 400-800 nm. Such small pores coupled with the desirable electrical and chemical properties of glass enable sensitive resistive-pulse analysis to determine the size and concentration of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition allows further reduction of pore diameters to below 300 nm.

  14. Relationship between elastic moduli and pore radius in clay aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Available experimental data on elastic velocities of clay-air mixtures and clay-brine mixtures as a function of porosity are re-interpreted. Pore radius as calculated from porosity and specific surface measured by BET seems to be the factor controlling stiffness of these un-cemented sediments....... For each of the two pore fluids: air or brine smectitic clay and kaolinitic clay seem to have similar power law relationships between a given elastic modulus and pore radius. These results indicate that pore radius and thus permeability of shale in the depth interval of mechanical compaction may...

  15. Tension-induced vesicle fusion: pathways and pore dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.


    and eventually opens a pore to complete the fusion process. In pathway II, at higher tension, a stalk is formed during the fusion process that is then transformed by transmembrane pore formation into a fusion pore. Whereas the latter pathway II resembles stalk pathways as observed in other simulation studies...... fusion time on membrane tension implies that the fusion process is completed by overcoming two energy barriers with scales of 13kBT and 11kBT. The fusion pore radius as a function of time has also been extracted from the simulations, and provides a quantitative measure of the fusion dynamics which...

  16. Liquefaction of Sand under Low Confining Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; Rolf Sandven; Lars Grande


    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. This process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand.In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  17. Pressure drop in CIM disk monolithic columns. (United States)

    Mihelic, Igor; Nemec, Damjan; Podgornik, Ales; Koloini, Tine


    Pressure drop analysis in commercial CIM disk monolithic columns is presented. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are compared to hydrodynamic models usually employed for prediction of pressure drop in packed beds, e.g. free surface model and capillary model applying hydraulic radius concept. However, the comparison between pressure drop in monolith and adequate packed bed give unexpected results. Pressure drop in a CIM disk monolithic column is approximately 50% lower than in an adequate packed bed of spheres having the same hydraulic radius as CIM disk monolith; meaning they both have the same porosity and the same specific surface area. This phenomenon seems to be a consequence of the monolithic porous structure which is quite different in terms of the pore size distribution and parallel pore nonuniformity compared to the one in conventional packed beds. The number of self-similar levels for the CIM monoliths was estimated to be between 1.03 and 2.75.

  18. Theory of repulsive charged colloids in slit-pores (United States)

    Gallardo, Alberto; Grandner, Stefan; Almarza, Noé G.; Klapp, Sabine H. L.


    Using classical density functional theory (DFT) we analyze the structure of the density profiles and solvation pressures of negatively charged colloids confined in slit pores. The considered model, which was already successfully employed to study a real colloidal (silica) suspension [S. H. L. Klapp et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118303 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.118303], involves only the macroions which interact via the effective Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential supplemented by a hard core interaction. The solvent enters implicitly via the screening length of the DLVO interaction. The free energy functional describing the colloidal suspension consists of a hard sphere contribution obtained from fundamental measure theory and a long range contribution which is treated using two types of approximations. One of them is the mean field approximation (MFA) and the remaining is based on Rosenfeld's perturbative method for constructing the Helmholtz energy functional. These theoretical calculations are carried out at different bulk densities and wall separations to compare finally to grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We also consider the impact of charged walls. Our results show that the perturbative DFT method yields generally qualitatively consistent and, for some systems, also quantitatively reliable results. In MFA, on the other hand, the neglect of charge-induced correlations leads to a breakdown of this approach in a broad range of densities.

  19. Determination of an equivalent pore size from acoustic flow measurements (United States)

    Clark, Linde; Liu, Jin; Garrett, Steven


    The hydraulic radius, rh, is defined as the ratio of a channel's cross-sectional area to its perimeter. This parameter is important for specification of the performance of a porous medium that can be used as a regenerator in a Stirling engine or refrigerator. It is easy to calculate rh for pores of regular geometry, but difficult in more complex media. Two techniques which use oscillating flow to determine this parameter will be presented and compared. One technique extracts rh by finding the low velocity limit of the standard expression for viscous pressure drop in the Poiseuille flow regime. The other involves a plot of the nondimensional viscous flow resistance, Δpvis/Δxωρu, versus the reciprocal of the viscous penetration depth, 1/δν, in the laminar flow regime. When rhflow behavior is frequency independent and the dynamics is characterized by rh only. When rh>δν, the flow resistance is frequency dependent and the dynamics is characterized by both rh and δν. It is possible to identify an effective hydraulic radius by equating it to the value of δν where that transition occurs. [Work supported by ONR.

  20. Rock Physics of Reservoir Rocks with Varying Pore Water Saturation and Pore Water Salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina

    be performed on specific geological structures and why it is sometimes successful; has yet to be established. The presence of both oil and water in the pore space, several different ions present in the injected water that contact the pore walls, possible changes in the fluid wetting the surface of the grains......Advanced waterflooding (injection of water with selective ions in reservoirs) is a method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that has attracted the interest of oil and gas companies that exploit the Danish oil and gas reservoirs. This method has been applied successfully in oil reservoirs...... and in the Smart Water project performed in a laboratory scale in order to evaluate the EOR processes in selected core plugs. A major step towards this evaluation is to identify the composition of the injected water that leads to increased oil recovery in reservoirs and to define changes in the petrophysical...

  1. Entropy of Shortest Distance (ESD as Pore Detector and Pore-Shape Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Oleschko


    Full Text Available The entropy of shortest distance (ESD between geographic elements (“elliptical intrusions”, “lineaments”, “points” on a map, or between "vugs", "fractures" and "pores" in the macro- or microscopic images of triple porosity naturally fractured vuggy carbonates provides a powerful new tool for the digital processing, analysis, classification and space/time distribution prognostic of mineral resources as well as the void space in carbonates, and in other rocks. The procedure is applicable at all scales, from outcrop photos, FMI, UBI, USI (geophysical imaging techniques to micrographs, as we shall illustrate through some examples. Out of the possible applications of the ESD concept, we discuss in details the sliding window entropy filtering for nonlinear pore boundary enhancement, and propose this procedure as unbiased thresholding technique.

  2. Kinetic study of CO2 reaction with CaO by a modified random pore model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri S.M.M.


    Full Text Available In this work, a modified random pore model was developed to study the kinetics of the carbonation reaction of CaO. Pore size distributions of the CaO pellets were measured by nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry methods. The experiments were carried out in a thermogravimeter at different isothermal temperatures and CO2 partial pressures. A fractional concentration dependency function showed the best accuracy for predicting the intrinsic rate of reaction. The activation energy was determined as 11 kcal/mole between 550–700°C. The effect of product layer formation was also taken into account by using the variable product layer diffusivity. Also, the model was successfully predicted the natural lime carbonation reaction data extracted from the literature.

  3. Study of Diagenesis and Pore Evolution of Triassic Jialingjiang Formation in Southern Puguang Gasfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen


    Full Text Available The second member of Jialingjiang formation is considered to be an important gas reservoir with good exploration prospects in the southern Puguang gasfield. The diagenesis types are analyzed and different diagenetic stages are divided by analyzing carbon and oxygen isotopes as well as observing the slices. The widespread forms of diagenesis in the research area principally include compaction, cementation, pressure solution, dolomitization, recrystallization, dissolution, and tectonic disruption, among which cementation, dissolution, dolomitization, and recrystallization contribute greatly to the development of porosity in the reservoir. The reservoir has experienced four diagenetic stages: syndiagenetic stage, early stage of diagenesis, diagenetic stage, and late diagenetic stage. Most of the primary pores were destroyed in the diagenetic evolution stages of reservoir; the present porosity mainly belongs to the secondary pores.

  4. Experimental and modeling study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow in pore network micromodels. (United States)

    Perrin, Christian L; Tardy, Philippe M J; Sorbie, Ken S; Crawshaw, John C


    The in situ rheology of polymeric solutions has been studied experimentally in etched silicon micromodels which are idealizations of porous media. The rectangular channels in these etched networks have dimensions typical of pore sizes in sandstone rocks. Pressure drop/flow rate relations have been measured for water and non-Newtonian hydrolyzed-polyacrylamide (HPAM) solutions in both individual straight rectangular capillaries and in networks of such capillaries. Results from these experiments have been analyzed using pore-scale network modeling incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid mechanics of a Carreau fluid. Quantitative agreement is seen between the experiments and the network calculations in the Newtonian and shear-thinning flow regions demonstrating that the 'shift factor,'alpha, can be calculated a priori. Shear-thickening behavior was observed at higher flow rates in the micromodel experiments as a result of elastic effects becoming important and this remains to be incorporated in the network model.

  5. Selection of materials for tokamak plasma facing elements based on a liquid tin capillary pore system (United States)

    Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Zharkov, M. Yu; Sevryukov, O. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Shumskiy, V. A.; Ivannikov, A. A.


    Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) filled by liquid metals are considered as an alternative solution of materials choice for plasma facing component of tokamak reactor. Tin is viewed as one of the candidates for CPS because it has lower corrosiveness than gallium and lower saturated vapour pressure compared to lithium. The corrosion resistance of Mo, Nb and W in pure liquid tin was investigated. The corrosion tests were carried out in the static isothermal conditions at a temperature up to 1050°C. As a result of the corrosion study, it was found that Mo does not corrode in liquid Sn, as opposed to Nb and is compatible with liquid tin in temperatures of up to approx. 1000°C. This allows considering Mo as an alloy base material of the in-vessel tokamak elements based on liquid tin capillary pore systems.

  6. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V


    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  7. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.


    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  8. Reversible Self-Actuated Thermo-Responsive Pore Membrane (United States)

    Park, Younggeun; Gutierrez, Maria Paz; Lee, Luke P.


    Smart membranes, which can selectively control the transfer of light, air, humidity and temperature, are important to achieve indoor climate regulation. Even though reversible self-actuation of smart membranes is desirable in large-scale, reversible self-regulation remains challenging. Specifically, reversible 100% opening/closing of pore actuation showing accurate responsiveness, reproducibility and structural flexibility, including uniform structure assembly, is currently very difficult. Here, we report a reversible, thermo-responsive self-activated pore membrane that achieves opening and closing of pores. The reversible, self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane was fabricated with hybrid materials of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM) within polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to form a multi-dimensional pore array. Using Multiphysics simulation of heat transfer and structural mechanics based on finite element analysis, we demonstrated that pore opening and closing dynamics can be self-activated at environmentally relevant temperatures. Temperature cycle characterizations of the pore structure revealed 100% opening ratio at T = 40 °C and 0% opening ratio at T = 20 °C. The flexibility of the membrane showed an accurate temperature-responsive function at a maximum bending angle of 45°. Addressing the importance of self-regulation, this reversible self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane will advance the development of future large-scale smart membranes needed for sustainable indoor climate control.

  9. Hydrodemetallization of residue (Part 3). Influence of catalyst pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinuma, Yutaka; Kushiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Satoru; Aizawa, Reiji; Inoue, Keiichi; Shimizu, Yoshikazu (National Research Inst. for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Influence of catalyst pore size on hydrodemetallization of residues was studied, Starting oils were Khafji atmospheric residue and Morichal crude and two catalysts of alumina which have 93A and 160A mean pore diameters respectively and Mo was supported, were used. The rate at which asphaltene(A) was decomposed to maltene(M), related large to the demetallization of whole heavy oil and larger the pore diameter of catalyst, higher the demetallizing activity. But in the demetallization from A and M, the influence of pore size was different and vanadium(V) removal from A was preferable for larger pore size but was reverse from M. These were caused by the difference of diffusion in their pores. Ni was more difficult to remove than V. Catalyst of small pore size was preferable for simultaneous desulfurization, because sulfur compounds were composed of smaller molecular weight distribution. The decomposition of A started preferentially from part having large number of peripheral carbon in condensed aromatic ring or f{sub a} (aromaticity) and the catalyst of large pore size affected large on the structural change of A. 12 ref., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The Pore Structure of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner


    The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make the...

  11. Reversible Self-Actuated Thermo-Responsive Pore Membrane. (United States)

    Park, Younggeun; Gutierrez, Maria Paz; Lee, Luke P


    Smart membranes, which can selectively control the transfer of light, air, humidity and temperature, are important to achieve indoor climate regulation. Even though reversible self-actuation of smart membranes is desirable in large-scale, reversible self-regulation remains challenging. Specifically, reversible 100% opening/closing of pore actuation showing accurate responsiveness, reproducibility and structural flexibility, including uniform structure assembly, is currently very difficult. Here, we report a reversible, thermo-responsive self-activated pore membrane that achieves opening and closing of pores. The reversible, self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane was fabricated with hybrid materials of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM) within polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to form a multi-dimensional pore array. Using Multiphysics simulation of heat transfer and structural mechanics based on finite element analysis, we demonstrated that pore opening and closing dynamics can be self-activated at environmentally relevant temperatures. Temperature cycle characterizations of the pore structure revealed 100% opening ratio at T = 40 °C and 0% opening ratio at T = 20 °C. The flexibility of the membrane showed an accurate temperature-responsive function at a maximum bending angle of 45°. Addressing the importance of self-regulation, this reversible self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane will advance the development of future large-scale smart membranes needed for sustainable indoor climate control.

  12. Bacteriocins : mechanism of membrane insertion and pore formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.


    Lactic acid bacteria produce several types of pore forming peptides. Class I bacteriocins are lantibiotics that contain (methyl)lanthionine residues that may form intramolecular thioether rings. These peptides generally have a broad spectrum of activity and form unstable pores. Class II bacteriocins

  13. Pore size distribution in tablets measured with a morphological sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees


    Porosity and pore structure are important characteristics of tablets, since they influence mechanical strength and many other proper-ties. This paper proposes an alternative method for the characterization of pore structure based on image analysis of SEM micrographs. SEM images were made of sodium c

  14. Pore structure and growth kinetics in carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S.


    Pore structure of glassy carbon (GC) and pyrolytic graphite (PG) have been investigated. GC is one of the most impervious of solids finding applications in prosthetic devices and fuel cells while PG is used extensively in the aerospace industry. One third of the microstructure of GC consists of closed pores inaccessible to fluids. The microstructure of this material has been characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been used to measure the angstrom sized pores and to follow the evolution of pore surface area as a function of heat treatment temperature (HTT) and heat treatment time (HTt) at constant temperature. From these measurements an analysis of the surface area kinetics was made to find out if rate processes are involved and to locate graphitization occurring at pore surfaces. PG on the other hand has been found to have larger sized pores that comprise five percent of its volume. In addition to being closed these pores are oriented. Some pore models are proposed for PG and the existing scattering theory from oriented ellipsoids is modified to include the proposed shapes.

  15. Bacteriocins : mechanism of membrane insertion and pore formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, G.N.; Konings, W.N; Driessen, A.J.M.


    Lactic acid bacteria produce several types of pore forming peptides. Class I bacteriocins are lantibiotics that contain (methyl)lanthionine residues that may form intramolecular thioether rings. These peptides generally have a broad spectrum of activity and form unstable pores. Class II bacteriocins

  16. Letter to the editor: Diffusion under pore saturation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.


    In the article "Diffusion Under Pore Saturaton Conditions", Lettat et al. (1) presents a model to describe mixture diffusion in MFI zeolite under conditions of pore saturation. As a motivation for developing their model they remark ‘‘the classical adsorbed-phase diffusion models based on the Maxwell

  17. Porous Boron Nitride with Tunable Pore Size. (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    On the basis of a global structural search and first-principles calculations, we predict two types of porous boron-nitride (BN) networks that can be built up with zigzag BN nanoribbons (BNNRs). The BNNRs are either directly connected with puckered B (N) atoms at the edge (type I) or connected with sp(3)-bonded BN chains (type II). Besides mechanical stability, these materials are predicted to be thermally stable at 1000 K. The porous BN materials entail large surface areas, ranging from 2800 to 4800 m(2)/g. In particular, type-II BN material with relatively large pores is highly favorable for hydrogen storage because the computed hydrogen adsorption energy (-0.18 eV) is very close to the optimal adsorption energy (-0.15 eV) suggested for reversible hydrogen storage at room temperature. Moreover, the type-II materials are semiconductors with width-dependent direct bandgaps, rendering the type-II BN materials promising not only for hydrogen storage but also for optoelectronic and photonic applications.

  18. Freezing of charged colloids in slit pores. (United States)

    Grandner, Stefan; Klapp, Sabine H L


    Using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical and isobaric ensembles we investigate freezing phenomena in a charged colloidal suspension confined to narrow slit pores. Our model involves only the macroions which interact via a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential supplemented by a soft-sphere potential. We focus on DLVO parameters typical for moderately charged silica particles (with charges Z approximately 35) in solvents of low ionic strengths. The corresponding DLVO interactions are too weak to drive a (bulk) freezing transition. Nevertheless, for sufficiently small surface separations L(z) the confined systems display not only layering but also significant in-plane crystalline order at chemical potentials where the bulk system is a globally stable fluid (capillary freezing). At confinement conditions related to two-layer systems the observed in-plane structures are consistent with those detected in ground state calculations for perfect Yukawa bilayers [R. Messina and H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146101 (2003)]. Here we additionally observe (at fixed L(z)) a compression-induced first-order phase transition from a two-layer to a three-layer system with different in-plane structure, in agreement with previous findings for pure hard spheres.

  19. Silicon pore optics developments and status (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Wallace, Kotska; Shortt, Brian; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Olde Riekerink, Mark; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Erhard, Markus; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim


    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) is a lightweight high performance X-ray optics technology being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class high energy astrophysics missions. An example of such application is the former ESA science mission candidate ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics), which uses the SPO technology for its two telescopes, in order to provide an effective area exceeding 1 m2 at 1 keV, and 0.5 m2 at 6 keV, featuring an angular resolution of 10” or better [1 to 24]. This paper reports on the development activities led by ESA, and the status of the SPO technology. The technology development programme has succeeded in maturing the SPO further and achieving important milestones, in each of the main activity streams: environmental compatibility, industrial production and optical performance. In order to accurately characterise the increasing performance of this innovative optical technology, the associated X-ray test facilities and beam-lines have been refined and upgraded.

  20. Evaluating transport in irregular pore networks (United States)

    Klimenko, Dimitri A.; Hooman, Kamel; Klimenko, Alexander Y.


    A general approach for investigating transport phenomena in porous media is presented. This approach has the capacity to represent various kinds of irregularity in porous media without the need for excessive detail or computational effort. The overall method combines a generalized effective medium approximation (EMA) with a macroscopic continuum model in order to derive a transport equation with explicit analytical expressions for the transport coefficients. The proposed form of the EMA is an anisotropic and heterogeneous extension of Kirkpatrick's EMA [Rev. Mod. Phys.RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.45.574 45, 574 (1973)] which allows the overall model to account for microscopic alterations in connectivity (with the locations of the pores and the orientation and length of the throat) as well as macroscopic variations in transport properties. A comparison to numerical results for randomly generated networks with different properties is given, indicating the potential for this methodology to handle cases that would pose significant difficulties to many other analytical models.

  1. Influence of pore structure on compressive strength of cement mortar. (United States)

    Zhao, Haitao; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Donghui; Zhang, Shiping


    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the pore structure of cement mortar using mercury porosimeter. Ordinary Portland cement, manufactured sand, and natural sand were used. The porosity of the manufactured sand mortar is higher than that of natural sand at the same mix proportion; on the contrary, the probable pore size and threshold radius of manufactured sand mortar are finer. Besides, the probable pore size and threshold radius increased with increasing water to cement ratio and sand to cement ratio. In addition, the existing models of pore size distribution of cement-based materials have been reviewed and compared with test results in this paper. Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure.

  2. Role of pore-forming toxins in neonatal sepsis. (United States)

    Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Henneke, Philipp


    Protein toxins are important virulence factors contributing to neonatal sepsis. The major pathogens of neonatal sepsis, group B Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, secrete toxins of different molecular nature, which are key for defining the disease. Amongst these toxins are pore-forming exotoxins that are expressed as soluble monomers prior to engagement of the target cell membrane with subsequent formation of an aqueous membrane pore. Membrane pore formation is not only a means for immediate lysis of the targeted cell but also a general mechanism that contributes to penetration of epithelial barriers and evasion of the immune system, thus creating survival niches for the pathogens. Pore-forming toxins, however, can also contribute to the induction of inflammation and hence to the manifestation of sepsis. Clearly, pore-forming toxins are not the sole factors that drive sepsis progression, but they often act in concert with other bacterial effectors, especially in the initial stages of neonatal sepsis manifestation.

  3. Surface pore tension and adsorption characteristics of polluted sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Most natural sediment particles have numerous pores and a complex surface texture which facilitates their adsorption of contaminants. Particle surface structure,therefore,is an important instrumental factor in the transport of contaminants,especially in water environments. This paper reports on the results of adsorption-desorption experiments to analyze polluted sediment surface pore tension characteristics performed on samples from the bottom of Guanting Reservoir. In our analysis,the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill(FHH) equation is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of particles to quantify the surface roughness and pore tension characteristics. The results show that the surface fractal dimensions of sediment particle surfaces normally measure from 2.6 to 2.85. The volume of pores smaller than 10 nm changes significantly after being contaminated with pollutants and the fractal dimension decreases because the pores adsorb the contaminants.

  4. Measurements of pore-scale flow through apertures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnicki, Kirsten


    Pore-scale aperture effects on flow in pore networks was studied in the laboratory to provide a parameterization for use in transport models. Four cases were considered: regular and irregular pillar/pore alignment with and without an aperture. The velocity field of each case was measured and simulated, providing quantitatively comparable results. Two aperture effect parameterizations were considered: permeability and transmission. Permeability values varied by an order of magnitude between the cases with and without apertures. However, transmission did not correlate with permeability. Despite having much greater permeability the regular aperture case permitted less transmission than the regular case. Moreover, both irregular cases had greater transmission than the regular cases, a difference not supported by the permeabilities. Overall, these findings suggest that pore-scale aperture effects on flow though a pore-network may not be adequately captured by properties such as permeability for applications that are interested in determining particle transport volume and timing.

  5. Pore-Scale Modeling of Navier-Stokes Flow in Distensible Networks and Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha


    In this paper, a pore-scale network modeling method, based on the flow continuity residual in conjunction with a Newton-Raphson non-linear iterative solving technique, is proposed and used to obtain the pressure and flow fields in a network of interconnected distensible ducts representing, for instance, blood vasculature or deformable porous media. A previously derived analytical expression correlating boundary pressures to volumetric flow rate in compliant tubes for a pressure-area constitutive elastic relation has been used to represent the underlying flow model. Comparison to a preceding equivalent method, the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element, was made and the results were analyzed. The advantages of the new method have been highlighted and practical computational issues, related mainly to the rate and speed of convergence, have been discussed.

  6. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.


    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  7. Biophysics, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Ion Channel Gating Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eMoreau


    Full Text Available Voltage sensor domain (VSDs are a feature of voltage gated ion channel (VGICs and voltage sensitive proteins. They are composed of four transmembrane (TM segments (S1 to S4. Currents leaking through VSDs are called omega or gating pore currents.Gating pores are caused by mutations of the highly conserved positively charged amino acids in the S4 segment that disrupt interactions between the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center (GCTC. The GCTC separates the intracellular and extracellular water crevices. The disruption of S4–GCTC interactions allows these crevices to communicate and create a fast activating and non-inactivating alternative cation-selective permeation pathway of low conductance, or a gating pore.Gating pore currents have recently been shown to cause periodic paralysis phenotypes. There is also increasing evidence that gating pores are linked to several other familial diseases. For example, gating pores in Nav1.5 and Kv7.2 channels may underlie mixed arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM phenotypes and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH respectively. There is little evidence for the existence of gating pore blockers. Moreover, it is known that a number of toxins bind to the VSD of a specific domain of Na+ channels. These toxins may thus modulate gating pore currents. This focus on the VSD motif opens up a new area of research centered on developing molecules to treat a number of cell excitability disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and pain.The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, biophysics, and pharmacology of gating pore currents and to serve as a guide for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of gating pores and their pathophysiological roles.

  8. X-ray CT analysis of pore structure in sand (United States)

    Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Miyata, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Kazuaki; Shiota, Erika


    The development of microfocused X-ray computed tomography (CT) devices enables digital imaging analysis at the pore scale. The applications of these devices are diverse in soil mechanics, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, petroleum engineering, and agricultural engineering. In particular, the imaging of the pore space in porous media has contributed to numerical simulations for single-phase and multiphase flows or contaminant transport through the pore structure as three-dimensional image data. These obtained results are affected by the pore diameter; therefore, it is necessary to verify the image preprocessing for the image analysis and to validate the pore diameters obtained from the CT image data. Moreover, it is meaningful to produce the physical parameters in a representative element volume (REV) and significant to define the dimension of the REV. This paper describes the underlying method of image processing and analysis and discusses the physical properties of Toyoura sand for the verification of the image analysis based on the definition of the REV. On the basis of the obtained verification results, a pore-diameter analysis can be conducted and validated by a comparison with the experimental work and image analysis. The pore diameter is deduced from Young-Laplace's law and a water retention test for the drainage process. The results from previous study and perforated-pore diameter originally proposed in this study, called the voxel-percolation method (VPM), are compared in this paper. In addition, the limitations of the REV, the definition of the pore diameter, and the effectiveness of the VPM for an assessment of the pore diameter are discussed.

  9. An undulation theory for condensation in open end slit pores: critical hysteresis temperature & critical hysteresis pore size. (United States)

    Fan, Chunyan; Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D


    A new theory of condensation in an open end slit pore, based on the concept of temperature dependent undulation, at the interface separating the adsorbed phase and the gas-like region, is presented. The theory, describes, for the first time, the microscopic origin of the critical hysteresis temperature and the critical hysteresis pore size, properties which are not accessible to any classical theories.

  10. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers Using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore-Formation Thermodynamics. (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep


    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show a remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric-potential-induced perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke porelike membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a nontrivial free-energy cost, thus necessitating a consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and the attendant free energies. Because of experimental and modeling challenges related to the long time scales of the translocation process, we use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density-based order parameter to investigate membrane-pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of headgroups, charge states, acyl chain lengths, and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on the area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, and membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore-formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. The pore-formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems than in peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain the solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment.

  11. Construction of pore network models for Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones using non-linear programing and optimization techniques (United States)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.


    Pore network models (PNM) of Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones were constructed using nonlinear programming (NLP) and optimization methods. The constructed PNMs are considered as a digital representation of the rock samples which were based on matching the macroscopic properties of the porous media and used to conduct fluid transport simulations including single and two-phase flow. The PNMs consisted of cubic networks of randomly distributed pores and throats sizes and with various connectivity levels. The networks were optimized such that the upper and lower bounds of the pore sizes are determined using the capillary tube bundle model and the Nelder-Mead method instead of guessing them, which reduces the optimization computational time significantly. An open-source PNM framework was employed to conduct transport and percolation simulations such as invasion percolation and Darcian flow. The PNM model was subsequently used to compute the macroscopic properties; porosity, absolute permeability, specific surface area, breakthrough capillary pressure, and primary drainage curve. The pore networks were optimized to allow for the simulation results of the macroscopic properties to be in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. This study demonstrates that non-linear programming and optimization methods provide a promising method for pore network modeling when computed tomography imaging may not be readily available.

  12. Modelling the effect of pore structure and wetting angles on capillary rise in soils having different wettabilities (United States)

    Czachor, Henryk


    SummaryCapillary rise in axis symmetrical sinusoidal capillary (SC) has been modelled. Analytical formula for meniscus radius, capillary pressure and meniscus rate in SC have been found. Capillary shape described by wall waviness highly influences all of them. The limit between wettability and repellency in such capillary is described by critical value of contact angle θc which is related to the pore geometry by the equation ctg( θc) = πd2, where d2 - pore wall waviness. Kinetics of capillary rise in sinusoidal capillary has been determined by numerical integration of meniscus rate equation for a wide range of pore wall waviness and several values of contact angles. Application of Washburn theory to the data obtained from simulation gives the contact angle value much higher than the true one. In contrast, the obtained pore radius value is usually well correlated with capillary neck. However, in some cases a calculated radius can be even smaller. Above conclusions have been qualitatively confirmed by experiments performed on glass beads and soils. Contact angle measured on flat glass was 27.4°. The calculations concerning the data from capillary rise experiments on 90-1000 μm fraction of glass powder and Washburn theory gave values ca. 80°. The contact angle values for peat soils and loamy sand have close values, which supports the opinion that non-cylindrical shape of soil pores highly influences both the wettability/repellency and the water flux in soils.

  13. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.


    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  14. Pore Scale Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation. (United States)

    Unsal, Evren; Broens, Marc; Armstrong, Ryan T


    Experiments in various porous media have shown that multiple parameters come into play when an oleic phase is displaced by an aqueous solution of surfactant. In general, the displacement efficiency is improved when the fluids become quasi-miscible. Understanding the phase behavior oil/water/surfactant systems is important because microemulsion has the ability to generate ultralow interfacial tension (formation and the resulting properties under equilibrium conditions. However, the majority of applications where microemulsion is present also involve flow, which has received relatively less attention. It is commonly assumed that the characteristics of an oil/water/surfactant system under flowing conditions are identical to the one under equilibrium conditions. Here, we show that this is not necessarily the case. We studied the equilibrium phase behavior of a model system consisting of n-decane and an aqueous solution of olefin sulfonate surfactant, which has practical applications for enhanced oil recovery. The salt content of the aqueous solution was varied to provide a range of different microemulsion compositions and oil-water interfacial tensions. We then performed microfluidic flow experiments to study the dynamic in situ formation of microemulsion by coinjecting bulk fluids of n-decane and surfactant solution into a T-junction capillary geometry. A solvatochromatic fluorescent dye was used to obtain spatially resolved compositional information. In this way, we visualized the microemulsion formation and the flow of it along with the excess phases. A complex interaction between the flow patterns and the microemulsion properties was observed. The formation of microemulsion influenced the flow regimes, and the flow regimes affected the characteristics of the microemulsion formation. In particular, at low flow rates, slug flow was observed, which had profound consequences on the pore scale mixing behavior and resulting microemulsion properties.

  15. Improved analytic methods for coal surface area and pore size distribution determination using 77 K nitrogen adsorption experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gongda; Wang Kai; Ren Tingxiang


    77 K nitrogen adsorption was the most widely used technique for determining surface area and pore size distribution of coal. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model are com-monly used analytic methods for adsorption/desorption isotherm. A Chinese anthracite coal is tested in this study using an improved experimental method and adsorption isotherm analyzed by three adsorp-tion mechanisms at different relative pressure stages. The result shows that the micropore filling adsorp-tion predominates at the relative pressure stage from 6.8E?7 to 9E?3. Theoretically, BET and BJH model are not appropriate for analyzing coal samples which contain micropores. Two new analytic procedures for coal surface area and pore size distribution calculation are developed in this work. The results show that BET model underestimates surface area, and micropores smaller than 1.751 nm account for 35.5%of the total pore volume and 74.2%of the total surface area. The investigation of surface area and pore size distribution by incorporating the influence of micropore is significant for understanding adsorption mechanism of methane and carbon dioxide in coal.

  16. Pore geometry as a control on rock strength (United States)

    Bubeck, A.; Walker, R. J.; Healy, D.; Dobbs, M.; Holwell, D. A.


    The strength of rocks in the subsurface is critically important across the geosciences, with implications for fluid flow, mineralisation, seismicity, and the deep biosphere. Most studies of porous rock strength consider the scalar quantity of porosity, in which strength shows a broadly inverse relationship with total porosity, but pore shape is not explicitly defined. Here we use a combination of uniaxial compressive strength measurements of isotropic and anisotropic porous lava samples, and numerical modelling to consider the influence of pore shape on rock strength. Micro computed tomography (CT) shows that pores range from sub-spherical to elongate and flat ellipsoids. Samples that contain flat pores are weaker if compression is applied parallel to the short axis (i.e. across the minimum curvature), compared to compression applied parallel to the long axis (i.e. across the maximum curvature). Numerical models for elliptical pores show that compression applied across the minimum curvature results in relatively broad amplification of stress, compared to compression applied across the maximum curvature. Certain pore shapes may be relatively stable and remain open in the upper crust under a given remote stress field, while others are inherently weak. Quantifying the shape, orientations, and statistical distributions of pores is therefore a critical step in strength testing of rocks.

  17. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance. (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan


    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  18. Clostridial pore-forming toxins: powerful virulence factors. (United States)

    Popoff, Michel R


    Pore formation is a common mechanism of action for many bacterial toxins. More than one third of clostridial toxins are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) belonging to the β-PFT class. They are secreted as soluble monomers rich in β-strands, which recognize a specific receptor on target cells and assemble in oligomers. Then, they undergo a conformational change leading to the formation of a β-barrel, which inserts into the lipid bilayer forming functional pore. According to their structure, clostridial β-PFTs are divided into several families. Clostridial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins form large pores, which disrupt the plasma membrane integrity. They are potent virulence factors mainly involved in myonecrosis. Clostridial heptameric β-PFTs (aerolysin family and staphylococcal α-hemolysin family) induce small pores which trigger signaling cascades leading to different cell responses according to the cell types and toxins. They are mainly responsible for intestinal diseases, like necrotic enteritis, or systemic diseases/toxic shock from intestinal origin. Clostridial intracellularly active toxins exploit pore formation through the endosomal membrane to translocate the enzymatic component or domain into the cytosol. Single chain protein toxins, like botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, use hydrophobic α-helices to form pores, whereas clostridial binary toxins encompass binding components, which are structurally and functionally related to β-PFTs, but which have acquired the specific activity to internalize their corresponding enzymatic components. Structural analysis suggests that β-PFTs and binding components share a common evolutionary origin.

  19. Nuclear Pore-Like Structures in a Compartmentalized Bacterium (United States)

    Sagulenko, Evgeny; Green, Kathryn; Yee, Benjamin; Morgan, Garry; Leis, Andrew; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Butler, Margaret K.; Chia, Nicholas; Pham, Uyen Thi Phuong; Lindgreen, Stinus; Catchpole, Ryan; Poole, Anthony M.; Fuerst, John A.


    Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G.obscuriglobus and that they have elements structurally similar to eukaryote nuclear pores, including a basket, ring-spoke structure, and eight-fold rotational symmetry. Bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data reveals that some of the G. obscuriglobus proteins associated with pore-containing membranes possess structural domains found in eukaryote nuclear pore complexes. Moreover, immunogold labelling demonstrates localization of one such protein, containing a β-propeller domain, specifically to the G. obscuriglobus pore-like structures. Finding bacterial pores within internal cell membranes and with structural similarities to eukaryote nuclear pore complexes raises the dual possibilities of either hitherto undetected homology or stunning evolutionary convergence. PMID:28146565

  20. Morphological Characterization of the Polyflux 210H Hemodialysis Filter Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedayat


    Full Text Available Background. Morphological characterization of hemodialysis membranes is necessary to improve pore design. Aim. To delineate membrane pore structure of a high flux filter, Polyflux 210H. Methods. We used a Joel JSM-6010LV scanning electron microscope (SEM and a SU6600 Hitachi field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM to characterize the pore and fiber morphology. The maximal diameters of selected uremic toxins were calculated using the macromolecular modeling Crystallographic Object-Oriented Toolkit (COOT software. Results. The mean pore densities on the outermost and innermost surfaces of the membrane were 36.81% and 5.45%, respectively. The membrane exhibited a tortuous structure with poor connection between the inner and outer pores. The aperture’s width in the inner surface ranged between 34 and 45 nm, which is 8.76–11.60 times larger than the estimated maximum diameter of β2-microglobulin (3.88 nm. Conclusion. The results suggest that the diameter size of inner pore apertures is not a limiting factor to middle molecules clearance, the extremely diminished density is. Increasing inner pore density and improving channel structure are strategies to improve clearance of middle molecules.

  1. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.


    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the

  2. Novel Techniques to Characterize Pore Size of Porous Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulghani, Ali J.


    Porous materials are implemented in several industrial applications such as water desalination, gas separation and pharmaceutical care which they are mainly governed by the pore size and the PSD. Analyzing shale reservoirs are not excluded from these applications and numerous advantages can be gained by evaluating the PSD of a given shale reservoir. Because of the limitations of the conventional characterization techniques, novel methods for characterizing the PSD have to be proposed in order to obtain better characterization results for the porous materials, in general, and shale rocks in particular. Thus, permporosimetry and evapoporometry (EP) technologies were introduced, designed and utilized for evaluating the two key parameters, pore size and pore size distribution. The pore size and PSD profiles of different shale samples from Norway and Argentina were analyzed using these technologies and then confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). Norway samples showed an average pore diameter of 12.94 nm and 19.22 nm with an average diameter of 13.77 nm and 23.23 nm for Argentina samples using permporosimetry and EP respectively. Both techniques are therefore indicative of the heterogeneity of the shales. The results from permporosimetry are in good agreement with those obtained from MIP technique, but EP for most part over-estimates the average pore size. The divergence of EP results compared to permporosimetry results is referred to the fact that the latter technique measures only the active pores which is not the case with the former technique. Overall, both techniques are complementary to each other which the results from both techniques seem reasonable and reliable and provide two simple techniques to estimate the pore size and pore size distributions for shale rocks.

  3. Fluid flow behaviour of gas-condensate and near-miscible fluids at the pore scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawe, Richard A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Grattoni, Carlos A. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)


    Retrograde condensate reservoir behaviour is complex with much of the detailed mechanisms of the multiphase fluid transport and mass transfer between the phases within the porous matrix still speculative. Visual modelling of selected processes occurring at the pore level under known and controlled boundary conditions can give an insight to fluid displacements at the core scale and help the interpretation of production behaviour at reservoir scale. Visualisation of the pore scale two-phase flow mechanisms has been studied experimentally at low interfacial tensions, < 0.5 mN/m, using a partially miscible fluid system in glass visual micro models. As the interfacial tension decreases the balance between fluid-fluid forces (interfacial, spreading and viscous) and fluid-solid interactions (wettability and viscous interactions) changes. Data measurements in the laboratory, particularly relative permeability, will therefore always be difficult especially for condensate fluids just below their dew point. What is certain is that gas production from a gas-condensate leads to condensate dropout when pressure falls below the dew point, either within the wellbore or, more importantly, in the reservoir. This paper illustrates some pore scale physics, particularly interfacial phenomena at low interfacial tension, which has relevance to appreciating the flow of condensate fluids close to their dew point either near the wellbore (which affects well productivity) or deep inside the reservoir (which affects condensate recovery). (author)

  4. Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels. (United States)

    Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem


    Mechanotransduction has an important role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require as-yet-unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse Piezo1 (MmPiezo1) and MmPiezo2 (also called Fam38a and Fam38b, respectively) induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown whether Piezo proteins are pore-forming ion channels or modulate ion channels. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Piezo (DmPiezo, also called CG8486) also induces mechanically activated currents in cells, but through channels with remarkably distinct pore properties including sensitivity to the pore blocker ruthenium red and single channel conductances. MmPiezo1 assembles as a ∼1.2-million-dalton homo-oligomer, with no evidence of other proteins in this complex. Purified MmPiezo1 reconstituted into asymmetric lipid bilayers and liposomes forms ruthenium-red-sensitive ion channels. These data demonstrate that Piezo proteins are an evolutionarily conserved ion channel family involved in mechanotransduction.

  5. Simple model of capillary condensation in cylindrical pores (United States)

    Szybisz, Leszek; Urrutia, Ignacio


    A simple model based on an approximation of the dropletlike model is formulated for studying adsorption of fluids into cylindrical pores. This model yields a nearly universal description of capillary condensation transitions for noble gases confined by alkali metals. The system's thermodynamical behavior is predicted from the values of two dimensionless parameters: D* (the reduced asymptotic strength of the fluid-adsorber interaction, a function of temperature) and R* (the reduced radius of the pore). The phenomenon of hysteresis inherently related to capillary condensation is discussed. The connection to a previously proposed universality for cylindrical pores is also established.

  6. Pore structure of SWNTs with high hydrogen storage capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全红; 刘畅; 刘敏; 樊彦贞; 成会明; 王茂章


    This paper reveals, by analyses of nitrogen cryo-adsorption isotherm, the energetic and structural heterogeneity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) which has a high hydrogen storage capacity. It was found that SWNTs had manifold pore structures and distributed surface energy. By comparison of the pore structures and energy distributions of SWNTs before and after hydrogen adsorption, it is preliminarily indicated that hydrogen adsorption occurred in micropores and mesopores with smaller diameter, and that the pores of different diameters determined different hydrogen adsorption processes and underwent different structure changes during hydrogen adsorption.

  7. Dependence on injection temperature and on aquifer's petrophysical properties of the local stress applying on the pore wall of a crystallized pore in the context of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers (United States)

    Osselin, Florian; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Fabbri, Antonin; Lassin, Arnault; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Dangla, Patrick


    The development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) currently faces numerous problems and particularly the precipitation of salts induced by the drying of the porous medium during injection of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers. This precipitation has several consequences, and particularly the creation of a crystallization pressure which can have an important mechanical impact on the host rock. Literature on crystallization pressure is one century rich of experimental and theoretical works. However, applications have been performed in the field of civil engineering and building science only, and, despite they are of paramount importance in the context of CCS, studies about this phenomenon in deep reservoir conditions are currently lacking. In this paper, we retrieve the classic crystallization pressure equation within the framework of geochemistry and present its explicit form of dependence with temperature, pressure, and composition. Evaluation of the crystallization pressure has then been proceeded considering the injection conditions and a sketch of in-pore crystallization process. The evolution of the local stress transmitted to a crystallized pore wall is found to be strongly related to the petrophysical properties of the medium and to the injection temperature of the carbon dioxide under the assumption of constant salt concentration during the precipitation process. Values differ strongly with the considered mineral, depending particularly on the solubility, and can reach in some conditions 165 MPa, making crystallization pressure a major factor in the mechanical behavior of the aquifer.

  8. Control of pore size and structure of tissue engineering scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tai


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering scaffolds require a controlled pore size and structure to host tissue formation. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 processing may be used to form foamed scaffolds in which the escape of CO2 from a plasticized polymer melt generates gas bubbles that shape the developing pores. The process of forming these scaffolds involves a simultaneous change in phase in the CO2 and the polymer, resulting in rapid expansion of a surface area and changes in polymer rheological properties. Hence, the process is difficult to control with respect to the desired final pore size and structure. In this paper, we describe a detailed study of the effect of polymer chemical composition, molecular weight and processing parameters on final scaffold characteristics. The study focuses on poly(DL-lactic acid (PDLLA and poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA as polymer classes with potential application as controlled release scaffolds for growth factor delivery. Processing parameters under investigation were temperature (from 5 to 55oC and pressure (from 60 to 230 bar. A series of amorphous PDLLA and PLGA polymers with various molecular weights (from 13 KD to 96 KD and/or chemical compositions (the mole percentage of glycolic acid in the polymers was 0, 15, 25, 35 and 50 respectively were employed. The resulting scaffolds were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and micro X-ray computed tomography (µCT. This is the first detailed study on using these series polymers for scaffold formation by supercritical technique. This study has demonstrated that the pore size and structure of the supercritical PDLLA and PLGA scaffolds can be tailored by careful control of processing conditions.

  9. Microfiltration of distillery stillage: Influence of membrane pore size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.


    Full Text Available Stillage is one of the most polluted waste products of the food industry. Beside large volume, the stillage contains high amount of suspended solids, high values of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, so it should not be discharged in the nature before previous purification. In this work, three ceramic membranes for microfiltration with different pore sizes were tested for stillage purification in order to find the most suitable membrane for the filtration process. Ceramic membranes with a nominal pore size of 200 nm, 450 nm and 800 nm were used for filtration. The influence of pore size on permeate flux and removal efficiency was investigated. A membrane with the pore size of 200 nm showed the best filtration performance so it was chosen for the microfiltration process.

  10. Nano pores evolution in hydroxyapatite microsphere during spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin C.


    Full Text Available Micron-spherical granules of hydroxyapatite (HAp nanoparticles were prepared by powder granulation methods. Through subsequent sintering, porous HAp microspheres with tailored pore and grain framework structures were obtained. Detailed microstructure investigation by SEM and TEM revealed the correlation of the pore structure and the necking strength with the sintering profiles that determine the coalescence features of the nanoparticles. The partially sintered porous HAp microspheres containing more than 50% porosity consisting of pores and grains both in nano-scale are active in inducing the precipitation of HAp in simulated body fluid. The nano-porous HAp microspheres with an extensive surface and interconnecting pores thus demonstrate the potential of stimulating the formation of collagen and bone and the integration with the newly formed bones during physiological bone remodeling.

  11. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids. (United States)

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak


    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  12. The Pore Structure and Hydration Performance of Sulphoaluminate MDF Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Cong-yun; YUAN Run-zhang; LONG Shi-zong


    The hydration and pore structure of sulphoaluminate MDF cement were studied by X-ray diffractometer ( XRD ), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimeter ( MIP ) etc. The ex-perimental results indicate that hydration products of the materials are entringites ( Aft ), aluminium hydroxide andCSH (Ⅰ) gel etc. Due to its very low water-cement ratio, hydration function is only confined to the surfaces of ce-ment grains, and there is a lot of sulphoaluminate cement in the hardenite which is unhydrated yet. Hydration re-action was rapidly carried under the condition of the heat-pressing. Therefore cement hydrates Aft, CSH (Ⅰ) andaluminium hydroxide gel fill in pores. The expansibility of Aft makes the porosity of MDF cement lower ( less than1 percent ) and the size of pore smaller (80 percent pore was less than 250A), and enhances its strength.

  13. Diffusion Pore Imaging by Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Windschuh, Johannes; Laun, Frederik Bernd


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements are widely used to derive parameters indirectly related to the microstructure of biological tissues and porous media. However, a direct imaging of cell or pore shapes and sizes would be of high interest. For a long time, determining pore shapes by NMR diffusion acquisitions seemed impossible, because the necessary phase information could not be preserved. Here we demonstrate experimentally using the measurement technique which we have recently proposed theoretically that the shape of arbitrary closed pores can be imaged by diffusion acquisitions, which yield the phase information. For this purpose, we use hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined geometries. The signal can be collected from the whole sample which mainly eliminates the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution of conventional NMR imaging. This could be used to non-invasively gain structural information inaccessible so far such as pore or cell shapes, cell density or axon integri...

  14. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre


    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  15. Metal–organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry–sorption energetics relationship (United States)

    Alkordi, Mohamed H.; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal–Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve. PMID:28250951

  16. Metal–organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry–sorption energetics relationship

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kordi, Mohamed


    This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry-sorption energetics relationship. (United States)

    Alkordi, Mohamed H; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.

  18. Metal–organic frameworks for H2 and CH4 storage: insights on the pore geometry–sorption energetics relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Alkordi


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the possibility of improving H2 and CH4 binding affinity to the aromatic walls of a designed new Metal–Organic Framework (MOF through simultaneous dispersive interactions. It is suggested here that desirable H2 and CH4 storage media at low pressures require narrow uniform pores associated with large surface area, a trade-off that is challenging to achieve.

  19. Molecular biology and biophysical properties of ion channel gating pores. (United States)

    Moreau, Adrien; Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Chahine, Mohamed


    The voltage sensitive domain (VSD) is a pivotal structure of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) and plays an essential role in the generation of electrochemical signals by neurons, striated muscle cells, and endocrine cells. The VSD is not unique to VGICs. Recent studies have shown that a VSD regulates a phosphatase. Similarly, Hv1, a voltage-sensitive protein that lacks an apparent pore domain, is a self-contained voltage sensor that operates as an H⁺ channel. VSDs are formed by four transmembrane helices (S1-S4). The S4 helix is positively charged due to the presence of arginine and lysine residues. It is surrounded by two water crevices that extend into the membrane from both the extracellular and intracellular milieus. A hydrophobic septum disrupts communication between these water crevices thus preventing the permeation of ions. The septum is maintained by interactions between the charged residues of the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center. Mutating the charged residue of the S4 segment allows the water crevices to communicate and generate gating pore or omega pore. Gating pore currents have been reported to underlie several neuronal and striated muscle channelopathies. Depending on which charged residue on the S4 segment is mutated, gating pores are permeant either at depolarized or hyperpolarized voltages. Gating pores are cation selective and seem to converge toward Eisenmann's first or second selectivity sequences. Most gating pores are blocked by guanidine derivatives as well as trivalent and quadrivalent cations. Gating pores can be used to study the movement of the voltage sensor and could serve as targets for novel small therapeutic molecules.

  20. Relationship between pore structure and compressive strength of concrete: Experiments and statistical modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J BU; Z TIAN


    Properties of concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the pore structure-compressive strength relationship in concrete. Several concrete mixtures with different pore structures are proportioned and subjected to static compressive tests. The pore structure features such as porosity, pore size distribution are extracted using mercury intrusion porosimetry technique. A statistical model is developed to relate thecompressive strength to relevant pore structure features.

  1. Distributed pore model for bio-molecule chromatography. (United States)

    Coquebert de Neuville, Bertrand; Tarafder, Abhijit; Morbidelli, Massimo


    One of the main peculiarities in protein chromatography is that the adsorbing proteins and the adsorbent pores have comparable sizes. This has the consequence that the pore accessibility depends not only on the solute size but also on the loading conditions of the adsorbent because protein adsorption significantly reduces the size of the pores. A model that accounts for the pore size distribution of the stationary phase and for the pore shrinkage due to protein adsorption has been developed to describe mass transport and adsorption in the porous particles. This model has been shown to be equivalent to the general rate model (GRM) in the case of processes under highly diluted conditions with little adsorption. This implies that the model parameters determination follows the same procedure as for the classical GRM. The new pore model has been applied and compared to the GRM for the simulation of lysozyme breakthrough experiments and for the prediction of 5% dynamic binding capacity values solely based on static capacity measurements.

  2. Pore opening dynamics in the exocytosis of serotonin (United States)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Cercos, Montserrat G.; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Salinas Hernandez, Israel; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; de-Miguel, Francisco F.


    The current view of the exocytosis of transmitter molecules is that it starts with the formation of a fusion pore that connects the intravesicular and the extracellular spaces, and is completed by the release of the rest of the transmitter contained in the vesicle upon the full fusion and collapse of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, under certain circumstances, a rapid closure of the pore before the full vesicle fusion produces only a partial release of the transmitter. Here we show that whole release of the transmitter occurs through fusion pores that remain opened for tens of milliseconds without vesicle collapse. This was demonstrated through amperometric measurements of serotonin release from electrodense vesicles in the axon of leech Retzius neurons and mathematical modelling. By modeling transmitter release with a diffusion equation subjected to boundary conditions that are defined by the experiment, we showed that those pores with a fast half rise time constant remained opened and allowed the full quantum release without vesicle collapse, whereas pores with a slow rise time constant closed rapidly, thus producing partial release. We conclude that a full transmitter release may occur through the fusion pore in the absence of vesicle collapse. This work was founded by a DGAPA-UNAM grants IN200914 and IN118410 CONACYT GRANT 130031, and CONACyT doctoral fellowships.

  3. Mangrove pore water exchange across a latitudinal gradient (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.; Macklin, Paul A.; Santos, Isaac R.


    We combined observations of the natural tracer radon (222Rn) with hydrodynamic models across a broad latitudinal gradient covering several climate zones to estimate pore water exchange rates in mangroves. Pore water exchange ranged from 2.1 to 35.5 cm d-1 from temperate to tropical regions and averaged 16.3 ± 5.1 cm d-1. If upscaled to the global weighted mangrove area, pore water exchange in mangroves would recirculate the entire volume of water overlying the continental shelf in less than 153 years. Although pore water exchange (recirculated seawater) and river discharge represent different pathways for water entering the coastal ocean, the estimated global mangrove pore water exchange would be equal to approximately one third of annual global river discharge to the ocean (3.84 × 1013 m3 yr-1). Because biogeochemical processes in mangroves are largely dependent on pore water exchange, these large exchange rates have major implications for coastal nutrient, carbon, and greenhouse gas cycling in tropical marine systems.

  4. Patch-clamp detection of macromolecular translocation along nuclear pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante J.O.


    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the application of patch-clamp principles to the detection and measurement of macromolecular translocation along the nuclear pores. We demonstrate that the tight-seal 'gigaseal' between the pipette tip and the nuclear membrane is possible in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores. We show that the ability to form a gigaseal in nucleus-attached configurations does not mean that only the activity of channels from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope can be detected. Instead, we show that, in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores, it is likely that the large-conductance ion channel activity recorded derives from the nuclear pores. We conclude the technical section with the suggestion that the best way to demonstrate that the nuclear pores are responsible for ion channel activity is by showing with fluorescence microscopy the nuclear translocation of ions and small molecules and the exclusion of the same from the cisterna enclosed by the two membranes of the envelope. Since transcription factors and mRNAs, two major groups of nuclear macromolecules, use nuclear pores to enter and exit the nucleus and play essential roles in the control of gene activity and expression, this review should be useful to cell and molecular biologists interested in understanding how patch-clamp can be used to quantitate the translocation of such macromolecules into and out of the nucleus

  5. Pore growth in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jeong, G.Y.; Sohn, D.-S. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jamison, L.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel is currently under development in the DOE’s Material Management and Minimization program to convert HEU-fueled research reactors to LEU-fueled reactors. In some demanding conditions in high-power and high-performance reactors, large pores form in the interaction layers between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix, which pose a potential to cause fuel failure. In this study, comprehension of the formation and growth of these pores was explored. As a product, a model to predict pore growth and porosity increase was developed. The model includes three major topics: fission gas release from the U-Mo and the IL to the pores, stress evolution in the fuel meat, and the effect of amorphous IL growth. Well-characterized in-pile data from reduced-size plates were used to fit the model parameters. A data set from full-sized plates, independent and distinctively different from those used to fit the model parameters, was used to examine the accuracy of the model. The model showed fair agreement with the measured data. The model suggested that the growth of the IL has a critical effect on pore growth, as both its material properties and energetics are favorable to pore formation. Therefore, one area of the current effort, focused on suppressing IL growth, appears to be on the right track to improve the performance of this fuel.

  6. Nonlinear electrokinetic transport in networks of microscale and nanoscale pores (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Andersen, Mathias B.; Mani, Ali


    The objective of this study is to develop the understanding of nonlinear electrohydrodynamic effects in a wide range of systems including lab-on-a-chip systems, electroosmotic pumps, and, in general, porous media with random or fabricated pore morphology. We present a continuum model in which these systems are described as massive networks of long and thin pores. The thickness of the pores can vary from nanoscale to microscale, corresponding to the highly overlapped electric double layers (EDL) to the thin double layer limit. Within each pore the transport in the wall-normal direction is assumed to be in equilibrium leading to a reduced order model for the axial transport of species in the form of a transient one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE). PDEs from different pores are coupled through boundary conditions at the pore intersections by proper implementation of the conservation laws. We show that this model can capture important nonlinear dynamics, which are typically ignored in homogenized models. Specifically, our model captures concentration polarization shocks and flow recirculation zones respectively formed when micropores and nanopores are connected in series and in parallel. We present a comparison between our model and recent experiments in microfluidics, and will discuss applications in porous media modeling for energy storage and water purification systems.

  7. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases (United States)

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K. G.


    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ˜85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of 10-310-3 wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth.

  8. Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation. (United States)

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L; Collier, R John; Zhou, Z Hong


    Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen, lethal factor, and oedema factor, is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in humans and animals. Protective antigen forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes lethal factor and oedema factor into the cytosol of target cells. Protective antigen is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. On the basis of biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a phi (Φ)-clamp composed of phenylalanine (Phe)427 residues of protective antigen catalyses protein translocation via a charge-state-dependent Brownian ratchet. Although atomic structures of protective antigen prepores are available, how protective antigen senses low pH, converts to active pore, and translocates lethal factor and oedema factor are not well defined without an atomic model of its pore. Here, by cryo-electron microscopy with direct electron counting, we determine the protective antigen pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed.

  9. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  10. Pore growth in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Jeong, G. Y.; Sohn, D.-S.; Jamison, L. M.


    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel is currently under development in the DOE's Material Management and Minimization program to convert HEU-fueled research reactors to LEU-fueled reactors. In some demanding conditions in high-power and high-performance reactors, large pores form in the interaction layers between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix, which pose a potential to cause fuel failure. In this study, comprehension of the formation and growth of these pores was explored. As a product, a model to predict pore growth and porosity increase was developed. The model includes three major topics: fission gas release from the U-Mo and the IL to the pores, stress evolution in the fuel meat, and the effect of amorphous IL growth. Well-characterized in-pile data from reduced-size plates were used to fit the model parameters. A data set from full-sized plates, independent and distinctively different from those used to fit the model parameters, was used to examine the accuracy of the model. The model showed fair agreement with the measured data. The model suggested that the growth of the IL has a critical effect on pore growth, as both its material properties and energetics are favorable to pore formation. Therefore, one area of the current effort, focused on suppressing IL growth, appears to be on the right track to improve the performance of this fuel.

  11. Software Image J to study soil pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Passoni


    Full Text Available In the soil science, a direct method that allows the study of soil pore distribution is the bi-dimensional (2D digital image analysis. Such technique provides quantitative results of soil pore shape, number and size. The use of specific softwares for the treatment and processing of images allows a fast and efficient method to quantify the soil porous system. However, due to the high cost of commercial softwares, public ones can be an interesting alternative for soil structure analysis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of data provided by the Image J software (public domain used to characterize the voids of two soils, characterized as Geric Ferralsol and Rhodic Ferralsol, from the southeast region of Brazil. The pore distribution analysis technique from impregnated soil blocks was utilized for this purpose. The 2D image acquisition was carried out by using a CCD camera coupled to a conventional optical microscope. After acquisition and treatment of images, they were processed and analyzed by the software Noesis Visilog 5.4® (chosen as the reference program and ImageJ. The parameters chosen to characterize the soil voids were: shape, number and pore size distribution. For both soils, the results obtained for the image total porosity (%, the total number of pores and the pore size distribution showed that the Image J is a suitable software to be applied in the characterization of the soil sample voids impregnated with resin.

  12. Pore Size Distribution and Methane Equilibrium Conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, Northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Bihani, A. D.; Daigle, H.; Cook, A.; Glosser, D.; Shushtarian, A.


    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  13. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihani, Abhishek [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Glosser, Deborah [Ohio State University; Shushtarian, Arash [University of Texas at Austin


    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  14. The Water Retention Curves in THF Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Experimental Measurement and Pore Scale Simulation (United States)

    Mahabadi, N.; Zheng, X.; Dai, S.; Seol, Y.; Zapata, C.; Yun, T.; Jang, J.


    The water retention curve (WRC) of hydrate-bearing sediments is critically important to understand the behaviour of hydrate dissociation for gas production. Most gas hydrates in marine environment have been formed from an aqueous phase (gas-dissolved water). However, the gas hydrate formation from an aqueous phase in a laboratory requires long period due to low gas solubility in water and is also associated with many experimental difficulties such as hydrate dissolution, difficult hydrate saturation control, and dynamic hydrate dissolution and formation. In this study, tetrahydrofuran (THF) is chosen to form THF hydrate because the formation process is faster than gas hydrate formation and hydrate saturation is easy to control. THF hydrate is formed at water-excess condition. Therefore, there is only water in the pore space after a target THF hydrate saturation is obtained. The pore habit of THF hydrate is investigated by visual observation in a transparent micromodel and X-ray computed tomography images; and the water retention curves are obtained under different THF hydrate saturation conditions. Targeted THF hydrate saturations are Sh=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. Results shown that at a given water saturation the capillary pressure increases as THF hydrate saturation increases. And the gas entry pressure increases with increasing hydrate saturation. The WRC obtained by experiments is also compared with the results of a pore-network model simulation and Lattice Boltzmann Method. The fitting parameters of van Genuchten equation for different hydrate saturation conditions are suggested for the use as input parameters of reservoir simulators.

  15. Soil hydraulic properties and REV study using X-ray microtomography and pore-scale modelling: saturated hydraulic conductivity (United States)

    Gerke, Kirill; Khirevich, Siarhei; Sizonenko, Timofey; Karsanina, Marina; Umarova, Aminat; Korost, Dmitry; Matthai, Stephan; Mallants, Dirk


    To verify pore-scale modelling approach for determination of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity properties we scanned three cylindrical soil samples taken from A, Ah and B horizons using X-ray microtomography method. Resulting 3D soil images with resolutions of 15.25-20.96 μm were segmented into pores and solids and their maximum inscribed cube subvolumes were used as input data for three major pore-scale modelling methods to simulate saturated flow - lattice-Boltzmann method, finite-difference solution of the Stokes problem, and pore-network model. Provided that imaging resolution is high enough to capture the backbone of effective porosity and the main conducting pores all three methods resulted in simulated soil permeabilities close to experimental values for Ah and B samples. The resolution of A sample was not enough for an accurate modelling and we concluded that this soil requires multi-scale imaging to cover all relevant heterogeneities. We demonstrate that popular SWV method to choose segmentation threshold resulted in oversegmentation and order of magnitude higher permeability values. Careful manual thresholding combined with local segmentation algorithm provided much more accurate results. Detailed analysis of water retention curves showed that air-filled porosity at relevant pressure stages cannot be used for verification of the segmentation results. Representativity analysis by simulating flow in increasing soil volume up to 2.8 cm3 revealed no representative elementary volume (REV) within Ah sample and non-uniqueness of REV for B sample. The latter was explained by soil structure non-stationarity. We further speculate that structures soil horizons can exhibit no REV at all. We discuss numerous advantages of coupled imaging and pore-scale modelling approach and show how it can become a successor of the conventional soil coring method to parametrize large scale continuum models.

  16. Determining pore length scales and pore surface relaxivity of rock cores by internal magnetic fields modulation at 2MHz NMR. (United States)

    Liu, Huabing; Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Obruchkov, Sergei; Galvosas, Petrik


    Pore length scales and pore surface relaxivities of rock cores with different lithologies were studied on a 2MHz Rock Core Analyzer. To determine the pore length scales of the rock cores, the high eigenmodes of spin bearing molecules satisfying the diffusion equation were detected with optimized encoding periods in the presence of internal magnetic fields Bin. The results were confirmed using a 64MHz NMR system, which supports the feasibility of high eigenmode detection at fields as low as 2MHz. Furthermore, this methodology was combined with relaxometry measurements to a two-dimensional experiment, which provides correlation between pore length and relaxation time. This techniques also yields information on the surface relaxivity of the rock cores. The estimated surface relaxivities were then compared to the results using an independent NMR method.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glasses Prepared using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    with open or closed pores. If only open pores exist, air is the dominating medium for the insulating effect. However, closed pores make it possible to trap gases inside the foam. The gas can be introduced either chemically, through foaming agents, or physically, by gas compression-decompression at high...... using helium, nitrogen, or argon. The sintering result in closed-porous body with high pressure bubbles. Subsequent reheating above the glass transition temperature resulted in an expansion of the bubbles. The entrapped gas composition was analysed by gas chromatography. Furthermore, we investigated how...

  18. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.


    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  19. Existence of liquid helium above melting curve pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A.L.; Brewer, D.F.; Naji, T.; Haynes, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Dept. of Physics); Reppy, J.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Data are presented on the specific heat of helium confined at a high externally applied pressure within the 60 A pores of vycor glass. The specific heat shows that the helium within the pores remains in the liquid state down to temperatures well below 1 K. On the other hand the helium outside the vycor behaves normally, changing phase from solid to liquid as it warms.

  20. Pore-scale simulations of drainage in granular materials: Finite size effects and the representative elementary volume (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Chareyre, Bruno; Darve, Félix


    A pore-scale model is introduced for two-phase flow in dense packings of polydisperse spheres. The model is developed as a component of a more general hydromechanical coupling framework based on the discrete element method, which will be elaborated in future papers and will apply to various processes of interest in soil science, in geomechanics and in oil and gas production. Here the emphasis is on the generation of a network of pores mapping the void space between spherical grains, and the definition of local criteria governing the primary drainage process. The pore space is decomposed by Regular Triangulation, from which a set of pores connected by throats are identified. A local entry capillary pressure is evaluated for each throat, based on the balance of capillary pressure and surface tension at equilibrium. The model reflects the possible entrapment of disconnected patches of the receding wetting phase. It is validated by a comparison with drainage experiments. In the last part of the paper, a series of simulations are reported to illustrate size and boundary effects, key questions when studying small samples made of spherical particles be it in simulations or experiments. Repeated tests on samples of different sizes give evolution of water content which are not only scattered but also strongly biased for small sample sizes. More than 20,000 spheres are needed to reduce the bias on saturation below 0.02. Additional statistics are generated by subsampling a large sample of 64,000 spheres. They suggest that the minimal sampling volume for evaluating saturation is one hundred times greater that the sampling volume needed for measuring porosity with the same accuracy. This requirement in terms of sample size induces a need for efficient computer codes. The method described herein has a low algorithmic complexity in order to satisfy this requirement. It will be well suited to further developments toward coupled flow-deformation problems in which evolution of the

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Matching Relationship between Asphalt Particle and Reservoir Pore in Profile Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ren


    Full Text Available Modified sulfonated asphalt particles have a bright application prospect of the profile control of thick reservoirs due to the low cost, extensive sources, and good compatibility with reservoir. Nevertheless, the matching relationship between asphalt particles and reservoir pore has seldom been investigated till now. Oversized particles always block the near-wellbore area, which causes high injection pressures, while undersized particles cannot plug large pores. We designed a core for this experiment which has a high permeability zone in front of it and many pressure measuring points. We could quantitatively assess the matching relationship by measuring the on-way resistance coefficient, residual resistance factor, and relative change of permeability of man-made cores after injecting asphalt. Experimental results indicate that asphalt particles with sizes of 0.02 mm, 0.02–0.06 mm, and 0.08–0.1 mm match with reservoir permeability of 500 mD, 1000 mD, and 2000 mD, respectively. Undersized or oversized particles can reduce the conformance control effect, and the concentration of asphalt particles in the injectant can limit their migration ability. When the concentration of asphalt particles increases to 3000 mg/L, accumulations of asphalt particles can be caused in the formation, in which a scheme with asphalt particles alternative water injection is proposed to avoid the accumulation.

  2. Effect of Pore Structure on Soot Deposition in Diesel Particulate Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the after-treatment of diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been used to trap nano-particles of the diesel soot. However, as there are more particles inside the filter, the pressure which corresponds to the filter backpressure increases, which worsens the fuel consumption rate, together with the abatement of the available torque. Thus, a filter with lower backpressure would be needed. To achieve this, it is necessary to utilize the information on the phenomena including both the soot transport and its removal inside the DPF, and optimize the filter substrate structure. In this paper, to obtain useful information for optimization of the filter structure, we tested seven filters with different porosities and pore sizes. The porosity and pore size were changed systematically. To consider the soot filtration, the particle-laden flow was simulated by a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Then, the flow field and the pressure change were discussed during the filtration process.

  3. Pore network modeling of drainage process in patterned porous media: a quasi-static study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao


    This work represents a preliminary investigation on the role of wettability conditions on the flow of a two-phase system in porous media. Since such effects have been lumped implicitly in relative permeability-saturation and capillary pressure-saturation relationships, it is quite challenging to isolate its effects explicitly in real porous media applications. However, within the framework of pore network models, it is easy to highlight the effects of wettability conditions on the transport of two-phase systems. We employ quasi-static investigation in which the system undergo slow movement based on slight increment of the imposed pressure. Several numerical experiments of the drainage process are conducted to displace a wetting fluid with a non-wetting one. In all these experiments the network is assigned different scenarios of various wettability patterns. The aim is to show that the drainage process is very much affected by the imposed pattern of wettability. The wettability conditions are imposed by assigning the value of contact angle to each pore throat according to predefined patterns.

  4. Pore-scale modeling of moving contact line problems in immiscible two-phase flow (United States)

    Kucala, Alec; Noble, David; Martinez, Mario


    Accurate modeling of moving contact line (MCL) problems is imperative in predicting capillary pressure vs. saturation curves, permeability, and preferential flow paths for a variety of applications, including geological carbon storage (GCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we present a model for the moving contact line using pore-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which solves the full, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations using the Galerkin finite-element method. The MCL is modeled as a surface traction force proportional to the surface tension, dependent on the static properties of the immiscible fluid/solid system. We present a variety of verification test cases for simple two- and three-dimensional geometries to validate the current model, including threshold pressure predictions in flows through pore-throats for a variety of wetting angles. Simulations involving more complex geometries are also presented to be used in future simulations for GCS and EOR problems. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Unified method for the total pore volume and pore size distribution of hierarchical zeolites from argon adsorption and mercury intrusion. (United States)

    Kenvin, Jeffrey; Jagiello, Jacek; Mitchell, Sharon; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier


    A generalized approach to determine the complete distribution of macropores, mesopores, and micropores from argon adsorption and mercury porosimetry is developed and validated for advanced zeolite catalysts with hierarchically structured pore systems in powder and shaped forms. Rather than using a fragmented approach of simple overlays from individual techniques, a unified approach that utilizes a kernel constructed from model isotherms and model intrusion curves is used to calculate the complete pore size distribution and the total pore volume of the material. An added benefit of a single full-range pore size distribution is that the cumulative pore area and the area distribution are also obtained without the need for additional modeling. The resulting complete pore size distribution and the kernel accurately model both the adsorption isotherm and the mercury porosimetry. By bridging the data analysis of two primary characterization tools, this methodology fills an existing gap in the library of familiar methods for porosity assessment in the design of materials with multilevel porosity for novel technological applications.

  6. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures. (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong


    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  7. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong


    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  8. Fractal classification and natural classification of coal pore structure based on migration of coal bed methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xuehai; QIN Yong; ZHANG Wanhong; WEI Chongtao; ZHOU Rongfu


    According to the data of 146 coal samples measured by mercury penetration, coal pores are classified into two levels of <65 nm diffusion pore and >65 nm seeping pore by fractal method based on the characteristics of diffusion, seepage of coal bed methane(CBM) and on the research results of specific pore volume and pore structure. The diffusion pores are further divided into three categories: <8 nm micropore, 8-20 nm transitional pore, and 20-65 nm minipore based on the relationship between increment of specific surface area and diameter of pores, while seepage pores are further divided into three categories: 65-325 nm mesopore,325-1000 nm transitional pore, and >1000 nm macropore based on the abrupt change in the increment of specific pore volume.

  9. Analysis of microscopic pore structures of rocks before and after water absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dejian; Wang Guilian; Han Liqiang; Liu Peiyu; He Manchao; Yang Guoxing; Tai Qimin; Chen Cheng


    Hydrophilic characteristics of rocks are affected by their microscopic pore structures, which clearly change after water absorption. Water absorption tests and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) experiments on rock samples, located at a site in Tibet, China, were carried out. Changes of rock pore structures before and after water absorption were studied with the distribution of pore sizes and fractal characteristics of pores. The results show that surface porosities, fractal dimensions of pores and the complexity of pore structures increased because the number of new small pores produced increased or the original macropore flow channels were expanded after rocks absorbed water. There were points of inflection on their water absorption curves. After water absorption of other rocks, surface porosities and fractal dimensions of pores and complexity of pore structures decreased as the original pore flow channels became filled. Water absorption curves did not change. Surface porosity and the pore fractal dimensions of rocks have good linear relationships before and after water absorption.

  10. Pressure ulcers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Madhuri


    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...

  11. Pressure Sores (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  12. Heuristic Approach to Understanding the Accumulation Process in Hydrothermal Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Niether


    Full Text Available One of the central questions of humankind is: which chemical and physical conditions are necessary to make life possible? In this “origin-of-life” context, formamide plays an important role, because it has been demonstrated that prebiotic molecules can be synthesized from concentrated formamide solutions. Recently, it could be shown, using finite-element calculations combining thermophoresis and convection processes in hydrothermal pores, that sufficiently high formamide concentrations could be accumulated to form prebiotic molecules (Niether et al. (2016. Depending on the initial formamide concentration, the aspect ratio of the pores, and the ambient temperature, formamide concentrations up to 85 wt % could be reached. The stationary calculations show an effective accumulation, only if the aspect ratio is above a certain threshold, and the corresponding transient studies display a sudden increase of the accumulation after a certain time. Neither of the observations were explained. In this work, we derive a simple heuristic model, which explains both phenomena. The physical idea of the approach is a comparison of the time to reach the top of the pore with the time to cross from the convective upstream towards the convective downstream. If the time to reach the top of the pore is shorter than the crossing time, the formamide molecules are flushed out of the pore. If the time is long enough, the formamide molecules can reach the downstream and accumulate at the bottom of the pore. Analysing the optimal aspect ratio as function of concentration, we find that, at a weight fraction of w = 0 . 5 , a minimal pore height is required for effective accumulation. At the same concentration, the transient calculations show a maximum of the accumulation rate.

  13. Experimental quantification of pore-scale flow of water and liquid CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth


    Pore-scale flow interactions between water and supercritical CO2 is relevant to large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2. Recent studies have provided evidence of strong instabilities at the meniscus resulting in burst events and onset of inertial effects. This supports the notion that pore-scale physics cannot be captured by Darcian models and unsteady events play a defining role in CO2 transport/trapping processes and such burst events may generate pressure fluctuations that can be linked to micro-seismic events in the pore structure. To this end, the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 is investigated under reservoir-relevant conditions in 2D heterogeneous porous micro-models that reflect the complexity of a real sandstone. Fluorescent microscopy and micro-PIV are complemented by a fast differential pressure transmitter, allowing for simultaneous quantification of the flow field within and the instantaneous pressure drop across the micromodels. A number of CO2 invasion patterns and corresponding pressure drop variations are observed over a range of wettability conditions, yielding a more comprehensive picture of the CO2 drainage processes. This work was primarily supported as part of the Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 , an EFRC funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science and partially supported by WPI-I2CNER based at Kyushu University, Japan.

  14. A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore spaces for high gas storage and active chemical fixation of CO2. (United States)

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Li, Lei-Jiao; Dang, Song; Lan, Ya-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Ming


    A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore space was constructed based on a designed bent ligand; it exhibits high-capacity multiple gas storage under atmospheric pressure and efficient catalytic activity for chemical fixation of CO2 under mild conditions.

  15. Pressure ulcers


    Monfre, Jill M.


    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  16. Probing the Dynamics of Biomineralization at the Pore Scale Using X-ray Computed Tomography (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.


    Biomineralization is a natural subsurface process that upon stimulation can dramatically affect soil mechanics and hydraulics. This work presents the results of a study where synchrotron based X-Ray Computed Microtomography (CMT) is used to investigate temporal cementation dynamics and the spatial distribution of biogenic CaCO3 at the pore-scale, thus, shedding light on pore clogging and contact cementation. To facilitate these studies we have developed a family of flow-through bioreactors (ID 8 mm) which can be scanned continuously during precipitation experiments. The reactor is also equipped with differential pressure transducers to allow measurement of sample permeability. Porosity permeability correlations, cementation morphology, CaCO3 spatial distribution, and bulk cementation are addressed herein. Sporosarcina pasteurii (formally Bacillus pasteurii), our model organism, is a prevalent aerobic, motile, soil microbe with a very active urease enzyme. Hydrolysis of urea by the urease enzyme generates carbonate ions, ammonium and an increase in pH which favors carbonate precipitation if appropriate metal cations (e.g. Ca2+) are available. Brightfield microscope results show that precipitation occurs within close proximity of the cell membrane reducing microbial motility and forming a CaCO3 precipitate with a "fluffy" appearance. Besides providing an aqueous environment favorable for mineralization S. pasteurii also provides nucleation sites on its cell membrane. Since this microbe is very effective at inducing carbonate precipitation over a relativity short time span (2-3 days), it was used exclusively in our experiments. Prior to CMT imaging the feasibility of temporal imaging was investigated. Viable cell counts taken before and after imaging showed that a considerable amount of bacteria survived the monochromatic (30 KeV) X-ray exposure. Cementation experiments initiated with inoculation of the CMT column with microbes and urea media, cells were allowed to

  17. Relevance of pore fluid composition for the drained strength of clays (United States)

    Spagnoli, Giovanni; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás.; Arnhardt, Christian; Stanjek, Helge; Azzam, Rafig; Feinendegen, Martin


    Classical soil mechanics based on the effective stress concept with water as second phase does not apply anymore for fine-grained materials. Since clays particles are per definition colloidal in size, their properties are determined and dominated by their large surface area and hence, by their surface forces. Therefore, other mechanism plays a role. Geotechnical properties of soils with different pore fluid are especially important for clays used in hydraulic barriers for landfills. Also in the petroleum engineering or in tunnelling engineering the mechanical properties of clays with different pore fluids could be very useful. Since for clays physical and chemical interactions are decisive, the pure mechanical model (e.g. shearing and contact among the particles) is coupled by other forces, typical for colloidal sized materials. If the diffuse double layer develops from the surface of the clay particles, the interactions of the layers should develop a repulsion. That would resist part of the normal stress and producing no shearing resistance. However, the clays show different properties, dependent on their mineralogy, which complicates their behaviour. Several drained shear stress with shear box have been performed on pure Kaolinite, Illite, Na-Smectite and Ca-smectite. Since the shear behaviour of clays is also controlled by chemical interactions, the clays were mixed with pore fluids with different dielectric constant (water, ethanol), electrolyte concentration (NaCl and CaCl2) and pH (ranging from 3 to 8). Different consolidation pressures (from 15 kPa to 400 kPa) have been used in order to better understand the influence of the pore fluids on the drained cohesion (c') and on friction angle (φ'). The materials were mixed with different consistency to form a paste. The consistency ranges from 0.65 to 0.85. The results show how the sensitive the clays to different pore fluids are. Besides, Kaolinite and Illite shows a shearing behaviour almost entirely controlled

  18. Final Report for Subcontract B541028, Pore-Scale Modeling to Support "Pore Connectivity" Research Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R P


    This report covers modeling aspects of a combined experimental and modeling task in support of the DOE Science and Technology Program (formerly OSTI) within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). Research Objectives The research for this project dealt with diffusive retardation: solute moving through a fracture diffuses into and out of the rock matrix. This diffusive exchange retards overall solute movement, and retardation both dilutes waste being released, and allows additional decay. Diffusive retardation involves not only fracture conductivity and matrix diffusion, but also other issues and processes: contaminants may sorb to the rock matrix, fracture flow may be episodic, a given fracture may or may not flow depending on the volume of flow and the fracture's connection to the overall fracture network, the matrix imbibes water during flow episodes and dries between episodes, and so on. The objective of the project was to improve understanding of diffusive retardation of radionuclides due to fracture / matrix interactions. Results from combined experimental/modeling work were to (1) determine whether the current understanding and model representation of matrix diffusion is valid, (2) provide insights into the upscaling of laboratory-scale diffusion experiments, and (3) help in evaluating the impact on diffusive retardation of episodic fracture flow and pore connectivity in Yucca Mountain tuffs. Questions explored included the following: (1) What is the relationship between the diffusion coefficient measured at one scale, to that measured or observed at a different scale? In classical materials this relationship is trivial; in low-connectivity materials it is not. (2) Is the measured diffusivity insensitive to the shape of the sample? Again, in classical materials there should be no sample shape effect. (3) Does sorption affect diffusive exchange in low-connectivity media differently than in classical media? (4) What is the effect of

  19. Three-Dimensional Quantification of Pore Space in Flocculated Sediments (United States)

    Lawrence, Tom; Spencer, Kate; Bushby, Andy; Manning, Andrew


    Flocculated sediment structure plays a vital role in determining sediment dynamics within the water column in fresh and saline water bodies. The porosity of flocs contributes to their specific density and therefore their settling characteristics, and can also affect settling characteristics via through-flow. The process of settling and resuspension of flocculated material causes the formation of larger and more complex individual flocs, about which little is known quantitatively of the internal micro-structure and therefore porosity. Hydrological and sedimentological modelling software currently uses estimations of porosity, because it is difficult to capture and analyse flocs. To combat this, we use a novel microscopy method usually performed on biological material to scan the flocs, the output of which can be used to quantify the dimensions and arrangement of pores. This involves capturing flocculated sediment, staining the sample with heavy metal elements to highlight organic content in the Scanning Electron Microscope later, and finally setting the sample in resin. The overall research aim is to quantitatively characterise the dimensions and distribution of pore space in flocs in three dimensions. In order to gather data, Scanning Electron Microscopy and micro-Computed Tomography have been utilised to produce the necessary images to identify and quantify the pore space. The first objective is to determine the dimensional limits of pores in the structure (i.e. what area do they encapsulate? Are they interconnected or discreet?). This requires a repeatable definition to be established, so that all floc pore spaces can be quantified using the same parameters. The LabSFLOC settling column and dyes will be used as one possible method of determining the outer limits of the discreet pore space. LabSFLOC is a sediment settling column that uses a camera to record the flocs, enabling analysis of settling characteristics. The second objective is to develop a reliable

  20. An investigation of pore collapse in asymmetric polysulfone membranes (United States)

    Subrahmanyan, Sumitra


    Porous polysulfone membranes prepared by phase inversion can be tailored to suit filtration requirements by the choice of solvent and coagulant. In the current research polysulfone membranes were prepared by inverting a solution in N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) in isopropanol to form uniform sized pores. Phase inversion resulted in the formation of an asymmetric membrane. The membranes have a characteristic "skin" which is supported by a highly porous substructure. Water-wet membranes experience capillary force during water evaporation. Since the modulus of the membranes is lower than the capillary force, the membrane walls shrink and thicken giving rise to a condensed structure. The "skin" regulates permeation through the membranes which is essential for filtration. A change in the pore structure of the skin alters the permeability. The current research investigates the influence of amine plasma treatments on the surface pore structure of polysulfone membranes. The permeation of a rhodamine dye through the plasma treated membranes and through non-plasma treated membranes is used to examine the influence of the plasma treatment. Furthermore, the influence of plasma treatment on the loss of water from the membranes leading to pore collapse is also explored. The study revealed that a plasma ablates the skin, increasing the permeation. An ammonia plasma treatment produced more etching, and hence increased permeation compared to permeation for an aniline plasma-treated membrane. A one-minute aniline plasma treatment only caused a moderate increase in permeation. Plasma treatments introduced significant surface modification by the introduction of new functionalities. However, permeation was not influenced by the surface modification. Water trapped in the pores is essential to maintain the pore structure of the membrane. The surface treatment dictates the pore size and therefore, the convection allowing water evaporation, leading to pore collapse. Heat treating also

  1. Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Motoori


    Full Text Available This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm. On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  2. Small scale laboratory studies of flow and transport phenomena in pores and fractures: Phase 2. Technical completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.L.


    Pore level laboratory experiments using microscopy permit the in situ visualization of flow and transport phenomena, that can be recorded on film or videotape. One of the principal tools for visualization is the etched glass micromodel, which is composed of a transparent two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. The spatial scale of interest in these models extends from the individual pore, up to a network of pores, perhaps with small scale heterogeneities. Micromodels are best used to help validate concepts and assumptions, and to elucidate new, previously unrecognized phenomena for further study. They are not quantitative tools, but should be used in combination with quantitative tools such as column studies or mathematical models. There are three applications: multi-phase flow, colloid transport, and bacterial transport and colonization. Specifically the authors have examined behavior of relevance to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); mathematical models of multi-phase pressure-saturation relationships; colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, clay interference with multi-phase flow; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow and colloid movement.

  3. Comparison of polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes with different pore sizes in application to submerged membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Nittami, Tadashi; Hitomi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kanji; Nakamura, Kazuho; Ikeda, Takaharu; Setoguchi, Yoshihiro; Motoori, Manabu


    This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm) was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm). On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri) i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  4. Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.


    Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven


    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on discrete element computer-simulation of concrete. It is argued on the basis of stochastic heterogeneity theory that modern concurrent-algorithm-based systems should be employed for the assessment of pore characteristics underlying durability performance of cementitious materials. The SPACE system was developed at Delft University of Technology for producing realistic schematizations of realcrete for a wide range of other particle packing problems, involving aggregate and fresh cement, and for the purpose of exploring characteristics in the hardened state of concrete, including of the pore network structure because of obvious durability problems. Since structure-sensitive properties are involved, schematization of reality should explicitly deal with the configuration of the cement particles in the fresh state. The paper concentrates on the stereological and mathematical morphology operations executed to acquire information on particle size, global porosity, and on distribution of porosity and of the connected pore fraction as a result of the near neighbourhood of aggregate grains. Goal is to provide information obtained along different exploration routes of concrete's pore space for setting up a pore network modelling approach. This type of methodological papers is scarce in concrete technology, if not missing at all. Technical publications that report on obtained results in our investigations are systematically referred to.

  6. Role of Pore-Forming Toxins in Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F.-P. Sonnen


    Full Text Available Protein toxins are important virulence factors contributing to neonatal sepsis. The major pathogens of neonatal sepsis, group B Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, secrete toxins of different molecular nature, which are key for defining the disease. Amongst these toxins are pore-forming exotoxins that are expressed as soluble monomers prior to engagement of the target cell membrane with subsequent formation of an aqueous membrane pore. Membrane pore formation is not only a means for immediate lysis of the targeted cell but also a general mechanism that contributes to penetration of epithelial barriers and evasion of the immune system, thus creating survival niches for the pathogens. Pore-forming toxins, however, can also contribute to the induction of inflammation and hence to the manifestation of sepsis. Clearly, pore-forming toxins are not the sole factors that drive sepsis progression, but they often act in concert with other bacterial effectors, especially in the initial stages of neonatal sepsis manifestation.

  7. Fabrication of polymeric scaffolds with a controlled distribution of pores. (United States)

    Capes, J S; Ando, H Y; Cameron, R E


    The design of tissue engineering scaffolds must take into account many factors including successful vascularisation and the growth of cells. Research has looked at refining scaffold architecture to promote more directed growth of tissues through well-defined anisotropy in the pore structure. In many cases it is also desirable to incorporate therapeutic ingredients, such as growth factors, into the scaffold so that their release occurs as the scaffold degrades. Therefore, scaffold fabrication techniques must be found to precisely control, not only the overall porosity of scaffolds, but also the pore size, shape and spatial distribution. This work describes the use of a regularly shaped porogen, sugar spheres, to manufacture polymeric scaffolds. Results show that pre-assembling the spheres created scaffolds with a constant porosity of 60%, but with varying pores sizes from 200-800 microm, leading to a variation in the surface area and likely degradation rate of the scaffolds. Employing different polymer impregnation techniques tailored the number of pores present with a diameter of less than 100 microm to suit different functions, and altering the packing structure of the sugar spheres created scaffolds with novel layered porosity. Replacing sugar spheres with sugar strands formed scaffolds with pores aligned in one direction.

  8. The Bicomponent Pore-Forming Leucocidins of Staphylococcus aureus (United States)

    Alonzo, Francis


    SUMMARY The ability to produce water-soluble proteins with the capacity to oligomerize and form pores within cellular lipid bilayers is a trait conserved among nearly all forms of life, including humans, single-celled eukaryotes, and numerous bacterial species. In bacteria, some of the most notable pore-forming molecules are protein toxins that interact with mammalian cell membranes to promote lysis, deliver effectors, and modulate cellular homeostasis. Of the bacterial species capable of producing pore-forming toxic molecules, the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most notorious. S. aureus can produce seven different pore-forming protein toxins, all of which are believed to play a unique role in promoting the ability of the organism to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The most diverse of these pore-forming toxins, in terms of both functional activity and global representation within S. aureus clinical isolates, are the bicomponent leucocidins. From the first description of their activity on host immune cells over 100 years ago to the detailed investigations of their biochemical function today, the leucocidins remain at the forefront of S. aureus pathogenesis research initiatives. Study of their mode of action is of immediate interest in the realm of therapeutic agent design as well as for studies of bacterial pathogenesis. This review provides an updated perspective on our understanding of the S. aureus leucocidins and their function, specificity, and potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:24847020

  9. Pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins. (United States)

    Knapp, O; Benz, R; Popoff, M R


    Clostridial binary toxins (Clostridium perfringens Iota toxin, Clostridium difficile transferase, Clostridium spiroforme toxin, Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) as Bacillus binary toxins, including Bacillus anthracis toxins consist of two independent proteins, one being the binding component which mediates the internalization into cell of the intracellularly active component. Clostridial binary toxins induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin and are responsible for enteric diseases. Clostridial and Bacillus binary toxins share structurally and functionally related binding components which recognize specific cell receptors, oligomerize, form pores in endocytic vesicle membrane, and mediate the transport of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Binding components retain the global structure of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) from the cholesterol-dependent cytotoxin family such as perfringolysin. However, their pore-forming activity notably that of clostridial binding components is more related to that of heptameric PFT family including aerolysin and C. perfringens epsilon toxin. This review focuses upon pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins compared to other related PFTs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  10. Regulation of soil organic C mineralisation at the pore scale. (United States)

    Ruamps, Léo S; Nunan, Naoise; Pouteau, Valérie; Leloup, Julie; Raynaud, Xavier; Roy, Virginie; Chenu, Claire


    Little is known about the factors that regulate C mineralisation at the soil pore scale or how these factors vary throughout the pore network. This study sought to understand how the decomposition of organic carbon varies within the soil pore network and to determine the relative importance of local environmental properties relative to biological properties as controlling factors. This was achieved by sterilising samples of soil and reinoculating them with axenic bacterial suspensions using the matric potential to target different locations in the pore network. Carbon mineralisation curves were described with two-compartment first-order models to distinguish CO2 derived from the labile organic carbon released during sterilisation from CO2 derived from organic C unaffected by sterilisation. The data indicated that the size of the labile pool of organic C, possibly of microbial origin, varied as a function of location in the pore network but that the organic carbon unaffected by sterilisation did not. The mineralisation rate of the labile C varied with the bacterial type inoculated, but the mineralisation rate of the organic C unaffected by sterilisation was insensitive to bacterial type. Taken together, the results suggest that microbial metabolism is a less significant regulator of soil organic carbon decomposition than are microbial habitat properties.

  11. Tunable ultrathin membranes with nonvolatile pore shape memory. (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidenori; Islam, Crescent; Tokarev, Igor; Hu, Heng; Liu, Guojun; Minko, Sergiy


    The concept of a responsive nanoporous thin-film gel membranes whose pores could be tuned to a desired size by a specific "molecular signal" and whose pore geometry becomes "memorized" by the gel is reported. The ∼100 nm thick membranes were prepared by dip-coating from a solution mixture of a random copolymer comprising responsive and photo-cross-linkable units and monodisperse latex nanoparticles used as a sacrificial colloidal template. After stabilization of the films by photo-cross-linking the latex template was removed, yielding nanoporous structures with a narrow pore size distribution and a high porosity. The thin-film membranes could be transferred onto porous supports to serve as tunable size-selective barriers in various colloids separation applications. The pore dimensions and hence the membrane's colloidal-particle-size cutoff were reversibly regulated by swelling-shrinking of the polymer network with a specially selected low-molar-mass compound. The attained pore shape was "memorized" in aqueous media and "erased" by treatment in special solvents reverting the membrane to the original state.

  12. To the Pore and Through the Pore: A Story of mRNA Export Kinetics (United States)

    Oeffinger, Marlene; Zenklusen, Daniel


    Summary The evolutionary ‘decision’ to store genetic information away from the place of protein synthesis, in a separate compartment, has forced eukaryotic cells to establish a system to transports mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. To ensure export to be fast and efficient, cells have evolved a complex molecular interplay that is tightly regulated. Over the last few decades, many of the individual players in this process have been described, starting with the composition of the nuclear pore complex to proteins that modulate co-transcriptional events required to prepare an mRNP for export to the cytoplasm. How the interplay between all the factors and processes results in the efficient and selective export of mRNAs from the nucleus and how the export process itself is executed within cells, however, is still not fully understood. Recent advances in using proteomic and single molecule microscopy approaches have provided important insights into the process and its kinetics. This review summarizes these recent advances and how they led to the current view on how cells orchestrate the export of mRNAs. PMID:22387213

  13. Why liquid displacement methods are sometimes wrong in estimating the pore-size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen-Abrahamse, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Padt, van der A.


    The liquid displacement method is a commonly used method to determine the pore size distribution of micro- and ultrafiltration membranes. One of the assumptions for the calculation of the pore sizes is that the pores are parallel and thus are not interconnected. To show that the estimated pore size

  14. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))


    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  15. Nanometer to Centimeter Scale Analysis and Modeling of Pore Structures (United States)

    Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L.; Vlcek, L.; Rother, G.; Cole, D. R.


    The microstructure and evolution of pore space in rocks is a critically important factor controlling fluid flow. The size, distribution and connectivity of these confined geometries dictate how fluids including H2O and CO2, migrate into and through these micro- and nano-environments, wet and react with the solid. (Ultra)small-angle neutron scattering and autocorrelations derived from BSE imaging provide a method of quantifying pore structures in a statistically significant manner from the nanometer to the centimeter scale. Multifractal analysis provides additional constraints. These methods were used to characterize the pore features of a variety of potential CO2 geological storage formations and geothermal systems such as the shallow buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone and the deeper Mt. Simon quartz arenite in Ohio as well as the Eau Claire shale and mudrocks from the Cranfield MS CO2 injection test and the normal temperature and high-temperature vapor-dominated parts of the Geysers geothermal system in California. For example, analyses of samples of St. Peter sandstone show total porosity correlates with changes in pores structure including pore size ratios, surface fractal dimensions, and lacunarity. These samples contain significant large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity, which may make up fifty percent or more of the total pore volume. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior, our data are both fractal and pseudo-fractal. The scattering curves are composed of steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. In some samples a surface-fractal overprint is present. There are also significant changes in the mono and multifractal dimensions of the pore structure as the pore fraction decreases. There are strong positive correlations between D(0) and image and total

  16. Fines Classification Based on Sensitivity to Pore-Fluid Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Junbong


    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil "electrical sensitivity." Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems. © ASCE.

  17. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn


    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Formation of protein induced micro-pores in Chitosan membranes (United States)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Aswal, V. K.; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal


    Polymer based nanocomposites are important class of materials and have wide applications. Blending two biopolymers can lead to the development of new materials with tailored properties. Chitosan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with useful properties such as biodegradability and excellent film forming capacity. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a abundantly available globular protein. In our research the interaction of chitosan with BSA and the effect of formation of Au nanoparticles on chitosan-BSA system were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the films showed formation of micron sized pores and these pores were hindered with formation of Au nanoparticles. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that BSA interacts with chitosan chain and affects the Rg value of chitosan. The formation of micro pores decreases the conductivity values (σ'), while the formation of Au nanoparticles increases σ'.

  19. Sound absorption property of open-pore aluminum foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu-cai; WANG Fang; WU Jian-guo; YOU Xiao-hong


    The sound absorption property of aluminum foam was studied by testing its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. The open-pore aluminum foams were prepared by infiltration process, with pore size of 0.5 mm to 3.2 mm and porosity of 54.2% to 77%. The frequency of indicted sound wave was ranging from 125 Hz to 10 kHz. The results show that the average values of sound absorption coefficients are all over 0.4 and the aluminum foam has better sound absorption property, its coefficients is influenced by frequency and pore structure, and reaches the maximum at about 1 kHz, with increasing porosity and decreasing cell diameter the sound absorption coefficient values increase.

  20. Integration of pore features into the evaluation of fingerprint evidence. (United States)

    Anthonioz, Alexandre; Champod, Christophe


    Fingerprint practitioners rely on level 3 features to make decisions in relation to the source of an unknown friction ridge skin impression. This research proposes to assess the strength of evidence associated with pores when shown in (dis)agreement between a mark and a reference print. Based upon an algorithm designed to automatically detect pores, a metric is defined in order to compare different impressions. From this metric, the weight of the findings is quantified using a likelihood ratio. The results obtained on four configurations and 54 donors show the significant contribution of the pore features and translate into statistical terms what latent fingerprint examiners have developed holistically through experience. The system provides LRs that are indicative of the true state under both the prosecution and the defense propositions. Not only such a system brings transparency regarding the weight to assign to such features, but also forces a discussion in relation to the risks of such a model to mislead.