WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpenetrating captive bolt

  1. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  2. Secondary skull fractures in head wounds inflicted by captive bolt guns: autopsy findings and experimental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nadjem, Hadi; Kromeier, Jan; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2010-11-01

    Apart from one article published by Rabl and Sigrist in 1992 (Rechtsmedizin 2:156-158), there are no further reports on secondary skull fractures in shots from captive bolt guns. Up to now, the pertinent literature places particular emphasis on the absence of indirect lesions away from the impact point, when dealing with the wounding capacity of slaughterer's guns. The recent observation of two suicidal head injuries accompanied by skull fractures far away from the bolt's path gave occasion to experimental studies using simulants (glycerin soap, balls from gelatin) and skull–brain models. As far as ballistic soap was concerned, the dimensions of the bolt's channel were assessed by multi-slice computed tomography before cutting the blocks open. The test shots to gelatin balls and to skull-brain models were documented by means of a high-speed motion camera. As expected, the typical temporary cavity effect of bullets fired from conventional guns could not be observed when captive bolt stunners were discharged. Nevertheless, the visualized transfer of kinetic energy justifies the assumption that the secondary fractures seen in thin parts of the skull were caused by a hydraulic burst effect.

  3. Efficiency of low versus high airline pressure in stunning cattle with a pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Gregory, Neville George; Dalla Costa, Filipe Antonio; Gibson, Troy John; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of stunning cattle was assessed in 443 animals (304 pure Zebu and 139 crossbred cattle), being mainly mature bulls and cows. Cattle were stunned using a Jarvis pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun operating with low (160-175psi, N=82) and high (190psi, N=363) airline pressure, which was within the manufactures specifications. Signs of brain function and the position of the shots on the heads were recorded after stunning. Velocity of the captive bolt and its physical parameters were calculated. Cattle shot with low pressures showed more rhythmic respiration (27 vs. 8%, Pairline pressures (15.3 vs. 3.1%). Bolt velocity and its physical parameters were significantly (PAirline pressures below 190psi are inappropriate when shooting adult Zebu beef cattle with pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt guns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Planned complex suicide by penetrating captive-bolt gunshot and hanging: case study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Guido; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Braun, Christian

    2009-05-30

    Captive-bolt guns or slaughterer's guns are devices widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stocks. They consist of a simple cylindrical metal tube (barrel) with a metal bolt placed in their centre (around 9-15cm long and 1-1.5cm wide). The bolt is actuated by a trigger pull and is propelled forward by compressed air or by the discharge of a blank powder gun cartridge. Violent deaths inflicted by captive-bolt guns are rarely encountered in forensic practice and are predominantly suicidal events. We report an unusual complex suicide by hanging and self-shooting with a slaughterer's gun in a 21-year-old boy. The victim after putting a ceiling fixed rope around his neck shot himself in the head (occipital region) with a Kerner captive-bolt gun. He used two mirrors (a cosmetic mirror and a man-sized one) in order to properly visualize his back and to target the occipital region of his head. Radiological data (computed tomography with three dimensional reconstruction) and autopsy findings are discussed according to the clinical and forensic literature. A brief review on planned complex suicides is also given.

  5. The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onenç, A; Kaya, A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of electrical and percussive captive bolt stunning both on initial and up to 14 days post mortem meat quality of Friesian young bulls were studied. The first group (NS; n=10) were slaughtered without stunning under Turkish slaughter procedure (these animals were slaughtered under conditions acceptable to the appropriate ethics committee) in a modern abattoir. In the second group (ES; n=10) animals were electrically stunned. In the third group (PS; n=10) animals were stunned with percussive captive bolt. Meat quality was assessed by examining muscle glycogen concentration, pH and WHC. Also cooking loss, texture parameters and consumer sensory properties were assessed at 24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days post mortem. Meat colour as L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗), h(∗) values were evaluated at 0, 48 h, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 days post mortem. Pre-slaughter handling affected muscle glycogen concentration (P<0.05). Animals in electrical and percussive captive bolt stunned groups had higher muscle glycogen concentrations compared to animals in the non-stunned group (P<0.05). Although pre-slaughter handling did not affect significantly pH(24 h) and WHC, differences were significant for cooking loss, colour coordinates and texture parameters at some storage times. For all sensory attributes (odour, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability) at all ageing periods (24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days) the percussive stunned (PS) group was significantly superior to the non-stunned (NS) group. The electrically-stunned (ES) group also tended to be superior to the NS group although not all differences were statistically significant. These results indicate that percussive captive bolt stunning of cattle improved meat quality compared with cattle electrically stunned using head only tongs and those non stunned under approved Turkish slaughter procedure.

  6. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maghfiroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.

  7. Bolting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowski, C J

    1984-05-01

    An investigation of bolting practices specific to the nuclear industry was performed. The report covered a large spectrum of topics e.g. bolts embedded in concrete, specifications, inspection of bolting, both at receipt and inservice. Plots of preload versus yield strength for different bolting materials in different environments are presented as well as information relative to the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the more recent reactor internals bolting materials A286 and Inconel X-750. Part of the report contains input by Standard Pressed Steel Inc. (a bolting consultant) relative to bolting standards, cottering methods and potential areas for bolting improvement.

  8. Nonpenetrating right atrial and pericardial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonino M; Rinaldi, Mauro; Pasquino, Stefano; Dore, Roberto; Viganò, Mario

    2003-09-01

    Nonpenetrating chest trauma can cause cardiac rupture. Ventricles are affected more frequently than atria. Survival is rare and depends upon prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. We report the case of a 42-year-old man involved in a car accident with consequent right atrial rupture and pericardial tearing.

  9. Behavior of Fiber Glass Bolts, Rock Bolts and Cable Bolts in Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuwei; Aziz, Naj; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper experimentally compares the shear behavior of fiber glass (FG) bolt, rock bolt (steel rebar bolt) and cable bolt for the bolt contribution to bolted concrete surface shear strength, and bolt failure mode. Two double shear apparatuses of different size were used for the study. The tensile strength, the shear strength and the deformation modulus of bolt control the shear behavior of a sheared bolted joint. Since the strength and deformation modulus of FG bolt, rock bolt and cable bolt obtained from uniaxial tensile tests are different, their shear behavior in reinforcing joints is accordingly different. Test results showed that the shear stiffness of FG bolted joints decreased gradually from the beginning to end, while the shear stiffness of joints reinforced by rock bolt and cable bolt decreased bi-linearly, which is clearly consistent with their tensile deformation modulus. The bolted joint shear stiffness was highly influenced by bolt pretension in the high stiffness stage for both rock bolt and cable bolt, but not in the low stiffness stage. The rock bolt contribution to joint shear strength standardised by the bolt tensile strength was the largest, followed by cable bolts, then FG bolts. Both the rock bolts and cable bolts tended to fail in tension, while FG bolts in shear due to their low shear strength and constant deformation modulus.

  10. Piezoelectric Bolt Breakers and Bolt Fatigue Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Barengoltz, Jack; Heckman, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    A proposed family of devices for inducing fatigue in bolts in order to break the bolts would incorporate piezoelectric actuators into resonant fixtures as in ultrasonic/ sonic drills/corers and similar devices described in numerous prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. These devices were originally intended primarily for use as safer, more-reliable, more-versatile alternatives to explosive bolts heretofore used to fasten spacecraft structures that must subsequently be separated from each other quickly on command during flight. On Earth, these devices could be used for accelerated fatigue testing of bolts. Fatigue theory suggests that a bolt subjected to both a constant-amplitude dynamic (that is, oscillatory) stress and a static tensile stress below the ultimate strength of the bolt material will fail faster than will a bolt subjected to only the dynamic stress. This suggestion would be applied in a device of the proposed type. The device would be designed so that the device and the bolt to be fatigue-tested or broken would be integral parts of an assembly (see figure). The static tension in the tightened bolt would apply not only the clamping force to hold the joined structures (if any) together but also the compression necessary for proper operation of the piezoelectric actuators as parts of a resonant structural assembly. The constant-amplitude dynamic stress would be applied to the bolt by driving the piezoelectric actuators with a sinusoidal voltage at the resonance frequency of longitudinal vibration of the assembly. The amplitude of the excitation would be made large enough so that the vibration would induce fatigue in the bolt within an acceptably short time. In the spacecraft applications or in similar terrestrial structural-separation applications, devices of the proposed type would offer several advantages over explosive bolts: Unlike explosive bolts, the proposed devices would be reusable, could be tested before final use, and would not be subject to

  11. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery with goniosynechiolysis ab interno: a surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, A; Scharioth, G B

    2009-01-01

    To present a surgical technique for treatment of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS or goniosynechiae) at the operative field during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. After usual preparation of a superficial and a deep scleral flap with externalization of the Schlemm's canal and peeling the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork, the goniosynechia is transected by a spatula introduced to the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. A Descemet's window provides full visual control at the peripheral cornea at the basis of the superficial scleral flap. With this surgical technique, selective treatment of goniosynechiae is possible exactly at the area where creation of low outflow resistance is intended by the surgeon during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. This technique enables the surgeon to perform nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery even in the presence of peripheral anterior synechiae.

  12. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  13. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  14. Gonioscopically Guided Nonpenetrating Cyclodialysis Cleft Repair: A Novel Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ian AS; Shah, Brinda; Goyal, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim We present a novel surgical technique for repair of persistent and symptomatic cyclodialysis clefts refractory to conservative or minimally invasive treatment. Background Numerous surgical techniques have been described to close cyclodialysis clefts. The current standard approach involves intraocular repair of cyclodialysis clefts underneath a full-thickness scleral flap. Technique Our technique employs intraoperative use of a direct gonioscope to guide a nonpenetrating surgical repair. Subsequently, a significantly less invasive, nonpenetrating technique utilizing a partial-thickness scleral flap can be performed that reduces potential risks associated with intraocular surgery. The direct gonioscope is also used for confirmation of adequate surgical closure of the cyclodialysis cleft prior to completion of surgery. This technique has been successfully carried out to repair traumatic chronic cyclodialysis clefts associated with hypotony in two patients. There were no significant adverse events as a result of using this technique. Conclusion The novel technique described increases the likelihood of successful and permanent repair of cyclodialysis clefts with resolution of symptoms associated with hypotony, through direct intraoperative visualization of the cleft. Clinical significance Gonioscopically guided nonpenetrating cyclodialysis cleft repair offers significant benefits over previously described techniques. Advantages of our technique include gonioscopic cleft visualization, enabling accurate localization of the area requiring repair, and subsequent confirmation of adequate closure of the cleft. Using a partial-thickness scleral flap is also less invasive and reduces risks associated with treatment of this potentially challenging complication of ocular trauma. How to cite this article Rodrigues IAS, Shah B, Goyal S, Lim S. Gonioscopically Guided Nonpenetrating Cyclodialysis Cleft Repair: A Novel Surgical Technique. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017

  15. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  16. Bolting Multicenter Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  17. Bolting multicenter solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  18. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  19. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  20. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  1. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金伟; 马晓晔; 魏锐

    2004-01-01

    Background Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma.Methods The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5%-81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0%-71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6%-86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4%-74.3%).Conclusions Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.

  2. Bolt load simulation and its practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, P.G.; Hume, B.G.; Hume, R.G. [Barrett Fuller and Partners, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The large range of rock bolting options now available makes choosing the best system for any given environment increasingly difficult. Bolt performance is highly dependent on the type of bolt used, the properties of the resin or grout, the plate type and the rock condition. The use of pre-tensioning or the presence of unbounded zones along the bolt provides further complications. The program BoltCalc has been developed to model the loads generated within bolts by rock mass displacements. The operation of the program is outlined and a series of examples illustrating the effects of various factors on bolt performance is presented. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  3. Inhibition of spinach bolting by growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. plants must be harvested during a short period of time because they bolt just after producing some edible leaves. Maleic hydrazide (MH and its commercial preparation "Antyrost" were found to inhibit bolting very strongly. The preparation Off-shoot-O showed very weak activity in suppressing bolting but diminished markedly the resistance of spinach plants to fungus diseases. Triiodobenzoic acid stimulated bolting, and the retardant succinic acid-2-2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH did not affect bolting. Application of MH to inhibit spinach bolting cannot be recommended in practice before investigating the residues of this compound in leaves.

  4. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Design, analysis and testing of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, Robby, E-mail: robby.gessner@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ronden, Dennis [DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Physics, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Spaeh, Peter; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The BSM of the ECH Launcher is attached to the Launcher Main Frame by a bolted joint. ► The bolts were designed as “captive” in order to avoid their accidental removal from the joint. ► The bolted flange connection using two sets of 15 captive bolts (M22 × 2) placed along the sides. ► The captive bolt design is based on a concept that uses a dedicated spring ring, a standard spiral spring and a tensioning screw with two threads to secure the bolts in a form-locking stop. -- Abstract: The final design of the structural system for the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher is in progress. Many design features of the preliminary design are under revision with the aim to achieve the built-to-print-status. This paper deals with design and analysis of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module with special perspective on Remote Handling capability. The BSM of the ECH Launcher is attached to the Launcher Main Frame by a bolted joint conceived so that in the Hot Cell Facility, RH maintenance can be performed on internal components. The joint must be capable to resist very high Electro-Magnetic loads from disruptions, while it has to sustain substantial thermal cycling during operation. Thus the need for a rigid and reliable design is essential. Beside the set of pre-stressed bolts the flanges were therefore equipped with additional shear keys to divert radial moments away from the bolts. Main focus of the work performed was the mechanical design of the joint and the assessment of the structural integrity with respect to the loads applied and its capability for maintenance by RH procedures. To fulfill a major aspect of the RH requirements, the bolts were designed as “captive” in order to avoid their accidental removal from the joint. The captive bolt design is based on a concept that uses a dedicated spring ring, a standard spiral spring and a tensioning screw with two threads to secure the bolts in a form-locking stop. The final approval phase of

  5. Preservation of endothelial integrity and function in experimental vascular anastomosis with non-penetrating clips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, C; van den Dungen, J; Buikema, H; Tiebosch, A; van der Want, J; van Schilfgaarde, R

    2001-01-01

    Background: Vascular repair with sutures is associated with disruption of the endothelial lining and subsequent thrombus formation on the intraluminal lesions. This experimental study was designed to determine whether the use of non-penetrating clips improved endothelial preservation. Methods: In te

  6. A study of rock bolting failure modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chen; Jan Nemcik; Ren Ting; Naj Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Rock bolting has advanced rapidly during the past 4 decades due to a better understanding of load transfer mechanisms and advances made in the bolt system technology.Bolts are used as permanent and temporary support systems in tunnelling and mining operations.A review of has indicated that three systems of reinforcement devices have evolved as part of rock bolt and ground anchor while the rock is not generally thought of as being a component of the reinforcement system.A classification of rock bolting reinforcement systems is presented,followed by the fundamental theory of the load transfer mechanism.The failure mode of two phases of rock bolting system is formularised.The failure modes of cable bolting are discussed using a bond strength model as well as an iterative method.Finally,the interfacial shear stress model for ribbed bar is introduced and a closed form solution is obtained using a tri-line stress strain relationship.

  7. Removable Type Expansion Bolt Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Expansion bolt is a kind of the most common things in our daily life. Currently, there are many kinds of expansion bolts in the market. However, they have some shortcomings that mainly contain underuse and unremovement but our innovation of design makes up for these shortcomings very well. Principle of working follows this: expansion tube is fixed outside of bolt, steel balls and expansion covers are fixed inside. Meanwhile, the steel balls have 120° with each other. When using it ,expansion cover is moved in the direction of its internal part. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is increasingly becoming big and steel halls is moved outside. Only in this way can it be fixed that steel balls make expansion tube expand. When removing them, expansion bolt is moved outside. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is gradually becoming small and steel balls moves inside, after expansion tube shrinks, we can detach them.

  8. A microprocessor based portable bolt tension monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perey, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    A bolt tension monitor (BTM) which uses ultrasonics and a pulsed phase locked loop circuit to measure load-induced acoustic phase shifts which are independent of friction is described. The BTM makes it possible to measure the load in a bolt that was tightened at some time in the past. This capability to recertify a load after-the-fact will help to insure the integrity of a bolted joint.

  9. Anchor Bolt Position in Base Plate In Terms Of T and J Anchor Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    b Osman Mohamad Hairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, L anchor bolt system has been used for a long period of time in construction industry as one of the distributing load structures. However, there are some weaknesses in L anchor bolt which may straighten and pullup when charged with tensile load. Current practices prefer to use other types of anchor bolt systems, such as headed studs anchor bolt system to replace the L anchor bolt design. There has been lack of studies to prove that it is more effective in terms of performance. A new T anchor bolt which was basically modified from headed studs anchor bolt was proposed in this study to compare its performance of tensile loading in concrete failure to typical L design. This study aims to determine whether the T anchor bolt system gives better performance as compared to an L anchor bolt system. The performance was rated based on tensile loading on concrete failure pattern. A pullout test was conducted on two different anchor bolt systems, namely L and T. The anchor bolt embedded depth, h in concrete were varied according to their hook or bend radius. Each sample was repeated twice. There were totally eight samples. The hook or bend radius used were 50 mm and 57.5 mm for sample L1 and L2, respectively. 90-degree bend were used on sample T1 and T2. Based on test results, it can be seen that the performance of concrete failure pattern under tensile load on both L and T anchor bolt design samples with 200 mm embedment depth was better than deeper embedment depth of 230 mm. But the L anchor bolt design gives the best results as compared to T design. Although T anchor bolt design shows higher resistance before first bond failure to the concrete sample. T anchor bolt was analysed and needed deeper embedment depth to allow formation of cone pull-out shape to acquire better performance.

  10. The new structure of fibre glass reinforced plastics bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马念杰; 刘社育

    2003-01-01

    The develop actuality and direction of FRP(fibre glass reinforced plastics) bolt in the world are analyzed. The new type structure of FRP bolt was designed. Trial data indicate that, all kinds of capability target of this FRP bolt all achieve and exceed the country standard, substitute present metal bolt,wood bolt and bamboo bolt and other side bolt, it can gain magnitude technology and economy benefit. FRP bolt mechanization product line produce efficiency is high, its throughput a day are 750 base, this can meet demand of hit-small mining company.

  11. Spacer lock of roof bolting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Boronov, N.N.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.

    1980-04-05

    The object of the invention is a spacer joint of anchor bolting, which includes a wedge-shaped head and half-coupling, which are beveled on the inner side of the walls, and have ribs on the outer sides of the walls. It is characterized in that in order to reduce cost of the joint by reducing the amount of steel and manufacturing costs, the walls of the half-couplings hae identical thickness lengthwise, and the ribs are of varying height with corresponding projections on the inner side of the half-couplings.

  12. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  13. Self drilling rock bolt technology - development of self drilling rock bolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Gray [Ground Support Services (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    A new Self Drilling Rock Bolt (SDRB) system has been developed which uses a pumpable resin system for full column resin encapsulation for immediate roof and rib support. A new drilling and injection system has also been developed to enable fast and efficient bolt installation. This new SDRB provides higher tensile strength than conventional solid bolts, and also provides a load transfer capacity that is almost double that of conventional bolts. This new SDRB uses low viscosity pumpable resin to ensure full encapsulation right down to the collar.

  14. Study on the material character steel big-end bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jian-jun; MA Nian-jie; ZHAN Ping; ZHANG Dian-li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the manufacturing method now used in our country,caused low bearing capacity in the bolt-end,which is a potential danger in the bolt supporting tunnel and a waste of money,and presented the new type strong steel big-end bolt can solve this problem.Analyzed the active state of the end of bolt by ANSYS,we can know that it is very disadvantage when bolt bore eccentric load.Contrasted with the different that common bolt and big-end bolt when they bore the same loading.The common bolt is bigger than the big-end bolt in stress value.Study on the processing technic of the new type of the strong steel big-end bolt,the new metal big-end bolt was produced by heat processing over big-end bolt and upset.From the microscopic examination on bolt metal,it is concluded that heat processing on the bolt-end refines the crystal grain of the metal material,which not only increase its extension but improve its property.Moreover the strength ability of the bolt material can be exerted completely.

  15. Study on the material character steel big-end bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jian-jun; MA Nian-jie; ZHAN Ping; ZHANG Dian-li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the manufacturing method now used in our country, caused low bear-ing capacity in the bolt-end, which is a potential danger in the bolt supporting tunnel and a waste of money, and presented the new type strong steel big-end bolt can solve this problem. Analyzed the active state of the end of bolt by ANSYS, we can know that it is very disadvantage when bolt bore eccentric load. Contrasted with the different that com-mon bolt and big-end bolt when they bore the same loading. The common bolt is bigger than the big-end bolt in stress value. Study on the processing technic of the new type of the strong steel big-end bolt, the new metal big-end bolt was produced by heat processing over big-end bolt and upset. From the microscopic examination on bolt metal, it is con-cluded that heat processing on the bolt-end refines the crystal grain of the metal material, which not only increase its extension but improve its property. Moreover the strength ability of the bolt material can be exerted completely.

  16. Bolt Cutter Blade's Imprint in Toolmarks Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2015-11-01

    Bolt cutters are known as cutting tools which are used for cutting hard objects and materials, such as padlocks and bars. Bolt cutter blades leave their imprint on the cut objects. When receiving a cut object from a crime scene, forensic toolmarks examiners can determine whether the suspected cutting tool was used in a specific crime or not based on class characteristic marks and individual marks that the bolt cutter blades leave on the cut object. The paper presents preliminary results of a study on ten bolt cutters and suggests a quick preliminary examination-the comparison between the blade thickness and the width of the imprint left by the tool on the cut object. Based on the comparison result, if there is not a match, the examiner can eliminate the feasibility of the use of the suspected cutting tool in a specific crime. This examination simplifies and accelerates the comparison procedure.

  17. Experimental study and stress analysis of rock bolt anchorage performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to apply pull-and-shear loads to the bolt specimen in order to evaluate the anchorage performance of the rebar bolt and the D-Bolt. In the tests, five displacing angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and 90°, two joint gaps (0 mm and 30 mm, and three kinds of host rock materials (weak concrete, strong concrete, and concrete-granite were considered, and stress–strain measurements were conducted. Results show that the ultimate loads of both the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt remained constant with any displacing angles. The ultimate displacement of the D-Bolt changed from 140 mm at the 0° displacing angle (pure pull to approximately 70 mm at a displacing angle greater than 40°. The displacement capacity of the D-Bolt is approximately 3.5 times that of the rebar bolt under pure pull and 50% higher than that of the rebar bolt under pure shear. The compressive stress exists at 50 mm from the bolt head, and the maximum bending moment value rises with the increasing displacing angle. The rebar bolt mobilises greater applied load than the D-Bolt when subjected to the maximum bending. The yielding length (at 0° of the D-Bolt is longer than that of the rebar bolt. The displacement capacity of the bolts increased with the joint gap. The bolt subjected to joint gap effect yields more quickly with greater bending moment and smaller applied load. The displacement capacities of the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt are greater in the weak host rock than that in the hard host rock. In pure shear condition, the ultimate load of the bolts slightly decreases in the hard rock. The yielding speed in the hard rock is higher than that in the weak rock.

  18. Brain injuries caused by spherical bolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Mayo, Ami; Elran, Hanoch; Razon, Nissim; Kluger, Yoram

    2005-05-01

    Metallic particles contained in antihuman bombs increase the number of fatalities. The ballistics of these particles depends on the explosive that is used, the distance from the explosion, the shape of the particle projected, and the biomechanics of the injured tissue. The authors present their experience with penetrating spherical bolt injuries to the brain. The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological data obtained in eight patients with penetrating spherical bolt injuries to the cranium: four had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores less than 8 (three died, one from an unrelated injury) and four had a GCS score of 15 (all survived). Two of the latter patients suffered unique anatomical injuries attributed to the distinctive ballistics of spherical bolts: in one patient the bolt penetrated the cavernous sinus causing minimal cranial nerve injury, and in the other patient the bolt lodged in the fourth ventricle causing acute hydrocephalus without other neurological deficits. Penetrating spherical bolts to the brain may be lethal. Nevertheless, they have unique ballistics that cause highly delineated anatomical damage and minor neurological deficits.

  19. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  20. Analytical large deformation shear strength for bolted rough discontinuous rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo(刘波); TAO Long-guang(陶龙光); YUE Zhong-qi(岳中琦)

    2004-01-01

    Presented a new analytical model for studying the shear-tensile large deformation behavior near the vicinity of joint interface for bolted rough discontinuous rock, and presented the formulation estimating global shear strength for bolted joints under shearing-tensile loads. The analytical strength curves of bolts contribution on reinforced discontinuous rocks as the function of joint displacements or deformation angle of a bolt at rock joints was obtained. Based on Barton's equation on JRC roughness profiles, the theoretical shearing strength of bolted rough joints was also established. Test results on bolted granite and marble specimen confirm the validity of the analytical approach.

  1. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Hillard, R. J.; Borland, J. O.

    2005-08-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (RS) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations.

  2. The onset of nonpenetrative convection in a suddenly cooled layer of fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihle, Christian F. [Program in Fluid Dynamics, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002 Of. 327, Santiago (Chile); Nino, Yarko [Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Division de Recursos Hidricos y Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago (Chile)

    2006-04-15

    Conditions for the onset of nonpenetrative convection in a horizontal Boussinesq fluid layer subject to a step change in temperature are studied using propagation theory. A wide range of Prandtl numbers and two different kinematic boundary conditions are considered. It is shown that for high Rayleigh numbers, critical conditions for the onset of convective motion reproduce exactly those for the unsteady Rayleigh-Benard instability. Present results extend those of previous research and show a tendency of the rigid-rigid and free-rigid critical curves to converge for low Prandtl numbers. Comparison between present and previously reported results on critical conditions for the onset of instabilities and onset time using different methods yields good agreement on a middle to high Prandtl number range. A ratio of 10 between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted onset times is suggested for stress-free bounded systems. (author)

  3. Comparison of deep sclerokeratodissection, a new variant of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, with deep sclerectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Mursch-Edlmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deep sclerokeratodissection (DSKD, a new nonpenetrating technique in glaucoma surgery. Materials and Methods: Retrospective comparison between patients treated with DSKS or deep sclerectomy (DS between 2013 and 2014. In DSKD, the first and only flap is dissected directly into clear cornea with unroofing Schlemm's canal. Beside routine clinical follow-up (visual acuity, intraocular pressure [IOP] readings, slit lamp and fundus examination, postoperative ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM investigation and quality of life (QoL assessment were performed. Statistically significant differences were determined by parametric or nonparametric tests, depending on normality. Results: Twelve (38.7% DSKDs and 19 (61.3% conventional DS' were included in this analysis. IOP decreased significantly from 21.5 ± 9.2 mmHg to 6.2 ± 5.4 mmHg on day 1, 13.4 ± 7.7 at 1 month, 12.0 ± 4.1 at 3 months, 12.5 ± 3.1 mmHg at 6 months, and 13.4 ± 4.3 mmHg at 12 months (P 0.1. There was no significant difference in intra- and post-operative complications, the morphology of the surgical site in the UBM as well as in the QoL assessment. Conclusion: The results indicate that DSKD is a safe and efficient new variant of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. IOP can be lowered as effectively compared to conventional DS, with a similarly low rate of complications. Further reports are necessary to confirm these results.

  4. Leakage Current Simulation of Insulating Thin Film Irradiated by a Nonpenetrating Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Qin; CAO Meng

    2012-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam. For the formation of leakage current, electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation. In the equilibrium state, the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy. It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density, and with the decreasing electron mobility, in which the film thickness has a greater influence. Validated by some existing experiments, the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.%We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam.For the formation of leakage current,electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation.In the equilibrium state,the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy.It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density,and with the decreasing electron mobility,in which the film thickness has a greater influence.Validated by some existing experiments,the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.

  5. Evaluation of the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatih; Yuce, Berna; Oztas, Zafer; Ates, Halil

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). The study included 32 eyes of 27 patients' (20 male and 7 female) with medically uncontrolled glaucoma. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries performed by trainees under control of an experienced surgeon between 2005 and 2007 at our tertiary referral hospital were evaluated. Residents were separated into two groups. Humanistic training model applied to the one in the first group, he studied with experimental models before performing NPGS. Two residents in the second group performed NPGS after a conventional training model. Surgeries of the residents were recorded on video and intraoperative parameters were scored by the experienced surgeon at the end of the study. Postoperative intraocular pressure, absolute and total success rates were analyzed. In the first group 19 eyes of 16 patients and in the second group 13 eyes of 11 patients had been operated by residents. Intraoperative parameters and complication rates were not statistically significant between groups (p > 0.05, Chi-square). The duration of surgery was 32.7 ± 5.6 min in the first group and 45 ± 3.8 min in the second group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001, Student's t test). Absolute and total success was 68.8 and 93.8% in the first group and 62.5 and 87.5% in the second group, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Humanistic and conventional training models under control of an experienced surgeon are safe and effective for senior residents who manage phacoemulsification surgery in routine cataract cases. Senior residents can practice these surgical techniques with reasonable complication rates.

  6. Decision Fusion System for Bolted Joint Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bolted joint is widely used in mechanical and architectural structures, such as machine tools, industrial robots, transport machines, power plants, aviation stiffened plate, bridges, and steel towers. The bolt loosening induced by flight load and environment factor can cause joint failure leading to a disastrous accident. Hence, structural health monitoring is critical for the bolted joint detection. In order to realize a real-time and convenient monitoring and satisfy the requirement of advanced maintenance of the structure, this paper proposes an intelligent bolted joint failure monitoring approach using a developed decision fusion system integrated with Lamb wave propagation based actuator-sensor monitoring method. Firstly, the basic knowledge of decision fusion and classifier selection techniques is briefly introduced. Then, a developed decision fusion system is presented. Finally, three fusion algorithms, which consist of majority voting, Bayesian belief, and multiagent method, are adopted for comparison in a real-world monitoring experiment for the large aviation aluminum plate. Based on the results shown in the experiment, a big potential in real-time application is presented that the method can accurately and rapidly identify the bolt loosening by analyzing the acquired strain signal using proposed decision fusion system.

  7. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. More Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Several additions to a classroom activity are proposed in which an "enzyme" (the student) converts "substrates" (nut-bolt assemblies) into "products" (separated nuts and bolts) by unscrewing them. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Design of Bolted L-Flanged Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2016-01-01

    on the tower and the tensile force in the bolt. In the literature and also in design standards different models are presented for this important non-linear response. The present work presents a simplified expression for the non-linear force response based on finite element calculations using contact analysis......In wind turbine towers the preferred design is circular tubes that are connected to each other by a bolted flange joint. The design is typically that of an L-flange resulting in an eccentrically loaded bolted connection. The eccentricity results in a non-linear relationship between external load....... Secondly, focus is on simple modifications of the flange design that considerably improves the strength of the connection....

  10. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  11. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  12. Retained crossbow bolt after penetrating facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manan U; Sridhara, Shankar K; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Ambro, Bryan T

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a retained crossbow bolt in the maxillofacial area of a 31-year-old man. While crossbow injuries are rare, this case is of interest because otolaryngologists are often faced with treating retained foreign objects after penetrating facial trauma. These cases are difficult to manage because of the complexity and variety of injuries that can occur during both the initial trauma and the removal. We focus on the management of the bolt's removal and provide a brief discussion of the relevant literature on crossbow injuries to the head and neck.

  13. Stress wave propagation in supporting bolts: A test for bolt support quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Rui; Xu Jinhai; Li Chong; Zhou Baojing; Ma Qianqian; Wang Zhongliang

    2012-01-01

    A test method for the non-destructive determination of bolt length,anchoring length,and bolt body force is described.This addresses the problems of low accuracy,limited number of data,and untimely warning signs encountered with existing test methods.Numerical simulations of the bolt,resin,and rock system show that the length accuracy when using the velocity wave is lower than when using the acceleration wave.It is accepted practice to use the acceleration wave for length tests because of improved signal to noise ratios of the waveforms.Laboratory and in situ underground tests showed that the precision of the measurements meets field requirements.Using this method the anchor properties of each single bolt and,thus,the safety of the entire roadway support may be evaluated.

  14. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  15. 30 CFR 75.204 - Roof bolting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roof bolting. 75.204 Section 75.204 Mineral... or the equivalent may be used. (3) Bearing plates used with wood or metal materials shall be at least... against wood; or (ii) Have exceeded the maximum specified torque or tension by 50 percent. (6) The...

  16. Strength of Bolted Joints in Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Analysis of Single and Two-Hole Bolted Joints in Fibre Reinforced Plastic ," J. of Composite Materials, Vol. 16, 1982, pp.481-491. 11. N,J. Pagano, R.B...Effect of Stacking Sequence on the Pin-Bearing Strength in Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic ,’ J. of Composite Materials, Vol. 11, 1977, pp. 139-145. 13., J.M

  17. Inedible Nuts and Non-Lightning Bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynone, William

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author provides detailed information on a wide variety of commonly used screws, bolts, and other fasteners. The information has been gathered in his engineering career and outside interests (maintenance on his car and airplane, and woodworking). The topic should be of interest to students and educators in many technical…

  18. Inedible Nuts and Non-Lightning Bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynone, William

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author provides detailed information on a wide variety of commonly used screws, bolts, and other fasteners. The information has been gathered in his engineering career and outside interests (maintenance on his car and airplane, and woodworking). The topic should be of interest to students and educators in many technical…

  19. Raman spectroscopy of non-penetrating peripheral nerve damage in swine: a tool for spectral pathology of nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilwa, Katherine E.; Slaughter, Tiffani; Elster, Eric A.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Over 30% of combat injuries involve peripheral nerve injury compared to only 3% in civilian trauma. In fact, nerve dysfunction is the second leading cause of long-term disability in injured service members and is present in 37% of upper limb injuries with disability. Identification and assessment of non-penetrating nerve injury in trauma patients could improve outcome and aid in therapeutic monitoring. We report the use of Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive, non-destructive method for detection of nerve degeneration in intact nerves due to non-penetrating trauma. Nerve trauma was induced via compression and ischemia/reperfusion injury using a combat relevant swine tourniquet model (>3 hours ischemia). Control animals did not undergo compression/ischemia. Seven days post-operatively, sciatic and femoral nerves were harvested and fixed in formalin. Raman spectra of intact, peripheral nerves were collected using a fiber-optic probe with 3 mm diameter spot size and 785 nm excitation. Data was preprocessed, including fluorescence background subtraction, and Raman spectroscopic metrics were determined using custom peak fitting MATLAB scripts. The abilities of bivariate and multivariate analysis methods to predict tissue state based on Raman spectroscopic metrics are compared. Injured nerves exhibited changes in Raman metrics indicative of 45% decreased myelin content and structural damage (pdetect nerve degeneration associated with non-penetrating injury, relevant to neurapraxic and axonotmetic injuries; future experiments will further explore the clinical utility of Raman spectroscopy to recognize neural injury.

  20. A Review of Rock Bolt Monitoring Using Smart Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gangbing; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Ho, Siu Chun Michael

    2017-04-05

    Rock bolts have been widely used as rock reinforcing members in underground coal mine roadways and tunnels. Failures of rock bolts occur as a result of overloading, corrosion, seismic burst and bad grouting, leading to catastrophic economic and personnel losses. Monitoring the health condition of the rock bolts plays an important role in ensuring the safe operation of underground mines. This work presents a brief introduction on the types of rock bolts followed by a comprehensive review of rock bolt monitoring using smart sensors. Smart sensors that are used to assess rock bolt integrity are reviewed to provide a firm perception of the application of smart sensors for enhanced performance and reliability of rock bolts. The most widely used smart sensors for rock bolt monitoring are the piezoelectric sensors and the fiber optic sensors. The methodologies and principles of these smart sensors are reviewed from the point of view of rock bolt integrity monitoring. The applications of smart sensors in monitoring the critical status of rock bolts, such as the axial force, corrosion occurrence, grout quality and resin delamination, are highlighted. In addition, several prototypes or commercially available smart rock bolt devices are also introduced.

  1. Bolting Cabin Assistance System Using a Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hak Mo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bolting cabin assistance system prevents operators from facing dangerous situations. This system consists of a bolting robot control system and a top view supervisory system. In order to control the bolting robot, circular Hough transforms and fuzzy reasoning are used. First, the circular Hough transform roughly estimates the location of the bolt hole. After that, errors of estimation are compensated for using fuzzy reasoning. In order to track a bolt hole, a region of interest (ROI is used. By setting the region in which to search for a bolt hole, the algorithm tracks the location of the bolt hole. In order to choose an ROI, a template‐based matching algorithm is used. In order to make the top view supervisory system, four cameras are installed at the left, right, front and back of the robot. The four individual images from the various cameras are combined to make the top view image after correcting for distortion.

  2. Parameters determination and bolting control of gateway floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Pan-feng; XlN Ya-jun

    2011-01-01

    Gateway floor heave control is the key to guarantee mine safe and efficient production.Through analysis of floor instability characteristics and bolting control,gateway floor strata show second level stress under abutment pressure,which causes plastic flow failure in floor strata; gateway floor instability shows mainly shear-break slippage of “triangle sliding body”.Mechanics of floor bolting is mainly a function of connection and combination.Main area of bolting control lies in two gateway floor angles.The paper analyzes mechanics principle of gateway floor instability,constructs stability mechanics model of gateway floor bolting,obtains gateway floor stability criterion of different bolting angles and optimum formula of bolting parameters,carries out the engineering example,and guides better field application.It provides theoretical base for bolting gateway floor instability control.

  3. The design and testing of subscale smart aircraft wing bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugampore, J. M. V.; Bemont, C.

    2012-07-01

    Presently costly periodic inspection is vital in guaranteeing the structural integrity of aircraft. This investigation assesses the potential for significantly reducing aircraft maintenance costs without modification of aircraft structures by implementing smart wing bolts, manufactured from TRIP steel, which can be monitored for damage in situ. TRIP steels undergo a transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite during deformation. Subscale smart aircraft wing bolts were manufactured from hot rolled TRIP steel. These wing bolts were used to demonstrate that washers incorporating embedded inductance coils can be utilized to measure the martensitic transformation occurring in the TRIP steel during bolt deformation. Early in situ warning of a critical bolt stress level was thereby facilitated, potentially reducing the costly requirement for periodic wing bolt removal and inspection. The hot rolled TRIP steels that were utilized in these subscale bolts do not however exhibit the mechanical properties required of wing bolt material. Thus warm rolled TRIP steel alloys were also investigated. The mechanical properties of the best warm rolled TRIP steel alloy tested almost matched those of AISI 4340. The warm rolled alloys were also shown to exhibit transformation before yield, allowing for earlier warning when overload occurs. Further work will be required relating to fatigue crack detection, environmental temperature fluctuation and more thorough material characterization. However, present results show that in situ early detection of wing bolt overload is feasible via the use of high alloy warm rolled TRIP steel wing bolts in combination with inductive sensor embedded washers.

  4. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  5. Finite element analysis of bolted flange connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, D. Y.; Stallings, J. M.

    1994-06-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric finite element model and a 3-D solid finite element model of a high pressure bolted flange joint were generated to investigate the stress behaviors. This investigation includes comparisons for axisymmetric loading of both the 2-D and 3-D models, the effects of non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions in the 3-D models, and the differences between 2-D and 3-D models subjected to non-axisymmetric loading. Comparisons indicated differences in von Mises stress up to 12% at various points due to the non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions. Applied bending moments were converted to equivalent axial forces for use in the 2-D model. It was found that the largest von Mises stresses in 3-D model did not occur on the side of the connection where the bending stresses and applied axial stresses were additive. Hence, in the 2-D model where the equivalent axial force (for bending moment) and applied axial forces were added, the 2-D model under estimated the maximum von Mises stress obtained from the 3-D model by 30%.

  6. Stiffness Analysis and Improvement of Bolt-Plate Contact Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that, a simplified expression for the stiffness of the plate member in a bolt-plate assembly can be found. The stiffnesses of the bolt and the connected plates are the primary quantities that control the lifetime of a dynamically loaded connection. The present study...... of stiffnesses is extended to include different material parameters by including the influence of Poisson's ratio. Two simple practical formulas are suggested and their accuracies are documented for different bolts and different material (Poisson's ratio). Secondly, the contact analysis between the bolt head...... and the plate is extended by the possibility of designing a gap, that is, a nonuniform distance between the bolt and plate before prestressing. Designing the gap function generates the possibility for a better stress field by which the stiffness of the bolt is lowered, and at the same time the stiffness...

  7. Investigation of Fastening Performance of Subminiature Serrated Bolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Myung Guen; Jeong, Jin Hwan; Jang, Yeon Hui; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jong-Bong [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science & Tech, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    As the size of electric products such as mobile phones and smart watches decrease, the bolts used to assemble these products should also be miniaturized. A miniature-sized bolt has to provide sufficient joining torque and anti-releasing torque to keep the components together. We studied a serrated bolt as a candidate for a miniature-sized fastener to increase the anti-releasing torque. In a serrated bolt, a serrated shape is formed on the bottom surface of the bolt head to create an obstacle to releasing. In this study, finite element analyses for the joining and releasing of bolts were carried out, and the anti-releasing performance was predicted. Based on the results of analyses using various numbers of serrations and fastening depths, the effects of the number of serrations and fastening depth on the anti-releasing performance were investigated.

  8. Characteristic Evaluation on Bolt Stress by Ultrasonic Nondestructive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxue Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the acoustoelasticity theory, a certain relationship exists between ultrasonic velocity and stress. By combining shear and longitudinal waves, this paper provides a nondestructive method of evaluating axial stress in a tightened bolt. For measuring the bolt axial stress in different situations, such as under low or high loads, this paper provides guidelines for calculating the stress for a given load factor. Experimental and calculated results were compared for three bolt test samples: an austenitic stainless steel bolt (A2-70 and low-carbon steel 4.8 and 8.8 bolts. On average, the experimental results were in good agreement with those obtained through calculations, thus providing a nondestructive method for bolt stress measurements.

  9. Battery with a terminal bolt. Akkumulator mit einem Schraubpol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, K.H.

    1987-01-02

    A battery with a bolt terminal is claimed. A bolt of a conductive material is screwed into a thread, and the head of the screw is covered with an insulating layer. To enable direct terminal voltage measurement while maintaining the protection against corrosive liquid electrolyte, there is a recess in the bolt head which is filled with an electrically conductive, acid-resistant material (lead).

  10. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 after 9 years of use one of the blades of a windmill with wooden blades was struck by lightning. After demounting the damaged blade was handed over to the Technical University of Denmark for the investigation of potential fatigue damage. The paper presents an experimental determination...... of the residual strength of the glued-in bolts that served as the blade to rotor hub connection in the windmill. The load history of the bolts, the test method, the observed fracture modes and the force displacement curves are presented along with the recorded residual strength of the bolts. The bolts...

  11. Experimental Study on Shear Performance of Bolt in Roadway Supporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corner bolt is proved to be effective in the control of floor deformation of roadway, and the relevant studies on bolting mechanisms are of great significance in improving roadway stability. In this paper, two types of shear tests on six forms of bolts are performed by using self-designed shear test device, the electro-hydraulic servo triaxial testing system. The shear characteristics of different types of bolts are obtained. The results show that different bolt rods or different internal filling conditions result in large differences in shear resistance and different deformation adaptability. We find that the filling materials added can improve the shear performance of bolt significantly, and the bolt with steel not only can improve the strength of bolt body, but also has the bimodal characteristic that makes the bolt have the secondary bearing capacity and withstand larger deformation range during the process of shear, and shows a better support performance. Hoping to provide the experiment basis for support design and field application in the future.

  12. Chlamydiosis in captive raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M E; Schulz, T; Ardans, A; Reynolds, B; Behymer, D

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. One hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. C. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. Forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 19% were suspects. The ELISA was repeated on 54 raptors in 1986. Forty-one percent of the birds were considered positive, and 35% were suspect, indicating that C. psittaci is endemic in the population.

  13. Stress-related hormones in horses before and after stunning by captive bolt gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, Elisabetta; Albrizio, Maria; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Moramarco, Angela M; Zarrilli, Antonia

    2010-04-01

    In this work the slaughter-linked plasma modifications of some stress-related hormones in horses subject to standardized butchering procedures were investigated in order to highlight the compromised animal welfare during pre-slaughter handling. During pre-slaughter, animals show strong hardship behavioural patterns, probably due to being under life-threatening conditions. Blood samples from 12 male horses, ageing from 3 to 5 years, were collected before slaughtering in lairage, and during exsanguination after stunning. Catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations were assessed in plasma samples by EIA. Results show that plasma beta-endorphin concentration did not increase significantly after stunning, while cortisol (Pstress response. Moreover these results suggest that, under stress, the release of beta-endorphin could be different from that of ACTH.

  14. Research on the mechanical property test of a new high-strength metal bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jian-jun; MA Nian-jie

    2011-01-01

    In order to study how to improve the overall performance of the operational metal bolt,based on the production process of an ordinary metal bolt used in understructure engineering,this paper focused on the existing problems of ordinary metal bolts identified by some survey and analysis.The results show that the structure of operational metal bolts is so unreasonable that the bolt tail is easily fractured by low load capacity.Furthermore,a new type of strong big-end metal bolt and its heat treatment and roughing processing technology were introduced.Through bolt tensile and metallographic tests,the property of the new big-end bolt was analyzed.The new findings indicate that after a special processing,the overall strength and plasticity of the bolt is greatly improved,and the grain of the bolt tail structure is refined,which would help build up favorable working conditions for bolt tails.

  15. A study of high-strength bolts after dephosphoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fasteners are produced, including those for the automobile industry, household electrical appliances industry, architectural engineering, and even the aviation industry. The effects of the high-tensile bolt dephosphoring process on the entire fastener manufacturing process and its organizational characteristics and mechanical properties are analyzed and discussed in this study. Our experimental results reveal that the bolt dephosphoring process must be completed before heat treatment, which can be confirmed with a dephosphoring reagent or metallographic observation. Once bolt heat treatment is completed, bolts without dephosphoring appear to be coated with δ ferrite (delta ferrite composed of a phosphate coating and a phosphatizing coating, which are not easily removed. Heat treatment with phosphorus results in grain boundary segregation, causing embrittlement and a reduction in lattice bonding forces and resulting in a high risk of fracturing when bolts are used in high-temperature environments or undergo multiaxial stresses.

  16. The effects of bolted joints on dynamic response of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, I.; Khalid, A.; Manshoor, B.; Araby, S.; Ghazali, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Joint is an universal fastening technology for structural members; in particular bolted joints are extensively used in mechanical structures due to their simple maintenance and low cost. However, the components of bolted joints are imperative because failure could be catastrophic and endanger lives. Hence, in this study, the effects of bolted joints on vibrating structures are investigated by determining the structural dynamic properties, such as mode shapes, damping ratios and natural frequencies, and these are compared with the monolithic structures (welding). Two approaches of experimental rigs are developed: a beam and a frame where both are subjected to dynamic loading. The analysis reveals the importance of bolted joints in increasing the damping properties and minimizing the vibration magnitude of structures, this indicates the significant influence of bolted joints on the dynamic behaviour of assembled structures. The outcome of this study provides a good model for predicting the experimental variable response in different types of structural joints.

  17. The supersymmetric NUTs and bolts of holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelli, Dario; Passias, Achilleas [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Sparks, James [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, 24-29 St Giles' , Oxford OX1 3LB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-21

    We show that a given conformal boundary can have a rich and intricate space of supersymmetric supergravity solutions filling it, focusing on the case where this conformal boundary is a biaxially squashed Lens space. Generically we find that the biaxially squashed Lens space S{sup 3}/Z{sub p} admits Taub-NUT-AdS fillings, with topology R{sup 4}/Z{sub p}, as well as smooth Taub-Bolt-AdS fillings with non-trivial topology. We show that the Taub-NUT-AdS solutions always lift to solutions of M-theory, and correspondingly that the gravitational free energy then agrees with the large N limit of the dual field theory free energy, obtained from the localized partition function of a class of N=2 Chern–Simons-matter theories. However, the solutions of Taub-Bolt-AdS type only lift to M-theory for appropriate classes of internal manifold, meaning that these solutions exist only for corresponding classes of three-dimensional N=2 field theories.

  18. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  19. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  20. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  1. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G.; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  2. Apparent non-penetrance for dystopia in Waardenburg syndrome type I, with some hints on the diagnosis of dystopia canthorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S; Mota, M

    1978-06-01

    Two large pedigrees with Waardenburg syndrome type I (W--I), i.e. with dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis, are described to show both the variable expressivity of dystopia canthorum, which may be confused with non-penetrance of this sign, and the possibility to firmly diagnosis it with the new biometric index W, which differentiates a dystopic from a non-dystopic or a non-apparent dystopic subject, the latter within a defined biometric range. A general discussion of the relative value of blepharophimosis and dystopia canthorum as diagnostic features in W--I is presented, to conclude on the greater value of dystopia canthorum, which can be identified with confidence in more than 96% of carriers. Empirical probabilities are given for dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis in the general populations, based on data from the world literature, useful for all ethnic groups.

  3. Study on Rock Bolt Reinforcement for a Gravity Dam Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.; Wang, W. M.; Shahrour, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the rock bolt reinforcement mechanism is discussed, and the gravity method as well as the finite element method for the bolted rock is presented. These methods are applied to study the gravity dam foundation of the Xiaoxi Hydropower Project, which is influenced by the presence of a large fault with a cracked zone over 180 m wide. Rock bolt reinforcement was used to improve the stability of the dam foundation, and the reinforcement parameters were determined from a semi-empirical equation controlled by in situ test. The stability analysis was conducted using the above methods, and the improvement in terms of deformation and stress as well as stability of the dam foundation due to the reinforcement is assessed. Rock bolt reinforcement was completed successfully, and the dam started normal operations in January 2008.

  4. Mechanics of Re-Torquing in Bolted Flange Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ali P.; Drilling Brian; Weichman, Kyle; Kammerer, Catherine; Baldwin, Frank

    2010-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the phenomenon of time-dependent loosening of flange connections is a strong consequence of the viscous nature of the compression seal material. Characterizing the coupled interaction between gasket creep and elastic bolt stiffness has been useful in predicting conditions that facilitate leakage. Prior advances on this sub-class of bolted joints has lead to the development of (1) constitutive models for elastomerics, (2) initial tightening strategies, (3) etc. The effect of re-torque, which is a major consideration for typical bolted flange seals used on the Space Shuttle fleet, has not been fully characterized, however. The current study presents a systematic approach to characterizing bolted joint behavior as the consequence of sequentially applied torques. Based on exprimenta1 and numerical results, the optimal re-torquing parameters have been identified that allow for the negligible load loss after pre-load application

  5. Preloading of bolted connections in nuclear reactor component supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahr, G T

    1984-10-01

    A number of failures of threaded fasteners in nuclear reactor component supports have been reported. Many of those failures were attributed to stress corrosion cracking. This report discusses how stress corrosion cracking can be avoided in bolting by controlling the maximum bolt preloads so that the sustained stresses in the bolts are below the level required to cause stress corrosion cracking. This is a basic departure from ordinary bolted joint design where the only limits on preload are on the minimum preload. Emphasis is placed on the importance of detailed analysis to determine the acceptable range of preload and the selection of a method for measuring the preload that is sufficiently accurate to ensure that the preload is actually within the acceptable range. Procedures for determining acceptable preload range are given, and the accuracy of various methods of measuring preload is discussed.

  6. Navigated placement of iliac bolts: description of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Ben J; Wood, Ken E

    2011-04-01

    Image navigation has improved the safety and ability to perform complex spinal procedures where visibility is not optimal or anatomic deformity is present. Numerous published studies are available demonstrating its effectiveness in improved pedicle screw placement in complex multiplanar deformities. Studies have also demonstrated image navigation technology versatility; however, stabilization of the lumbopelvic junction with navigated iliac bolt fixation has not been reported. To describe an innovative versatile application of image navigation technology in spine surgery. We examine the safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of navigated iliac bolt placement while minimizing challenges associated with current techniques. Case series. Five patients requiring lumbopelvic fixation for multiple indications, including lumbosacral pseudoarthrosis, complex sacral fracture patterns, compromised revision sacral fixation, and as an adjunct to degenerative deformity with multilevel fusion, underwent navigated iliac bolt placement. Accurate placement was verified using intraoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging using O-ARM (Medtronic, Inc.) after placement. Five patients requiring lumbopelvic fixation have undergone navigated iliac bolt placement using Medtronic Stealth Station Treon in conjunction with the O-ARM (Medtronic, Inc.). A right percutaneous posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) reference frame was placed at the superior lateral margin of the PSIS, and bilateral iliac bolts were placed via navigation using both the anatomic and traditional surgical techniques. Both techniques were performed without direct notch palpation and minimal soft-tissue exposure. Postplacement intraoperative CT imaging was obtained to confirm position and trajectory of the bolts using O-ARM (Medtronic, Inc.). Ten iliac bolts were successfully placed in five patients. Intraoperative CT demonstrated ideal iliac screw bone placement projecting within 2 cm over sciatic notch, between pelvic

  7. What Makes Usain Bolt Unique as a Sprinter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinabargar, A. J.; Hellrich, Matt; Baker, Blane

    2010-01-01

    For both casual and avid fans alike, Olympic and other sporting events can provide a wealth of data for simple physics analyses. One of the most impressive performances in recent Olympic history is that of Usain Bolt in the track-and-field sprinting events during the 2008 Summer Games. Over a seven-day span, Bolt set world records in the 100-m and…

  8. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    P., Pascoe , K., Polak, C., & Stroud, D. (1986). The Behaviour of Single-Lap Bolted Joints in CFRP Laminates. Composite Structures, 41-55...Interferometry. J Nondestruct Eval, 135-142. Smith, P., Pascoe , K., Polak, C., & Stroud, D. (1986). The Behaviour of Single-Lap Bolted Joints in...in [Kretsis & Matthews, 1985], [Smith, Pascoe , Polak, & Stroud, 1986],[Godwin & Matthews, 1980] UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED implies that under

  9. Response surface reconciliation method of bolted joints structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohd Azmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural joining methods such as bolted joints are commonly used for the assembly of structural components due to their simplicity and easy maintenance. Understandably, the dynamic characteristic of bolted joined structure is mainly influenced by the properties of their joints such as preload on the bolts and joints stiffness which alter the measured dynamics response of the structure. Therefore, the need to include the local effect of the bolted joints into the numerical model of the bolted joined structure is vitally important in order to represent the model accurately. In this paper, a few types of connector elements that can be used to represent the bolted joints such as CBAR, CBEAM and CELAS have been investigated numerically and experimentally. The initial numerical results of these element connectors are compared with the experimental results in term of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparative evaluation of numerical and the experimental data are performed in order to provide some insights of inaccuracies in the numerical model due to invalid assumption in the numerical modelling such as geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. The discrepancies between both results (numerical and experimental data are then corrected using the response surface reconciliation method (RSRM through which the finite element model is altered in order to provide closer agreement with the measured data so that it can be used for subsequence analysis.

  10. Effect of bolting on roadway support in extremely weak rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Shi, Weiping; Qin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    In mine roadway support operations, floor bolting not only played a role in floor heave control, but also in reinforcing roof and its two sides. Correspondingly, bolting of roof and two sides also played a part in floor heave control. To quantify the effect of such bolting, based on roadway support in extremely weak rock, three physical models were produced and tested in laboratory. Through comparison of their displacements in three physical simulation experiments, the reinforcing effect of bolting in extremely weak rock roadways was quantified. Reinforcing coefficients was defined as displacement ratio between original support and new support regime. Results indicated that the reinforcing coefficients, for bolting of roof and its two sides, on floor, two sides, and roof reached 2.18, 3.56, and 1.81 respectively. The reinforcing coefficients for floor bolting on floor, two sides, and roof reached 3.06, 2.34, and 1.39 respectively. So in this extremely weak rock, the surrounding rock should be considered as an integral structure in any support operation: this allows for better local strength improvement, and provided future design guidance.

  11. Bolt study - behaviour of bolts in drop accident scenarios of the Nirex 3m{sup 3} Box ILW package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The mission of Nirex is to provide the UK with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive materials. One of the key tasks is to ensure that waste is packaged by waste producers in a form which is suitable for safe storage, transport, handling and potential disposal. In pursuit of this key requirement, Nirex has developed specifications to set the standard for the design and performance of waste packages, and has developed standard containers for the packaging of intermediate level (ILW) and some low level waste (LLW) - one of these is the 3m{sup 3} Box for immobilised operational and decommissioning ILW. The dimension envelope of this package is 1716 mm x 1716 mm in plan with 430 mm corner radii, 1226 mm tall. The maximum loaded weight is 12 tonnes. A generic design of this container has been developed, which is a welded structure manufactured from austenitic stainless steel (EN 10088-2 steel number 1.4404). The lid is connected to the body by 28 stainless steel bolts. An extensive study was carried out to develop a robust FE model of the bolts. The specific focus of this work was to use improved bolt modelling to optimize the design of the 3m{sup 3} Box, although this work could be applied to other bolted containers. This paper presents a summary of the findings from the study as follows: 1. Development of a FE bolt model for application in a 3m{sup 3} Box model. 2. Development and execution of a bolt testing programme which included tensile and shear tests on a total of 88 bolts, representing four grades of stainless steel materials, three thread sizes, and two geometries at three strain rates. 3. Benchmarking of the FE bolt model that can be used with confidence in simulating waste package behaviour in drop scenarios.

  12. Bolt study - behaviour of bolts in drop accident scenarios of the Nirex 3m{sup 3} Box ILW package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The mission of Nirex is to provide the UK with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive materials. One of the key tasks is to ensure that waste is packaged by waste producers in a form which is suitable for safe storage, transport, handling and potential disposal. In pursuit of this key requirement, Nirex has developed specifications to set the standard for the design and performance of waste packages, and has developed standard containers for the packaging of intermediate level (ILW) and some low level waste (LLW) - one of these is the 3m{sup 3} Box for immobilised operational and decommissioning ILW. The dimension envelope of this package is 1716 mm x 1716 mm in plan with 430 mm corner radii, 1226 mm tall. The maximum loaded weight is 12 tonnes. A generic design of this container has been developed, which is a welded structure manufactured from austenitic stainless steel (EN 10088-2 steel number 1.4404). The lid is connected to the body by 28 stainless steel bolts. An extensive study was carried out to develop a robust FE model of the bolts. The specific focus of this work was to use improved bolt modelling to optimize the design of the 3m{sup 3} Box, although this work could be applied to other bolted containers. This paper presents a summary of the findings from the study as follows: 1. Development of a FE bolt model for application in a 3m{sup 3} Box model. 2. Development and execution of a bolt testing programme which included tensile and shear tests on a total of 88 bolts, representing four grades of stainless steel materials, three thread sizes, and two geometries at three strain rates. 3. Benchmarking of the FE bolt model that can be used with confidence in simulating waste package behaviour in drop scenarios.

  13. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  14. Guideline for bolted joint design and analysis : version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kevin H.; Morrow, Charles W.; Durbin, Samuel; Baca, Allen

    2008-01-01

    This document provides general guidance for the design and analysis of bolted joint connections. An overview of the current methods used to analyze bolted joint connections is given. Several methods for the design and analysis of bolted joint connections are presented. Guidance is provided for general bolted joint design, computation of preload uncertainty and preload loss, and the calculation of the bolted joint factor of safety. Axial loads, shear loads, thermal loads, and thread tear out are used in factor of safety calculations. Additionally, limited guidance is provided for fatigue considerations. An overview of an associated Mathcad{copyright} Worksheet containing all bolted joint design formulae presented is also provided.

  15. [Short- and medium-term intraocular pressure lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, M; Pérez-Alvarez, M J

    2006-02-01

    To examine the short- and medium-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without the use of scleral implant or antifibrotics in open-angle glaucoma (primary and pseudoexfoliative) and coexisting cataract in eyes with no known risk factors for bleb failure. Retrospective study of 15 eyes of 12 patients with medically uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma or open-angle glaucoma treated with two or more drugs and coexisting cataract with no known risk factors for glaucoma surgery failure. All patients received combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics performed by the same surgeon. Nd-YAG perforation of the trabeculodescemetic membrane and/or needling with mitomycin-C was performed postoperatively for IOP control. Main outcome measures were postoperative IOP, percentage of eyes with IOP Conjuntival wound leakage was the most frequent complication (20%; 3/15). Primary combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without collagen implant or antifibrotics in primary open-angle glaucoma with coexisting cataract, significantly lowers IOP in the short- and medium term in low-risk cases for glaucoma surgery failure, allowing for rapid visual improvement with a low complication rate.

  16. A Method to Capture Macroslip at Bolted Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Ronald Neil; Heitman, Lili Anne Akin

    2015-10-01

    Relative motion at bolted connections can occur for large shock loads as the internal shear force in the bolted connection overcomes the frictional resistive force. This macroslip in a structure dissipates energy and reduces the response of the components above the bolted connection. There is a need to be able to capture macroslip behavior in a structural dynamics model. A linear model and many nonlinear models are not able to predict marcoslip effectively. The proposed method to capture macroslip is to use the multi-body dynamics code ADAMS to model joints with 3-D contact at the bolted interfaces. This model includes both static and dynamic friction. The joints are preloaded and the pinning effect when a bolt shank impacts a through hole inside diameter is captured. Substructure representations of the components are included to account for component flexibility and dynamics. This method was applied to a simplified model of an aerospace structure and validation experiments were performed to test the adequacy of the method.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of CFRP Lattice Core Sandwich Bolted Corner Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yana; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lingxue

    2017-02-01

    The lattice core sandwich structures have drawn more attention for the integration of load capacity and multifunctional applications. However, the connection of carbon fibers reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) lattice core sandwich structure hinders its application. In this paper, a typical connection of two lattice core sandwich panels, named as corner joint or L-joint, was investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The mechanical behavior and failure mode of the corner joints were discussed. The results showed that the main deformation pattern and failure mode of the lattice core sandwich bolted corner joints structure were the deformation of metal connector and indentation of the face sheet in the bolt holes. The metal connectors played an important role in bolted corner joints structure. In order to save the calculation resource, a continuum model of pyramid lattice core was used to replace the exact structure. The computation results were consistent with experiment, and the maximum error was 19%. The FEM demonstrated the deflection process of the bolted corner joints structure visually. So the simplified FEM can be used for further analysis of the bolted corner joints structure in engineering.

  18. Exploring the Possibility of Cryopreservation of Feline and Canine Erythrocytes by Rapid Freezing with Penetrating and Non-Penetrating Cryoprotectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervushina, Olga; Hofmann, Nicola; Glasmacher, Birgit; Zhegunov, Gennadiy

    2017-01-01

    Efficient application of veterinary blood transfusion approaches for small companion animals requires readily available supply of the donor material. This can be achieved by developing of effective biobanking technologies allowing long-term storage of donor blood components via cryopreservation. Transfusion of an erythrocyte concentrate allows the successful correction of various hematological pathologies, severe bleeding, and etc. While in the past there were several approaches to cryopreserve red blood cells of dogs, to our knowledge there is virtually no data on cryopreservation of feline erythrocytes. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive parameter optimization for low temperature storage of RBCs of both species. Here, the efficiency of single-component and multicomponent cryoprotective media as well as necessary time of pre-incubation with penetrating and non-penetrating cryoprotectants prior to rapid freezing is analyzed. This study showed that glycerol was not sufficient for cryopreservation of red blood cells of the studied species under the investigated conditions. Application of 10% (v/v) ME2SO allowed for a significant reduction of canine and feline erythrocytes hemolysis after thawing. 17.5% hydroxyethyl starch demonstrated the highest cryoprotective activity for both species. It was found that dog RBCs should be incubated in cryoprotective media for 30 min at 22°C prior to freezing, while for cat RBCs 20 min is sufficient. Combination of CPAs was less effective. Presented data may be considered in further studies in veterinary transfusion and blood banking optimization. PMID:28072844

  19. On prestress stiffness analysis of bolt-plate contact assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Bolt connections are among the most important connections used in structures. The stiffnesses of the bolt and of the connected members are the primary qualities that control the lifetime of the connection. The stiffness of the bolt can be estimated rather easily, in contrast to the member stiffness......, but with finite element (FE) and contact analysis, it is possible to find the stiffness of the member. In the case of many connections and for practical applications, it is not suitable to make a full FE analysis. The purpose of the present paper is to find simplified expressions for the stiffness of the member......, including the case when the width of the member is limited. The calculation of the stiffness is based on the FE, including the solution to the contact problem, and we express the stiffness as a function of the elastic energy in the structure, whereby the definition of the displacements related...

  20. TENSILE STRESS RELAXATION OF TURBINE BOLT STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q. Jia; H.W. Shen; Y.M. Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation behavior of two turbine bolt steels was evaluated by the manualcontrolled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) at high temperature. First, feasibility and the procedure of the manual-controlled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) is discussed and carried out on a general creep testing machine. And then, the experimental results from such type of test were compared to the existing data provided by certain Laboratory U.K. Overall good agreement between the results of manualcontrolled TSRT method and the existing data provides confidence in the use of the proposed method in practice. Finally, the experimental results of turbine bolt steels from TSRT were compared with that of bending test. It is observed that great difference exists between the results from two different type stress relaxation tests. It is therefore suggested that the results from TSRT method be adopted in turbine bolt design in engineering.

  1. Probabilistic Evaluation of Bolted Joints in Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1997-01-01

    Computational methods are described to probabilistically simulate fracture in bolted composite structures. Progressive fracture is simulated via an innovative approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness. The effect on structure damage of design variable uncertainties is quantified. The Fast Probability Integrator is used to assess the scatter in the composite structure response before and after damage. Sensitivity of the response to design variables is evaluated. The methods are demonstrated for bolted joint polymer matrix composite panels under end loads. The effects of fabrication process are included in the simulation of damage in the bolted panel. The results show that the most effective way to reduce the end displacement at fracture is to control the load and ply thickness.

  2. Stress Evolution in Roadway Rock Bolts During Mining in a Fully Mechanized Longwall Face, and an Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Guimin; Hou, Rongbin; Wu, Yu; Zhou, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Rock bolts are widely used in coal mines throughout China. Approximately 8,000 km of roadways are excavated in coal mines every year in China, 80 % of which are supported by rock bolts. At present, the design of rock bolt support schemes is mainly based on analogies and experience from previous projects. In the present study, in order to evaluate the design of rock bolt support in roadways, several cross sections of a roadway were monitored for rock bolt stress during the roadway excavation and mining. The study results show that the stress in the rock bolts varied in the areas 20 m behind the excavating face and 30 m ahead of the mining face. For the rock bolts observed in this study, the max axial force was within the design limit of the bolts, thus the support design was shown to be acceptable. Then, numerical simulation was performed using FLAC3D to investigate the stress evolution in the rock bolts during the mining of the fully mechanized longwall face. The simulation results show an overall agreement with the in situ measurements. Finally, parametric study pertaining to length, anchorage length, and rock bolt spacing was carried out with the numerical model, and several suggestions for the support design were proposed.

  3. The strength of Glued-in Bolts after 9 Years In Situ Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Damkilde, Lars;

    1996-01-01

    An experimental determination of the remaining strength of glued-in bolts after 9 years is presented. The hollow tapered bolts served as the blade to rotor hub connection of a windmill with wooden blades. The test method is presented along with the load history of the bolts, the recorded residual...

  4. Analytical Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Fully Grouted Bolts in Bedding Rock Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Li, Y. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Bolting is widely used as a reinforcement means for rock slopes. The support force of a fully grouted bolt is often provided by the combination of the axial and shear forces acting at the cross section of the bolt, especially for bedding rock slopes. In this paper, load distribution and deformation behavior of the deflecting section of a fully grouted bolt were analyzed, and a structural mechanical model was established. Based on force method equations and deformation compatibility relationships, an analytical approach, describing the contribution of the axial and shear forces acting at the intersection between the bolt and the joint plane to the stability of a rock slope, was developed. Influence of the inclination of the bolt to the joint plane was discussed. Laboratory tests were conducted with different inclinations of the bolt to the joint plane. Comparisons between the proposed approach, the experimental data and a code method were made. The calculation results are in good agreement with the test data. It is shown that transverse shear resistance plays a significant role to the bolting contribution and that the bigger the dip of the bolt to the joint plane, the more significant the dowel effect. It is also shown that the design method suggested in the code overestimates the resistance of the bolt. The proposed model considering dowel effect provides a more precise description on bolting properties of bedding rock slopes than the code method and will be helpful to improve bolting design methods.

  5. STRESS-STRAIN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A cyclic plasticity model is used into finite element (FE) method to obtain the details of elastic-plastic stress-strain in the bolts under cyclic axial loading. Two criteria in multiaxial fatigue are employed to predict fatigue lives of bolts. The predicted fatigue lives are in favorable agreement with the experimental results for machined bolts.

  6. Envoys, Princesses, Seamen and Captives

    OpenAIRE

    Kemnitz, Eva-Maria von

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing opinion has it that there were no Muslims in Portugal after the expulsion decree of 1496. However, while working on Portuguese–North African diplomatic and commercial relations in the 18th and 19th centuries, quite a contrary picture emerged revealing differentiated categories of Muslims. Apart from the most numerous group constituted by captives as a result of war, the Muslim universe also encompassed envoys, princesses and seamen. Their presence derived from the specific legal ...

  7. NASA's Radio Frequency Bolt Monitor: A Lifetime of Spinoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This story begins in the 1970s, when Dr. Joseph Heyman, a young scientist at NASA s Langley Research Center, was asked to support the investigation of a wind tunnel accident at a sister center. Although the work was outside of his physics background, it sparked a research focus that guided his lengthy NASA career and would earn him a slew of accolades, including NASA s highest award medals for Exceptional Leadership, Exceptional Achievement, and Exceptional Service; the coveted Silver Snoopy Astronaut Award for Space Shuttle Return to Flight; and the Arthur Fleming Award for being one of the Top Ten Federal Scientists in Government Service. He won 30 additional NASA awards, including the Agency s Invention of the Year and the Agency s highest award for technology transfer, and was the only person to ever win 4 R&D 100 Awards. Back in 1973, though, Heyman was a young civil servant with a background in physics who was asked to sit on an accident review panel. The panel met at Ames Research Center, in Moffet Field, California, and after considerable investigation, concluded that a high-pressure pebble heater used for heating gas had failed, due to improperly tightened bolts in a 1,000-pound gate valve control section. The accident showered the facility with incendiary ceramic spheres and nearly a ton of metal, but, luckily, caused no injuries. Heyman returned to Langley and began work on a solution. He developed an ultrasonic device that would measure bolt elongation, as opposed to torque, the factor typically measured in testing bolt preload or tension. Torque measurement can lead to load errors, with miscalculations as high as 80 percent that can be passed over during installation. Bolt stretch, however, is nearly always accurate to 1 percent or better. Within 1 month, he had an acoustic resonance solution that accurately determined bolt elongation. He assumed his work on this project had ended, but it was actually the start of nearly 15 years of work perfecting

  8. Residual Strength of Glued-in Bolts After 9 Years In Situ Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    developed is presented along with the load history of the bolts, the recorded residual strength, the observed fracture modes and the obtained force displacement curves. A total of 11 bolts were pulled out between undamaged bolts. The mean strength of these bolts was found to be 362 kN with a standard...... deviation of 37 kN. Comparing this mean residual strength with previously recorded test data reveals a 5% strength reduction. The force displacement curves shows no plastic capacity in the connections. At fracture, a displacement between 0.4 mm and 1.0 mm was observed. In the majority of failures the bolts...

  9. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting

  10. Controllable theory and applications for the wall bolting reinforcement in the roadway of seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yun-liang; ZHANG Li-jun; XIAO Ya-xun

    2007-01-01

    By using the Radar penetrating technology and numerical simulations, the fractured zone could be easily determined. Both wall fractured zone and mining action of coal seam roadway were considered, and the bolt reinforcing criteria for wall including low limit condition and up limit condition were put up, which supply a basis for the bolt reinforcement design. For a particular engineering, there existed a bolt reinforcing controllable range which can be determined by the method put up in this paper. For the out of controllable range of bolt reinforcement in engineering, it is necessary to seek for other kind reinforcing technology, because the bolt reinforcing technology is not omnipotent.

  11. A novel ultrasonic method to quantify pressure in bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, A.; Martinez, J.; Guldiken, R.

    2012-12-01

    In structures most of fasteners are not critical for rigidity, however significant damage can occur if majority of uncritical fasteners fail. Furthermore, the maintenance is not feasible due to their vast quantity. In this study, we explored a new method to significantly improve the maintenance capability for these fasteners. The method distantly detects the preload between the bolt and the surface. We use a linear transducer array that generates acoustic beam using surface acoustic waves (SAWs) transmitted by array elements. The bolt boundary reflects SAW and array elements receive the echo signals. The signals are processed in the beamformer to generate the boundary's image which quantifies the preload to enable a strong estimation about the health of the bolted joint. We experimentally investigated the proposed method by using used a 5-MHz, 50-elements synthetic array. We measured the preload for five different tightening levels. As expected, two saturation regions (for too tightening and too loosening cases) and a linear region are observed (between them). The electronically steering of the array enables to make simultaneous preload measurements of many bolted joints in the same surface. The distant pressure measurement sensor could be integrated to a data acquisition system to track the health of the joints over time.

  12. Hollo-Bolt®: Blind Connector for Structural Steelwork

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2008-01-01

    Structural steel connections for connecting to square, rectangular or circular structural tube or to conventional steel where access is available from one side only poses problems. A technology was needed which could provide a quicker and tidier installation than traditional methods such as welding, unsightly strapping or drilling and tapping holes. The invention of the Hollo-Bolt® provided such a solution.

  13. Design of floating type bolted flange connections with grp flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, H., E-mail: hariolf.kurz@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Roos, E. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The goal of the presented work is to enable plant operators in the chemical industry to design and to operate glass-reinforced-plastics (specified in the following as grp) piping with grp flanges at temperatures up to 80 Degree-Sign C, using polytetraflourethylene (PTFE) gaskets that shall replace the mandatory rubber gaskets. Various gaskets on the basis of rubber (EPDM) and PTFE were investigated in view of the boundary conditions in bolted flange connections with glass-fiber reinforced plastic flanges in compliance with DIN EN 13555. The rubber gasket and the PTFE based gasket with a PTFE-diffusion barrier meet the leakage rate criterion of TA Luft under the conditions of bolted flange connections with grp flanges. The mechanical behavior of bolted flange connections DN50 with grp flanges was investigated and is taken into consideration in a new calculation procedure, that accounts for the specific material properties of grp and thus allows higher bolt forces, what leads to increased tightness and operational reliability of the plants. This draft procedure with experimental pre-tests (already demanded in DIN 16966) is now available to design bolted flange connections with grp flanges. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we identify a PTFE-gasket with an acceptable performance in grp flanges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical behavior of grp flanges is examined via experiment and FEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The derivation of a design concept for grp-loose flanges is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design concept shows good agreement with the FE simulation and experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying the design concept leads to an increase in service reliability.

  14. Finite Element Modeling and Modal Analysis of Complicated Structure with Bolted Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Da-yu; LIAO Ri-dong; ZUO Zheng-xing; FENG Hui-hua

    2009-01-01

    A contact bolt model is proposed as a new modeling technique to investigate the complex structure with bolted joints for modal analysis and compared with the coupled bolt model, and the test results are given. Among these models, the coupled bolt model provides the best accurate responses compared with the experimental results. The contact bolt model shows the best effectiveness and usefulness in view of operational time. The bolt models proposed in this study are adopted for a dynamic characteristic analysis of a large diesel engine consisting of several parts which are connected by many bolts. The dynamic behavior of the entire engine structure was investigated by experiment. The coupled bolt model and the contact bolt model were applied to model the assembly of engine with high preload. The experimental results are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM) results. Compared with the other models, the contact bolt model presented in this paper is more effective and useful in view of operational time and experience of analysts.

  15. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  16. Mitomicina c en la esclerectomía profunda no perforante Mitomycin C in non-penetrating deep sclerostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García González

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro propósito en este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia de la Mitomicina C como inhibidor fibroblástico en la esclerectomía profunda no perforante (EPNP. Se realizó EPNP en 40 ojos con glaucoma crónico primario; 20 sin Mitomicina C y 20 con aplicación tópica intraoperatoria de Mitomicina C (0,5 mg/mL durante 5 min, evaluándose al 1, 6 y 12 meses. En la EPNP sin Mitomicina C la PIO se redujo de 27,40 ± 4,76 mmHg a 15,80 ± 2,50 mmHg requiriendo betabloqueadores 5 ojos (25 % a diferencia (p=,0001 de una reducción de 27,35 ± 2,91 mmHg a 7,15 ± 1,67 mmHg sin necesidad de betabloqueadores; con ampolla de filtración extensa, pálida, transparente y avascular y escasas complicaciones como hifema y dehiscencia conjuntival segmentaria. La EPNP con Mitomicina C fue más efectiva en el control de la PIO y su monodosificación tópica transoperatoria bien tolerada por los pacientes.We intend in this paper to assess the effectiveness of Mitomycin C as a fibroblastic proliferation inhibitor in the non-penetrating deep sclerostomy (NPDS. This procedure was performed in 40 eyes with primary chronic glaucoma, 20 of them were treated with intraoperative topycal Mitomycin C at 0,5 mg/mL for five minutes and 20 were not applied this drug. They were followed up and assessed one, six and twelve months after the surgery. In the NPDS without mitomycin C group, intraocular pressure was reduced from 27,40 ± 4,76 mmHg to 15,80 ± 2,50 mmHg, but 5 eyes required betablockers compared to a reduction from 27,35 ± 2,91 mmHg to 7,15 ± 1,67 mmHg without betablockers in the NPDS with Mitomycin C group, which presented and extensive, pale, transparent and avascular filtering ampulla and slight complications such as hyphema and dehiscence. The NPDS with mitomycin C was more effective in controlling intraocular pressure and transoperative topycal monodosage of this drug was well tolerated by the patients.

  17. Bearing Stresses in Bolted Composite Joints with Different Contact Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a bolted joint, it has been shown to be better to model the real contact between bolt and hole than to fix the boundary of the hole edge, a practice used by most previous researchers. Master-slave interaction was implemented in ABAQUS to simulate full contact conditions. Stress distributions were plotted along net-tension plane and hole boundary. Due to geometric non-linearity, the clearance and friction coefficients used substantially effected the maximum stress on hole boundary as shown using the benchmarking work of Eriksson. A physically-based constitutive model used is based on state-of-the art fracture mechanics was used for bolted joint strength prediction. Idealized models from Hollmann were remodelled both by fixing the hole boundary (following the original author and by implementing full contact condition using CZM and XFEM. The physically-based constitutive law used independently measured of unnotched strength and fracture energy parameter for crack opening, which is calibrated from available literatures (known as apparent fracture energy. Good correlation with experimental results was found when using the real contact condition.

  18. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  19. Pyroshock Prediction of Ridge-Cut Explosive Bolts Using Hydrocodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic release devices such as explosive bolts are prevalent for many applications due to their merits: high reliability, high power-to-weight ratio, reasonable cost, and more. However, pyroshock generated by an explosive event can cause failures in electric components. Although pyroshock propagations are relatively well understood through many numerical and experimental studies, the prediction of pyroshock generation is still a very difficult problem. This study proposes a numerical method for predicting the pyroshock of a ridge-cut explosive bolt using a commercial hydrocode (ANSYS AUTODYN. A numerical model is established by integrating fluid-structure interaction and complex material models for high explosives and metals, including high explosive detonation, shock wave transmission and propagation, and stress wave propagation. To verify the proposed numerical scheme, pyroshock measurement experiments of the ridge-cut explosive bolts with two types of surrounding structures are performed using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs. The numerical analysis results provide accurate prediction in both the time (acceleration and frequency domains (maximax shock response spectra. In maximax shock response spectra, the peaks due to vibration modes of the structures are observed in both the experimental and numerical results. The numerical analysis also helps to identify the pyroshock generation source and the propagation routes.

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RELAXATION OF BOLTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Loss of pre-load with time, commonly known as ‘Relaxation’ is an established phenomena. Behaviour of a bolted joint depends upon the pre-load in the bolts in use, not the pre-load introduced by the mechanic. Loss of pre-load is expected due to the many factors such as embedment relaxation, gasket creep, elastic interactions, and vibration loosening or stress relaxation. In a gasketed joint, due to the gasket flexibility, relaxation is always substantial during preliminary passes, as 80 to 100% loss is not uncommon in almost all the bolts, resulting in a dynamic behaviour. Pre-load in a gasketed joint is stabilized and retained to certain extent in the final passes only. In a non-gasketed joint, due to no gasket and no rotation its static behaviour is concluded. This paper highlights the factors affecting the amount of relaxation with time and presents important considerations that can reduce this. Both the short and long term relaxations are recorded and a ‘best fit’ model for relaxation behaviour is derived.

  1. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The research on delayed fracture behavior of high-strength bolts in steel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo dong; Li, Nan

    2017-07-01

    High-strength bolts have been widely used in power plants. However, the high-strength bolts which being employed in pumping station, steel structure and pipeline anti-whip structure have been found delayed fracture for many times in a power plant, this will affect the reliability of steel fracture and bring blow risk caused by falling objects. The high-strength bolt with delayed fracture was carried out fracture analysis, metallurgical analysis, chemical analysis, mechanical analysis, as well as bolts installation analysis, it can be comprehensively confirmed that the direct cause of high-strength bolts delayed fracture is the stress corrosion, and the root cause of high-strength bolts delayed fracture should be the improper installation at the initial and the imperfect routine anti-corrosion maintenance.

  3. Experimental Study on Methane Explosion Ignited by Sparks of Cable Bolt Breakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wen-ding; XU Jia-lin; ZHANG Shao-hua

    2004-01-01

    An experimental device was designed for studying methane explosion ignited by sparks of cable bolt breakage. With the methane concentration being in explosion range, a series of experiments were conducted to study the law of spark generation during cable bolt breakage and the probability of methane explosion caused by the spark. The results show that the probability of generating sparks during cable bolt breakage is 50%. The spark generated by the breakage of steel cable bolt strand can't ignite a methane explosion. A detection was carried out using infrared-ray imaging apparatus (IRIA) to measure temperature of the spark generated by cable bolt breakage. It is indicated that the maximum temperature of the spark generated by cable bolt breakage is far less than the required ignition temperature for a methane explosion.

  4. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  5. Reinforcement of Underground Excavation with Expansion Shell Rock Bolt Equipped with Deformable Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, Waldemar; Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof; Zagórski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method for both preparatory and operational workings in underground metal ore mines, both in Poland and in different countries across the world, is the expansion shell or adhesive-bonded rock bolt. The article discusses results of static loading test of the expansion shell rock bolts equipped with originally developed deformable component. This component consists of two profiled rock bolt washers, two disk springs, and three guide bars. The disk spring and disk washer material differs in stiffness. The construction materials ensure that at first the springs under loading are partially compressed, and then the rock bolt washer is plastically deformed. The rock bolts tested were installed in blocks simulating a rock mass with rock compressive strength of 80 MPa. The rock bolt was loaded statically until its ultimate loading capacity was exceeded. The study presents the results obtained under laboratory conditions in the test rig allowing testing of the rock bolts at their natural size, as used in underground metal ore mines. The stress-strain/displacement characteristics of the expansion shell rock bolt with the deformable component were determined experimentally. The relationships between the geometric parameters and specific strains or displacements of the bolt rod were described, and the percentage contribution of those values in total displacements, resulting from the deformation of rock bolt support components (washer, thread) and the expansion shell head displacements, were estimated. The stiffness of the yielded and stiff bolts was empirically determined, including stiffness parameters of every individual part (deformable component, steel rod). There were two phases of displacement observed during the static tension of the rock bolt which differed in their intensity.

  6. Reinforcement of Underground Excavation with Expansion Shell Rock Bolt Equipped with Deformable Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzeniowski Waldemar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method for both preparatory and operational workings in underground metal ore mines, both in Poland and in different countries across the world, is the expansion shell or adhesive-bonded rock bolt. The article discusses results of static loading test of the expansion shell rock bolts equipped with originally developed deformable component. This component consists of two profiled rock bolt washers, two disk springs, and three guide bars. The disk spring and disk washer material differs in stiffness. The construction materials ensure that at first the springs under loading are partially compressed, and then the rock bolt washer is plastically deformed. The rock bolts tested were installed in blocks simulating a rock mass with rock compressive strength of 80 MPa. The rock bolt was loaded statically until its ultimate loading capacity was exceeded. The study presents the results obtained under laboratory conditions in the test rig allowing testing of the rock bolts at their natural size, as used in underground metal ore mines. The stress-strain/displacement characteristics of the expansion shell rock bolt with the deformable component were determined experimentally. The relationships between the geometric parameters and specific strains or displacements of the bolt rod were described, and the percentage contribution of those values in total displacements, resulting from the deformation of rock bolt support components (washer, thread and the expansion shell head displacements, were estimated. The stiffness of the yielded and stiff bolts was empirically determined, including stiffness parameters of every individual part (deformable component, steel rod. There were two phases of displacement observed during the static tension of the rock bolt which differed in their intensity.

  7. Determination of rational support parameters of bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh in soft roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU She-yu; MA Nian-jie; LIU Shao-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on a great number of measured data, the author put forward zonal compressive and tensile deformation mechanism of soft rock around roadway. By using self-supporting capacity of compressive zone and controlling rock deformation of tensile zone, the long bolt or short bolt group supporting form was given for different size of rock compressive zone and tensile zone. Finally, studied on the determining method of rational support parameters of bolting and shotcreting with wire mesh in different support technology.

  8. A failure analysis study on the fractured connecting bolts of a filter press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Molaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the main causes of the co-fracture of sixteen connecting bolts of a filter press cylinder–piston system. Stress state of the bolts during the service conditions has been analyzed and the failure reasons were determined from the fractography analysis and gathered information. According to the obtained results, it was concluded that the bolts had failed by the fatigue mechanism. It seems that insufficient torque was used during assembly.

  9. Improved wire stiffness with modified connection bolts in Ilizarov external frames: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Jettkant, Birger; Königshausen, Matthias; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Frame stability in Ilizarov external fixators is mainly dependent on the tension of the transosseous wires, which are clamped to the ring by connection bolts. It was the purpose of this biomechanical study to investigate the holding capacity of a modified bolt design featuring a ruffled wire-bolt interface (TrueLok™) and its influence on wire stiffness in comparison with that of classic bolts featuring a smooth, unruffled wire-bolt interface. Six different ring and bolt configurations were tested using a simplified model consisting of a single ring and wire. The holding capacity at two different tightening torques (10 and 14 Nm) of classic cannulated bolts (CB) and slotted bolts (SB) was determined on Ilizarov and Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF™) rings, whereas the modified TrueLok™ CBs and SBs were used with the TrueLok™ rings. The wire stiffness was calculated via a regression analysis of the load-displacement graphs. The modified TrueLok™ bolts demonstrated significantly better slippage resistance than the classic bolts in all configurations and wire stiffness was significantly higher in the TrueLok™ frame set-ups. After maximum loading, all of the wires showed plastic deformation, including constant wire deflection and dent marks at the clamped wire ends. In conclusion, the decrease in wire stiffness can be explained mainly as a result of wire slippage, but plastic deformation and material yielding also contribute. The relatively simple modification made by roughening the wire-bolt interface results in improved holding capacity and wire stiffness. A frame that contains these modified TrueLok™ bolts should provide improved mechanical stiffness.

  10. Theoretical and experimental research on characteristics of lateral vibration for a pre-stress bolt supporting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-feng; ZHU Chuan-qu; DUAN Yu

    2009-01-01

    According to the structure and stress trait of bearing bolts,a lateral-vibration mechanics model was established for them,and the relation between lateral-vibration fre-quency and axial load was analyzed; then,lateral-vibration trait of bearing bolts was stud-ied through laboratory simulation test.The results indicate that vibration frequency of bolt support system increases as well as axial force,the detection on axial load of bolts can be made by generating lateral vibration of bearing bolts.Theoretical and experimental re-search results show that frequency method is effective for detecting the axial force of bolt support system.

  11. Degradation and failure of bolting in nuclear power plants: Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    A four-year program to resolve the generic safety issue of bolting degradation and failure in nuclear power plants has developed guidelines for material selection, bolting preload control, and plant operation, as well as a realistic method for evaluating the structural integrity of bolted joints. These measures can help improve plant availability while reducing radiation exposure and costs of maintenance and inspection. This report provides the technical basis for resolution of the generic issue of bolting degradation and failure in nuclear power plants.

  12. Effects of Rock Bolting on Stress Distribution around Tunnel Using the Elastoplastic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To ensure the stability of a tunnel during construction, rock bolts are usually installed, which affects the stress distribution around the tunnel.Therefore, it is necessary to study the effects of rock bolting on the stress distribution around the tunnel.In this article, the effects of rock bolting on the stress distribution around the tunnel, including the position and orientation of bolts, the overburden depths, and the bolt lengths, are simulated using the ANSYS software with an elastoplastic model.The effect of multiple bolts of 2 m and 1 m lengths on the stress distribution in the roof and on the lateral sides of a tunnel and at different overburden depths is considered.An important finding is that the tensile stress region that is very dangerous for rock in the bottom of the tunnel grows rapidly with increasing overburden depths when rock bolts are installed only in the roof or on the lateral sides of a tunnel.The determination of the length of the rock bolt used around a tunnel is dependent on the loads and the integrity of the rock mass around the tunnel.In addition, rock bolting around the tunnel can obviously reduce the coefficients and the size of the region of stress concentration, especially when installed in high-stress areas.This fact is very important and essential for the design of tunnels and ensures engineering safety in tunnel engineering.

  13. Effects of Head Size on the Performance of Twist-Off Bolts

    OpenAIRE

    Schnupp, Keith Otto

    2003-01-01

    This study examines a specific application of button-head type twist-off bolts. Currently, the Research Council on Structural Connections Specification (2000) removes the requirement for ASTM F436 washers (ASTM 2000a) under the bolt head of twist-off bolts where the head diameter equals or exceeds that of an ASTM F436 washer when oversized and slotted holes are used. The need for washers is also removed for A490 strength bolts used on steels with specified yield strengths less than 40 ksi p...

  14. Preliminary Reactor Head Bolt Design of Prototype Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Insu; Koo, Gyeonghoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As structural requirements, the reactor head is designed to withstand all of the pressure, temperatures and forces which are likely to be imposed on it. The bolts that fasten the head to the vessel flange. Design of the reactor head bolts so as to withstand the loads applied should be designed. Currently, preliminary design of the PGSFR reactor bolts is progressed. So far, we have designed and evaluated example. The number and cross-sectional areas of bolts were determined using the procedure given in ASME BPVC Section III, Division 1, Appendix E. The purpose of this study is to conduct design the number and cross-sectional area of bolts attaching the PGSFR reactor head to the reactor vessel, using the ASME procedure. In this paper, preliminary bolt design for PGSFR was carried out according to the ASME procedure. Detailed calculations were carried out for bolt root diameter = 80 mm and number of bolts Nb = 45. It should be noted that the seating pressure recommended in the ASME code is only a suggested value, not mandatory appendix E. It does not guarantee a leak-tight joint. So these quantities are needed to carry out fatigue analysis of the bolts and to assure leak tightness of the joint during operation. For the future work, the fatigue and seismic analysis will be performed.

  15. Post-Service Examination of PWR Baffle Bolts, Part I. Examination and Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor plants, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating with Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, The Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, and ATI Consulting, the selective procurement of baffle bolts that were withdrawn from service in 2011 and currently stored on site at Ginna. The goal of this program is to perform detailed microstructural and mechanical property characterization of baffle former bolts following in-service exposures. This report outlines the selection criteria of the bolts and the techniques to be used in this study. The bolts available are the original alloy 347 steel fasteners used in holding the baffle plates to the baffle former structures within the lower portion of the pressurized water reactor vessel. Of the eleven possible bolts made available for this work, none were identified to have specific damage. The bolts, however, did show varying levels of breakaway torque required in their removal. The bolts available for this study varied in peak fluence (highest dose within the head of the bolt) between 9.9 and 27.8x1021 n/cm2 (E>1MeV). As no evidence for crack initiation was determined for the available bolts from preliminary visual examination, two bolts with the higher fluence values were selected for further post-irradiation examination. The two bolts showed different breakaway torque levels necessary in their removal. The information from these bolts will be integral to the LWRS program initiatives in evaluating end of life microstructure and properties. Furthermore, valuable data will be obtained that can be incorporated into model predictions of long-term irradiation behavior and compared to results obtained in high flux experimental reactor conditions. The two bolts selected for the ORNL study will be shipped to Westinghouse with bolts of

  16. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  17. A Redox-Mediated Modulation of Stem Bolting in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Differentially Expressing the External Mitochondrial NADPH Dehydrogenase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun-Jun Liu; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Sabá V. Wallström; Ida Lager; Agnieszka M. Michalecka; Fredrik E. B. Norberg; Susanne Widell; Kenneth M. Fredlund; Alisdair R. Fernie; Allan G. Rasmusson

    2009-01-01

    .... Nicotiana sylvestris plants overexpressing potato {Solarium tuberosum) NDB1 displayed early bolting, whereas sense suppression of the same gene led to delayed bolting, with consequential changes in flowering time...

  18. Bayesian probabilistic modeling for damage assessment in a bolted frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Colin; Todd, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bayesian framework for optimizing the design of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. Statistical damage detection techniques are applied to a geometrically-complex, three-story structure with bolted joints. A sparse network of PZT sensor-actuators is bonded to the structure, using ultrasonic guided waves in both pulse-echo and pitch-catch modes to inspect the structure. Receiver operating characteristics are used to quantify the performance of multiple features (or detectors). The detection rate of the system is compared across different types and levels of damage. A Bayesian cost model is implemented to determine the best performing network.

  19. Lightning Bolt: an ecology of imagens, noises and extremes sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Lopes da Silveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused exclusively on the music video “Dracula Mountain”, by north American noise-rock band Lightning Bolt. The aim is, in fact, sufficiently restricted: to describe the video and call it in question, considering it as a counterpoint to the band sonority and musical performance. At the end, we state that the video is both a symptom and a product of a very particular and contemporary media ecology, in which musical and audiovisual products and genres, as well as musical and audiovisual consumption habits are rebuilt and (repotentialized, sometimes inverted.

  20. Heating and cooling gas-gun targets: nuts and bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehr, Russell J [HONEYWEL FM& T; Bucholtz, Scott M [HINEYWELL FM& T

    2009-01-01

    The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

  1. A critical flaw size approach for predicting the strength of bolted glass connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, James; Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Overend, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The use of bolted connections in glass installations is common place in contemporary architecture. However, it is difficult to predict the load bearing capacity of these connections accurately due to the several factors that influence the strength of glass in the region of the bolt hole, namely: ...

  2. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  3. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  4. MADS-box genes and gibberellins regulate bolting in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyan Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  5. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines. PMID:28018414

  6. Monitoring bolt torque levels through signal processing of full-field ultrasonic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Colin; Yeager, Michael; Todd, Michael; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    Using full-field ultrasonic guided wave data can provide a wealth of information on the state of a structure through a detailed characterization of its wave propagation properties. However, the need for appropriate feature selection and quantified metrics for making rigorous assessments of the structural state is in no way lessened by the density of information. In this study, a simple steel bolted connection with two bolts is monitored for bolt loosening. The full-field data were acquired using a scanning-laser-generated ultrasound system with a single surface-mounted sensor. Such laser systems have many advantages that make them attractive for nondestructive evaluation, including their high-speed, high spatial resolution, and the ability to scan large areas of in-service structures. In order to characterize the relationship between bolt torque and the resulting wavefield in this specimen, the bolt torque in each of the bolts is independently varied from fully tightened to fully loosened in several steps. First, qualitative observations about the changes in the wavefield are presented. Next, an approach to quantifying the wave transmission through the bolted joint is discussed. Finally, a method of monitoring the bolt torque using the ultrasonic data is demonstrated.

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under vernalizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y G; Zhang, L; Ji, X H; Yan, J F; Liu, Y T; Lv, X X; Feng, H

    2014-05-23

    Premature bolting can occur occasionally during spring cultivation of heading Chinese cabbage in East Asia when the plants encounter low temperatures (vernalization), leading to economic loss. Breeding bolting-resistant cultivars is the best choice for solving this problem. We looked for QTLs responsible for varietal differences in the bolting trait in Brassica rapa under environmental conditions that promote vernalization. To achieve this goal, we constructed a linkage map with 107 simple sequence repeats and 54 insertion/deletion markers based on a segregating population of 186 F2 individuals. The resulting map consisted of 10 linkage groups and covered a total length of 947.1 cM, with an average genetic distance of 5.84 cM between adjacent markers. QTL analysis of the bolting trait was performed by two phenotypic evaluations (bolting index and flowering time) based on the scores in an F2 population in the spring of 2010, and scores in F2:3 families in autumn 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. Twenty-six QTLs that controlled bolting were detected, accounting for 2.6 to 31.2% of the phenotypic variance. The detected QTLs with large effects co-localized mainly on linkage groups A02, A06, and A07. These QTLs may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in a breeding program for late bolting or bolting-resistant cultivars in B. rapa crops.

  8. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  9. Mechanical properties and supporting effect of CRLD bolts under static pull test conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Hui-chen; He, Man-chao

    2017-01-01

    A device for supporting soft rock masses combined with a constant resistance structure characterized by constant resistance and large deformation at the end of a steel bar, known as the constant resistance and large deformation (CRLD) bolt, has recently been developed to counteract soft rock swelling that often occurs during deep mining. In order to further study the mechanical properties of the CRLD bolt, we investigated its mechanical properties by comparison with the conventional strength bolt (rebar) using static pull tests on many aspects, including supporting capacity, elongation, radial deformation, and energy absorption. The tests verified that the mechanical defects of the rebar, which include the decrease of bolt diameter, reduction of supporting capacity, and emergence and evolution of fracture until failure during the whole pull process, were caused by the Poisson's ratio effect. Due to the special structure set on the CRLD bolt, the bolt presents a seemingly unusual phenomenon of the negative Poisson's ratio effect, i.e., the diameter of the constant resistance structure increases while under-pulling. It is the very effect that ensures the extraordinary mechanical properties, including high resistance, large elongation, and strong energy absorption. According to the comparison and analysis of numerical simulation and field test, we can conclude that the CRLD bolt works better than the rebar bolt.

  10. Degradation and failure of bolting in nuclear power plants: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    These two volumes provide the documentation for industry resolution of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) generic issue B-29, Degradation and Failure of Bolting in Nuclear Power Plants. The issue was identified as a consequence of concerns about the structural integrity of component supports circa 1980. When bolting integrity became a separate issue in 1982, the utility industry responded by forming a Task Group on Bolting under the aegis of the Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) and the Materials Properties Council (MPC). The AIF/MPC Task Group on Bolting formulated a comprehensive nineteen-task action plan aimed at resolution of the issue, with implementation of the plan, the responsibility of EPRI and the affected Owner's Groups. EPRI organized a matrix-managed Generic Bolted Joint Integrity Program to carry out the research, with the results reported herein.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an End Plate Connection with Using Long Shank SMA Bolts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Ma; Yongbing Zhu; Michael CH Yam; Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Superelastic shape memory alloys ( SMAs ) have the ability to recover their original shape after experiencing large strains. End⁃plate connection with using superelastic long shank SMA bolts is proposed in this paper. By using strong beam⁃weak bolt cluster design methodology and special configurations to strength beam ends, a superelastic hinge is expected to form in column flange. To validate the mechanical behavior of the proposed beam⁃to⁃column connection, both quasi⁃static tests and numerical analysis are conducted with cyclic transverse loads applied on the beam ends. The results indicate the connection deformations concentrate on the long shank SMA bolts upon loading and the bolt cluster rotates around the axis near beam flange. By using the super elastic effect, the SMA bolts recover most elongations and the connection recovers to its original shape after experiencing 0�02 rad interstorey drift angle. The connection shows obvious self⁃centering properties.

  12. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  13. Vibration Characteristic of Anchoring System of Bolt and Elastic Wave Propagation Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; LI Yi; NING Jian-guo; LIN Hua-chang

    2006-01-01

    Based on one-dimension wave theory, the propagation law of elastic wave along the rock bolt, rock medium and their coupling system are researched, and the attenuation law and propagation mechanism of wave in the anchoring system are obtained. Meanwhile, the studies on end reflection and dynamic response under load are also carried out experimentally, the relationship between anchoring length and excited wave length is obtained when the end reflection of bolt emerges, and it is concluded that under the condition of bolt loaded,as the load increases, the reflection of the upper interface of anchoring segment weakens while the end reflection strengthens relatively, hence the energy attenuation increases. These results provide some important theory basis for measuring the effective anchoring length of bolt, judging the bonding quality of anchoring end and surrounding rock, and estimating the utmost load force of bolt.

  14. Fasteners 1 dimensional standards for bolts, screws and studs national standards

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This 7th edition of DIN Handbook 10 contains 90 currently valid German national standards (DIN Standards) dealing with the dimensions of bolts, screws and studs. In this updated compilation four standards are new: DIN 787 T-head bolts; DIN 1445 Clevis pins with head and threaded portion; DIN 5903-1 Fish bolts - Part 1: With round head and oval neck; DIN 5903-2 Fish bolts - Part 2: With square head. 27 standards have been revised for this edition. DIN Handbook 10 is the companion volume to DIN Handbook 362 "Fasteners 6 - Dimensional standards for bolts and screws - European Standards", which reflects the state of the art in Europe. Together, DIN Handbooks 10 and 362 provide the user with a comprehensive overview of standards in the fasteners sector.

  15. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates.

  16. Smart washer—a piezoceramic-based transducer to monitor looseness of bolted connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Chen, Dongdong; Kong, Qingzhao; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-02-01

    The safety of a bolted connection, as one of the most common ways of making two or more parts/components work together in engineering structures, is very important in order to ensure the health of the whole structure. However, bolt loosening or pre-load degradation may induce the failure of the bolt connection, threatening the normal operation of the system’s structure. As a result, it would be beneficial if the health condition of the bolt connection could be monitored in real time. In this paper, a ‘smart washer’, fabricated by embedding a piezoceramic patch into two pre-machined flat metal rings, was invented and then introduced as a transducer to detect the looseness of a bolted connection. A simple specimen, which consists of two steel plates connected by a nut, a bolt and two smart washers, was fabricated as the test object to study the performance of the ‘smart washers’ (SWs). For the specimen, a smart washer was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave, and the other one was used as a sensor to detect the propagated wave that traveled through the interface of the bolted connection. A time reversal method was employed to quantify the energy of the stress wave propagating between the two washers, and thus it was possible to build a relationship between the extent of any pre-loaded degradation of the bolt connection and the response signal of the stress wave traveling between the two washers. In addition, a normalized bolt looseness index was proposed for evaluating the looseness of a bolt connection based on wavelet energy analysis.

  17. Thermo-mechanical finite element analyses of bolted cask lid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao Linan; Eberle, A.; Voelzke, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The analysis of complex bolted cask lid structures under mechanical or thermal accident conditions is important for the evaluation of cask integrity and leak-tightness in package design assessment according to the Transport Regulations or in aircraft crash scenarios. In this context BAM is developing methods based on Finite Elements to calculate the effects of mechanical impacts onto the bolted lid structures as well as effects caused by severe fire scenarios. I n case of fire it might be not enough to perform only a thermal heat transfer analysis. The complex cask design in connection with a severe hypothetical time-temperature-curve representing an accident fire scenario will create a strong transient heating up of the cask body and its lid system. This causes relative displacements between the seals and its counterparts that can be analyzed by a so-called thermo-mechanical calculation. Although it is currently not possible to correlate leakage rates with results from deformation analyses directly an appropriate Finite Element model of the considered type of metallic lid seal has been developed. For the present it is possible to estimate the behaviour of the seal based on the calculated relative displacements at its seating and the behaviour of the lid bolts under the impact load or the temperature field respectively. Except of the lid bolts the geometry of the cask and the mechanical loading is axial-symmetric which simplifies the analysis considerably and a two-dimensional Finite Element model with substitute lid bolts may be used. The substitute bolts are modelled as one-dimensional truss or beam elements. An advanced two-dimensional bolt submodel represents the bolts with plane stress continuum elements. This paper discusses the influence of different bolt modelling on the relative displacements at the seating of the seals. Besides this, the influence of bolt modelling, thermal properties and detail in geometry of the two-dimensional Finite Element models on

  18. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  19. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-23

    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  20. Energy Neutral Wireless Bolt for Safety Critical Fastening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Biruk B; Rossi, Maurizio; Brunelli, Davide

    2017-09-26

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are now capable of powering the abundant low power electronics from very small (just a few degrees Celsius) temperature gradients. This factor along with the continuously lowering cost and size of TEGs, has contributed to the growing number of miniaturized battery-free sensor modules powered by TEGs. In this article, we present the design of an ambient-powered wireless bolt for high-end electro-mechanical systems. The bolt is equipped with a temperature sensor and a low power RF chip powered from a TEG. A DC-DC converter interfacing the TEG with the RF chip is used to step-up the low TEG voltage. The work includes the characterizations of different TEGs and DC-DC converters to determine the optimal design based on the amount of power that can be generated from a TEG under different loads and at temperature gradients typical of industrial environments. A prototype system was implemented and the power consumption of this system under different conditions was also measured. Results demonstrate that the power generated by the TEG at very low temperature gradients is sufficient to guarantee continuous wireless monitoring of the critical fasteners in critical systems such as avionics, motorsport and aerospace.

  1. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  2. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  3. Comparative Modal Analysis of Gasketed and Nongasketed Bolted Flanged Pipe Joints: FEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that resonance can quickly lead to failure in vibrating bolted flanged pipe joints. Condition monitoring is performed time to time in some industries for smooth operation of a system, whereas mostly trial-and-error tests are performed to control vibration. During all this process, the inherent design problems are not considered. A bolted flange joint in piping system is not a simple problem, being the combination of flange, gasket, bolts, and washers. The success of a bolted flanged pipe joint is defined by the “static mode of load” in the joint. However, it has been recognized that a “dynamic mode of load” governs in a gasketed bolted flanged pipe joint, which leads to its failure due to flange rotation, providing flange yielding, fatigue of bolts, and gasket crushing. This paper presents results of detailed 3D finite element and mathematical modal analysis under bolt up to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of gasketed flanged joints with and without raised face in comparison to the nongasketed flange joint.

  4. The Influence on Modal Parameters of Thin Cylindrical Shell under Bolt Looseness Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence on modal parameters of thin cylindrical shell (TCS under bolt looseness boundary is investigated. Firstly, bolt looseness boundary of the shell is divided into two types, that is, different bolt looseness numbers and different bolt looseness levels, and natural frequencies and mode shapes are calculated by finite element method to roughly master vibration characteristics of TCS under these conditions. Then, the following measurements and identification techniques are used to get precise frequency, damping, and shape results; for example, noncontact laser Doppler vibrometer and vibration shaker with excitation level being precisely controlled are used in the test system; “preexperiment” is adopted to determine the required tightening torque and verify fixed constraint boundary; the small-segment FFT processing technique is employed to accurately measure nature frequency and laser rotating scanning technique is used to get shape results with high efficiency. Finally, based on the measured results obtained by the above techniques, the influence on modal parameters of TCS under two types of bolt looseness boundaries is analyzed and discussed. It can be found that bolt looseness boundary can significantly affect frequency and damping results which might be caused by changes of nonlinear stiffness and damping and in bolt looseness positions.

  5. Alternative method for identification of the dynamic properties of bolted joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tieneng [Beijing Univ. of Technology, Beijing (China); Li, Ling; Cai, Ligang; Zhao, Yong Sheng [Xi' an Univ. of Architecture Technology, Xi' an (China)

    2012-10-15

    Bolted joints often have a significant effect on the dynamical behavior of assembled mechanical structures. An accurate model of an assembled structure depends on correctly determining and identifying the dynamic parameters of bolted joints. This paper presents an alternative method for identifying these dynamic parameters using structure's natural frequency and damping. A novel experiment is designed with a test piece consisting of only bolted joints, with the governing equations of the test piece established using the analytical method. The relationships between the equivalent dynamic parameters of the bolted joints and the natural frequencies and damping ratios of the test piece are determined for both the normal and tangential directions. The parameter identification problem for bolted joints is thus transformed into a test of the natural frequency and the damping ratio of the test piece. In order to check the accuracy of the proposed identification method, the test piece and bolted joints are modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and the dynamic properties of the test piece are analyzed. The maximum error between the natural frequencies of the FEM result and the experimental values in the normal and tangential models are 4.73% and 0.34%, respectively. The result indicates that the proposed method is valid for the dynamic parameter identification of bolted joints.

  6. A load measuring anchor plate for rock bolt using fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Rock bolts are the devices that used to reinforce the rock masses in mining tunnels and underground excavation structures. The loading level of the rock bolt indicates the reinforcing efficiency and is able to ensure safe underground operation by giving warnings to the underground miners prior to any accidents. Therefore, it is very important to monitor the load level of the rock bolts. In this short communication, we propose a smart anchor plate, a simple but effective device that uses fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) type optic sensor, to monitor the load level of the rock bolt. Instead of measuring the stress/strain on the rock bolt, which adds more complexity, the proposed method monitors the rock bolt load by measuring the load experience on the rock bolt anchor plate. Such a configuration has the advantages of simple structure and flexible implementation. In experimental observation, the FBG instrumented anchor plate is able to observe the load of the plate with good repeatability. This test will lead to further in-depth studies involving finite element analysis as well as more complex applications.

  7. A Study on the Fracture Control of Rock Bolts in High Ground Pressure Roadways of Deep Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the frequent fractures of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines, this paper analyzes the mechanism of fractures and concludes that high ground pressure and material de-fects are main reasons for the fracture of rock bolts. The basic idea of fracture control of rock bolts in high ground pressure roadways of deep mines is to increase the yield load and the limit load of rock bolt materials and reduce the actual load of rock bolts. There are four ways of controlling rock bolt fracture: increasing the rock bolt diameter, strengthening bolt materials, weakening support rigidity and the implementation of double supporting. With the roadway support of the 2302 working face of a coal mine as the project background, this paper carries out a study on the effect of two schemes, increasing the rock bolt diameter and the double supporting technique through methods of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and so on. It determines the most reasonable diam-eter of rock bolts and the best delay distance of secondary support. Practices indicate that rock bolt fracture can be effectively controlled through the double supporting technique, which strengthens the roof and two sides through the first supporting technique and strengthens side angles through the secondary supporting technique.

  8. Prying Force Calculation and Design Method for T-shaped Tensile Connector with High Strength Bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxin Hou; Guohong Huang; Chao Gong

    2015-01-01

    In order to establish the design method for T⁃shaped tensile connector with high strength bolt, the theoretical analysis is carried out. Firstly, it analyzes the performance of the connector and establishes prying force calculation model. Based on the model, prying force equation and function between bolt prying force and flange thickness is derived, and the min and max thickness requirement of flange plate under a certain tension load is then obtained. Finally, two simplified design methods of the connector are proposed, which are bolt pulling capacity method and flange plate bending capacity method.

  9. Expression of NO scavenging hemoglobin is involved in the timing of bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Jensen, Erik Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    -symbiotic hemoglobin gene, GLB2, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lines with GLB1 silencing had a significant delay of bolting and after bolting, shoots reverted to the rosette vegetative phase by formation of aerial rosettes at lateral meristems. Lines with overexpression of GLB1 or GLB2 bolted earlier than wild type plants...... molecule, NO. So far, NO scavenging has only been demonstrated for class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobins. A direct assay in Arabidopsis leaf cells shows that GLB1 as well as the class 2 non-symbiotic hemoglobin, GLB2, scavenge NO in vivo. NO has also been demonstrated to be a growth stimulating signal...

  10. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  11. Stress state and caving danger of the roof in bolt supporting roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-wei; XU Li-li

    2006-01-01

    The start point of this text is the bottleneck problem of bolt supporting coal entry that is security problem of bolt supporting roof,we divide one entry into some sections with different stress, simulate stress field of wall rock and rockbolt solidified at different sections used umbrella disperse soft UDEC(universal distinct element code), we educe that the stress level of wallrock and bolt solidified is higher in roof fall risk section, and roof rockbolt load can reflect this rule clearly, that offer an important guideline in monitoring entry roof fall risk.

  12. Time-frequency analysis of guided ultrasonic waves used for assessing integrity of rock bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate application of the time-frequency analysis (TFA) for processing guided ultrasonic waves measured by means of a specially designed ultrasonic rock bolt tester during nondestructive inspection of rock bolts. A pulse-echo method is adopted in the instrument as the most appropriate for the in-field applications. This paper presents methods for analysis of the measured guided ultrasonic waves using the TFA. The proposed TFA methodology is first demonstrated on the simulated signals and then verified using the experimental signals gathered from grouted prepared rock bolts provided with artificial defects simulating grout discontinuities.

  13. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the

  14. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  16. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available ; this is important in order to resist extreme conditions of high tensile and shear stress, much as a conventional roof bolt. Comparisons have been made with standard grades such as Type 304 stainless steel including the work-hardening behaviour. Some preliminary... of industrial annealed smartbolt alloy………………………...7 Figure 6. Smartbolt alloy plotted on Schaefler-De Long diagram………………………8 Figure 7. Comparison of different steel grades in terms of strength and ductility combination……………………………………………………12 Figure 8. Stress...

  17. Quantum Gravity and the Nuts and Bolts of Thermodynamic Volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS_4 with an S^3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

  18. Twofold hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-Bolt black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Setare; V. Kamali

    2012-01-01

    Previously we have shown that a four-dimensional Kerr-Bolt black hole in non-extremal and also in extremal cases could be described by a holographic two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT) [Ghezelbash A M,Kamali V and Setare M R 2010 Phys.Rev.D 82 124051; Setare M R and Kamali V 2010 JHEP 10 074].Motivated by recent work [Chen C M,Huang Y M,Sun J R,Wu M F and Zou S J 2010 Phys.Rev.D 82 066004],we show that there is another holographic description for these black holes.The first description is called the J-picture,whose construction is based on the black hole angular momentum.The new description is called the Q-picture,whose constructions originate from the nut charge of the black hole.Similar to the previous cases [Ghezelbash A M,Kamali V and Setare M R 2010 Phys.Rev.D 82 124051; Setare M R and Kamali V 2010 JHEP 10 074],we show that this new picture for a low frequency limit of the wave equation of a massless charged scalar field in the background of a Kerr-Bolt black hole can be written as the Casimir of SL(2,R) symmetry.Our result shows that the entropy of the black hole is reproduced by the Cardy formula.In addition,the absorption cross section is consistent with the finite temperature absorption cross section for a two-dimensional CFT.

  19. A Reduced Order Model of Force Displacement Curves for the Failure of Mechanical Bolts in Tension.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Keegan J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry causes issues when generating a mesh of the model. This report will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.

  20. Study of the dynamic behavior of a bolted joint under heavy loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Sami; Louf, François; Cluzel, Christophe; Dorival, Olivier; Champaney, Laurent; Audebert, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    In structural dynamics, the quantification of the quality and reliability of numerical models remains a relevant issue. While the behavior of structures such as beams and plates is generally understood, a large number of industrial structures are bolted assemblies of many components with connections that are not well understood. The main reason for this lack of understanding is that the dynamical behavior of the whole assembly depends critically upon joint conditions, especially under heavy loadings. For the purpose of improving our understanding and the development of pertinent models, a dynamic test bed, based on a bolted structure, is designed and modal testing is performed. The configuration of the bolted joint and the level of the loading are the relevant parameters, related to joint conditions, that are considered in this study. The results of the experimental campaign show the variation of the dissipation in a bolted joint and its apparent stiffness as a function of joint conditions.

  1. Comparative study between 2D and 3D FEM techniques in single bolt, single lap, composite bolted joints for space structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Dumitru COMAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models have been developed to study the effects of bolt-hole clearance on the mechanical behavior of bolted composites (graphite/epoxy joints in space structures. The type of the studied joint was single bolt, single lap, and the geometry is a standard type for these kind of composite joints space structures. In this study, two approaches, 2D (linear analysis and 3D (nonlinear analysis were developed and the results were compared to numerical and experiment results from literature. The contact between the parts affecting the accuracy and efficiency of the models is detailed. The model’s capability to predict the three-dimensional effects such as secondary bending and through-thickness variations of the stress and stain tensor fields is presented.

  2. Stress evolution and support mechanism of a bolt anchored in a rock mass with a weak interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Shuxue; Jing Hongwen; Chen Kunfu; Xu Guo'an; Meng Bo

    2017-01-01

    By applying experimental method, the bolt stress and supporting mechanism is studied during the deformation process of a rock mass containing a weak interlayer. The force measuring bolt is installed manually and instrumented five pairs of symmetrical strain gauges. The experimental results show that the fully grouted bolt suffers tensile, compressive, bending and shear stress at the same time. The bolt stress evolution is closely related to the deformation stages of the rock mass which are very gradually varying stage, gradually varying stage at the pre-peak and suddenly varying stage at the post peak stage.The axial compressive stress in the bolt is mainly induced by the moment. Thus, in most cases the axial compressive stress is distributed on one side of the bolt. For axial stresses, induced by the axial force and the bending moment at the post-peak stage, three types of changing are observed, viz. increasingincreasing type, decreasing-increasing type and increasing-decreasing type. The stress characteristics of the bolt section in the weak interlayer are significantly different from those in the hard rock. The failure models of the anchored bolt are tensile failure and shear failure, respectively. The bolt not only provides constraints on the free surface of the rock mass, but also resists the axial and lateral loading by the bending moment. This study provides valuable guidelines for bolting support design and its safetyssessment.

  3. Oil-to-coal cavern conversion pins its success on rock bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, H. (Atlas Copco MCT AB (Sweden))

    1989-07-01

    A new pressurized fluidized bed combustion power plant is being built in Stockholm. Coal will be stored underground, in old oil storage chambers. The roof had to be bolted and shotcreted and swellex bolts were used. These act as roof support with immediate action for the protection of the workers, and as a safety pin to reinforce the bond between shotcrete and the rock surface. 4 figs.

  4. Stabilization of ground movement with yield rock bolts using spatial effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naprasnikov, S.V.; Alexandrov, S.N.; Sazhnev, V.P.; Nazimko, V.V. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    New rock bolting technology has been developed for stabilization of roofs and floor closures in underground openings. Yield rock bolts should be inclined 5-40{degree} to the relative direction of expected roof deflection and oriented in the plane under an angle of 5-90{degree} relative to the orthogonal cross-section of the roadway. Such an orientation increases the pullout force by 2% and enhances stability of a roadway. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. On the performance of Usain Bolt in the 100 metre sprint

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J J Hernández; Gómez, R W

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model of the performance of the 100 m world record sprint of Usain Bolt during the 2009 World Championships at Berlin is developed, assuming a drag force proportional to $v$ and to $v^2$. The resulting equation of motion is solved and fitted to the experimental data obtained from the International Amateur of Athletics Federations that recorded Bolt's position with a LAVEG (laser velocity guard) device. It is worth to note that our model works only for short sprints.

  6. NDE applications in an anchor bolt and sign bridge inspection program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1998-03-01

    Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program and Sign Bridge Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever & overhead sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. All cantilever & overhead sign structures and high mast light towers have been inspected in-depth 'hands on' during this time period while implementation of inspection continues for interstate light towers and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining type of structure, type of material, welding details. For anchor bolts, type of material, cut or rolled threads, type of coating, and method of placement are important issues. Inspection emphasis are on 'hands on' and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed visual conditions of sign structures and anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension, etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations for anchor bolts, are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating critical cracks and failed members on existing sign structures and new sign structures less than six months old. Also, failed anchor bolts and critical cracks have been located on high mast light

  7. Matching nuts and bolts in O(n log n) time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlos, J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Ma, Yuan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Szemeredi, E. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Given a set of n nuts of distinct widths and a set of n bolts such that each nut corresponds to a unique bolt of the same width, how should we match every nut with its corresponding bolt by comparing nuts with bolts (no comparison is allowed between two nuts or between two bolts)? The problem can be naturally viewed as a variant of the classic sorting problem as follows. Given two lists of n numbers each such that one list is a permutation of the other, how should we sort the lists by comparisons only between numbers in different lists? We give an O(n log n)-time deterministic algorithm for the problem. This is optimal up to a constant factor and answers an open question posed by Alon, Blum, Fiat, Kannan, Naor, and Ostrovsky. Moreover, when copies of nuts and bolts are allowed, our algorithm runs in optimal O(log n) time on n processors in Valiant`s parallel comparison tree model. Our algorithm is based on the AKS sorting algorithm with substantial modifications.

  8. FEM analyses of stress and deformation of a flexible inner pressure bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-he; WANG Wei-qiang; ZHANG Le-wen

    2008-01-01

    The flexible inner pressure bolt is a new kind and new structural bolt (anchor rod). A number of structural improvements and performance test have been carried out. The bolt has superior compatibility to the soft crag and the large distortion tunnel with its flexibility. In order to study its stress, deformation and interaction mechanism thoroughly, a number of large distortion calculations and analyses have been carried out on the bolt by FEM (finite element method), especially with the ANSYS software, based on the updated Lagrangian law. The results show that the maximum stress of the inner wall of the bolt is consistent with an elastic analytic solution. The maximum stress on the body occurs in the vicinity of the enhancement material. The link enhancement of the body seems to be quite essential. The experimental results indicate that the maximum injection pressure in the bolt is 2.5 MPa without link enhancement and 8.3 MPa with the enhancement. This link enhancement effect is highly significant. These results provide some basis for the design, application and anchoring stress analysis of the holt.

  9. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  10. Experimental studies on the effects of bolt parameters on the bearing characteristics of reinforced rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Roadways supported by bolts contain support structures that are built into the rock surrounding the roadway, referred to as reinforced rocks in this paper. Using physical model simulation, the paper investigates the bearing characteristics of the reinforced rock under different bolt parameters with incrementally increased load. The experimental results show that the stress at the measurement point inside the structure varies with the kinetic pressure. The stress increases slowly as the load is initially applied, displays accelerated growth in the middle of the loading application, and decreases or remains constant in the later stage of the loading application. The change in displacement of the surrounding rock exhibits the following characteristics: a slow increase when the load is first applied, accelerated growth in the middle stage, and violent growth in the later stage. There is a good correlation between the change in the measured stress and the change in the surrounding rock displacement. Increasing the density of the bolt support and the length and diameter of the bolt improves the load-bearing performance of the reinforced rock, including its strength, internal peak stress, and residual stress. Bolting improves the internal structure of the surrounding rocks, and the deterioration of the surrounding rock decreases with the distance between the bolt supports.

  11. Failure Characteristics of Joint Bolts in Shield Tunnels Subjected to Impact Loads from a Derailed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact loads generated by derailed trains can be extremely high, especially in the case of heavy trains running at high speeds, which usually cause significant safety issues to the rail infrastructures. In shield tunnels, such impact loads may not only cause the damage and deformation of concrete segments, but also lead to the failure of segmental joint bolts. This paper presents a numerical study on the failure behavior of segmental joint bolts in the shield tunnel under impact loading resulting from train derailments. A three-dimensional (3D numerical model of a shield tunnel based on the finite element (FE modelling strategy was established, in which the structural behavior of the segmental joint surfaces and the mechanical behavior of the segmental joint bolts were determined. The numerical results show that the occurrence of bolt failure starts at the joints near the impacted segment and develops along the travel direction of train. An extensive parametric study was subsequently performed and the influences of the bolt failure on the dynamic response of the segment were investigated. In particular, the proposed FE model and the analytical results will be used for optimizing the design method of the shield tunnel in preventing the failure of the joint bolts due to the impact load from a derailed HST.

  12. Asymptomatic Enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in captive mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2007-02-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing chromotrope 2R stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques for testing feces from 193 captive mammals demonstrated that 3 animals (1.6%) shed Encephalitozoon bieneusi spores. These include two critically endangered species (i.e., black lemurs, Eulemur macaco flavifrons; and Visayan warty pig, Sus cebifrons negrinus) and a threatened species (mongoose lemur, Eulemur mongoz). The concentration of spores varied from 2.7 x 10(5) to 5.7 x 10(5)/g of feces, and all infections were asymptomatic. The study demonstrates that E. bieneusi spores can originate from captive animals, which is of particular epidemiologic importance because the close containment of zoological gardens can facilitate pathogen spread to other animals and also to people such as zoo personnel and visitors.

  13. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  14. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Das; A. Srivastav; Chakraborty, D.; Gupta, S. K.; Nigam, P

    2009-01-01

    Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis) at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4...

  15. Improving boiler foundation bolt installation technology%提高锅炉地脚螺栓安装工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰

    2014-01-01

    阐述了锅炉地脚螺栓安装前的准备工作,通过对螺栓安装施工工艺流程的介绍,分析了提高螺栓与螺栓支架安装精度的方法,并对检验螺栓安装质量的技术要点作了研究,以确保锅炉地脚螺栓安装的正确无误。%The paper illustrates boiler foundation bolt installation preparations. Through introducing bolt installation technology procedures, it analyzes methods of improving bolt and bolt support installation accuracy, and studies technological points of examining bolt installation quality, with a view to guarantee boiler foundation bolt installation correct.

  16. Analysis of Yielding Steel Arch Support with Rock Bolts in Mine Roadways Stability Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Małkowski, Piotr; Bednarek, łukasz

    2014-10-01

    The result of the search for new technological solutions in the field of support for roadways in coal mines has in recent years been the widespread use of steel arch with rockbolt support systems. The efficiency of these systems is affected among other things by the option of installing rock bolts after the actual driving the mine roadway, the increased load capacity that these systems can support, and their resistance to dynamic weight. Large variation in the way that these steel arch support can be connected using different types of rock bolts necessitates mining research revealing the effectiveness of such solutions. Although the steel arch with rockbolt support system is used in the majority of European coal mines, it is still not possible to apply templates of schemes due to the diversity of geological and mining conditions. Therefore, throughout a period of several years, the authors of this article conducted research in situ under conditions of different schemes related to connecting arched support frames with rock bolts, with only selected results being presented in the article. The measurements of convergence, load supported by the system frame, load supported by the rock bolts, and the stratification of roof rocks were analyzed, carried out in two roadways with yielding steel arch support in which strand bolts were applied. The article also proposes the index for working maintenance nuw, used in preliminarily assessing the stability of a given working with a limited number of data concerning geomechanical conditions. Additionally considered are empirical methods used in Poland for designing steel arch with rock bolt support systems. The results of mine research indicate that strengthening yielding steel support with strand bolts through steel beams maintains the stability of a roadway, even when exposed to the exploitation stress. Aside from the impact of exploitation, deformations of the support system are negligible, despite the fact that the tensile

  17. A Component-Based Study of the Effect of Diameter on Bond and Anchorage Characteristics of Blind-Bolted Connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    Full Text Available Structural hollow sections are gaining worldwide importance due to their structural and architectural advantages over open steel sections. The only obstacle to their use is their connection with other structural members. To overcome the obstacle of tightening the bolt from one side has given birth to the concept of blind bolts. Blind bolts, being the practical solution to the connection hindrance for the use of hollow and concrete filled hollow sections play a vital role. Flowdrill, the Huck High Strength Blind Bolt and the Lindapter Hollobolt are the well-known commercially available blind bolts. Although the development of blind bolts has largely resolved this issue, the use of structural hollow sections remains limited to shear resistance. Therefore, a new modified version of the blind bolt, known as the "Extended Hollo-Bolt" (EHB due to its enhanced capacity for bonding with concrete, can overcome the issue of low moment resistance capacity associated with blind-bolted connections. The load transfer mechanism of this recently developed blind bolt remains unclear, however. This study uses a parametric approach to characterising the EHB, using diameter as the variable parameter. Stiffness and load-carrying capacity were evaluated at two different bolt sizes. To investigate the load transfer mechanism, a component-based study of the bond and anchorage characteristics was performed by breaking down the EHB into its components. The results of the study provide insight into the load transfer mechanism of the blind bolt in question. The proposed component-based model was validated by a spring model, through which the stiffness of the EHB was compared to that of its components combined. The combined stiffness of the components was found to be roughly equivalent to that of the EHB as a whole, validating the use of this component-based approach.

  18. Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescimanno, P.J.; Keller, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.

  19. European development Rock bolting. Desarrollo Europeo del Bulonaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The project European Development Rockbolting which was developed during the period 1994-1997 and carried out within the OCICARBON Action Program (OCICARBON-ITGE agreement dated September 1, 1994, Code C-13-438) as well as within the framework of the Coal Technical research Program of the D. G. XVII of the EEC, n 7220/AB/143. The project has had the following external partners: DMT (Germany), BCC (UK) and CDF (France), and the collaboration of INERIS (France), RMT (UK) and GEOCONTROL S. A. (Spain). The objective of the investigation was to improve the techniques and design currently used in the application of rockbolts for supporting of both infrastructure and beds in the European coal mining. The most important result, besides that derived from the sharing of experiences and knowledge, was the technological design of a supporting system, which was carried out by each partner for the various proposed exploitations. The Spanish part carried out the works of designing and estimation of the bolting system corresponding to the exploitations of: -Carbones de Pedraforca SA. Saldes mine. -U. E. Provence. Pit Y. Morandat.

  20. European development Rock bolting; Desarrollo Europeo del Bulonaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The project European Development Rockbolting which was developed during the period 1994-1997 and carried out within the OCICARBON Action Program (OCICARBON-ITGE agreement dated September 1, 1994, Code C-13-438) as well as within the framework of the Coal Technical research Program of the D. G. XVII of the EEC, n 7220/AB/143. The project has had the following external partners: DMT (Germany), BCC (UK) and CDF (France), and the collaboration of INERIS (France), RMT (UK) and GEOCONTROL S. A. (Spain). The objective of the investigation was to improve the techniques and design currently used in the application of rockbolts for supporting of both infrastructure and beds in the European coal mining. The most important result, besides that derived from the sharing of experiences and knowledge, was the technological design of a supporting system, which was carried out by each partner for the various proposed exploitations. The Spanish part carried out the works of designing and estimation of the bolting system corresponding to the exploitations of: -Carbones de Pedraforca SA. Saldes mine. -U. E. Provence. Pit Y. Morandat.

  1. FE-MODELLING OF A CONTACT LAYER BETWEEN ELEMENTS JOINED IN PRELOADED BOLTED CONNECTIONS FOR THE OPERATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grzejda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and calculations of a contact layer between elements joined in a preloaded bolted connection for the operational condition are presented. The physical model of the bolted connection is based on a flexible flange element that is joined with a rigid support by means of the no-bolt model (at the assembly stage or the rigid body bolt model (at the operational stage. The contact layer between joined elements is described as the nonlinear Winkler model. The contact joint model considering an experimental normal elastic characteristic is presented. Examples of normal contact pressure and normal contact deformations distributions are contained.

  2. Cost-effectiveness comparison between non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and maximum-tolerated medical therapy for glaucoma within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Paletta Guedes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS has emerged as a viable option in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPDS and to compare it to maximum medical treatment in a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: A decision analysis model was built. Surgical (NPDS arm of the decision tree was observational (consecutive retrospective case series and maximum medical treatment arm was hypothetical. Maximum medical therapy was considered a three-drug regimen (association of a fixed combination of timolol/dorzolamide [FCTD] and a prostaglandin analogue [bimatoprost, latanoprost or travoprost]. Cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as direct cost (US dollars for each percentage of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Horizon was 5 years and perspective is from the public health care service in Brazil (SUS. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated. RESULTS: Direct cost for each percentage of IOP reduction in 5 years (cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 10.19 for NPDS; US$ 37.45 for the association of a FCTD and bimatoprost; US$ 39.33 for FCTD and travoprost; and US$ 41.42 for FCTD and latanoprost. NPDS demonstrated a better cost-effectiveness ratio, compared to maximum medical therapy. The ICER was negative for all medical treatment options; therefore NPDS was dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, NPDS was both less costly and more effective than maximum medical therapy. From the Brazilian public health perspective, it was the most cost-effective treatment option when compared to maximum medical therapy (FCTD and prostaglandin.

  3. Strengths of composite-to-metal double-lap bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hsien-Tang

    1998-12-01

    A three-dimensional analysis was proposed to study the through-the-thickness clamping effect on the bearing failure of double-lap bolted laminated composite joints. Experiments were first performed to characterize the material response due to bearing failure in composite bolted joints with and without lateral clamp-up supports. Composite plates made of T800H/3900-2 graphite/epoxy were selected in the tests, and various washer sizes and clamping forces were used in the study. The clamping force in the bolt was found to vary with the applied load, and may increase significantly due to a sudden through-the-thickness expansion of the laminate under the washers where bearing failure occurred. Experiments showed that the joint strength and response can be significantly affected by the bolt clamp-up, and the bolt bearing failure is a 3-D phenomenon. In order to facilitate the use of the proposed model with the ABAQUS code, an interface module 3DBOLT was developed. In order to reinforce the incompressibility condition in calculations for bearing-damaged material predicted by the model, the condition was imposed through a penalty method in the frame work of finite element analyses. The module provides a user-friendly input deck, generates automatically a joint mesh, and produces outputs and graphics for displaying the stresses, strains, and deformations of the joints and for simulating the failure progression in joints during loading. Extensive comparisons were made between the test data and model predictions. Overall, the model predicts both the failure load and response of bolted composite joints very well for various clamping forces and washer sizes. The model also predicted very well for joints failed in net-tension and shear-out modes. The predicted bolt clamp-up load as a function of the applied load agreed also very well with the data, which validates that the proposed incompressibility assumption for bearing-damaged material. Based on the model, a parametric study

  4. A Method to Capture Macroslip at Bolted Interfaces [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Ronald Neil; Heitman, Lili Anne Akin

    2016-01-01

    Relative motion at bolted connections can occur for large shock loads as the internal shear force in the bolted connection overcomes the frictional resistive force. This macroslip in a structure dissipates energy and reduces the response of the components above the bolted connection. There is a need to be able to capture macroslip behavior in a structural dynamics model. A linear model and many nonlinear models are not able to predict marcoslip effectively. The proposed method to capture macroslip is to use the multi-body dynamics code ADAMS to model joints with 3-D contact at the bolted interfaces. This model includes both static and dynamic friction. The joints are preloaded and the pinning effect when a bolt shank impacts a through hole inside diameter is captured. Substructure representations of the components are included to account for component flexibility and dynamics. This method was applied to a simplified model of an aerospace structure and validation experiments were performed to test the adequacy of the method.

  5. Corrosion monitoring of rock bolt by using a low coherent fiber-optic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Pinglei; Sun, Changsen

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion of rock bolts is a major cause for deterioration of the anchor-reinforced concrete slopes structures. In order to evaluate this corrosion-based deterioration in an early stage, a nondestructive technique was required. However, until now, there are no commercialized solutions that are straightforwardly available. Here, a low-coherent fiber-optic sensing technique was developed. This method can carry out the monitoring of the corrosion-caused expansion at the accuracy of sub-microstrains by circled the sensing optical fiber in two ways. One was wound the fiber on the surface of steel rock bolt directly, and thereby generated a nonuniformity in the interface of cement with rock bolt. The other was circled the fiber on a cement mortar cushion without destroying the interface any way. The sensing fiber was configured as one arm of the fiber-optic Michelson interferometer. The acceleration corrosion experiments demonstrated that a uniform interface between cement and rock bolt determined the progress of corrosion development. An early stage evaluation of the corrosion development in rock bolts was monitored.

  6. Nonlinear Modeling and Identification of an Aluminum Honeycomb Panel with Multiple Bolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Chu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the nonlinear dynamics modeling and parameter identification of an Aluminum Honeycomb Panel (AHP with multiple bolted joints. Finite element method using eight-node solid elements is exploited to model the panel and the bolted connection interface as a homogeneous, isotropic plate and as a thin layer of nonlinear elastic-plastic material, respectively. The material properties of a thin layer are defined by a bilinear elastic plastic model, which can describe the energy dissipation and softening phenomena in the bolted joints under nonlinear states. Experimental tests at low and high excitation levels are performed to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the bolted structure. In particular, the linear material parameters of the panel are identified via experimental tests at low excitation levels, whereas the nonlinear material parameters of the thin layer are updated by using the genetic algorithm to minimize the residual error between the measured and the simulation data at a high excitation level. It is demonstrated by comparing the frequency responses of the updated FEM and the experimental system that the thin layer of bilinear elastic-plastic material is very effective for modeling the nonlinear joint interface of the assembled structure with multiple bolts.

  7. Submillimeter bolt location in car bodywork for production line quality inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Alviso-Quibrera, Samuel; Lopez-Lopez, Aurelio

    2000-03-01

    In the automotive industry, a vehicle begins with the construction of the vehicle floor. Later on, several robots weld a series of bolts to this floor which are used to fix other parts. Due to several problems, like welding tools wearing, robot miscalibration or momentary low power supply, among others, some bolts are incorrectly positioned or are not present at all, bringing problems and delays in the next work cells. Therefore, it is of importance to verify the quality of welded parts before the following assembly steps. A computer vision system is proposed in order to locate autonomously the presence and quality of the bolts. The system should carry on the inspection in real time at the car assembly line under the following conditions: without touching the bodywork, with a precision in the submillimeter range and in few seconds. In this paper we present a basic computer vision system for bolt location in the submillimeter range. We analyze three arrangements of the system components (camera and illumination sources) that produce different results in the localization. Results are presented and compared for the three approaches obtained under laboratory conditions. The algorithms were tested in the assembling line. Variations up to one millimeter in the welded position of the bolts were observed.

  8. Parameter analysis of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; ZHOU Zi-long; LI Qi-yue; HU Liu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimal parameters of anchor bolt supporting system for large-span and jointed rock mass in Kaiyang Phosphor Mine, it is expensive and unavailable with the method of in-situ experiments. This paper describes a numerical modeling with discrete element method for the supporting effects of different type of anchor bolts. The anchor bolts with variant length of 0.5 m, 0.8 m, 1.0 m, diameter of 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, setting spacing of 3.0 m, 2.5 m, 2.0 m, and setting angle of 10°, 20°, 30°, are simulated respectively. The results show that there exist optimal parameters of anchor bolt support for large-span and jointed rock mass. For the bolt support of the concerning, the optimal length is 2.5-3.5 m, the diameter is 25-35 mm, the spacing is 0.5-0.6 m, and the setting angle is 105°.

  9. Captive Ancestry Upwardly Biases Estimates of Relative Reproductive Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Janna R; Christie, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    Supplementation programs, which release captive-born individuals into the wild, are commonly used to demographically bolster declining populations. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the reproductive success of captive-born individuals released into the wild is often compared to the reproductive success of wild-born individuals in the recipient population (relative reproductive success, RRS). However, if there are heritable reductions in fitness associated with captive breeding, gene flow from captive-born individuals into the wild population can reduce the fitness of the wild population. Here, we show that when captive ancestry in the wild population reduces mean population fitness, estimates of RRS are upwardly biased, meaning that the relative fitness of captive-born individuals is over-estimated. Furthermore, the magnitude of this bias increases with the length of time that a supplementation program has been releasing captive-born individuals. This phenomenon has long-term conservation impacts since management decisions regarding the design of a supplementation program and the number of individuals to release can be based, at least in part, on RRS estimates. Therefore, we urge caution in the interpretation of relative fitness measures when the captive ancestry of the wild population cannot be precisely measured. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  11. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results.

  12. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  13. A Redox-Mediated Modulation of Stem Bolting in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Differentially Expressing the External Mitochondrial NADPH Dehydrogenase1[W][OA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun-Jun Liu; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Sabá V Wallström; Ida Lager; Agnieszka M Michalecka; Fredrik E B Norberg; Susanne Widell; Kenneth M Fredlund; Alisdair R Fernie; Allan G Rasmusson

    2009-01-01

    .... Nicotiana sylvestris plants overexpressing potato (Solanum tuberosum) NDB1 displayed early bolting, whereas sense suppression of the same gene led to delayed bolting, with consequential changes in flowering time...

  14. Numerical Computation of Stress Intensity Factors for Bolt-hole Corner Crack in Mechanical Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liqing; Gai Bingzheng

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional finite element method is used to solve the problem of the quarter-elliptical comer crack of the bolt-hole in mechanical joints being subjected to remote tension. The square-root stress singularity around the corner crack front is simulated using the collapsed 20-node quarter point singular elements. The contact interaction between the bolt and the hole boundary is considered in the finite element analysis. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack front are evaluated by using the displacement correlation technique. The effects of the amount of clearance between the hole and the bolt on the SIFs are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the SIF for mode I decrease with the decreases in clearance, and in the cases of clearance being present, the corner crack is in a mix-mode, even if mode I loading is dominant.

  15. Review Paper on Performance Evaluation of Nut and Bolt Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Paunikar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is constant research going on in the field of recognition by means of artificial intelligence to enhance the productivity. The automotive industry requires an automated system to sort different sizes and shapes nut and bolt which are the mainly used component in the industry, to improve the overall productivity. This review paper deals with some feature extraction techniques and its performance impact on the artificial neural network efficiency for the recognition of nut and bolt. The main feature extraction techniques analysed for this review paper are stationary wavelet transform, principle component analysis and radius analysis. The aforementioned techniques are already tested and simulation is done on MATLAB.The results obtained varies depending on pre-processing techniques used for the nut and bolt recognition.

  16. Simulation and experiment for the inspection of stainless steel bolts in servicing using an ultrasonic phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhong; He, Renyang; Kang, Xiaowei; Yang, Xuyun

    2015-10-01

    The non-destructive testing of small-sized (M12-M20) stainless steel bolts in servicing is always a technical problem. This article focuses on the simulation and experimental research of stainless steel bolts with an artificial defect reflector using ultrasonic phased array inspection. Based on the observation of the sound field distribution of stainless steel bolts in ultrasonic phased array as well as simulation modelling and analysis of the phased array probes' detection effects with various defect sizes, different artificial defect reflectors of M16 stainless steel bolts are machined in reference to the simulation results. Next, those bolts are tested using a 10-wafer phased array probe with 5 MHz. The test results finally prove that ultrasonic phased array can detect 1-mm cracks in diameter with different depths of M16 stainless steel bolts and a metal loss of Φ1 mm of through-hole bolts, which provides technical support for future non-destructive testing of stainless steel bolts in servicing.

  17. The Analysis of the Water-Expanded Rock Bolts Ruptures During Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Bogdan; Krawczyk, Janusz; Bała, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    This paper describe the investigation of a water-expanded rock bolts failed during pressure test (inner water pressure of 330 bar). A main objective of this work was to determine the cracks nucleation and propagation mechanism. It was found that the rock bolts failure was promoted by presence of non-metallic inclusions (mainly long sulphide inclusions) but the primary cause of cracking is strain ageing of steel. Suggestions for improving the behaviour of steel used for water-expanded rock belts by the modification of its chemical composition are proposed finally.

  18. The Effect of Temperature on Bearing Strength of CFRP Bolted Joint with Washer Constraining

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Noriyoshi; Wang, Wen-Xue; Takao, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Effects of temperature on the bearing strength of a CF/Epoxy quasi-isotropic laminate bolted joint are investigated experimentally. The material system is CF/Epoxy T800H/#3631 with stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]_. In this study, a semi-circular notched specimen is chosen and loaded in compression instead of a well-known double lap joint. This method has advantages in material cost and simplicity of its damage mode. A bolted joint with the washer constraint is loaded at 25, 150 and —100℃. ...

  19. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.; Tatkowski, Greg; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S. R.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-09-01

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  20. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  1. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  2. A model updating method for hybrid composite/aluminum bolted joints using modal test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Farhad; Shokrollahi, Saeed; Jamal-Omidi, Majid; Ahmadian, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple and applicable model for predicting the dynamic behavior of bolted joints in hybrid aluminum/composite structures and its model updating using modal test data. In this regards, after investigations on bolted joints in metallic structures which led to a new concept called joint affected region (JAR) published in Shokrollahi and Adel (2016), now, a doubly connective layer is established in order to simulate the bolted joint interfaces in hybrid structures. Using the proposed model, the natural frequencies of the hybrid bolted joint structure are computed and compared to the modal test results in order to evaluate and verify the new model predictions. Because of differences in the results of two approaches, the finite element (FE) model is updated based on the genetic algorithm (GA) by minimizing the differences between analytical model and test results. This is done by identifying the parameters at the JAR including isotropic Young's modulus in metallic substructure and that of anisotropic composite substructure. The updated model compared to the initial model simulates experimental results more properly. Therefore, the proposed model can be used for modal analysis of the hybrid joint interfaces in complex and large structures.

  3. Fewer complications with bolt-connected than tunneled external ventricular drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Slott; Carlsen, Jakob Gram; Sørensen, Jens Christian;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventriculostomy/external ventricular drain (EVD) is a common neurosurgical procedure. Various techniques are used to fixate the drain and the objective of this study was, in a retrospective setting, to compare the incidence of complications when using bolt-connected EVD (BC-EVD) versus...

  4. Evaluation of Many Load Tests of Passive Rock Bolts in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Ondřej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the research project “FR-TI4/329 Research and development - creating an application system for the design and analysis of soil and rock anchors including the development of monitoring elements”, an extensive stage of field load tests of rock bolts was carried out. The tests were conducted at 14 locations with varied rock composition. Before the initial tests, a loading stand was designed and constructed. A total of 201 pieces of tensile tests of bolts having lengths from 0.5 up to 2.5 m, a diameter of 22-32 mm, were performed. These were fully threaded rods, self-drilling rods, and fiberglass rods. The bolts were clamped into the cement and resin. The loading tests were always performed until material failure of bolts or shear stress failure at the interface cement-rock. At each location, basic geotechnical survey was carried out in the form of core drilling in a length of 3.0 metres with the assessment of the rock mass in situ, and laboratory testing of rock mechanics. Upon the completion of testing protocols, rock mass properties analysis was performed focusing on the evaluation of shear friction at the grouting-rock interface.

  5. Loosening and Sliding Behaviour of Bolt-Nut Fastener under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruse T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thread joint has been frequently used for the efficient productivity and maintainability as a machine element. However, many troubles such as loosening of bolted joints or fatigue failure of bolt were often experienced. Many attentions must be paid on the improvement of the strength and the reliability of the thread joints [1, 2]. It is generally said that the fastening axial force rapidly decreases by the rotation loosening of nuts if the relative slippage on the interfaces between nuts and fastened body goes beyond a certain critical limit [3]. This critical relative slippage (Scr that prescribes the upper limit for preventing the loosening behaviour has been estimated according to the theoretically obtained equation considering the bending deformation of bolt and the geometrical constraint condition. In this paper, firstly we present the equation for estimating the Scr based on the fundamental cantilever deformation model. Then we present the investigated results of the deformation behaviour of bolt-nut joint under transverse loading condition considering the reaction moment by nut (Mn. Finaly we can confirmed that these estimated results of critical relative slippage coincided well with the experimental results [4, 5].

  6. Beware of Nuts and Bolts: Putting Evolution into the Teaching of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Martin K.; Nelson, Craig E.

    2005-01-01

    Biological classification embodies the most fundamental idea in all of biology, especially evolution. The contrast between biological classifications and those of manufactured objects for instance hardware-based collection of screws, nails and bolts, help illustrate the central biological ideas and induce student interest, however, this could be…

  7. Velocity dispersions in a cluster of stars: How fast could Usain Bolt have run?

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, H K; Langangen, O; Wehus, I K

    2008-01-01

    Since that very memorable day at the Beijing 2008 Olympics, a big question on every sports commentator's mind has been "What would the 100 meter dash world record have been, had Usain Bolt not celebrated at the end of his race?" Glen Mills, Bolt's coach suggested at a recent press conference that the time could have been 9.52 seconds or better. We revisit this question by measuring Bolt's position as a function of time using footage of the run, and then extrapolate into the last two seconds based on two different assumptions. First, we conservatively assume that Bolt could have maintained Richard Thompson's, the runner-up, acceleration during the end of the race. Second, based on the race development prior to the celebration, we assume that he could also have kept an acceleration of 0.5 m/s^2 higher than Thompson. In these two cases, we find that the new world record would have been 9.61 +/- 0.04 and 9.55 +/- 0.04 seconds, respectively, where the uncertainties denote 95% statistical errors.

  8. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  9. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  10. A Smart Washer for Bolt Looseness Monitoring Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyue Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic based active sensing methods have been researched to monitor preload on bolt connections. However, there is a saturation problem involved with this type of method. The transmitted energy is sometimes saturated before the maximum preload which is due to it coming into contact with flat surfaces. When it comes to flat contact surfaces, the true contact area will easily saturate with the preload. The design of a new type of bolt looseness monitoring sensor, a smart washer, is to mitigate the saturation problem. The smart washer is composed of two annular disks with contact surfaces that are machined into convex and concave respectively, to eliminate the complete flat contact surfaces and to reduce the saturation effect. One piezoelectric patch is bonded on the non-contact surface of each annular disk. These two mating annular disks form a smart washer. One of the two piezoelectric patches serves as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave that propagates through the contact surface; the other one serves as a sensor to detect the propagated waves. The wave energy propagated through the contact surface is proportional to the true contact area which is determined by the bolt preload. The time reversal method is used to extract the peak of the focused signal as the index of the transmission wave energy; then, the relationship between the signal peak and bolt preload is obtained. Experimental results show that the focused signal peak value changes with the bolt preload and presents an approximate linear relationship when the saturation problem is experienced. The proposed smart washer can monitor the full range of the rated preload.

  11. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for Bolting Based on a Double Haploid Population of Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Yang-Jun Yu; Feng-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zou; Xiu-Yun Zhao; De-Shuang Zhang; Jia-Bing Xu

    2007-01-01

    Early bolting of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) during spring cultivation often has detrimental effects on the yield and quality of the harvested products. Breeding late bolting varieties is a major objective of Chinese cabbage breeding programs. in order to analyze the genetic basis of bolting traits, a genetic map of B. rapa was constructed based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and isozyme markers. Marker analysis was carried out on 81 double haploid (DH) lines obtained by mlcrospore culture from F1 progeny of two homozygous parents: B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (BY) (an extra-early bolting Chinese cabbage line) and B. rapa L. ssp. rapifera (MM) (an extra-late bolting European turnip line). A total of 326 markers including 130 AFLPs, 123 SRAPs, 16 SSRs, 43RAPDs and 14 isozymes were used to construct a linkage map with 10 linkage groups covering 882 cM with an average distance of 2.71 cM between loci. The bolting trait of each DH line was evaluated by the bolting index under controlled conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using multiple QTL model mapping with MapQTL5.0 software. Eight QTLs controlling bolting resistance were identified. These QTLs, accounting for 14.1% to 25.2% of the phenotyplc variation with positive additive effects, were distributed into three linkage groups. These results provide useful information for molecular marker-assisted selection of late bolting traits in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.

  12. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  13. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  14. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS: Th...

  15. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  17. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  18. Monthly morphometric data on captive loggerhead sea turtles 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  19. Failure of intramedullary femoral nail with segmental breakage of distal locking bolts: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Aggerwal; Nitesh Gahlot; Uttam C. Saini; Kamal Bali

    2011-01-01

    Breakage of locking bolts is an important cause of interlocking nail failure in femoral fractures. It usually occurs in the form of single breakage in one of the distal bolts of the nail or nail breakage around the distal locking hole. Here we report an unusual case of intramedullary femoral nail failure with segmental breakage of both the distal locking bolts. Such a scenario usually complicates further management. We successfully managed this case with exchange nailing without bone grafting. Here we briefly reviewed the literature regarding such an unusual presentation and discussed in detail the possible etiology of such a presentation and the management options when facing such a complex situation.

  20. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable.

  1. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  2. Experimental characterization of damage at countersunk bolted joints tested under quasi-static bearing loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Alexandru Paul

    The use of composite materials in aerospace vehicles has allowed for creation of lighter structures that provide excellent stiffness. Although they allow for easy disassembly and inspection of critical assemblies, bolted joints are common damage initiation sites in composite structures. In order for aging aircraft to be considered for life extension programs, the damage at these locations must be characterized and well-understood. Failure studies require that data be provided through experimental tests. The drawback of the present test standard for bolted composite joints is that it was initially designed for testing polymers. This thesis discusses deficiencies in the measurement of bearing strength as a result of this shortcoming, although the battery of bearing tests is modeled after this established test standard. The goal of the present work is to characterize the bearing load induced damage in laminates with pin bearing and countersunk fasteners through a series of bearing tests on laminated composites using a new modified ASTM D5961 fixture designed for testing countersunk bolted joints. This thesis examines variations in measurement of bearing strength that comes with using different test fixtures. The reliability of each test fixture to represent real conditions is evaluated using test fixtures that represent real joint configurations. Results for damage conditions and joint responses are compared. This thesis presents a study of the damage initiation and accumulation in composite specimens loaded in bearing using three different test fixtures: Procedure A, Procedure C, and Procedure A Modified. Procedure A, which is used to load the test specimen in double-shear via a straight pin, is a well known test fixture that comes from ASTM D5961. Procedure C has a countersunk fastener that loads the test specimen in single-shear. These types of fasteners are preferred in the aerospace industry over traditional bolts in order to maintain a smooth aerodynamic profile

  3. 栓焊结合钢桥高强度螺栓施工质量控制%Construction Quality Control of High-Strength Bolts for a Bolted and Welded Steel Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志伟; 文世军; 高琳琳

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the construction quality of the big hexagonal head high-strength bolts, the construction quality of the bolted steel truss girder members (used with the frictional type big hexagonal head bolt sets) of Fenfangwan Changjiang River Bridge is cited as an example. The construction quality of the bolts is discussed from the following aspects of the principal'parame-ters, checking, acceptance and storage of the bolts delivered to the construction site; the site torque moment test, selection and utilization of the tightening spanners, handling of the frictional surfaces; the construction technology of the bolts, construction sequences of the welded and bolted connection and also the checking, acceptance and corrosion protection of the bolts. The construction practice of the bridge-proves that in the process of the construction, the construction strictly following the formulated quality control requirements for the high-strength bolts can well control the various procedures related to the construction quality of the bolts and control the qualification ratios of the bolts in all aspects of the construction methods, construction requirements and construction technology.%为了保证大六角高强度螺栓施工质量,以重庆粉房湾长江大桥钢桁梁杆件栓接(摩擦型高强度大六角头螺栓连接副)施工及质量控制为背景,从高强度螺栓的主要参数、高强度螺栓进场验收及保管、工地扭矩系数试验、扭力扳手的选择及使用、摩擦面的处理、大六角头高强度螺栓施工工艺、栓焊结合型高强度螺栓施工顺序、高强度螺栓的验收及防腐等方面进行讨论.实践表明,在高强度螺栓施工过程中,严格按照制定的质量控制要求进行施工,从施工方法、施工要求、施工工艺上,对涉及高强度螺栓质量的各个环节进行把关,可以较好地控制高强度螺栓的终拧合格率.

  4. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  5. Applied on bolting-cable anchor support of full-seam roadway in weaker thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆彪; 张生华; 郭励生

    2003-01-01

    The designing method and the supporting mechanism of both bolt and small cable anchor for full-seam roadway in the weaker thick coal seam are systematically analyzed, and the construction technology and the supporting results are briefly summarized.

  6. Early Bolting in Short Days: An Arabidopsis Mutation That Causes Early Flowering and Partially Suppresses the Floral Phenotype of leafy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Concepción Gómez-Mena; Manuel Piñeiro; José M. Franco-Zorrilla; Julio Salinas; George Coupland; José M. Martínez-Zapater

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of these signals promote the onset of flowering, whereas others repress it. We describe here the isolation and characterization of two allelic mutations that cause early flowering and define a new locus, EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS...

  7. 压水堆反应堆压力容器密封主螺栓预紧过程模拟%Simulation of Bolt-up Process for Seal Main Bolts of PWR Pressure Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝

    2015-01-01

    建立了我国自主压水堆反应堆压力容器分析模型,采用通用结构分析软件ABAQUS对密封主螺栓的预紧过程进行了模拟分析。通过计算,可以得到螺栓载荷的变化、上下法兰的变形过程,从而判断螺栓加载荷顺序和大小是否合理。对于一回路压力容器的密封预紧操作具有很好的参考价值。%The reactor pressure vessel of self-owned pressure water reactor (PWR) is built, and the bolt-up process for main bolts is analyzed in this paper. According to the calculation, the change of the pre-load on the bolts and the deformation of the main flange can be checked, and a lot of useful conclusions can be got, such as whether the bolt-load of every step is good or not, whether the bolt groups are good or not. The simulation results of this paper are very meaningful for the bolt-up process operation of the first loop pressure vessel.

  8. 农作物致角膜非穿透性外伤128例临床分析%The treatment analysis of 128 cases of nonpenetrated cornea trauma caused by crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍志琴; 聂尚武; 王金华; 黄辉; 苏凡凡

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨农作物致角膜非穿透性外伤的正确治疗方法.方法 对128例农作物致角膜非穿透性外伤患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.将患者按受伤至就诊时间分为三组:33例于受伤当天就诊(A组),72例于受伤次日至1周内就诊(B组),23例于受伤后1周就诊(C组).对三组患者的治疗方法及预后进行分析.结果 A组、B组、C组角膜溃疡发生率比较差异有统计学意义[6.1%(2/33)、62.5%(45/72)、100.0%(23/23),χ2=52.32,P<0.01].B组12例行球结膜遮盖术,2例行角膜移植术,2例行眼内容物剜除术;C组10例行球结膜遮盖术,4例行角膜移植术,2例行眼内容物剜除术.其余患者均经病灶清创联合药物治疗治愈.结论 农作物致角膜非穿透性外伤需重视并及时恰当处理,早期清创联合碘伏烧灼可有效预防感染性角膜炎的发生,球结膜遮盖术对角膜外伤后导致的角膜溃疡有较好的治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the clinical treatment of nonpenetrated cornea trauma caused by crops. Methods Clinical data of 128 cases of nonpenetrated cornea trauma caused by crops were retrospectively analyzed. According to the interval time between occurrence of trauma and clinic visiting, the patients were divided into 3 groups:group A (33 cases,<24 h), group B (72 cases, 24 h≤interval time<1 week) and group C (23 cases, ≥ 1 week). The therapeutic effects and prognosis were analyzed. Results There was statistical difference in the incidence of corneal ulcer among group A, group B and group C: 6.1% (2/33), 62.5% (45/72) and 100.0% (23/23), χ2= 52.32, P<0.01. In group B, 12 cases were treated with conjunctival flap covering, 2 cases received keratoplasty and 2 cases undertook enucleation. In group C, 10 cases were treated with conjunctival flap covering, 4 cases received keratoplasty and 2 patients undertook enucleation finally. All the other patients were cured with local debridement and medical treatment. Conclusions

  9. The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc-Nickel: OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners - Getting It Into Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Blake Simpson Louie Tran The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners – Getting It Into Production Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel : OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on...currently in production 2. Problem at Hand – Hexavalent Chromates 3. Transition to Zinc- Nickel 4. Preliminary Testing 5. Plan moving forward for

  10. A zygomycotic infection in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, W; Chandler, F W; Padhye, A A; Hamm, T E

    1983-06-01

    We report disseminated, fatal fungal disease involving subcutaneous and visceral tissues in 4 captive snakes (1 Elaphe guttata, 2 Crotalus horridus, and 1 Pituophis melanoleucus). The etiologic agent, which was abundant in the lesion, had a rounded form in vivo with a prominent nucleus. These cells averaged 17 microns in diameter and reproduced by fission, forming clusters of two or four daughter cells. The etiologic agent was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar from one of the snakes. It also grew well on various mycologic media, forming soft, raised, glabrous, tannish colonies. The colonies were composed of large spherical cells with prominent nuclei that reproduced by fission like those seen in tissue. In addition, some of the cells were observed to germinate, forming rudimentary hyphal filaments that were up to 8 microns in diameter and 100 microns in length, with occasional septa and thick-walled structures regarded as azygospores. We consider the fungus to be a zygomycete that may belong to the order Entomophthorales.

  11. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  12. Effect of pre-tensioned rock bolts on stress redistribution around a roadway - insight from numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu-qiang Gao; Hong-pu Kang [Central Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China). Mining and Designing Branch

    2008-12-15

    The importance of the pre-tensioned force of rock bolts has been recognized by more and more researchers. To investigate the effect of pre-tensioned rock bolts on stress redistribution around roadways, a numerical analysis was carried out on a level drift at Chengzhuang coal mine using FLAC3D and a special post-process methodology, using surfer, is proposed to process the numerical simulation results. The results indicate that pre-tensioned rock bolts have a significant effect on stress redistribution around a roadway. In the roof, pre-tensioned rock bolts greatly increase vertical stress; as a result, the strength of the rock mass increased significantly which results in a greater capacity of bearing a large horizontal stress. The horizontal stress decreases in the upper section of the roof, indicating that pre-tensioned rock bolts significantly reduce the coefficient and the size of the region concentration of horizontal stress. At the lateral side, pre-tensioned rock bolts greatly increase the horizontal stress; therefore, the rock mass strength significantly increases which results also in a greater capacity of bearing a large vertical stress. The greater the size of pre-tensioned force, the larger the region of stress redistribution around a roadway is affected and the higher the size of the stress on the roadway surface the more the rock mass strength increases. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of pre-tensioned rock bolts on stress redistribution around a roadway insight from numerical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fu-qiang; KANG Hong-pu

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the pre-tensioned force of rock bolts has been recognized by more and more researchers. To investigate the effect of pre-tensioned rock bolts on stress redistribution around roadways, a numerical analysis was carded out using FLAC3D and a special post-process methodology, using surfer, is proposed to process the numerical simulation results. The results indicate that pre-tensioned rock bolts have a significant effect on stress redistribution around a roadway. In the roof, pre-tensioned rock bolts greatly increase vertical stress; as a result, the strength of the rock mass increased significantly which results in a greater capacity of bearing a large horizontal stress. The horizontal stress decreases in the upper section of the roof, indicating that pre-tensioned rock bolts significantly reduce the coefficient and the size of the region concentration of horizontal stress. At the lateral side, pre-tensioned rock bolts greatly increase the horizontal stress; therefore, the rock mass strength significantly increases which results also in a greater capacity of bearing a large vertical stress. The greater the size of pre-tensioned force, the larger the region of stress redistribution around a roadway is affected and the higher the size of the stress on the roadway surface the more the rock mass strength increases.

  14. Variables Affecting Probability of Detection in Bolt Hole Eddy Current Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, H.; Krause, T. W.; Bunn, M.; Butcher, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Physical variables affecting probability of detection (POD) in a bolt-hole eddy current inspection were examined. The POD study involved simulated bolt holes in 7075-T6 aluminum coupons representative of wing areas on CC-130 and CP-140 aircraft. The data were obtained from 24 inspectors who inspected 468 coupons, containing a subset of coupons with 45 electric discharge machined notches and 72 laboratory grown fatigue cracks located at the inner surface corner of the bi-layer structures. A comparison of physical features of cracks and notches in light of skin depth effects and probe geometry was used to identify length rather than depth as the significant variable producing signal variation. Probability of detection based on length produced similar results for the two discontinuity types, except at lengths less than 0.4 mm, where POD for cracks was found to be higher than that of notches.

  15. On the performance of Usain Bolt in the 100 m sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Gómez, J. J.; Marquina, V.; Gómez, R. W.

    2013-09-01

    Many university texts on mechanics consider the effect of air drag force, using the slowing down of a parachute as an example. Very few discuss what happens when the drag force is proportional to both u and u2. In this paper we deal with a real problem to illustrate the effect of both terms on the speed of a runner: a theoretical model of the world-record 100 m sprint of Usain Bolt during the 2009 World Championships in Berlin is developed, assuming a drag force proportional to u and to u2. The resulting equation of motion is solved and fitted to the experimental data obtained from the International Association of Athletics Federations, which recorded Bolt's position with a laser velocity guard device. It is worth noting that our model works only for short sprints.

  16. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  17. Mathematical Model of Load Pass and Prediction of Fatigue Life on Bolt Threads with Reduced Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Yukiteru

    A mathematical model is proposed in order to elucidate the mechanism that the fatigue strength of external threads increases by reducing the lead on a thread system such as a bolt and nut. The model is constructed from the concept that a local strain proportional to the reducing degree of the lead, although the local strain is at first produced in the bolt thread farthest from the bearing surface of the nut, is induced in each thread root with an increase of applied load. The fatigue life predicted from the mathematical model shows good agreement with the experimental fatigue life of cadmium-plated external threads with the reduced lead on the material having strength as high as 1270MPa. The model can provide useful suggestions for the design of fasteners for aerospace, which are required to satisfy severe requirements of fatigue strengths and dimensions.

  18. Rock mass movements around development workings in various density of standing-and-roof-bolting support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJCHERCZYK Tadeusz; MALKOWSKLI Piotr; NIEDBALSKI Zbighiew

    2008-01-01

    Presented measurement results of roof rocks and wall rock movements of un-derground development workings after their drifting. The research was carried out in thecoal mine workings with standing-and-roof bolting support. There were various density ofthe support, so the aim of the special monitoring programme was to determine movementintensity of rock mass in the premises of the heading area. There were four types of re-search did by the authors. They measured convergence, roof layers separation using tell-tales and sonic probes and load bearing of the headings' roofs by hydraulic dynamometers.Evaluation of fracture zone around the heading and investigation the load zone caused byfailed roof rocks may become a basement for the determination of support parameters ofthe workings. The combined system of standing support and roof bolting seems to be anessential for underground headings protection.

  19. Flanged joints with contact outside the bolt circle: ASME Part B design rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodabaugh, E. C.; Moore, S. E.

    1976-05-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, gives rules which are subdivided into ''Part A'' and ''Part B''. Part A covers flanged joints where contact between flanges occurs through a gasket located inside the bolt holes. Part B covers flanged joints with contact outside the bolt holes. This report (a) summarizes the theory for Part B flanged joints, (b) presents examples which show the significant differences between Part A flanged joints and Part B flanged joints, (c) presents the available test data relevant to the characteristics of Part B flanged joints, (d) gives listings of two computer programs which can be used to evaluate the characteristics of Part B flanged joints, and (e) gives recommendations for Code revisions and other aspects of Part B flanged-joint design.

  20. Contact Stress Analysis around Elliptical Bolt-loaded Hole in Orthotropic Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Aluko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The practicality of changing the bolt shape from circular to elliptical under friction effects in order to reduce the contact stress distributions was analytically investigated. The analysis utilized the complex stress functions obtained from the assumed displacement expressions that satisfy the boundary conditions around the hole to determine the contact stresses. In the method of solution coulomb friction was used to determine the prescribed displacements at the boundary. The material properties of graphite/epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced plastics laminates were used in this investigation and the results compared with available literature. It was revealed that the stress distributions followed the same pattern in both geometries but with lower magnitude in elliptical shape and the reduction in stress distributions caused by changing the bolt shape from circular to elliptic depend on friction coefficient.

  1. Bolted Joints in Composite Structures: Design, Analysis and Verification. Task II. Test Results--Multifastener Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Aeronautical Labs., Attn: FIBRA , Wright- Patterson AFB, OH 45433. WRDC/ASD ltr dtd 17 Oct 1990 FTrtf Kf( cry AFWAL-TR-85-3065 BOLTED JOINTS IN...removed from our mailing list, or if the addressee is no longer employed by your organization please noti fy list". AFWAL/ FIBRA , W-PAFB, OH 45433 to...test and evaluation; Aug 1985; other requests must be referred to AFWAL/ FIBRA . WPAFB. OH 45433 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S

  2. Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Cracked Rock Mass Reinforced by Bolting and Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The stress hardening characteristics of the reinforced rock mass in uniaxial compression tests were revealed by means of the experimental study on mechanical characteristics of cracked rock mass reinforced by bolting and grouting. And the load-bearing mechanism of the reinforced rock mass was perfectly reflected by the experiment. The results can offer some useful advice for support design and stability analysis of deep drifts in unstable strata.

  3. FFTF report: drilled-in expansion bolts under static and alternating load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, H.S.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the allowable design loads (tension, shear, and combined load) for expansion bolts to be installed in regular 4000 psi mix concrete, Magnetite 5000 psi mix concrete, and Steel Shot 5000 psi mix concrete at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The test loads included Static Loads and Alternating Loads which simulate the dynamic loads of vibratory equipment and dynamic earthquake loads.

  4. Preload Analysis of Screw Bolt Joints on the First Wall Graphite Tiles in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹磊; 宋云涛

    2012-01-01

    The first wall in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) used graphite tiles to withstand high thermal energy. The graphite tiles are mounted on the heat sink using screw bolts which have been preloaded to produce a clamp force. The clamp force is very important to keep the graphite tiles tightly on the surface of the heat sink so that the heat flux crosses this contacting surface in a small thermal resistor. Without the clamp force, the small gap between the graphite tiles and the heat sink will make it impossible for thermal power to be carried away by cooling water. Some bolts may even fall off with the loss of clamp force. From the mathematical models, the loss process of the clamp force has been studied. Research results explain how the different thermal expansions of three members of the screw joint makes the clamp force decrease to zero under temperature rise and external force, and how the stiffness affects the relation between the clamp force and temperature. The research also gives the critical temperature at which the clamp force can remain above zero. Analysis results indicate that the current screw joints are almost destined to lose their clamp force during the running time of EAST, so the bolt joints should be redesigned in order to improve its reliability.

  5. Roof strata horizontal movement assessed by instrumented bolts monitoring and FEM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W. [CBPM ' ' Cuprum' ' OBR (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Results of investigation concerning in-situ assessment of roof strata 3-d movement in the vicinity of a selected hard rock yielding pillar are presented in the paper. Based on laboratory calibration tests it was possible to establish the analytical relationships between the load (or stress) increment within the bolt rod, and the extensometer read-out box increment for all pairs of extensometers, glued-in at five measurement horizons. These relationships were a base for the assessment of rod axial forces and bending moments in time domain. The finite difference method technique was used for bolt rod deflection (lateral) assessment based on the elastic beam (rod) deflection differential equation solution involving the values of in-situ measurement based bending moments. In-situ obtained measurement data were supplemented with numerical experiments performed in a large geometric scale. The numerical models based on the 3-d finite element method, represented the roof bolting-pillar-floor systems in the in-situ measurement sites conditions.

  6. Holographic description of Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B., E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.c [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ghezelbash, A.M., E-mail: masoud.ghezelbash@usask.c [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Kamali, V., E-mail: vkamali1362@gmail.co [Department of Campus of Bijar, Kurdistan University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.i [Department of Campus of Bijar, Kurdistan University, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    We show that there exists a holographic 2D CFT description of a Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetime. We first consider the wave equation of a massless scalar field propagating in extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS spacetimes and find in the 'near region', the wave equation in extremal limit could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual CFT descriptions of these black holes. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction. Furthermore we study the holographic description of the generic four-dimensional non-extremal Kerr-Bolt-AdS-dS black holes. We find that if focusing on the near-horizon region, for the massless scalar scattering in the low-frequency limit, the radial equation could still be rewritten as the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir, suggesting the existence of dual 2D description. We read the temperatures of the dual CFT from the conformal coordinates and obtain the central charges by studying the near-horizon geometry of near-extremal black holes. We recover the macroscopic entropy from the microscopic counting. We also show that for the super-radiant scattering, the retarded Green's functions and the corresponding absorption cross sections are in perfect match with CFT prediction.

  7. Mass, Measurement, Materials, and Mathematical Modeling: The Nuts and Bolts of Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Sinex

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple activity is described which is appropriate for any class dealing with measurement. It introduces students to the important scientific process of mathematical modeling and online collaboration. Students, working in groups, determine the mass of a bolt indirectly by extrapolation from massing the bolt with one to five nuts on it and determining the equation of the line; the y-intercept being the mass of the bolt. Students gain experience with using a balance, graphing data, and analyzing results using algebraic skills. They calculate percent error after measuring the bolt’s mass directly and can compare this with the error limits from the least squares fit. Groups enter data into a web-based form and the data is examined by the class using Google Docs in a collaborative manner. After entering data in Google Docs, the students use an interactive Excel spreadsheet to compare their results to the best-fit line obtained by linear regression (pre-built into the spreadsheet for novices. In the spreadsheet, they further explore the model to gain an understanding and examine the influence of scatter (error in the data and material density.

  8. Developing a highly reliable cae analysis model of the mechanisms that cause bolt loosening in automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hashimoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a highly reliable CAE analysis model of the mechanisms that cause loosening of bolt fasteners, which has been a bottleneck in automobile development and design, using a technical element model for highly accurate CAE that we had previously developed, and verified its validity. Specifically, drawing on knowledge gained from our clarification of the mechanisms that cause loosening of bolt fasteners using actual machine tests, we conducted an accelerated bench test consisting of a threedimensional vibration load test of the loosening of bolt fasteners used in mounts and rear suspension arms, where interviews with personnel at an automaker indicated loosening was most pronounced, and reproduced actual machine tests with CAE analysis based on a technical element model for highly accurate CAE analysis. Based on these results, we were able to reproduce dynamic behavior in which larger screw pitches (lead angles lead to greater non-uniformity of surface pressure, particularly around the nut seating surface, causing loosening to occur in areas with the lowest surface pressure. Furthermore, we implemented highly accurate CAE analysis with no error (gap compared to actual machine tests.

  9. Characterization of tensile and shear loading on indented PC-strand cable bolts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadolini Stephen C.; ⇑; Derycke Steven; Bhagwat Anand

    2016-01-01

    The tensile and shear strength of intrinsic bolting support systems has always been a major concern of designers. A comprehensive laboratory testing program was designed to evaluate the tensile and shear strength of individual wires and completely wound PC-strand cables. PC-strand cables with smooth wires and the recent anchorage enhancement innovation of indentation were evaluated and compared. The testing protocol detailed in ISO Standard 15630 utilizes a mandrel system that was investigated at 3 different diameters which alters the wire to mandrel ratio from 2:1 to 9:1. The results demonstrate that the difference between smooth and indented wires is statistically insignificant when larger diameter mandrels are used, and that indentation does not adversely affect strand properties and performance. Insight into the shearing mechanism and evaluation techniques are discussed with the introduction of triaxial loading to describe the PC-strand tensile and shearing mechanisms. Another important result indicates that the shear strength of PC-strand cable bolting systems has a greater shear strength value than traditional steel bar bolting systems.

  10. Bolt-grouting combined support technology in deep soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanlong; Meng Qingbin; Xu Guang; Wu Haoshuai; Zhang Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the mineral composition, mechanical properties and ground stress testing in surrounding rock, the study investigated the failure mechanism of deep soft rock roadway with high stress. The bolt-grouting combined support system was proposed to prevent such failures. By means of FLAC3D numer-ical simulation and similar material simulation, the feasibility of the support design and the effectiveness of support parameters were discussed. According to the monitoring the surface and deep displacement in surrounding rock as well as bolt axial load, this paper analyzed the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress condition of the support structure. The monitor results were used to optimize the proposed support scheme. The results of field monitors demonstrate that the bolt-grouting combined support tech-nology could improve the surround rock strength and bearing capacity of support structure, which con-trolled the great deformation failure and rheological property effectively in deep soft rock roadway with high stress. As a result, the long term stability and safety are guaranteed.

  11. Complication assessment and prevention strategies using midfoot fusion bolt for medial column stabilization in Charcot's osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Walther, Markus; Iblher, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    -up was 21.4±14.6 (mean±SDM) months, 64% of patients suffered from diabetes with a preoperative Hba1c of 8.5±2.4. The mean number of revisions per foot was 3.6±4.1. Bolt dislocation was seen in 57% of the patients following 11.3±8.5 months; in 75% of these patients bony healing occurred before dislocation......In Charcot's osteoarthropathy stabilization of the medial column of the foot was introduced in order to establish a stable foot and reduce the risk for amputation. This study was performed to analyze postoperative complications, define risk factors for those and develop strategies for prevention....... Since bolt dislocation takes place frequently, it was aimed to predict an appropriate time point for bolt removal under the condition that osseous healing has occurred. Fourteen consecutive patients with neuroosteoarthropathy of the foot and arch collapse were treated with open reduction...

  12. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  13. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  14. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    , necessitated the need to develop techniques for captive breeding and mass-scale rearing for conservation and aquaculture purposes. Data on the reproductive efficiency of captive broodstock and the effect of exogenous factors (light intensity, prey type...

  15. Breeding Management of Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Range Countries and Zoos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatchote THITARAM

    2012-01-01

    .... The low birth and high mortality rate cause the captive population to decline rapidly. Captive breeding programs in Asian elephants range countries and zoos have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining...

  16. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  17. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  18. Evaluation of Interlaminar Stresses in Composite Laminates with a Bolt-Filled Hole Using a Linear Elastic Traction-Separation Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the local interlaminar stress distribution in a laminate with a bolt-filled hole is helpful for optimal bolted joint design, due to the three-dimensional (3D nature of the stress field near the bolt hole. A new interlaminar stress distribution phenomenon induced by the bolt-head and clamp-up load, which occurs in a filled-hole composite laminate, is investigated. In order to efficiently evaluate interlaminar stresses under the complex boundary condition, a calculation strategy that using zero-thickness cohesive interface element is presented and validated. The interface element is based on a linear elastic traction-separation description. It is found that the interlaminar stress concentrations occur at the hole edge, as well as the interior of the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head. In addition, the interlaminar stresses near the periphery of the bolt head increased with an increase in the clamp-up load, and the interlaminar normal and shear stresses are not at the same circular position. Therefore, the clamp-up load cannot improve the interlaminar stress distribution in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, although it can reduce the magnitude of the interlaminar shear stress at the hole edge. Thus, the interlaminar stress distribution phenomena may lead to delamination initiation in the laminate near the periphery of the bolt head, and should be considered in composite bolted joint design.

  19. Impedance-Based Pre-Stress Monitoring of Rock Bolts Using a Piezoceramic-Based Smart Washer-A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Huo, Linsheng; Chen, Dongdong; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing

    2017-01-27

    Pre-stress degradation or looseness of rock bolts in mining or tunnel engineering threatens the stability and reliability of the structures. In this paper, an innovative piezoelectric device named a "smart washer" with the impedance method is proposed with the aim of developing a real-time device to monitor the pre-stress level of rock bolts. The proposed method was verified through tests on a rock bolt specimen. By applying high-frequency sweep excitations (typically >30 kHz) to the smart washer that was installed on the rock bolt specimen, we observed that the variation in impedance signatures indicated the rock bolt pre-stress status. With the degradation of rock bolt pre-stress, the frequency in the dominating peak of the real part of the electrical impedance signature increased. To quantify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, a normalized root mean square deviation (RMSD) index was developed to evaluate the degradation level of the rock bolt pre-stress. The experimental results demonstrated that the normalized RMSD-based looseness index, which was computed from the impedance value detected by the "smart washer", increased with loss of the pre-stress of the rock bolt. Therefore, the proposed method can effectively detect the degradation of rock bolt pre-stress, as demonstrated by experiments.

  20. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  1. Identification of Flowering-Related Genes Responsible for Differences in Bolting Time between Two Radish Inbred Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Youn-Sung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting) and NH-JS2 (early bolting). In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft) genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs. NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although, the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis. PMID:28018383

  2. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  3. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  4. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  5. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 29: Bolting degradation or failure in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, T.Y.

    1991-09-01

    Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-29 deals with staff concerns about public risk due to degradation or failure of safety-related bolting in nuclear power plants. The issue was initiated in November 1982. Value-impact studies of a mandatory program on safety-related bolting for operating plants were inconclusive: therefore, additional regulatory requirements for operating plants could not be justified in accordance with provisions of 10 CFR 50.109. In addition, based on operating experience with bolting in both nuclear and conventional power plants, the actions already taken through bulletins, generic letters, and information notices, and the industry-proposed actions, the staff concluded that a sufficient technical basis exists for the resolution of GSI-29. The staff further concluded that leakage of bolted pressure joints is possible but catastrophic failure of a reactor coolant pressure boundary joint that will lead to significant accident sequences is highly unlikely. For future plants, it was concluded that a new Standard Review Plant section should be developed to codify existing bolting requirements and industry-developed initiatives. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Testing of nuclear grade lubricants and their effects on A540 B24 and A193 B7 bolting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was performed on eleven commonly used lubricants by the nuclear power industry. The investigation included EDS analysis of the lubricants, notched-tensile constant extension rate testing of bolting materials with the lubricants, frictional testing of the lubricants and weight loss testing of a bonded solid film lubricant. The report generally concludes that there is a significant amount of variance in the mechanical properties of common bolting materials; that MoS/sub 2/ can hydrolyze to form H/sub 2/S at 100/sup 0/C and cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of bolting materials, and that the use of copper-containing lubricants can be potentially detrimental to high strength steels in an aqueous environment. Additionally, the testing of various lubricants disclosed that some lubricants contain potentially detrimental elements (e.g. S, Sb) which can promote SCC of the common bolting materials. One of the most significant findings of this report is the observation that both A193 B7 and A540 B24 bolting materials are susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking in demineralized H/sub 2/O at 280/sup 0/C in notched tensile tests.

  7. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. 50.4 Section 50.4 Animals and... Indemnity § 50.4 Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  8. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Service Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2042- PDM, 4401...

  10. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  11. Genetic assessment of captive elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchart; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Angkavanich, Taweepoke; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Thongtip, Nikorn; Colenbrander, Ben; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of 136 captive Thai elephants (Elephas maximus) with known region of origin were investigated by analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We did not detect significant indications of inbreeding and only a low differentiation of elephants

  12. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  13. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  14. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  15. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  16. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  17. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. The nuts and bolts of proofs an introduction to mathematical proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Cupillari, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems.* The "List of Symbols" has been extended.* Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises.* Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"

  20. Ricci flows connecting Taub-Bolt and Taub-NUT metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzegel, Gustav [University of Cambridge, DAMTP, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB1 0WA (United Kingdom); Schmelzer, Thomas [University of Oxford, Computing Laboratory, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Warnick, Claude [University of Cambridge, DAMTP, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB1 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    We use the Ricci flow with surgery to study four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1)-symmetric metrics on a manifold with fixed boundary given by a squashed 3-sphere. Depending on the initial metric we show that the flow converges to either the Taub-Bolt or the Taub-NUT metric, the latter case potentially requiring surgery at some point in the evolution. The Ricci flow allows us to explore the Euclidean action landscape within this symmetry class. This work extends the recent work of Headrick and Wiseman (2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 6683) to more interesting topologies.

  1. New bolting structure of fractured roof based on the Bossinesq equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Present support theories contain a number of shortcomings in the designation of fractured roof bolt parameters of rectangular or trapezoidal coal roadways.Roof fall accidents occur easily in this kind of roadway.Based on the Bossinesq equations and the Mohr strength theory,we propose a theory of an anchored cluster structure for fractured roofs and have investigated the formation of such an anchored cluster structure,its self stability mechanism and mechanical properties.The results show that an anchor and ...

  2. On the plastic behaviour of multi directional epoxy-bolted CFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aage; Poulsen, Ervin

    2004-01-01

    The second generation of CFRP laminate has recently been developed. It is a multi directional CFRP laminate, i.e. a laminate with carbon fibres having several directions other than the first generation. The paper describes the laboratory tests carried out in order to develop anchorage devices for...... for such multi directional CFRP laminates which are epoxy-bonded and bolted or nailed to the concrete substrate for the purpose of strengthening against failure caused by bending. The tests were carried out at the Technical University of Denmark, IABM and Byg-DTU...

  3. Numerical and experimental analysis on load sharing & optimization of the joint parameters of polymer composite multi bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha Shankar, B.; Sudeep Kumar, T.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the bearing failure of composite bolted connections of composite laminates was analysed both experimentally and numerically. The glass fiber woven mat 600GSM/ epoxy composite laminates were prepared using wet-layup technique. The process parameters were taken care during preparation of laminates. Examination is done for various estimations of edge-to-hole diameter and width-to-hole diameter proportion. Stress is evaluated in laminates by utilizing Hart-Smith criteria. Ideal estimation of e/d proportion, d/w proportion is recommended for most extreme effectiveness. A numerical technique is utilized for the rough determination of a load shared by bolts in a numerous "bolted" joints loaded in tension were investigated experimentally and numerically. The effect of un-evenness in load shearing is suggested.

  4. VALIDITY OF THE HIGH-TENSILE-STRENG TH BOLT FOR THE SOFT ROCK WITH LARGE CROSS SECTIONAL TUNNEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Tamamura, Kouji; Uneda, Atsushi; Domon, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    This paper reports the experiential result about the applications of the high tensile strength bolts as a countermeasure for the displacement, considered about the denaturalization of the large cross sectional tunnel in mudstone layer. In Kanaya Tunnel of the New Tomei Expressway, the soft rock section appeared where we cannot restrain support denaturizi ng and internal displacement by materials of the standard design. Then fore, we adopted the high tensile strength bolts (748kN) replacing with of the standard design, and improved the support proof for stress. As the result, we got possible to control the displacement and execute the work safety and economi cally. We compared the analysis result (FEM) by the limited element method with the measure result on the spot, and inspected the supportability effect of the higt tensile strength bolts.

  5. Measurement of the Length of Installed Rock Bolt Based on Stress Wave Reflection by Using a Giant Magnetostrictive (GMS) Actuator and a PZT Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Fu, Qingqing; Song, Gangbing

    2017-01-01

    Rock bolts, as a type of reinforcing element, are widely adopted in underground excavations and civil engineering structures. Given the importance of rock bolts, the research outlined in this paper attempts to develop a portable non-destructive evaluation method for assessing the length of installed rock bolts for inspection purposes. Traditionally, piezoelectric elements or hammer impacts were used to perform non-destructive evaluation of rock bolts. However, such methods suffered from many major issues, such as the weak energy generated and the requirement for permanent installation for piezoelectric elements, and the inconsistency of wave generation for hammer impact. In this paper, we proposed a portable device for the non-destructive evaluation of rock bolt conditions based on a giant magnetostrictive (GMS) actuator. The GMS actuator generates enough energy to ensure multiple reflections of the stress waves along the rock bolt and a lead zirconate titantate (PZT) sensor is used to detect the reflected waves. A new integrated procedure that involves correlation analysis, wavelet denoising, and Hilbert transform was proposed to process the multiple reflection signals to determine the length of an installed rock bolt. The experimental results from a lab test and field tests showed that, by analyzing the instant phase of the periodic reflections of the stress wave generated by the GMS transducer, the length of an embedded rock bolt can be accurately determined. PMID:28241503

  6. Measurement of the Length of Installed Rock Bolt Based on Stress Wave Reflection by Using a Giant Magnetostrictive (GMS) Actuator and a PZT Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhang; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Fu, Qingqing; Song, Gangbing

    2017-02-23

    Rock bolts, as a type of reinforcing element, are widely adopted in underground excavations and civil engineering structures. Given the importance of rock bolts, the research outlined in this paper attempts to develop a portable non-destructive evaluation method for assessing the length of installed rock bolts for inspection purposes. Traditionally, piezoelectric elements or hammer impacts were used to perform non-destructive evaluation of rock bolts. However, such methods suffered from many major issues, such as the weak energy generated and the requirement for permanent installation for piezoelectric elements, and the inconsistency of wave generation for hammer impact. In this paper, we proposed a portable device for the non-destructive evaluation of rock bolt conditions based on a giant magnetostrictive (GMS) actuator. The GMS actuator generates enough energy to ensure multiple reflections of the stress waves along the rock bolt and a lead zirconate titantate (PZT) sensor is used to detect the reflected waves. A new integrated procedure that involves correlation analysis, wavelet denoising, and Hilbert transform was proposed to process the multiple reflection signals to determine the length of an installed rock bolt. The experimental results from a lab test and field tests showed that, by analyzing the instant phase of the periodic reflections of the stress wave generated by the GMS transducer, the length of an embedded rock bolt can be accurately determined.

  7. Failure Mode Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024-T3 in Double-Lap Bolted Joints with Single and Double Fasteners; A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Fallahnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Al 2024-T3 in double-lap bolted joints. To accomplish this, the effect of geometric parameters was investigated in both configurations of single and double fasteners. Using ABAQUS/Standard, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed and verified against the experimental results of the joints loaded in tension. In general, double bolt joints were found to have greater load carrying capacities than single bolt joints (by 40%–49%. In single bolt joints, the plate width had insignificant effect on the behaviour of the joint under tensile loading; whereas, increasing the distance of the hole from the edge, considerably enhanced the strength of the joint. In double bolt joints, changing the edge distance had almost no effect on the behaviour of the joint. However, increasing the plate width from 25.4 to 30 mm increased the load carrying capacity by 28%. This study showed that in single bolt connections, with increasing the edge distance, the failure mode can favourably shift from shear-out to bearing. Also, double bolt joints with wider plates (increased width can beneficially shift the failure mode from net-tension to bearing. The geometric parameters were found to play an important role in controlling the failure mode so that catastrophic failure modes of net-tension and shear-out can be prevented in bolted joint.

  8. Behaviour of high stretch bolts in tension working as part of elements of steel structures, and their tendency to delayed fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author has proven that manufacturing and installation errors, as well as contact deformations of high strength bolts, if analyzed as part of tensile connections of steel structures, work in eccentric tension. In pursuance of the effective state standards, the analysis of these bolts is based on the axial tension. The author has analyzed the failure of a steel structure, caused by the fracture of eccentrically loaded bolts made of steel grade XC 42 (France, or C40 (Germany, that later followed the delayed fracturing pattern. The author provides the findings of the lab tests, whereby the above bolts were tested in the presence of an angle washer. The author has also analyzed the findings of low-temperature tests of bolts in tension. The author demonstrates that the strength of high strength bolts is driven by the material, the structure shape, and the thermal treatment pattern. Eccentric tension tests of bolts have proven that cracks emerge in the areas of maximal concentration of stresses (holes in shafts, etc. that coincide with the areas where fibers are in tension; cracks tend to follow the delayed fracturing pattern, and their development is accompanied by the deformation-induced metal heating in the fracture area. Therefore, the analysis of high strength bolts shall concentrate on the eccentric tension with account for contact-induced loads, while the tendency to delayed fracturing may be adjusted through the employment of both metallurgical and process techniques.

  9. Magritte's Captivity in Robbe-Grillet's "La Belle Captive:" The Subjugation of the Image by the Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortquist, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Offers Alain Robbe-Grillet's novel "La Belle Captive" (which employs 77 paintings by the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte) as playful interchange between word and image. Argues that the novel may be understood to demonstrate a fundamental relationship of inequality between word and image. (RS)

  10. Test and application of hydraulic expansion bolts in a roadway under goaf with ultra-close separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangyu; Bai Jianbiao; Guo Guanlong; Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    The roof of a roadway under goaf with ultra-close separation consists of thin rock strata and rocks caving in upper goaf. Influenced by the mining of the upper coal seam, the roof is loose and broken, and its integ-rity is poor. Resin anchored bolts cannot provide an effective anchoring force in such roof conditions. By conducting free expansion tests and field pull-out tests on a hydraulic expansion bolt, this study has ana-lyzed the influencing factors and laws of radial expansion and anchoring force changes in the rod body. This has revealed the anchoring mechanism of such bolts, and has obtained reasonable water injection pressures and suitable drilling diameters (which are 20–25 MPa and 32–35 mm respectively) for the hydraulic expansion bolt (u28 mm) used in these tests. Based on pull-out tests at different interlayer spacing, the applicability of hydraulic expansion bolts had been verified for controlling the roof of road-ways under goaf with ultra-close distance. Combined with the deformation and failure characteristics of the test roadway roof, this paper proposes a united roof-control technology based on the use of hydraulic expansion bolts and advancing intubation for the roof. Engineering practice indicated that the roof of the test roadway did not generate leaking and caving phenomenon, and the amount of roof deformation was controlled to within 150 mm. Maintenance of the roadway roof has been improved significantly, which ensures safe mining in coal seams with ultra-close separation.

  11. Mechanism and technology study of collaborative support with long and short bolts in large-deformation roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hui⇑; Niu Zhiyong; Kong Linggen; Hao Caicheng; Cao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Common short bolts of equal length are widely used to support the roofs of roadways in coal mines. However, they are insufficient to keep the roof stable against large deformations, so docking long bolts with high levels of elongation that can adapt to large deformations of the surrounding rock have been adopted. This paper proposes a collaborative support method that uses long and short bolts. In this study, the mechanism of docking long bolts and collaborative support was studied. Numerical simulation, sim-ilarity simulation, and field testing were used to analyze the distribution law of the displacement, stress, and plastic failure in the surrounding rock under different support schemes. Compared with the equal-length short bolt support, the collaborative support changed the maximum principal stress of the shallow roof from tensile stress to compressive stress, and the minimum principal stress of the roof significantly increased. The stress concentration degree of the anchorage zone clearly increased. The deformation of the roof and the two sides was greatly reduced, and the subsidence shape of the shallow roof changed from serrated to a smooth curve. The roof integrity was enhanced, and the roof moved down as a whole. Plastic failure significantly decreased, and the plastic zone of the roof was within the anchorage range. The similarity simulation results showed that, under the maximum mining stress, the roof collapsed with the equal-length short bolt support but remained stable with the collaborative support. The collaborative support method was successfully applied in the field and clearly improved the stability of the surrounding rock for a large deformation roadway.

  12. STATISTICAL ENTROPIES OF THE TAUB-NUT/BOLT AdS SPACES FROM THE HORIZON CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING JI-LIANG; ZHOU SAN-QING; HUANG YI-BIN

    2001-01-01

    The covariant phase technique is used to compute the constraint algebra of the four-dimensional space-times which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (AdS), such as the planar Taub-NUT AdS and Taub-bolt AdS spaces, and the hyperbolic Taub-bolt AdS space. The standard Virasoro subalgebrae with corresponding central charges for these objects are constructed and the resulting densities of states yield the expected Bekenstein-Hawking entropies.

  13. High-strength bolt-forming of fine-grained aluminum alloy 6061 with a continuous hybrid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hun; Hwang, Sun Kwang [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong-Taek, E-mail: ytim@kaist.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Bae, Chul Min [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine-grained AA6061-O was produced by a continuous hybrid process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It consists of rolling, ECAP, and drawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength bolt was manufactured with the fine-grained AA6061-O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UTS and micro-hardness of the bolt was increased by 50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The route C was better in making a uniform micro-hardness distribution in the bolt. - Abstract: It is well known that the development of a continuous manufacturing process to apply severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a major challenge for industrial usages to improve the mechanical properties of the material through grain refinement. In this study, fine-grained AA6061-O wire was manufactured by a two-pass hybrid process consisting of drawing, equal channel angular pressing and rolling in a continuous manner to investigate the effects of processing routes for two different routes, A and C, on the variation of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and micro-hardness distribution. The UTS value (185 MPa) of the specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process with route A was higher than that of 171 MPa obtained from the two-pass wire-drawing process and was equivalent to the level of 184 MPa processed by the three-pass wire-drawing process. The average micro-hardness value (Hv 58.0) obtained from the two-pass hybrid process through route C was the highest among all the cases. According to transmission electron microscopy, the original grain was subdivided and elongated owing to deformation during the processes. The specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process through route C showed smaller deformation bands and had potentially higher angle grain boundaries compared to the specimen processed by the two-pass wire-drawing process. Finally, the high-strength bolt was manufactured using the fine-grained AA6061-O wire prepared by the continuous hybrid process to check its formability

  14. A Detailed Analysis of the BR1 Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Vogt, Sebastian H; Müller, Andreas E; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I (CPSF73-I) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter.

  15. Entry roof truss-bolt system test under the gob of contiguous seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Chuan-jie; XU Wei-ya; WANG Ya-jie

    2007-01-01

    Roof bolt support system has been widely applied in the No.7.9 seam in Caozhuang coal mine.However,it has not been able to be applied in the NO.10-2 seam since the small interburden(2m)between NO.9 and NO.10-2 seam.The NO.9 and NO.10-2 seams are contiguous seams.The NO.9 seam has been mined out and the NO.10-2 seam will be mined under the gob of the NO.9 seam.The roof strata of the NO.10-2 seam may have been weakened and fractured due to the shear failure caused by the NO.9 seam mining activities.The steel beam sets spaced at 0.8 m have been used to support the entry of the NO.10-2 seam.In order to speed up the advance rate and cut entry development cost,a test area,using roof bolt in conjunction with truss-system,was successfully conducted.This paper presents the support system design,application of designed system,and the test results.Test results provide a cheaper,quicker,and safer way to support entry for the No.10-2 seam.

  16. Professor Usain Bolt Welcomes You to the Schoolyard: Physics for Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlias, Kostas; Seroglou, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Could Usain Bolt achieve what teachers often fail to do? Could this famous Olympic winner challenge and motivate students to study mechanics and introduce them to the principles of physics in a fun way, outside of the classroom? In order to answer these questions, we "invited" for one semester the world record holder to visit our Greek high school in Thessaloniki as a guest teacher. For 13 weeks, 27 fifteen-year-olds run (or at least try to run) side by side with this great athlete, intending to learn his secrets. Within 9.58 s or 100 m, students have the chance to study a "phenomenon" of their daily lives and be introduced to a variety of concepts of physics in a pleasant and effective way. Students use simple athletic and innovative biomechanical equipment for their experiments, but mostly their own bodies, as experimental tools in order to study and to "feel" physics. Students have the chance to compare their athletic abilities to Bolt's and confront some of their ideas concerning concepts of physics.

  17. A Noble Approach of Process Automation in Galvanized Nut, Bolt Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Samanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion costs money”, The Columbus battle institute estimates that corrosion costs Americans more than $ 220 billion annually, about 4.3% of the gross natural product [1].Now a days due to increase of pollution, the rate of corrosion is also increasing day-by-day mainly in India, so, to save the steel structures, galvanizing is the best and the simplest solution. Due to this reason galvanizing industries are increasing day-by-day since mid of 1700s.Galvanizing is a controlled metallurgical combination of zinc and steel that can provide a corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environment. In fact, the galvanized metal corrosion resistance factor can be some 70 to 80 times greater that the base metal material. Keeping in mind the importance of this industry, a noble approach of process automation in galvanized nut-bolt  manufacturing plant is presented here as nuts and bolts are the prime ingredient of any structure. In this paper the main objectives of any industry like survival, profit maximization, profit satisfying and sales growth are fulfilled. Furthermore the environmental aspects i.e. pollution control and energy saving are also considered in this paper. The whole automation process is done using programmable logic controller (PLC which has number of unique advantages like being faster, reliable, requires less maintenance and reprogrammable. The whole system has been designed and tested using GE, FANUC PLC.

  18. Estimation of the Axial Stress in High-Tension Bolt by Acoustoelastic Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Hae Hwa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Noh Yu [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The evaluation of clamping condition has been regarded as the main issue in the safety-maintenance of the clamped high-tension bolts. For this, this paper proposes a method to estimate the axial stress by measuring the Tofu (Time-Of-Flight) of ultrasonic wave, which is based on the acetylsalicylate or the dependency of sound speed on the stress. In this method, however, the variation of sound speed within the range of stress induced under the field condition is very small, and thus the accuracy of the Tofu measurement is important. We adopted the phase detection method using tone-burst ultrasonic wave to measure the precise Tofu. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method experiments are carried out and the results were compared with the stress measured by the strain gage. The results show good agreement with each other, and from these we can conclude that the proposed method is highly useful fnr the evaluation of clamping condition in the clamped high-tension bolts

  19. The Extended Thermodynamic Properties of a topological Taub-NUT/Bolt-AdS spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chong Oh

    2015-01-01

    We consider the extended thermodynamic quantities of higher dimensional topological Taub-NUT/Bolt-AdS black holes with a cosmological constant treated as a pressure and find their general form for arbitrary dimensions and the thermodynamics of these configurations is argued to some extent. In particular by introducing Gibbs free energy, it is found out to be a new thermodynamically stable region of these black holes. At an equilibrium condition we find an entropy of a NUT solution, volume, and latent heat are negative where the Clapeyron equation is satisfied for these thermodynamic quantities. These negative volume and entropy may be interpreted as that the environment applies work to the system in the process of the Taub-NUT-AdS black hole formation, and such negative latent heat may indicate a net release of latent energy back into the environment because of evaporating of the system. Intriguingly, we also find that like the AdS black hole case, Taub-Bolt-AdS black hole with two phases (phase of small and ...

  20. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  1. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  2. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  3. Tear production in three captive wild herbivores in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). Mean (+/- standard deviation) STT values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. There were no significant differences in STT values between ibex and oryx, but tear production in both species was significantly lower than in zebras. Knowledge of normal tear production values is important for the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis and keratitis in these species.

  4. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  5. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  6. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  7. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  9. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  10. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  11. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  12. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce...

  13. Large Scale Finite Element Thermal Analysis of the Bolts of a French PWR Core Internal Baffle Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Isabelle; Christophe, Peniguel [EDF R and D, Paris (France); Tommy, Martin Michel [1 av du General de Gaulle, Paris (France)

    2009-11-15

    The internal core baffle structure of a French Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) consists of a collection of baffles and formers that are attached to the barrel. The connections are done thanks to a large number of bolts (about 1500). After inspection, some of the bolts have been found cracked. This has been attributed to the Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). The Electricite De France (EDF) has set up a research program to gain better knowledge of the temperature distribution, which may affect the bolts and the whole structure. The temperature distribution in the structure was calculated thanks to the thermal code SYRTHES that used a finite element approach. The heat transfer between the by-pass flow inside the cavities of the core baffle and the structure was accounted for thanks to a strong thermal coupling between the thermal code SYRTHES and the CFD code named Code{sub S}aturne. The results for the CP0 plant design show that both the high temperature and strong temperature gradients could potentially induce mechanical stresses. The CPY design, where each bolt is individually cooled, had led to a reduction of temperatures inside the structures. A new parallel version of SYRTHES, for calculations on very large meshes and based on MPI, has been developed. A demonstration test on the complete structure that has led to about 1.1 billion linear tetraedra has been calculated on 2048 processors of the EDF Blue Gene computer

  14. Effect of parameters on local stress field in single-lap bolted joints with the interference fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From the interference fit bolt installation to tensile loading stage in single-lap joint with a hi-lock bolt, the stress and strain fields were studied experimentally and numerically. A three-dimensional finite element model was generated to simulate the experimental setup, which was validated using the experimental data. The fatigue behavior of the bolted joint is influenced by the local stress fields on the faying surface near the holes in single-lap joints. Therefore, with the aim to improve design awareness, the effects of the parameters on the local stress fields were investigated by means of finite element simulation. With an increase in the interference fit size, the occurred position of the maximum stress values on the upper plate faying surface moves away from the hole edge gradually. As the clamping force or friction coefficient increases, the position of larger stress area is changed to the side of bearing load from the transverse direction. The lap geometry of the bolted joint as well as the amplitude of tensile load has apparent impact on the maximum stress value.

  15. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wayne Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina. The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3 previous litters successfully. These ranged from 2-3 young, with a 100% survival rate. This case presented a difficult labor, with delivery of three (3 healthy female precocious offspring (434g, 378g and 402g, and three (3 perinatal mortalities (285g, 368g and 300g. The female agouti died during delivery and postmortem results indicated that Dystocia resulting in Secondary Uterine Inertia as the cause of death. This abnormally large litter may have been as a result of captive conditions, where an abundance of food and a lack of predators may have dulled the animal’s survival instinct. The agouti’s ability and the time taken to deliver all six (6 young may also have contributed to the animals delivery stress.

  16. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana.

  17. NEPHROPATHIES IN THE EUROPEAN CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.

  18. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  19. Reproduction of Phylloderma stenops in captivity (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL Esbérard

    Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.

  20. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  1. Parasitic fauna of captive snakes in Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakulan Valsala Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.

  2. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  3. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  4. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  5. Inflatable rock bolt bond strength versus rock mass rating (RMR):A comparative analysis of pull-out testing data from underground mines in Nevada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barnard Chase; Kallu Raj R.; Warren Sean; Thareja Rahul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish confidence in anticipated minimum bond strength for inflatable rock bolts by comparing the bond strength to variable geotechnical conditions using the rock mass rating (RMR) system. To investigate a correlation between these parameters, the minimum bond strength of pull-out tested inflatable rock bolts was compared to the RMR of the rock in which these bolts were placed. Bond strength vs. RMR plots indicate that expected minimum bond strength is positively corre-lated with RMR;however, the correlation is not strong. Cumulative percent graphs indicate that 97%of pull-out tests result in a minimum bond strength of 3.3 and 1.7 ton/m in RMR P 45 and<45, respectively. Although lower bond strengths are more commonly encountered in low RMR ground, high bond strengths are possible as well, yielding higher variability in bond strengths in low RMR ground. Bond strength of friction bolts relies on contact between the rock bolt and drill hole. Experience in Nevada indicates that RMR is known to affect both the quality and consistency of drill holes which likely affects bond strength. Drilling and bolting in low RMR ground is more sensitive to drilling and bolting practices, and strategies for maximizing bond strength in these conditions are discussed.

  6. BOLTS: a BiOphysical Larval Tracking System for Measuring Dispersal Characteristics and Marine Population Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, C. B.; Srinivasan, A.; Kourafalou, V.; Sponaugle, S.; Cowen, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    While metapopulation research with hypothetical dispersal matrices has shown how the scales of larval dispersal, transport processes, local recruitment, and temporal and spatial variability in dispersal influence population persistence, the pattern of demographic connectivity produced by larval dispersal is still a key uncertainty. To address this problem, a coupled bio-physical model has been developed that quantifies the degree of connectivity between populations. Such spatially explicit models, forced by dynamic currents coupled to a realistic seascape and life history traits, produce dispersal kernels for a range of scales over which dispersal is practically unquantifiable by current empirical methods. The BiOphysical Larval Tracking System (BOLTS) presented here allows a Lagrangian stochastic individual-based model (IBM) to be coupled via OPENDAP framework to any 3-dimensional fields of circulation models including to domains of various resolutions through 'Lagrangian nesting'. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software in measuring the characteristics of dispersal and evaluating the variability of larval connectivity through two examples at different scales: 1) Caribbean-scale simulations of BOLTS using the large scale (resolution ~7 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) from the Global Data Assimilative Experiment (GODAE) provide us with expected connectivity patterns of a reef building coral. By seeding the model with a large number of active particles, it is possible to assemble dispersal kernels and migration matrices from the start (spawning) and the end point (settlement) of individual particle trajectories. Any single run is a stochastic realization of a probabilistic process, thus the full probability density function (pdf) of the kernel requires averaging over many dispersal events. The model output is further corroborated with empirical measures of gene flow among coral colonies around the Caribbean. 2) Coastal-scale simulations of BOLTS

  7. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  8. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  9. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  10. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  11. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  12. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  13. Numerical study of rock bolting parameter variation effect on stability of stratified, composite roof structure of drift in a coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ting-kan; LIU Yu-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Described the outcomes of a comprehensive numerical modeling on the rock bolting performance for preventing the deformation of stratified, composite roof structure of drift in a coal mine. The investigation was undertaken in the adverse geological conditions, with variation of belt parameters, including length, density, distribution, pretension,as well as the geometry of opening, so as to determine the effect of bolting parameter variation on roof deformation and stability. The outcomes clearly demonstrated that a significant improvement of roof stability can be achieved associating with bolting parameters optimization, and indicated the importance of flexible geotechnical designation of rock mbolting reinforcement in mining practice.

  14. Thermal Shock Effects Modeling On A Globe Valve Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Jerome; Hersant, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper attends to show efforts made at EDF R&D to improve comprehension of valve parts loadings during operation. Thermal shock in a globe valve is represented and modeled using EDF R&D Finite Element Analysis code (Code_Aster). Choices of modeling are discussed and balanced on the basis of "what an engineer can obtain without becoming a researcher". First simulation results are presented. Attention is focused on the evolution of Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint (BBBFJ) tightening forces which are simulated during the thermal shock. An experimental setup is also presented for the studied valve, which implies thermocouple implementation for comparison of the simulated thermal field and strain measurement on each threaded rod to validate the mechanical modeling.

  15. INJECTION MOLDING AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN METAL TO PLASTIC CONVERSION OF BOLTED FLANGE JOINT BY CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Blaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many metal parts in various applications are being replaced by plastic parts. There are several reasons for that depending on actual application - minimize part cost, enhance corrosion resistance, integrating more components into one part etc. Most important steps of metal to plastic conversion are material selection and design of plastic part. Plastic part has to withstand the same load as metal part. To fulfill this requirement fiber reinforced engineering plastics are often used. Also it is convenient to substitute heavy wall sections with ribbed structure to increase load-carrying ability of part and decrease cycle time, eliminate voids, sink marks etc. Mechanical properties of such part could be highly affected by fiber orientation. Results of fiber orientation from injection molding filling analysis can be used in stress analysis for better prediction of part response to mechanical load. Such coupled analysis is performed here in this case study on bolted flange joint.

  16. Failure analysis of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabihpoor, M.; Moslemian, Ramin; Afshin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents an effort to predict the bearing strength, failure modes, and failure load of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites. The studied joints have been used in a light full composite airplane. By using solid laminates, a new design for the joint zone is developed....... These solid laminates include a number of glass plies with total thickness equal to core thickness. The effect of solid laminate size and interface angle of foam -solid laminate in the bonding zone on the bearing strength, failure loads and type of modes are investigated. The numerical study is performed...... using 3D FEM in ANSYS commercial code. Tsai-Wu failure criterion is used in the failure analysis. The results indicate that the most important parameter in the proposed joint zone design is the foam -solid laminate interface angle which plays an important role on the value of failure criterion (damage...

  17. Thermodynamic volumes for AdS-Taub-NUT and AdS-Taub-Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-12-01

    In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS4 with an S3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

  18. INFORMATION FOR USERS OF NUTS, BOLTS, SCREWS, NAILS AND RIVETS (SCEM GROUP 47)

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2002-01-01

    We should like to remind users that, since the closure of the self-service stores, nuts, bolts, screws, nails and rivets (Group 47 of the Stores Catalogue) can be obtained, in smaller packages than via EDH, from the 'Emergency Counter' in the Central Stores (Building 73, R-002) upon presentation of a duly completed hard-copy Materials Request form. The 'Emergency Counter' is open Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 11.50 a.m. and from 1.00 p.m. to 4.20 p.m. Information concerning the available packages can be found under the appropriate SCEM reference number in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group SPL Division

  19. 1300 MPa High Strength Steel for Bolt with Superior Delayed Fracture Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the increase in Mo content, the addition of microalloying elements V and Nb and by reducing the contents of Mn, P and S based on the composition of steel 42CrMo, we have developed a 1300 MPa-grade high strength steel (ADF1) for bolts. The sustained load bending test, sustained load tensile test and stress corrosion cracking test have been carried out to evaluate the delayed fracture resistance of steel ADF1 and commercial steel 42CrMo. The results showed that steel ADF1 has superior delayed fracture resistance to that of 42CrMo steel. It's concluded that the superior delayed fracture resistance of ADF1 is mainly due to the increase of tempering temperature, fine homogeneously distributed MC carbide and fine prior austenite grain size.

  20. Improving the transient response of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer using a parallel resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo Tsi

    2003-08-01

    This paper suggests a parallel resistor to reduce DC time constant and DC response time of the transient response, induced immediately after an AC voltage connected to a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) is switched off. An equivalent circuit is first expressed. Then, an open-circuit transient response at the terminals induced by initial states is derived and measured, and thus parameters for losses of the BLT device are estimated by DC and AC time constants of the transient response. Moreover, a driving and measuring system is designed to determine transient response and steady-state responses of the BLT device, and a parallel resistor is connected to the BLT device to reduce the DC time constant. Experimental results indicate that the DC time constant greatly exceeds the AC time constant without the parallel resistor, and greatly decreases from 42 to 1 ms by a 100-kOmega parallel resistor.

  1. Crystalline capsules: metal-organic frameworks locked by size-matching ligand bolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chen, Qiang; Wen, Rong-Mei; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2015-05-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are shown to be good examples of a new class of crystalline porous materials for guest encapsulation. Since the encapsulation/release of guest molecules in MOF hosts is a reversible process in nature, how to prevent the leaching of guests from the open pores with minimal and nondestructive modifications of the structure is a critical issue. To address this issue, we herein propose a novel strategy of encapsulating guests by introducing size-matching organic ligands as bolts to lock the pores of the MOFs through deliberately anchoring onto the open metal sites in the pores. Our proposed strategy provides a mechanical way to prevent the leaching of guests and thereby has less dependence on the specific chemical environment of the hosts, thus making it applicable for a wide variety of existing MOFs once the size-matching ligands are employed.

  2. Failure behavior for composite single-bolted joints in double shear tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanwen; Liu, Hanyang; Yang, Zhiyong; Shi, Hanqiao; Sun, Baogang

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the reliability and load carrying capacity of composite laminates structures which were lap jointed by bolt, in this paper, the failure strength and failure mode of laminated composite pinned-joints is investigated. To determine the effects of joint geometry and stacking sequence on the bearing strength and damage mode, the multi-scale numerical model combining with the Generalized Method of Cells (GMC) and considering the failure and the damage of constituent materials was created based on the ABAQUS and its user subroutine (USDFLD). A three-dimensional finite element technique was used for the stress analysis. Based on the three-dimensional state of stress of each element, different failure modes were detected by the failure theories of constituent materials, all of which are applied at the fiber, matrix and fiber-matrix interface constituent level. Numerical simulations have been carried out by which edge distance-to-hole diameter ratio, and plate width-to-hole diameter ratio are varied, The composite laminated plates are stacked with the following four different orientations: [+45/-45]2s, [90/+45/-45]s, and [0/90/0]s, the results show that failure mode and bearing strength are closely related to by stacking sequence of plates and geometrical parameters. Finally, the ultimate strength and failure modes of composite bolted joints in static tension double-shear loading conditions are predicted by using the progressive damage method established and the effects of layup and dimension of laminates on the properties of the connection structure were researched in this paper. An excellent agreement is found between data obtained from this study and the experiment.

  3. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  6. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  7. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  8. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  9. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  10. Primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, R N

    1975-01-01

    Under natural light in Portland, Oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in Madagascar. A series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. After photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received additional photoperiod changes. Unimpregnated females, on the other hand, showed no significant decline in the incidence of estrous cycles under prolonged exposure to a constant day length regimen (12.OL:12.OD) for over a year.

  11. Virtual simulation of maneuvering captive tests for a surface vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic derivatives or coefficients are required to predict the maneuvering characteristics of a marine vehicle. These derivatives are obtained numerically for a DTMB 5512 model ship by virtual simulating of captive model tests in a CFD environment. The computed coefficients are applied to predict the turning circle and zigzag maneuvers of the model ship. The comparison of the simulated results with the available experimental data shows a very good agreement among them. The simulations show that the CFD is precise and affordable tool at the preliminary design stage to obtain maneuverability performance of a marine vehicles.

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  13. Nocturnal Activity of a Captive Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    This report aims to clarify the nocturnal activity of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) under captive conditions to compare it with that under natural conditions. The aye-aye was nocuturnal and showed activity at any time at night. However, from 02:00 hrs until just prior to dawn, it often rested. It frequently returned to the nest throughout this period to take long rests of more than half an hour. The aye-aye's activities were classified into four categories: feeding, moving, resti...

  14. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  15. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  16. Mechanical properties of fasteners -- Part 7: Torsional test and minimum torques for bolts and screws with nominal diameters 1 mm to 10 mm

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1992-01-01

    Applies to bolts and screws of property classes 8.8 to 12.9 in accordance with ISO 898-1 with thread less than M3 for which no breaking and proof loads are indicated in ISO 898-1, as well as to short bolts and screws with nominal diameters 3 mm to 10 mm which cannot be subjected to a tensile test. The minimum breaking torques are not valid for hexagon socket set screws.

  17. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  18. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ying-Chao; Yeh, Wen-Lin; Chao, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Heng; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Chen, Jan-Kan; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA) bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. PMID:27601901

  19. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops.

  20. History of rock bolts and the sprayed concrete lining method. Part II. Milestones up to the 1960s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovari, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    In this part, first the origin and development of rock anchors are described. Their history began with a patent application in 1913 in Germany. The breakthrough in application came, however, only in the 1940s from the American mining industry. The first application of systematic rock bolting in a tunnel was the diversion tunnel for the Keyhole Dam in the USA in 1950. The paper describes numerous examples of civil engineering work world-wide with early application of rock bolting. It is shown how the combined application of the new support elements - steel arch, sprayed concrete and anchors has lead to the sprayed concrete lining method in the 1950s. In concluding, it is demonstrated that the so called ''New Austrian Tunnelling Method'' (NATM), which has been propagated since 1963, is in many respects borrowed and has created much confusion amongst professional engineers by dint of its pseudo-scientific basis.

  1. Fatigue Property of Open-Hole Steel Plates Influenced by Bolted Clamp-up and Hole Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared with the contemporary test data. The analysis results show that the presence of draglines greatly influences the fatigue crack initiation at the open-hole cut by laser. The bolted clamp-up condition greatly enhances the stiffness and the fatigue life of the open-hole details. A discussion is also made from a comparison with the referred fatigue life of hole fabrication details, such as the influence of plate thickness and plasma cutting, drilling and oxy-fuel gas cutting, with the details studied herein. This work could enhance the understanding of the fatigue property and design of such details.

  2. What would be Usain Bolt's 100-meter sprint world record without Tyson Gay? Unintentional interpersonal synchronization between the two sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the desire of athletes to separate themselves from their competitors, to be faster or better, their performance is often influenced by those they are competing with. Here we show that the unintentional or spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of athletes' movements may partially account for such performance modifications. We examined the 100-m final of Usain Bolt in the 12th IAAF World Championship in Athletics (Berlin, 2009) in which he broke the world record, and demonstrate that Usain Bolt and Tyson Gay who ran side-by-side throughout the race spontaneously and intermittently synchronized their steps. This finding demonstrates that even the most optimized individual motor skills can be modulated by the simple presence of another individual via interpersonal coordination processes. It extends previous research by showing that the hard constraints of individual motor performance do not overwhelm the occurrence of spontaneous interpersonal synchronization and open promising new research directions for better understanding and improving athletic performance.

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  4. 飞轮连接螺栓可靠性提升研究%Reliability Improvement Of Flywheel Connecting Bolt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗明; 胡伟; 李广; 赵建永

    2016-01-01

    The flywheel and crankshaft is connected with the bolt of the flywheel,As flywheel connecting boltsis an important part of the transmission torque.If there is a problem of the flywheel connecting bolt fracture,is a great harm,it will cause the crank and the connecting parts to be declared worthless,cause serious economic losses. In order to ensure the reliability of the bolt connection,the following file will through the working condition、the influence of the EVB、driver’s driving habits、clutch matching specification、the bolts design to put forward corrective and preventive measures.%飞轮与曲轴采用飞轮连接螺栓进行联接,由于飞轮连接螺栓是传递力矩的重要部件,如果出现飞轮连接螺栓断裂的问题,危害性极大,会导致曲轴和曲轴连接件报废,造成严重的经济损失;为了确保螺栓联接的可靠性,文章从使用的工况、 EVB排气制动使用对发动机影响情况、用户驾驶习惯、离合器匹配规范、曲轴飞轮连接螺栓设计等方面提出整改预防措施。

  5. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  6. captive breeding of the four-eyed turtle (sacalia quadriocellata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    in 1998,a study on forty-five four-eyed turtles (sacalia quadriocellata) was initiated to gather preliminary biological data of this species and to investigate the feasibility of its captive reproduction.in the following six years,no courtship behavior was found occurring in males and no oviposition in females.from 2004 to 2007,two successful techniques were applied to initiate reproductive behavior:1) injecting exogenous reproductive hormones; and 2) reducing the stress of living in captivity.as a result of the hormone treatments,courtship behavior and copulation were observed during september and october,2005.however,no courtship displays were seen from the ck males,which were not treated with hormones.ovulation occurred between december and march,and the correlation was not significant between behavior of ovulation and food intake.females laid only one clutch of eggs each year,with 2.47 eggs (n=34,range=l-4) at average,and 84 eggs were totally obtained,of which 13 were damaged,52 were infertile and 19 fertile.of the fertile eggs,nine were hatched with mean incubation period of 105.9 days (n=9,range=89-122 days) at temperature ranging from 24 to 27℃.

  7. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay

    2009-12-01

    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  8. The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial on Captive Chimpanzees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Peter D.; Kurup, Drishya; Hasselschwert, Dana L.; Wirblich, Christoph; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2017-01-01

    Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV. Vaccination did not induce serious health complications. Blood chemistry, hematologic, and body mass correlates of psychological stress suggested that, although sedation induced acute stress, experimental housing conditions did not induce traumatic levels of chronic stress. Acute behavioral and physiological responses to sedation were strongly correlated with immune responses to vaccination. These results suggest that oral vaccination holds great promise as a tool for the conservation of apes and other endangered tropical wildlife. They also imply that vaccine and drug trials on other captive species need to better account for the effects of stress on immune response. PMID:28277549

  9. Captive Gorillas are Right-Handed for Bimanual Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Calcutt, Sarah E.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Ross, Stephen R.; Hopkins, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Predominance of right-handedness has historically been considered as a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level manual bias remains a controversial topic. Here we investigated the hypothesis that bimanual coordinated activities may be a key-behavior in our ancestors for the emergence and evolution of human population-level right-handedness. To this end, we collected data on hand preferences in 35 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) during simple unimanual reaching and for bimanual coordinated feeding. Unimanual reaching consisted of grasping food on the ground while bimanual feeding consisted of using one hand for holding a food and processing the food item by the opposite hand. No population-level manual bias was found for unimanual actions but, in contrast, gorillas exhibited a significant population-level right-handedness for the bimanual actions. Moreover, the degree of right-handedness for bimanual feeding exceeds any other known reports of hand use in primates, suggesting that lateralization for bimanual feeding is robust in captive gorillas. The collective evidence is discussed in the context of potential continuity of handedness between human and nonhuman primates. PMID:20033918

  10. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (HO) and mean inbreeding (FIS) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  11. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  12. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience.

  13. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  14. Richard H. Bolt introduced me to acoustics, and I am still engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ira

    2003-04-01

    I arrived at the MIT Acoustics Laboratory in 1948, and quickly learned from Dick Bolt that U.S. submarines needed coatings to reduce vulnerability via active sonar detection. All who remember Dick will be familiar with his next step: He brought me to Robert Blizzard and A. Wilson Nolle, both then at the Lab, from whom I learned in detail how to measure and then how to understand the dynamic moduli of rubber-like materials. My path, of course, widened to include medical acoustics (under the leadership of Theodore Hueter) and scattering (Phillip Morse and Uno Ingard). Fast-forward to the present. Rubber-like materials are not only in use as submarine coatings to avoid detection by active sonars, but also to reduce noise radiated by submarines. Further, such materials cover submarine acoustic arrays to reduce flow-noise interference with signals received by such arrays. The problem that most engages me today is the stochastic nature of sound propagation in the ocean, a problem that has the practical consequence of degraded sonar performance. In the spirit of Dick, I will present snippets of my current work, with the hope of painting the big picture that he always did so well.

  15. Multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin; Dong, Liang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming the main structural materials of next generation of aircraft because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, and excellent designability. As key components of large composite structures, joints play important roles to ensure the integrity of the composite structures. However, it is very difficult to analyze the strength and failure modes of composite joints due to their complex nonlinear coupling factors. Therefore, there is a need to monitor, diagnose, evaluate and predict the structure state of composite joints. This paper proposes a multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joints. Major work of this paper includes: 1) The concept of multifunctional sensor layer integrated with eddy current sensors, Rogowski coil and arrayed piezoelectric sensors; 2) Development of the process for integrating the eddy current sensor foil, Rogowski coil and piezoelectric sensor array in multifunctional sensor layer; 3) A new concept of smart composite joint with multifunctional sensing capability. The challenges for building such a structural state sensing system and some solutions to address the challenges are also discussed in the study.

  16. CFD Simulations of the IHF Arc-Jet Flow: Compression-Pad/Separation Bolt Wedge Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Skokova, Kristina A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Panel test articles included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in the compression-pad and heat shield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate. As part of the test calibration runs, surface pressure and heat flux measurements on water-cooled calibration plates integrated with the wedge models were also obtained. Surface heating distributions on the test articles as well as arc-jet test environment parameters for each test configuration are obtained through computational fluid dynamics simulations, consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the non-equilibrium flow field in the facility nozzle, test box, and flow field over test articles, and comparisons with the measured calibration data.

  17. Nonlinear characterization of a bolted, industrial structure using a modal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettgen, Daniel R.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2017-02-01

    This article presents measurements from a sub assembly of an off-the-shelf automotive exhaust system containing a bolted-flange connection and uses a recently proposed modal framework to develop a nonlinear dynamic model for the structure. The nonlinear identification and characterization methods used are reviewed to highlight the strengths of the current approach and the areas where further development is needed. This marks the first use of these new testing and nonlinear identification tools, and the associated modal framework, on production hardware with a realistic joint and realistic torque levels. To screen the measurements for nonlinearities, we make use of a time frequency analysis routine designed for transient responses called the zeroed early-time fast Fourier transform (ZEFFT). This tool typically reveals the small frequency shifts and distortions that tend to occur near each mode that is affected by the nonlinearity. The damping in this structure is found to be significantly nonlinear and a Hilbert transform is used to characterize the damping versus amplitude behavior. A model is presented that captures these effects for each mode individually (e.g. assuming negligible nonlinear coupling between modes), treating each mode as a single degree-of-freedom oscillator with a spring and viscous damping element in parallel with a four parameter Iwan model. The parameters of this model are identified for each of the structure's modes that exhibited nonlinearity and the resulting nonlinear model is shown to capture the stiffness and damping accurately over a large range of response amplitudes.

  18. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical elements exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn. The food provided to captive animals varied both in the composition and the concentration of element present. Consumptions of feedstuff and additional foods such as D. sanguinalis and A. mangostanus for the captive golden takins were identified as the possible sources of chemical element exposure. The estimations of dietary intake of most elements by captive takins were below the oral reference dose, except for As and Pb, indicating that As and Pb were the key components which contributed to the potential non-carcinogenic risk for captive golden takins. In conclusion, captive golden takins were exposed to higher concentrations of chemical elements compared with the wild, which were likely due to their dietary difference. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Janna R; Ivy, Jamie A; Lacy, Robert C; Doyle, Jacqueline M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are often initiated to prevent species extinction until reintroduction into the wild can occur. However, the evolution of captive populations via inbreeding, drift, and selection can impair fitness, compromising reintroduction programs. To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, we used nearly 5500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity. We bred mice in captivity for 20 generations using two replicates of three protocols: random mating (RAN), selection for docile behaviors (DOC), and minimizing mean kinship (MK). The MK protocol most effectively retained genomic diversity and reduced the effects of selection. Additionally, genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness, as assessed with pedigrees and SNPs supported with genomic sequence data. Because captive-born individuals are often less fit in wild settings compared to wild-born individuals, captive-estimated fitness correlations likely underestimate the effects in wild populations. Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild.

  20. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  1. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Gray, Patricia L; Brightsmith, Donald; Palculict, Blake; Hoppes, Sharman; Steiner, Jörg M; Tizard, Ian; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2010-12-15

    The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and disease. Only limited data are available about the composition of the intestinal microbiota of captive animals compared to those of wild animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cloacal microbiota of apparently healthy wild and captive parrots. A total of 16 parrots, 8 wild and 8 captive, belonging to 3 different species, were used in this study. Cloacal material was collected via cloacal swabbing. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. A total of 518 clones were analyzed, and 49 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The OTUs were classified in 4 bacterial phyla: Firmicutes (72.9%), Proteobacteria (14.9%), Actinobacteria (12%), and Bacteroidetes (0.2%). Bacterial diversity was significantly lower in wild birds than in captive birds. Principal component analysis based on the Unifrac distance metric indicated that the cloacal microbiota differed between wild and captive parrots. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was significantly more abundant in wild birds, while Escherichia coli was significantly more abundant in captive birds. In conclusion, wild and captive parrots appear to have differences in the composition of their cloacal bacterial microbiota. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined.

  2. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species.

  3. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  6. A genetic diversity comparison between captive individuals and wild individuals of Elliot's Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) using mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ping-ping; LANG Qiu-lei; FANG Sheng-guo; DING Ping; CHEN Li-ming

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a major issue in conservation biology. In this study, we demonstrate the differences of genetic diversity levels between wild and captive individuals of Elliot's Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti. Wild individuals showed a higher genetic diversity level than that of the captive individuals. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of wild individuals were 0.00628 and 0.993, while those of captive individuals were 0.00150 and 0.584 respectively. Only 3 haplotypes of mtDNA control region sequence were identified among 36 captive individuals, while 16 unique haplotypes were identified among the 17wild individuals in this study. One captive haplotype was shared by a wild individual from Anhui Province. It is concluded that a low number of founders was the likely reason for the lower level genetic diversity of the captive group. Careful genetic management is suggested for captive populations, particularly of such an endangered species, to maintain genetic variability levels.

  7. Lineage identification and genealogical relationships among captive Galápagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael; Boyer, Donal; Wiese, Robert J; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Marquez, Lady; Garrick, Ryan; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic tools have become a critical complement to traditional approaches for meeting short- and long-term goals of ex situ conservation programs. The San Diego Zoo (SDZ) harbors a collection of wild-born and captive-born Galápagos giant tortoises (n = 22) of uncertain species designation and unknown genealogical relationships. Here, we used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic data and nuclear microsatellite genotypic data to identify the evolutionary lineage of wild-born and captive-born tortoises of unknown ancestry, to infer levels of relatedness among founders and captive-born tortoises, and assess putative pedigree relationships assigned by the SDZ studbook. Assignment tests revealed that 12 wild-born and five captive-born tortoises represent five different species from Isabela Island and one species from Santa Cruz Island, only five of which were consistent with current studbook designations. Three wild-born and one captive-born tortoise were of mixed ancestry. In addition, kinship analyses revealed two significant first-order relationship pairs between wild-born and captive-born tortoises, four second-order relationships (half-sibling) between wild-born and captive tortoises (full-sibs or parent-offspring), and one second-order relationship between two captive-born tortoises. Of particular note, we also reconstructed a first-order relationship between two wild-born individuals, violating the founder assumption. Overall, our results contribute to a worldwide effort in identifying genetically important Galápagos tortoises currently in captivity while revealing closely related founders, reconstructing genealogical relationships, and providing detailed management recommendations for the SDZ tortoises.

  8. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Wen-Lin Yeh,2 Chien-Lin Chao,1 Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Yi-Hsun Yu,1,2 Jan-Kan Chen,3 Shih-Jung Liu1,2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. Keywords: polylactide–polyglycolide nanofibers, PLGA, collagen, 3D printing, polylactide, PLA, bone-anchoring bolts, tendon healing

  9. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Koster

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 µg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot(R, Novartis, Kempton Park while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001. There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867. Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238.

  10. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Koeppel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27 between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026, while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363 and post-treatment (P = 0.004 period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  11. High tech cognitive and acoustic enrichment for captive elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Fiona; Mancini, Clara; Sharp, Helen

    2017-09-23

    This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions. Our fieldwork resulted in the development of an interactive prototype of an acoustic toy that elephants are able to control using interface elements constructed from a range of natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, S; Stoinski, T S; Bloomsmith, M A; Maple, T L

    2006-08-01

    Postconflict (PC) behaviors, including reconciliation and consolation, have been observed in many primate and several nonprimate species. Using the PC-matched control (MC) method, PC behavior was examined in two groups (n=13) of captive western lowland gorillas, a species for which no conflict resolution data have been published. Analyses of 223 conflicts showed significantly more affiliation between former opponents after a conflict when compared to control periods, indicating reconciliation. Results also showed significantly more affiliation between the victim and a third-party after a conflict, indicating consolation. Both solicited and unsolicited consolation were observed. The majority of the affiliative interactions observed for both reconciliation and consolation were social proximity, which suggests that unlike most nonhuman primates, proximity, rather than physical contact, may be the main mechanism for resolving conflicts in western lowland gorillas. PC behavior was not uniform throughout the groups, but rather varied according to dyad type.

  13. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  14. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  15. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.

  16. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  17. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    House, Bailey R; Silk, Joan B; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing...... offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more "complex" experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more...... components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm....

  18. INTERACTION STRATEGIES GENERATED BY KIDNAPPER TOWARD THE VICTIM DURING CAPTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.

  19. Semen collection and evaluation of captive coatis (Nasua nasua

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    R.C.R. Paz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples (n=105 were collected through eletroejaculation from six adult male coatis (Nasua nasua between January 2007 and December 2008 at Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Zoo, Cuiabá, Brazil. Mean values were: volume (mL; concentration (sperm/mL; total motility (%; progressive sperm motility (scale, 0-5; live spermatozoa (%; acrossome integrity (%; primary defects (%; and secondary defects (%. There was high correlation between total motility and live sperm; total motility and progressive sperm motility; total motility and acrossome integrity; live sperm and progressive motility; live sperm and acrossome integrity and volume and concentration. The method for semen collection was considered safe and efficient. It can be used for the evaluation of breeding potential of coati in captivity and for the establishment of new assisted reproductive technology (ART for threatened neotropical carnivores species.

  20. Behavioural Descriptions of Indian Pangolins (Manis crassicaudata in Captivity

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    Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation breeding programmes as an essential tool for conservation of endangered species require a sound knowledge on behaviour of the species. At present time, knowledge of behaviour and biology of Indian pangolins is inadequate and inconsistent. During the present study, an ethogram was developed based on the behavioural observations of seven Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata at Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India, between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 27 behaviours of seven distinct behavioural categories (stationary body positions, locomotory patterns, maintenance behaviours, explorative behaviours, defensive behaviours, reproductive/social behaviours, and others were described and illustrated. The results offer a consistent frame of reference for further studies on behavioural patterns of Indian pangolins. Besides, these preliminary observations could be useful in management and breeding of the species in captivity.

  1. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism of captive wild pigeons at Nagpur

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    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to investigate the helminthic infection in captive wild pigeons (Columba livia at Maharajbagh Zoo Nagpur. All the 30 samples examined were found positive either with single or mixed helminthic infections. The result showed that the incidence of Capillaria sp, Ascaridia sp and  Hetarakis sp. were 56.66%, 76.66%, 16.66% respectively. Mixed parasitic infection was recorded in around 17 samples with either Ascaridia sp. and Capillaria sp or with Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. One of 30 samples examined were found with the cysts of Balantidium coli. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 343-

  2. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  3. Rôles des populations captives dans la conservation des lémuriens Roles of the captive populations in the conservation of lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les parcs zoologiques Européens abritent de nombreuses espèces de lémuriens. Certains parcs français, très impliqués dans la conservation de ces espèces, sont à l’origine de plusieurs programmes d’élevage. Si les exemples de réintroductions de lémuriens nés en captivité sont rares, les populations captives restent un réservoir potentiel d’individus pour les populations sauvages, en particulier dans les projets de conservation incluant une gestion en métapopulation de populations isolées, conséquence de la fragmentation de leur habitat. Les populations captives de lémuriens constituent de puissants "ambassadeurs" des populations sauvages : elles permettent de sensibiliser un large public à leur disparition et à la situation de Madagascar et de favoriser la récolte de fonds pour les actions in-situ en faveur de la conservation de ces espèces. En effet aujourd’hui, la présence de ces lémuriens en captivité est la seule source de financement pour certains projets de conservation. De plus, la recherche sur les populations captives contribue, de façon complémentaire aux études réalisées sur les populations sauvages, à une meilleure connaissance des espèces, indispensable à la mise en place de stratégies de conservation adaptées.Many species of lemurs can be found in European Zoos. Some French zoos, which are very implicated in the conservation of the lemurs, are the founders of several captive populations of lemurs. If the examples of reintroductions of captive-born lemurs are rare, the captive populations are nevertheless a potential reservoir of individuals for wild populations, particularly in conservation projects including a metapopulation management of isolated populations due to fragmentation of their habitat. The captive populations of lemurs are powerful "ambassadors" of wild populations that allow to alert the public on their disappearance and to the situation of Madagascar and to promote

  4. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  5. Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Melissa; Citino, Scott; McNabb, Amanda Hillis; Moffatt, Amy Serino; Gertz, Karen; Kania, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive to type I and/or type II FCoV. From serologic data, infection with a virus antigenically related to FCoV type I occurred most commonly. Serology did not correlate with virus shedding because 13 animals were seronegative to FCoV type I and II but positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Conversely, 20 animals were seropositive but negative using RT/nPCR for FCoV. Some of the populations in which virus was detected had experienced health problems, including feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), necrotizing colitis, and mild enteritis. In addition to its role in FIP, this virus may play a role in gastrointestinal diseases of infected animals. This study demonstrates that FCoV is a significant infectious agent of captive felids because over half of the animals tested were positive by viral genetic detection, serology, or both. Dependence upon one method for detection of infection is unreliable.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  8. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  9. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  10. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  11. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Johannes; Hansmann, Florian; Herder, Vanessa; Lehmbecker, Annika; Peters, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  12. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Junginger

    Full Text Available This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%. Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50% with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11, genital (8, lympho-hematopoietic (5 and alimentary organs (4 as well as the mesothelium (3. Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2, thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1, pleural mesotheliomas (3, hemangiosarcomas (2 and glossal papillomas (2. Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  13. Failure Analysis on Fracture of Worm-gear Connecting Bolts%蜗轮连接螺栓断裂失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    装卸料机上的蜗轮连接螺栓材料为35钢,强度等级为10.9级,在设备运行大约10a后发生断裂。对断裂螺栓进行宏观、化学成分、硬度、金相、能谱和断口分析后得出,该螺栓的断裂性质为双向弯曲疲劳断裂,螺栓表面的脱碳和螺纹颈部的应力集中降低了该部位的疲劳性能。通过综合分析和螺栓受力估算后得出,螺栓断裂的主要原因是螺栓和内齿轮螺栓孔之间存在较大的间隙,使螺栓的受力状态和受力大小过早地发生了变化,造成连接螺栓疲劳断裂。%The worm-gear connecting bolts of refueling machines of a nuclear power plant,with material of 35 steel and strength grade of 10.9,fractured after the device running for about a decade,and means such as macro examination,chemical compositions analysis,hardness test,metallographic examination,fracture SEM analysis and so on,were used to analyze the fractured bolts.The results show that the fracture property of the bolts is two-way bending fatigue fracture.Surface decarburization of the bolts and stress concentration at the bolt thread neck decreased the fatigue strength,which resulted fatigue cracks formed here.By comprehensive analysis and force estimating,it was concluded that the main reason for the fracture is that there is a big gap between the bolt shank parts and their matching internal gear bolt holes,which made the force state and force size of the bolts changed early and finally resulted in fatigue fracture of the worm-gear connecting bolts.

  14. Calculation of bolted flange connections of metal to metal contact type. Results of MPA/VGB-project SA ''AT'' 19/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, G. [EnBW Kernkraftwerk GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Bieselt, R. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Klucke, D. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Schuemann, D. [Vattenfall Europe, Nuclear Energy GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kurz, H.; Kockelmann, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2010-07-01

    Subject of a research project carried out at Material Testing Institute (MPA) University of Stuttgart was the investigation of bolted flange connections (DN100 PN100 and PN160) of metal-to-metal contact type. In a special test rig external loadings (axial forces, bending and torsional moments as well as shearing forces) can be applied in addition to the internal pressure. Further on an analytical approach was developed for the determination of the loading in different cross sections of the flanges and for the tightness proof by means of the gap between the flanges at the position of the gasket. On the basis of a comparison of the experimental results and those of numerical calculations with results according to the new developed analytical approach the latter can be regarded as validated as far as investigated. In the nuclear code KTA 3211.2 (draft 2003) [1] the flange rotation at metal-to-metal contact (MMC) is restricted globally to 0.1 . This limitation does not comply with a lot of bolted flange connections in service although the strength and tightness criteria are met. This problem is now resolved with the new developed analytical approach which takes also into consideration the non-negligible influence of the assembly bolt load exceeding the minimum required bolt load for metal-to-metal contact. In a following project for defined boundary conditions the basis for the strength and tightness proof for bolted flange connections (MMC type) without explicit calculation shall be created. (orig.)

  15. Design on the Transporting and Bolting Machine with Hopper and Two Arms%料斗式两臂运锚机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭

    2014-01-01

    The transporting and bolting machine with hopper and two arms is a kind of equipment which is researched according to parallel working of the excavating and bolting integration on fully mechanized winning faces. It has the function of bolt supporting, materials transporting and self-driving. Its main structure, operation principle and service condition are introduced. It realizes reasonably connect of excavating, bolting and transporting work. The excavating and bolting efficiency is improved.%料斗式两臂运锚机是基于井下综掘工作面掘锚平行作业而研制的一种可进行锚杆支护和物料转运的具有自行走功能的运锚装备,本文详细介绍了该机的主要结构组成、工作原理以及使用情况,可实现掘锚运作业的合理衔接,提高了成巷效率。

  16. Quantitative evaluation of residual torque of a loose bolt based on wave energy dissipation and vibro-acoustic modulation: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Menglong; Su, Zhongqing; Xiao, Yi

    2016-11-01

    A wave energy dissipation (WED)-based linear acoustic approach and a vibro-acoustic modulation (VM)-based nonlinear method were developed comparatively, for detecting bolt loosening in bolted joints and subsequently evaluating the residual torque of the loose bolt. For WED-based, an analytical model residing on the Hertzian contact theory was established, whereby WED was linked to the residual torque of a loose bolt, contributing to a linear index. For VM-based, contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) engendered at the joining interface, when a pumping vibration perturbs a probing wave, was interrogated, and the nonlinear contact stiffness was described in terms of a Taylor series, on which basis a nonlinear index was constructed to associate spectral features with the residual torque. Based respectively on a linear and a nonlinear premise, the two indices were validated experimentally, and the results well coincided with theoretical predication. Quantitative comparison of the two indices surmises that the VM-based nonlinear method outperforms the WED-based linear approach in terms of sensitivity and accuracy, and particularly when the bolt loosening is in its embryo stage. In addition, the detectability of the nonlinear index is not restricted by the type of the joint, against a high dependence of its linear counterpart on the joint type.

  17. 深水法兰连接机具螺栓预紧方法及装置研究%Research on Method of Bolt Tightening and Bolt Tightening Equipment of the Deep Water Flange Connection Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 王芳; 田玉江; 王上原; 王亚伟

    2012-01-01

    随着陆地和浅水油气资源的日益枯竭,急须开发深水油气资源以满足国民经济发展对能源的需求.法兰螺栓连接是深水管道连接的常用方法,也是深水管道回接必须攻克的难点.深水法兰连接机具是应用于深水管道法兰连接的一种专用设备,确定深水法兰连接机具的螺栓预紧方法对开发设计深水法兰连接机具具有重要意义,通过对比几种常用的螺栓预紧方法,确定了适用于深水的螺栓预紧方法,并设计了一种深水工作的螺栓预紧装置.该研究成果对机具的进一步开发,促进我国深水作业设备发展和提高我国深水管道连接技术具有一定意义.%Along with the wearing out of petroleum resource, petroleum resource of deep water must be exploited to improve nation economy development. The one of the methods of the deep water pipeline connection is the flange connection, but it is a difficult problem must be conquered. The deep water pipeline flange connection tool is a kind of special equipment to connect the deep water pipeline, to determine the method of the bolt tightening is important for developing the deep water pipeline flange connection tool. Through comparing the some methods of the bolt tightening, a method of the deep water bolt tightening is determined, and a set of the bolt tightening equipment is designed. The method and the equipment could promote the development of the deep sea technology and improve deep sea pipe flange connecting technology.

  18. An Application of Bolt Connect Process in Foundation Embedded Bolts and Its Repair%螺套连接工艺在预埋基础螺栓及其修复上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周四林; 王东升

    2014-01-01

    对港口散杂货码头中锈蚀腐烂的基础预埋螺栓常规更换工艺进行了分析,揭示了其中存在的问题,通过创新更换工艺,较好地解决了上述问题。%The conventional replacement process for the seriously rusted foundation embedded bolts in bulk and general cargo terminal in the port is analyzed and so the existing problem is found out. Then the problem is solved better by innovating the replacement process.

  19. Development of an FPGA-based multipoint laser pyroshock measurement system for explosive bolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Haider; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Zaeill

    2016-07-01

    Pyroshock can cause failure to the objective of an aerospace structure by damaging its sensitive electronic equipment, which is responsible for performing decisive operations. A pyroshock is the high intensity shock wave that is generated when a pyrotechnic device is explosively triggered to separate, release, or activate structural subsystems of an aerospace architecture. Pyroshock measurement plays an important role in experimental simulations to understand the characteristics of pyroshock on the host structure. This paper presents a technology to measure a pyroshock wave at multiple points using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs). These LDVs detect the pyroshock wave generated due to an explosive-based pyrotechnical event. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) based data acquisition is used in the study to acquire pyroshock signals simultaneously from multiple channels. This paper describes the complete system design for multipoint pyroshock measurement. The firmware architecture for the implementation of multichannel data acquisition on an FPGA-based development board is also discussed. An experiment using explosive bolts was configured to test the reliability of the system. Pyroshock was generated using explosive excitation on a 22-mm-thick steel plate. Three LDVs were deployed to capture the pyroshock wave at different points. The pyroshocks captured were displayed as acceleration plots. The results showed that our system effectively captured the pyroshock wave with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 303 741 g. The contribution of this paper is a specialized architecture of firmware design programmed in FPGA for data acquisition of large amount of multichannel pyroshock data. The advantages of the developed system are the near-field, multipoint, non-contact, and remote measurement of a pyroshock wave, which is dangerous and expensive to produce in aerospace pyrotechnic tests.

  20. Development of an FPGA-based multipoint laser pyroshock measurement system for explosive bolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Haider; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Zaeill

    2016-07-01

    Pyroshock can cause failure to the objective of an aerospace structure by damaging its sensitive electronic equipment, which is responsible for performing decisive operations. A pyroshock is the high intensity shock wave that is generated when a pyrotechnic device is explosively triggered to separate, release, or activate structural subsystems of an aerospace architecture. Pyroshock measurement plays an important role in experimental simulations to understand the characteristics of pyroshock on the host structure. This paper presents a technology to measure a pyroshock wave at multiple points using laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs). These LDVs detect the pyroshock wave generated due to an explosive-based pyrotechnical event. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) based data acquisition is used in the study to acquire pyroshock signals simultaneously from multiple channels. This paper describes the complete system design for multipoint pyroshock measurement. The firmware architecture for the implementation of multichannel data acquisition on an FPGA-based development board is also discussed. An experiment using explosive bolts was configured to test the reliability of the system. Pyroshock was generated using explosive excitation on a 22-mm-thick steel plate. Three LDVs were deployed to capture the pyroshock wave at different points. The pyroshocks captured were displayed as acceleration plots. The results showed that our system effectively captured the pyroshock wave with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 303 741 g. The contribution of this paper is a specialized architecture of firmware design programmed in FPGA for data acquisition of large amount of multichannel pyroshock data. The advantages of the developed system are the near-field, multipoint, non-contact, and remote measurement of a pyroshock wave, which is dangerous and expensive to produce in aerospace pyrotechnic tests.

  1. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided

  2. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  3. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin; Wang, Qingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  4. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar Panthera onca: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majie, Arnab K; Mondal, Parswanath; Ghosh, Swapan K; Banerjee, Dayanarayan

    2014-02-24

    High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  5. Cutaneous Adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar (Panthera onca): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majie, Arnab K; Mondal, Parswanath; Ghosh, Swapan K; Banerjee, Dayanarayan

    2014-02-24

    High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  6. Feeding and growth in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-12

    Jun 12, 1991 ... The feeding and growth of a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus calf were studied for 30 .... Age determination through tooth sectioning indicated the ..... ineffectual, but is a prerequisite behaviour in later stages.

  7. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  8. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  9. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  10. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  11. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Wang, Y; Ghebremeskel, K; Lendl, C E; Streich, W J

    2003-07-12

    The fatty acid components of the plasma triglycerides and the phospholipid fractions of the red blood cells of a captive group of two African (Loxodonta africana) and four Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants were investigated. All the animals received the same diet of hay, fruits and vegetables, and concentrates. A comparison with data from free-ranging African elephants or Asian work-camp elephants showed that the captive elephants had lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and for several lipid fractions a higher n-6:n-3 ratio, than their counterparts in the wild or under the more natural, in terms of diet, work-camp conditions. The difference in PUFA content was smaller in the African than in the Asian elephants. The captive Asian elephants tended to have lower levels of n-3 and total unsaturated fatty acids in their red blood cells than the captive African elephants.

  12. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saragih EW, Sadsoeitoeboen MJ, Pattiselanno F. 2010. The diet of spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus in natural and captivity habitat. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 78-83. The ex-situ conservation of cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus under captivating condition is an alternative solution to protect cuscus from extinction. Diets became the main factor in order to support the domestication process. Particular studies on habitat and diet of cuscus have been carried out however there is still limited information on the nutrition aspects of cuscus food. This study aimed to determine the diet type, palatability and nutrient in both natural habitat and captivating condition. The results indicated that there were 19 and 8 plant species identified as cuscus diets in both natural habitat and captivating condition. Cuscus prefers fruits with astringent and sour taste which is contained high crude fiber and low fat.

  13. Cutaneous Adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar (Panthera onca: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab K. Majie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  14. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  15. First Care Area Logs for captive loggerhead and Kemps ridley sea turtles 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains records pertaining to sick captive sea turtles, their daily behavior, medications, food offered, food consumed, and water quality.

  16. Monthly morphometric data on captive Kemps ridley sea turtles 1995-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  17. (Forced Walks on the Wild Side: Precarious Borders in American Captivity Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Starre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most readings of American captivity narratives have so far investigated their intercultural, psychological, and theological significances, while disregarding their ecological aspects. Despite its appropriation into US-American national literature, the captivity genre contains at its root a transcultural plot of an individual's confrontation with the environment and the unsettling forces of wilderness and animality. These personal memoirs indeed hold global value by pointing to our collective embeddedness and embodiedness.This essay surveys two early captivity narratives - the classical one by Mary Rowlandson (1682 and a lesser known text by John Gyles (1736 - alongside contemporary examples of the genre that relate the stories of American captives in Iraq and Colombia.

  18. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Captive but mobile: Privacy concerns and remedies for the mobile nvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Baruh, Lemi; Mihaela POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    We use the legal framework of captive audience to examine the FTC’s 2012 privacy guidelines as applied to mobile marketing. We define captive audiences as audiences without functional opt-out mechanisms to avoid situations of coercive communication. By analyzing the current mobile marketing ecosystem, we show that the FTC’s privacy guidelines inspired by the Canadian “privacy by design” paradigm fall short of protecting consumers against invasive mobile marketing in at least three respects: (...

  20. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  1. Captive Reproduction Of The Neotropical Otter In The Santa Fe Zoological Park In Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcila D.A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding reproduction of Lontra longicaudis is lacking. We present the first experience of Neotropical river otters born in captivity in Colombia. Of three parturitions registered, only one was successful. The gestation period for L. longicaudis was estimated at 86 days, with no evidence of delayed implantation. This kind of pregnancy can be classified as short and variable. We recommend further research efforts regarding behaviour and reproduction of Neotropical otters in captivity.

  2. EFFECT OF CAPTIVE SUPPLY ON FARM-TO-WHOLESALE BEEF MARKETING MARGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    Debates about captive supplies have been ongoing for more than a decade. This study investigates the effects captive supplies have on the beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margin. A relative price spread (RPS) model is used to estimate beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margins. Estimates indicate that forward contracts and marketing agreements have a small positive relationship with margins that is marginally significant. Packer fed cattle may or may not be related to margins to depending upon ...

  3. Czechs and Slovaks in Russian Captivity during World War I (1914-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana E. Dmitrieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.

  4. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of long-term captive and recently wild-caught Eastern brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) indicate venom does not change due to captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Ryan J R; Sridharan, Sindhuja; Dunstan, Nathan L; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-07-20

    Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution. Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  6. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  8. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  9. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  10. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  11. Ultrasonic testing of core baffle former bolts of the core tanks of pressurised water reactors; Ultraschallpruefung von Kernumfassungsschrauben der Kernbehaelter von Druckwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bies, Christian M.; Alaerts, Louis; Bonitz, Frank W. [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Devlin, Russell S.; Minogue, Patrick [WesDyne International, Madison, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This article presents the MIDAS VI testing robot used by Westinghouse / WesDyne. This is a remotely operated underwater vehicle which positions ultrasonic probes under camera control. This vehicle makes it possible to substantially reduce the time required for setting up and preparing ultrasonic tests on core baffle former bolts. It has also accelerated the test procedure itself. Test methods have also been developed for bolt types which were hitherto considered incapable of being tested. One of these methods is based on a phased array probe. The article also reports on experiences gained over the course of years in testing core baffle former bolts in European nuclear power plants using the SUPREEM testing robot.

  12. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xiao LA; Ping FANG; Yi-bo TENG; Ya-juan LI; Xian-yong LIN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassioa alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height,stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem,11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L,elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios.Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.

  13. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-06-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO(2) concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 microl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO(2) concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO(2). However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO(2) had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO(2) concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO(2) concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO(2) condition.

  14. [Reproductive behavior of Opistognathus rosenblatti (Perciformes: Opistognathidae) in captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Anguas, Benjamín; González, Pedro G; Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2012-09-01

    The Blue Spotted Jawfish O. rosenblatti, is an endemic species from the Gulf of California, included in the local list of protected species. With few biological reports, this species is appreciated in the aquarium industry due to its coloration and digging behaviour, and has a considerable value. With the aim to generate valuable biological information, eight fishes were caught at Loreto Natural Marine Protected Area. Captured fishes were juveniles, and just three of them were kept in an aquarium conditioned with gravel, pieces of shells and coral as substrata. Temperature and photoperiod conditions were stable, and they were supplied with a variety of live and inert feeds. Fishes reached maturity in eight months, according to literature reports, displaying mature male courtship coloration and upward movements in the water column. Fishes spawned several times over more than two years in captivity. Presences of egg masses, or some evidence of egg shell or larvae, were registered in 50 occasions. Male took care of eggs in his shelter, but never in his mouth. Egg masses had an average of 3 592 eggs, with a hatching rate close to 99%. Eggs were apparently rounded having three diameter measurements with significant differences (1.17mm mean higher diameter, SD=0.054; 1.13mm mean lower diameter, 0.058; 0.99mm mean height, 0.045; n=125). Most of corion eggs had four, rarely six filaments; with a single oil drop (0.30mm mean diameter, 0.021, n=59). Incubation lasted 10.4 days (9-14), depending on water temperature (21.0-25.3 degrees C). Egg hatching occurred after darkness, emerging newly hatched larvae of 4.51mm mean notochord length (0.082, n=30), with reserves exhausted, eyes pigmented and mouth opened, ready to eat. This study represents the first report on this species courtship displaying, spawning and some basic characteristics of eggs masses and larvae in captivity. Also, their flexibility and adaptability of individual behaviour to particular environment conditions

  15. Higher performance in rockbolting technology by use of immediate-bearing grouted bolts; Leistungssteigerung in der Ankertechnik durch Einsatz sofort tragender Injektionsanker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Archibald; Eigemann, Ernst A. [Minova CarboTech GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2009-01-29

    Efficient support technology and in particular rockbolting systems are increasingly important under ever more difficult working conditions. Recognised worldwide as an efficient, innovative and highly automated mining company RAG relies on high-quality, economical support concepts for one of the most demanding coal deposits in the world. Two new methods for setting immediate-bearing bolts with the use of a highly reactive bolt resin and prospects of replacement of wire mesh by a shotsscreting system in roadway supports are described in this contribution. (orig.)

  16. Conventional drivage of gate roads with bolted supports. Indication of performance potential; Konventionelle Auffahrung von Floezstrecken mit Ankerausbau. Aufzeigen von Leistungspotenzialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimdieck, J. [RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany). Bereich Bergbau; Stoettner, M.T. [RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany). Bereich Stab

    2008-06-19

    The road drivages at the Ibbenbueren mine are highly standardised. Drivage is carried out exclusively by drilling and shortfiring. A three-layer combined support - bolting, arches and backfilling with concrete - is used. Alternatives were sought in order to achieve a further increase in performance and reduce costs. Meanwhile the mine is driving 2 roadways by blasting and with only bolted supports. The equipment and process optimisations of the old standard were utilised with considerable increases in performance. The article describes the initial experience required. (orig.)

  17. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  18. Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Haslam

    2013-01-01

    Animals in captive or laboratory settings may outperform wild animals of the same species in both frequency and diversity of tool use, a phenomenon here termed ‘captivity bias’. Although speculative at this stage, a logical conclusion from this concept is that animals whose tool-use behaviour is observed solely under natural conditions may be judged cognitively or physically inferior than if they had also been tested or observed under controlled captive conditions. In turn, this situation cre...

  19. 基于ADAMS的枪机碰撞力研究%Bolt's Impact Simulation Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper ,the simple model of the barrel and automation was established by ADAMS ,the counter-recoil velocity and the mass of bolt and bolt box were defined by Impact function in ADAMS ,and the accurate control of step size and interpolation algorithm was realized ,then the counter-recoil collision force was obtained .%  建立由枪管和自动机构件组成的简易模型,通过在ADAMS中进行动力学仿真,赋予枪机和枪机框实际的复进到位速度和质量,利用ADAMS中的Impact函数对参数进行设置,并对求解步长和插值算法等进行精确控制,对结果进行测量,得到了枪机复进到位的碰撞力。

  20. AVSA. Parallelised bolting and cutting in roadways with arch supports; AVSA. Parallelisiertes Ankern und Schneiden in Bogenstrecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusche, T. [Bergwerk West, Kamp-Lintfort (Germany); Stratmann, T. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany). Abt. TB

    2002-09-05

    In the middle of the 90's a research project was initiated to improve the drivage rates of roadway headings in the German hard coal industry. The target of the project was to get a significant increase in performance by parallelisation of cutting and bolting in mechanical headings, also in very hard rock conditions. In the first operation the prototype of the developed heading machine achieved not the expected performance. Although the aim of parallel cutting and bolting was gained, the drivage performance was especially hampered due to a high amount of hunks during the cutting process. Additionally geological difficulties occurred. Steps were made to optimize this system getting a clear increase in performance for the second operation to achieve the initial target. (orig.) [German] Vor dem Hintergrund stagnierender Vortriebsgeschwindigkeiten im Floezstreckenvortrieb des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus wurde Mitte der 90er Jahre des letzten Jahrhunderts ein Forschungsvorhaben initiiert. Ziel war es, durch Parallelisierung von Schneid- und Ankerarbeit bei maschinellen Vortrieben eine signifikante Leistungserhoehung auch in schwer schneidbarem Gestein zu erzielen. Der entwickelte Prototyp erreichte in einem ersten Einsatz die erwartete Leistung nicht. Obwohl die angestrebte Parallelisierung der Vorgaenge Schneiden und Ankern erreicht wurde, behinderte insbesondere ein hoher Brockenanfall die Vortriebsleistung. Zusaetzlich traten geologische Probleme auf. Optimierungsmassnahmen sollen in einem zweiten Einsatz deutliche Leistungssteigerungen bewirken, um die urspruengliche Zielsetzung zu erreichen. (orig.)

  1. Face end position with cable bolt technology at the Walsum colliery; Strebendstellung in Seilankertechnik auf dem Bergwerk Walsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucher, B.; Paulussen, W.; Rosinski, D. [Ruhrkohle Niederrhein AG, Duisburg (Germany). Bergwerk Walsum; Mogk, E.; Kulassek, M. [Bergamt Moers (Germany)

    1998-09-17

    In 1997 for the first time in German hard coal mining cable bolts at salvage faces were used at the Walsum mine. For this technical innovation a Flex-Drill-machine of Hebben und Fischbach was used during a research and development program. The commercially available cable bolts were modified at the Walsum mine for imbedding in polyurethane grout. The initial use was in the salvage face P 92 with a face opening of 3.3 m. The length of the shields was up to 7 m. The development and realisation of the support concept took place in close cooperation with the Bergamt Moers. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf dem Bergwerk Walsum wurde im Jahr 1997 erstmalig im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau eine Strebendstellung in Vollankerung hergestellt und mit Seilanker ausgebaut. Fuer diese technische Neuheit kam im Rahmen eines Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens das Flex-Drill-Bohrgeraet der Firma Hebben und Fischbach zum Einsatz. Die verwendeten handelsueblichen Seilanker wurden auf dem Bergwerk Walsum fuer die Verklebung mit Polyurethan modifiziert. Der Ersteinsatz wurde in der Strebendstellung der Bauhoehe P-92 bei einer Streboeffnung von rund 3,30 m durchgefuehrt. Die Laenge des zu raubenden Schildausbaus betrug nahezu 7 m. Die Entwicklung und Realisierung des Ausbaukonzepts erfolgte in enger und konstruktiver Zusammenarbeit mit dem Bergamt Moers. (orig.)

  2. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Fretting Fatigue Behavior for Steel Q235 Single-Lap Bolted Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the fretting fatigue life and failure mode of steel Q235B plates in single-lap bolted joints. Ten specimens were prepared and tested to fit the S-N curve. SEM (scanning electron microscope was then employed to observe fatigue crack surfaces and identify crack initiation, crack propagation, and transient fracture zones. Moreover, a FEM model was established to simulate the stress and displacement fields. The normal contact stress, tangential contact stress, and relative slipping displacement at the critical fretting zone were used to calculate FFD values and assess fretting fatigue crack initiation sites, which were in good agreement with SEM observations. Experimental results confirmed the fretting fatigue failure mode for these specimens. It was found that the crack initiation resulted from wear regions at the contact surfaces between plates, and fretting fatigue cracks occurred at a certain distance away from hole edges. The proposed FFD-N relationship is an alternative approach to evaluate fretting fatigue life of steel plates in bolted joints.

  3. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  4. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Amundson, T E

    1988-07-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The percentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  5. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  6. Fatal proventricular dilatation disease in captive native psittacines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Resende, Maurício; Ferreira, Francisco Carlos Júnior; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Shivaprasad, H L; de Resende, José Sérgio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal inflammatory disease of psittacines (Aves: Psittaciformes), is described in native Brazilian psittacines. Twenty captive psittacines that died of suspected PDD were necropsied and 10 were submitted to histopathology, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for avian bornavirus (ABV). Examined species were one pileated parrot (Pionopsitta pileata), three vinaceous-breasted parrots (Amazona vinacea), two blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana), one scarlet macaw (Ara macao), one chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa), one scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), and one red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha). Gross examination and histopathology revealed typical PDD lesions in all birds. The presence of ABV was confirmed in four psittacines including one red-browed Amazon parrot, one blue-winged macaw, one scarlet macaw, and one chestnut-fronted macaw. In the red-browed Amazon parrot and in one blue-winged macaw, IHC demonstrated ABV antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in various organs. This is the first description of PDD by ABV in Brazilian psittacines and indicates the necessity for adopting a strategic control plan for reducing its impact in native birds.

  7. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  8. Oviduct adenocarcinoma in some species of captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Viner, T C

    2008-09-01

    This article reports 5 cases of oviduct adenocarcinoma in adult captive snakes from Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. This neoplasm was found in 1 of each of the following species: emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), Amazonian tree boa (Corallus enydris enydris), Burmese rock python (Python molurus bivittatus), Northern pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus), and corn snake (Elaphe guttata). Grossly, tan to red firm masses were found within oviducts in 3 cases. In an additional 2 cases, the primary tumor was detected only histologically. Microscopically, neoplasms were papillary, and often extended transmurally. The neoplastic cells were polygonal and organized in acini or cords, with often abundant fibrovascular stroma. Hemorrhages and necrosis were present in all cases. Inflammation, myxomatous material, desmoplasia, and bacteria were often observed. Histologic evidence of metastasis was present in all cases. Solid metastases were seen in all animals except the Northern pine snake and involved several organs including the liver, lung, and heart. Emboli of neoplastic cells were observed in all animals but the Burmese rock python and corn snake.

  9. SOME BEHAVIORAL TRAITS OF RED NECK OSTRICH UNDER CAPTIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. MOHAMMED AHMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.. The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.. The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

  10. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Spontaneous lesions in aged captive raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamir, Amir N

    2011-05-01

    In nature, free-ranging raccoons typically do not live longer than 2 y; most raccoons in the wild die young due to accidents and diseases. Therefore, few data are available regarding lesions associated with advancing age in raccoons. This communication documents the lesions present in raccoons (7 male; 3 female) that were older than 7 y and had been used as breeders at a commercial facility in central Iowa. The most frequent microscopic lesions in these raccoons included accumulation of iron pigment in livers and spleens (10 of 10 animals evaluated), neuroaxonal degeneration in caudal medulla (10 of 10), vascular mineralization (psammoma body) in choroid plexus (9 of 10), myocardial inclusions (7 of 8), and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (2 of 3). Other conditions were seen with less prevalence. Except for the detection of gastritis with bacteria in the gastric mucosa of 1 raccoon, the presence of inflammatory cells in 3 choroid plexuses, and the presence of Lafora bodies in the brain of 1 animal, all conditions observed had previously been reported in raccoons. Surprisingly, islet-cell amyloidosis, previously observed as common incidental finding in older captive raccoons, was not seen in any of the raccoons we examined. Because free-ranging raccoons are distributed over wide geographic areas, their local environment may have considerable influence on the range of spontaneous lesions that would occur in raccoons obtained from a specific location. Therefore, the lesions found in these raccoons from central Iowa may differ from those of other raccoon populations.

  12. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  13. Sound variation and function in captive Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yayoi M; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Sakai, Mai; Iwasaki, Mari; Wakabayashi, Ikuo; Seko, Atsushi; Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-10-01

    Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), one of the smallest dolphin species, has been reported to produce only narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) clicks and no whistles. To clarify their sound repertoire and examine the function of each type, we analysed the sounds and behaviour of captive Commerson's dolphins in Toba Aquarium, Japan. All recorded sounds were NBHF clicks with peak frequency >110kHz. The recorded click-trains were categorised into four types based on the changing pattern of their Inter-click intervals (ICI): Decreasing type, with continuously decreasing ICI during the last part of the train; Increasing type, with continuously increasing ICI during the last part; Fluctuating type, with fluctuating ICI; and Burst-pulse type, with very short and constant ICI. The frequency of the Decreasing type increased when approaching an object newly introduced to the tank, suggesting that the sound is used for echolocation on approach. The Burst-pulse type suddenly increased in front of the object and was often oriented towards it, suggesting that it was used for echolocation in close proximity to the object. In contrast, the Increasing type was rarely recorded during approach, but increased when a dolphin approached another dolphin. The Increasing and Burst-pulse types also increased when dolphins began social behaviours. These results suggest that some NBHF clicks have functions other than echolocation, such as communication.

  14. THE IMPACT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SUBVENTION ON THE CAPTIVE CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the European Union policy in the energy field on promoting the development of new and renewable energy forms, the Community legislation on the promotion of renewable sources had a significant development in the recent years. Thus, alternative fossil fuels (geothermal energy, ocean energy, hydropower energy, solar energy, wind energy, biomass and biofuels contribute to the diversification of the supply on energy to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels markets. Moreover, in accordance with the specifications of the Directive 2009/28/EC on energy from renewable sources there has been set as compulsory target the fact that an amount of 20% of the energy consumption of the European Union by 2020, to be derived from the renewable energy sources. In turn, this objective is detailed in the secondary national compulsory targets given the different starting points of Member States. Based on these aspects, in our country, the unsubsidized renewable energy (hydroelectric, together with the photovoltaic, wind and biomass energy represented in the past three years a contribution well above the target assumed by Romania for the year 2020 of total of the produced energy. In this context, this study aims, on the one hand, to emphasize that the subsidized renewable energy to the captive consumers, by increasing the share of green certificates, results in narrowing the market of the classic manufacturers, on the other hand, to account for these securities as due to the existence of subsidies for the operating activities.

  15. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  16. Consecutive spawnings of Chinese amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri, in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    Full Text Available Cephalochordate amphioxus is a promising model animal for studying the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of vertebrates because its unique phylogenetic position, simple body plan and sequenced genome. However, one major drawback for using amphioxus as a model organism is the restricted supply of living embryos since they are available only during spawning season that varies from a couple of days to several months according to species. Therefore we are aiming to develop methods for obtaining viable amphioxus embryos in non-spawning season. In the current study, we found that Branchiostoma belcheri could develop their gonads and spawn consecutively in the laboratory when cultured in a low density at a high temperature (25-28 °C supplied with sufficient food and proper cleanness. Among the approximate 150 observed animals, which spawned spontaneously between November and December 2011, 10% have spawned twice, 10% three times, and 80% four times, through April 2012. The quality and quantity of the gametes reproduced in the consecutive spawning have no obvious difference with those spawned once naturally. Spawning intervals varied dramatically both among different animals (from 1 to 5 months and between intervals of a single individual (from 27 to 74 days for one animal. In summary, we developed a method with which, for the first time, consecutive spawnings of amphioxus in captivity can be achieved. This has practical implications for the cultivation of other amphioxus species, and eventually will greatly promote the utilization of amphioxus as a model system.

  17. Behavioural Study of Captive Sloth Bears Using Environmental Enrichment Tools

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    M. Veeraselvam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural changes were studied in five captive sloth bears kept in confined enclosure at Zoological Park, Chennai, India. Behavioural categories like active, passive, and abnormal behaviours were taken for the study. The activity budget was recorded as a single animal scan. The detailed baseline data of 150 hours, over a period of 30 days, were collected. At baseline, bears exhibited passive and more abnormal behaviours. Similarly, after application of the environmental tools like honey-log, underground food pipes, and wobbling box in the enclosure, the data were collected for 150 hours (30 days. Increased active behaviours and decreased abnormal behaviours were observed and showed highly significant changes in the abnormal behaviour as a whole when compared to the baseline level. During the postenrichment period, the data that were collected for 150 hours (30 days showed no significant differences statistically between the behavioural categories. But certain level of difference was evident from the percentage of abnormal behaviours exhibited by individual bears. Among the enrichment devices, honey-log was the most preferred enrichment tool as revealed by the percentage of time spent by individual animal. The results show that application of enrichment tool continuously may bring long term effect in stereotypic behaviour.

  18. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  19. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

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    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  20. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.