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Sample records for nonparasitized creamy-bellied thrush

  1. Thrush - children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidiasis - oral; Oral thrush; Fungal infection - mouth; Candida - oral ... do not fit well. Candida can also cause yeast infections in the vagina. Thrush in newborns is somewhat common and easy to treat.

  2. Thrush in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... thrush. You paint this medicine on your baby's mouth and tongue. If you have a yeast infection on your nipples, your provider may recommend an ...

  3. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Donovan, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    With spotted breast and reddish tail, the Hermit Thrush lives up to its name. Although celebrated for its ethereal song, it is mostly a quiet and unobtrusive bird that spends much of its time in the lower branches of the undergrowth or on the forest floor, often seen flicking its wings while perched and quickly raising and slowly lowering its tail. A highly variable species in color and size, the Hermit Thrush's morphological characteristics and plumage have been well studied, with 12-13 subspecies now recognized (see Systematics).This thrush is one of the most widely distributed forest-nesting migratory birds in North America and the only forest thrush whose population has increased or remained stable over the past 20 years. Its extensive breeding range includes the northern hardwood forest, as well as most of the boreal and mountainous coniferous forest areas north of Mexico, with relatively recent expansions into New England and the southern Appalachians. In migration, the species moves to lower elevations and southward, spreading out to winter over much of the southern United States, through Mexico to Guatemala and east to Bermuda. It is the only species of Catharus that winters in North America, switching from a breeding diet of mainly arthropods to a wintering diet heavily supplemented with fruits.Much has been learned about this widely distributed species since the original Birds of North America account of 1996. New information pertaining to its song, migratory behavior, winter territoriality, survival, and diet has been added, as well as many new insights into the potential effects of forest management and other human disturbances. Still lacking are detailed nesting studies, studies of juvenile dispersal, of daily activities and time budgets, and of migratory routes.

  4. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  5. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts

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    Adas Gokhan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Methods Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT, cyst recurrences and treatment. Results In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20–62. Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%. Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16% two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7% were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6–108. There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Conclusion Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole

  6. Study of heavy metals in Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and the incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of surface water from Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and from nearby hot springs, have been analysed for heavy metals and other consituents. Significant levels of mercury and arsenic were observed. These findings may be relevant to the high incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis in the immediate vicinity of the lake.

  7. Site fidelity and longevity of the Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and have a similar maximum longevity. We propose that adult thrushes are able to persist in a given home range because they are able to avoid resident predators, e.g. feral cats Felis sylvestris catus, by accurately predicting their hunting ...

  8. Molecular characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus from migratory birds: song thrush (Turdus philomelos

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    Nuno Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE were detected in two faecal samples (1.3% of song thrush in Portugal. vanA isolates showed high level vancomycin/teicoplanin resistance, as well as resistance to ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and cloranfenicol. Thrush can be a reservoir of VRE and transmit these resistant bacteria to other animals including humans.

  9. Division within the North American boreal forest: Ecological niche divergence between the Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) and Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Alyssa M

    2017-07-01

    Sister species that diverged in allopatry in similar environments are expected to exhibit niche conservatism. Using ecological niche modeling and a multivariate analysis of climate and habitat data, I test the hypothesis that the Bicknell's Thrush ( Catharus bicknelli ) and Gray-cheeked Thrush ( C. mimimus ), sister species that breed in the North American boreal forest, show niche conservatism. Three tree species that are important components of breeding territories of both thrush species were combined with climatic variables to create niche models consisting of abiotic and biotic components. Abiotic-only, abiotic+biotic, and biotic-only models were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) criterion. Abiotic+biotic models had higher AUC scores and did not over-project thrush distributions compared to abiotic-only or biotic-only models. From the abiotic+biotic models, I tested for niche conservatism or divergence by accounting for the differences in the availability of niche components by calculating (1) niche overlap from ecological niche models and (2) mean niche differences of environmental values at occurrence points. Niche background similarity tests revealed significant niche divergence in 10 of 12 comparisons, and multivariate tests revealed niche divergence along 2 of 3 niche axes. The Bicknell's Thrush breeds in warmer and wetter regions with a high abundance of balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ), whereas Gray-cheeked Thrush often co-occurs with black spruce ( Picea mariana ). Niche divergence, rather than conservatism, was the predominant pattern for these species, suggesting that ecological divergence has played a role in the speciation of the Bicknell's Thrush and Gray-cheeked Thrush. Furthermore, because niche models were improved by the incorporation of biotic variables, this study validates the inclusion of relevant biotic factors in ecological niche modeling to increase model accuracy.

  10. Contrasting latitudinal patterns of life-history divergence in two genera of new world thrushes (Turdinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Andy J.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Several long-standing hypotheses have been proposed to explain latitudinal patterns of life-history strategies. Here, we test predictions of four such hypotheses (seasonality, food limitation, nest predation and adult survival probability) by examining life-history traits and age-specific mortality rates of several species of thrushes (Turdinae) based on field studies at temperate and tropical sites and data gathered from the literature. Thrushes in the genus Catharus showed the typical pattern of slower life-history strategies in the tropics while co-occuring Turdus thrushes differed much less across latitudes. Seasonality is a broadly accepted hypothesis for latitudinal patterns, but the lack of concordance in latitudinal patterns between co-existing genera that experience the same seasonal patterns suggests seasonality cannot fully explain latitudinal trait variation in thrushes. Nest-predation also could not explain patterns based on our field data and literature data for these two genera. Total feeding rates were similar, and per-nestling feeding rates were higher at tropical latitudes in both genera, suggesting food limitation does not explain trait differences in thrushes. Latitudinal patterns of life histories in these two genera were closely associated with adult survival probability. Thus, our data suggest that environmental influences on adult survival probability may play a particularly strong role in shaping latitudinal patterns of life-history traits.

  11. Two thrush species as dispersers of Miconia prasina (Sw. DC. (Melastomataceae: an experimental approach

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    MAS. Alves

    Full Text Available We carried out a seed germination experiment using two thrush species in captivity. We compared the number of germinated seeds and germination time of control seeds (manually removed from fruits and ingested seeds of Miconia prasina by two bird species, Turdus albicollis and T. amaurochalinus, and also compared retention times of seeds by both thrush species. Control seeds germinated more frequently than those ingested for one species, T. albicollis. The germination time of ingested seeds by T. amaurochalinus was similar to the control seeds but seeds ingested by T. albicollis took longer to germinate than the controls. Both thrush species had a similar seed defecation pattern. The cumulative number of defecated seeds increased by 2 hours after fruit ingestion. At the end of the first 30 minutes both species had already defecated approximately 50% of the seeds ingested Our results suggest that both species could act as disperser agents of M. prasina.

  12. Nesting Ecology of Wood Thrush (Turdidae: Passeriformes) in Hardwood Forests of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Sargent; John C. Kilgo; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2003-01-01

    We studied nesting success of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) in bottomland and upland hardwood forests in South Carolina. Twenty-one of 26 nests (80.8%) were located in bottomland sites, and 76.2% of these nests were in narrow (

  13. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  14. Swainson's Thrushes do not show strong wind selectivity prior to crossing the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Moore, Frank R; Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Smolinsky, Jaclyn; Zenzal, Theodore J

    2017-10-27

    During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft. Morgan, Alabama, USA at annual, seasonal, and nightly time scales. Additionally, migrants could benefit from forecasting future wind conditions, crossing on nights when winds are consistently supportive across the Gulf, thereby avoiding the potentially lethal consequences of depleting their energetic reserves over water. To test whether birds forecast, we developed a movement model, calculated to what extent departure winds were predictive of future Gulf winds, and tested whether birds responded to predictability. Swainson's Thrushes were only slightly selective and did not appear to forecast. By following the simple rule of avoiding only the strongest headwinds at departure, Swainson's Thrushes could survive the 1500 km flight between Alabama and Veracruz, Mexico.

  15. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peroxide alkaline for cleansing the baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps

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    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection affecting the oral mucosa. A number of predisposing factors have the capacity to convert Candida from the normal commensal flora to a pathogenic organism. Oral candidiasis is divided into primary and secondary infection. The primary infections are restricted to the oral and perioral sites, where as secondary infections are accompanied by sistemic mucocutaneous manifestation. Oral thrush is one of the candidiasis primary infection. Some presdiposing factors of oral thrush are neonatal, old people, or where oral microflora is disturbed by the treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics. Final diagnosis is determined by fungal culture examination, although through clinical examination oral thrush can be determined by swabbing the white pseudomembran. Purpose: This case report presents about the importance of using the antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple to prevent oral thrush relaps and shows about peroxide alkaline as the alternatif of antiseptic cleanser for baby bottle nipple that can substitute chlorhexidine gluconat 0.2%. Case: A baby girl, 15 months old, when she was suffering influenza the pediatry gave amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for ten days. Then the white plaque appeared on her dorsum of tongue. The therapy was Gentian Violet 1% four times a day for ten days was applied on dorsum of the tongue. The patient was suspected to suffer alergy reaction after using nistatin oral suspension four times a day had applied for 1 day. The instruction was doing sterilization for the baby bottle nipple in boiling water. Three days after the baby was cured, the white plaque was appeared on upper n lower lips mucous. Case management: The diagnosis was Oral thrush. The therapy was Gentian violet 1% four times a day for ten days that applied on upper and lower lips mucous. The instruction was doing the sterilization for baby bottle nipple in denture cleanser contain

  17. A small solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst causing an intra-hepatic bile duct stricture: a case report

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    Hong Taeho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an unusual presentation of a small hepatic cyst causing cholangitis. Case presentation A 70-year-old Asian man was hospitalized for aggravated chronic pain in the right upper portion of his abdomen. Fever developed after admission. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes, inflammatory markers and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 without hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated dilatation of the left intra-hepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the right intra-hepatic bile ducts were normally filled with contrast medium, but the left intra-hepatic bile ducts were not seen in the confluence. A left hepatectomy was performed because a hidden malignancy could not be excluded. The surgical findings showed no tumor around the bile duct but rather a 2 cm cyst in segment four of Couinaud's category of the liver around the hilum. The pathology report was a solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst compressing the bile duct. Conclusion A very small solitary hepatic cyst might cause hepatic duct stricture if it is located near the hepatic hilum, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic duct stricture.

  18. A winter distribution model for Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a conservation tool for a threatened migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P. McFarland; C. C. Rimmer; J. E. Goetz; Y. Aubry; J. M. Wunderle Jr.; A. Hayes-Sutton; J. M. Townsend; A. Llanes Sosa; A. Kirkconnell

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to...

  19. How social media meet patients’ questions: YouTube™ review for children oral thrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, D; Romano, A N; Paparella, R S; Gentile, C; Minervini, G; Serpico, R; Candotto, V; Laino, L

    2018-01-01

    YouTube™ is increasingly being used by patients to obtain health-related information. No studies have evaluated the content of YouTube™ videos on children oral thrush. The aim of this work is to examine the quality of information offered by this platform about oral thrush in children. Searching term “oral thrush in children” (OTC) displayed a total of 2.790 results. Of the top 60 videos analyzed, 27 were excluded. The main source of upload was from generalist information YouTube® channels (GC) followed by healthcare professionals (HP), individual users (IU), and healthcare information channels (HC); usefulness of videos is successfully correlated with the number of visualization, number of likes and viewing rate and was interdependent with the number of visualizations, number of likes and VR. However, videos on the oral thrush do not have satisfactory quality information. HP themselves, along with HC, do not seem to provide more appropriate information on COT, than GC or IU.

  20. Simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized and non-parasitized red blood cells by flow cytometry

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    Gallo Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe falciparum malaria anaemia (SMA is a frequent cause of mortality in children and pregnant women. The most important determinant of SMA appears to be the loss of non-parasitized red blood cells (np-RBCs in excess of loss of parasitized (p- RBCs at schizogony. Based on data from acute SMA where excretion of haemoglobin in urine and increased plasma haemoglobin represented respectively less than 1% and 0.5% of total Hb loss, phagocytosis appears to be the predominant mechanism of removal of np- and p-RBC. Estimates indicate that np-RBCs are cleared in approximately 10-fold excess compared to p-RBCs. An even larger removal of np-RBCs has been described in vivax malaria anaemia. Estimates were based on two single studies both performed on neurosyphilitic patients who underwent malaria therapy. As the share of np-RBC removal is likely to vary between wide limits, it is important to assess the contribution of both np- and p-RBC populations to overall RBC loss, and disclose the mechanism of such variability. As available methods do not discriminate between the removal of np- vs p-RBCs, the purpose of this study was to set up a system allowing the simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of p- and np-RBC in the same sample. Methods and Results Phagocytosis of p- and np-RBCs was quantified in the same sample using double-labelled target cells and the human phagocytic cell-line THP-1, pre-activated by TNF and IFNγ to enhance their phagocytic activity. Target RBCs were double-labelled with fluorescent carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester (CF-SE and the DNA label ethidium bromide (EB. EB, a DNA label, allowed to discriminate p-RBCs that contain parasitic DNA from the np-RBCs devoid of DNA. FACS analysis of THP-1 cells fed with double-labelled RBCs showed that p- and np-RBCs were phagocytosed in different proportions in relation to parasitaemia. Conclusions The assay allowed the analysis of phagocytosis rapidly and with low

  1. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sugar, which encourages the growth of candida. Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes ... saliva, discouraging the growth of candida. Treat a vaginal yeast infection as soon as possible. Treat dry mouth. Ask ...

  2. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  3. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  4. Using satellite remote sensing to model and map the distribution of Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli) in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephen Roy

    Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to model Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) distribution in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The proof-of-concept was established for using satellite imagery in species-habitat modeling, where for the first time imagery spectral features were used to estimate a species-habitat model variable. The model predicted rising probabilities of thrush presence with decreasing dominant vegetation height, increasing elevation, and decreasing distance to nearest Fir Sapling cover type. To solve the model at all locations required regressor estimates at every pixel, which were not available for the dominant vegetation height and elevation variables. Topographically normalized imagery features Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Band 1 (blue) were used to estimate dominant vegetation height using multiple linear regression; and a Digital Elevation Model was used to estimate elevation. Distance to nearest Fir Sapling cover type was obtained for each pixel from a land cover map specifically constructed for this project. The Bicknell's Thrush habitat model was derived using logistic regression, which produced the probability of detecting a singing male based on the pattern of model covariates. Model validation using Bicknell's Thrush data not used in model calibration, revealed that the model accurately estimated thrush presence at probabilities ranging from 0 to account for more total individuals and reproductive output than higher density less abundant land area. Efforts to conserve areas of highest individual density under the assumption that density reflects habitat quality could target the smallest fraction of the total population.

  5. A Winter Distribution Model for Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a Conservation Tool for a Threatened Migratory Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kent P.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Goetz, James E.; Aubry, Yves; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Sutton, Anne; Townsend, Jason M.; Sosa, Alejandro Llanes; Kirkconnell, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to 2009 to quantitatively evaluate winter distribution and habitat selection. Additionally, we conducted targeted surveys in Jamaica (n = 433), Cuba (n = 363), Dominican Republic (n = 1,000), Haiti (n = 131) and Puerto Rico (n = 242) yielding 179 sites with thrush presence. We modeled Bicknell’s Thrush winter habitat selection and distribution in the Greater Antilles in Maxent version 3.3.1. using environmental predictors represented in 30 arc second study area rasters. These included nine landform, land cover and climatic variables that were thought a priori to have potentially high predictive power. We used the average training gain from ten model runs to select the best subset of predictors. Total winter precipitation, aspect and land cover, particularly broadleaf forests, emerged as important variables. A five-variable model that contained land cover, winter precipitation, aspect, slope, and elevation was the most parsimonious and not significantly different than the models with more variables. We used the best fitting model to depict potential winter habitat. Using the 10 percentile threshold (>0.25), we estimated winter habitat to cover 33,170 km2, nearly 10% of the study area. The Dominican Republic contained half of all potential habitat (51%), followed by Cuba (15.1%), Jamaica (13.5%), Haiti (10.6%), and Puerto Rico (9.9%). Nearly one-third of the range was found to be in protected areas. By providing the first detailed predictive map of Bicknell’s Thrush winter distribution, our study provides a useful tool to prioritize and direct conservation planning for this and

  6. Composition of fuel stores and digestive limitations to fuel deposition rate in the long-distance migratory thrush nightingale, Luscinia luscinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lindström, A.; Zijlstra, R.

    1997-01-01

    During their autumn migratory phase, thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) previously starved for 2 d were allowed to refuel under three different ambient temperature conditions (-7 degrees, 7 degrees, and 22 degrees C). During the refueling period, as well as during the preceding control and

  7. DOCUMENTED RECORD OF A MIGRATING EASTERN SLATY THRUSH (Turdus subalaris (TURDIDAE, PASSERIFORMES IN WESTERN MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Dias Vitorino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdus subalaris occurs in the meridional parts of South America, from Bolivia Southward to Argentina, Paraguay and South and Southeastern Brazil. During the winter on the continent, it performs migration little known toward areas of ecotone between Amazon and Cerrado, with little information on their area of wintering in the Mato Grosso state. In this study we report on a record documenting the species for the Alto Rio Guaporé basin, Western Mato Grosso, based on a mist-netted individual. We present a record until now unpublished of the species in the region of Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade and contribute to the knowledge of the species’ wintering range and their annual cycle. Keywords: Austral migration; wintering; birds; Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade.

  8. Don’t live in a town where there are no doctors: toxic epidermal necrolysis initially misdiagnosed as oral thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamad Ibrahim; Ali, Khaled Shawkat; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Akhtar, Mubeena; Maimani, Ghassan Adnan Al; Raja, Sadeya Hanif; Basraheel, Ashraf; Fareed, Khurram

    2009-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare but life threatening skin disease that is most commonly drug induced. The exact pathogenesis of TEN is still unknown and many drugs, including prednisolone, cyclosporin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), have been used in an attempt to halt the disease process. The use of IVIG in particular is controversial. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has made a labelling change to the drug information for carbamazepine. Owing to recent data implicating the HLA allele B*1502 as a marker for carbamazepine induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and TEN in Han Chinese, the FDA recommends genotyping all Asians for the allele. We present an interesting case of carbamazepine induced TEN which was confused with oral thrush, had no skin lesions on presentation, and had an excellent response to a 5 day course of methylprednisolone and high dose IVIG in combination. PMID:22207871

  9. DOCUMENTED RECORD OF A MIGRATING EASTERN SLATY THRUSH (Turdus subalaris) (TURDIDAE, PASSERIFORMES) IN WESTERN MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Dias Vitorino; Angélica Vilas Boas da Frota; Renato da Silva Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdus subalaris) occurs in the meridional parts of South America, from Bolivia Southward to Argentina, Paraguay and South and Southeastern Brazil. During the winter on the continent, it performs migration little known toward areas of ecotone between Amazon and Cerrado, with little information on their area of wintering in the Mato Grosso state. In this study we report on a record documenting the species for the Alto Rio Guaporé basin, Western Mato Grosso, based on a...

  10. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-11-18

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  11. Urbanization breaks up host-parasite interactions: a case study on parasite community ecology of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites.

  12. Long-term changes in migration timing of Song Thrush Turdus philomelos at the southern Baltic coast in response to temperatures on route and at breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlisiak, Michał; Remisiewicz, Magdalena; Nowakowski, Jarosław K

    2018-05-26

    Climate warming causes the advancement of spring arrival of many migrant birds breeding in Europe, but the effects on their autumn migration are less known. We aimed to determine any changes in the timing of Song Thrush captured during spring and autumn migrations at the Polish Baltic coast from 1975 to 2014, and if these were related to long-term changes of temperature at their breeding grounds and migration routes. The timing of spring migration at Hel ringing station in 1975-2014 did not show long-term advance, but they had responded to environmental conditions on the year-to-year basis. The warmer the temperatures were in April on their migration route, the earlier were the dates of the median and the end of spring migration at Hel. The beginning of autumn migration at the Mierzeja Wiślana ringing station advanced by 5 days between 1975 and 2014. The warmer the April on route, and the July at the Song Thrushes' breeding grounds, the earlier young birds began autumn migration across the Baltic coast. We suggest this was a combined effect of adults' migration and breeding early during warm springs and young birds getting ready faster for autumn migration during warm summers. The average time span of 90% of the autumn migration was extended by 5 days, probably because of early migration of young birds from first broods and late of those from second broods enabled by warm springs and summers. The response of Song Thrushes' migration timing to temperatures on route and at the breeding grounds indicated high plasticity in the species and suggested it might adapt well to climate changes.

  13. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  14. A twelve-month field study of the West African Thrush Turdus pelios (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: Part 2: annual cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola I Akinpelu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, birds inhabiting forested regions are less seasonal in their activities than those from open areas. In order to study annual cycles in forest regions of South western Nigeria, West African Thrushes (Turdus pelios were mist-netted and banded during the last two weeks of each month. The nest is a cup-shaped structure built out of grasses, herbs, weeds, roots and earth laid out in a clockwise manner. Only the nesting tree and feeding sites were defended during the breeding period. The clutch size was 2.69 ±0.20 eggs with a mean incubation period of 14.11 ±0.26 days. The mean nestling period was 15 ±1.00 days. The nestlings were fed on a variety of plant and animal matter, of which grass seeds and insects were predominant. Moult was found to be protracted with a population moult period of 194 days and a much shorter individual moult period. Moult and breeding periods were spread out: moult period dovetailed into the breeding period. The birds were found to gain weight during the period but they attained their maximum weight in August after the moult period. The lowest weight was recorded in February, during the peak of the dry season, when food availability was lower. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:239-247. Epub 2005 Jun 24El nido del tordo africano occidental es una estructura en forma de copa construida con pastos, hierbas, malezas, raíces y tierra, proyectado en el sentido de las manecillas del reloj. Solamente el árbol con el nido y los sitios de alimentación son defendidos durante la crianza. El tamaño de la nidada fue 2.69 ± 0.20 huevos con un periodo de incubación de 14.11 ± 0.26 días. El periodo promedio de cría fue de 15 ± 1.00 días. Los polluelos fueron alimentados con una variedad de material animal y vegetal, predominando las semillas de pasto y los insectos. La muda del plumaje alar es prolongada, con un período poblacional de muda de 194 días y un periodo individual mucho menor. La muda y crianza son tan prolongados

  15. Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2011-04-01

    Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of β-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth, throat, or esophagus. Risk & Prevention Who gets candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus? Candidiasis in ... the mouth and throat. How can I prevent candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus? Ways to ...

  17. Symptomatic Non-parasitic benign hepatic cyst: Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Rarely, however, the cysts become symptomatic and are then best treated surgically. The optimal surgical treatment is debatable. ... the liver, including multiple cysts arising in the ..... aspiration and ethanol sclerosis of a large, symptomatic,.

  18. Sex determination in Turdus amaurochalinus (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: morphometrical analysis supported by CHD gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyucha Von Kossel de Andrade Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important for conservation and population studies, particularly for reproduction programs of threatened species and behavioural ecology. Turdus amaurochalinus, Creamy-bellied Thrush, only exhibits sexual dimorphism during the breeding season, when males are considered to show intense yellow bills, and females and immature males show dark brown bills. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the sex of individuals using genetic techniques, and 2 to test the hypothesis that sex dimorphism can be detected by morphometry. This study was carried out at Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, a preserved area located on the North coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The birds were captured using ornithological nets, singly marked with metal rings, weighed, measured and had blood samples collected before being released. The sex of 42 T. amaurochalinus individuals was determined using the CHD gene marker. A total of 20 males and 22 females were identified from June to August, with peak capture frequency in June. Turdus amaurochalinus females and males differed significantly in morphometrical measures. The most important traits to distinguish males from females were wing length (Student t-test=4.34, df=40, p=0.0001 and weight (Student t-test=2.08,df=40, p=0.044: females were heavier and had significantly shorter wing length than males. Females and males were correctly classified in 86% and 75% of cases, respectively, using Discriminant Analysis. The molecular analysis was the most secure method for sex determination in the studied species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 789- 794. Epub 2011 June 01.

  19. A Reinforcement for Multifunctional Composites for Non-Parasitic Radiation Shielding, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation shielding is a requirement to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation during NASA missions. Multifunctional materials have the potential to...

  20. Amblyomma auricularium (Acari: Ixodidae: underwater survival of the non-parasitic phase of feeding females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwine Joyce Barbosa de Sá-Hungaro

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of immersion in water on the biological parameters of engorged females of the tick species Amblyomma auricularium, 60 females were distributed in six groups, each comprising 10 individuals. The control group – G1 (not immersed was fixed dorsally in a Petri dish and incubated at 27 ± 1°C and 80% RH. The other groups were subjected to immersion periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, and the sixth group to continuous immersion. After the immersion period, the females were placed in Petri dishes to begin laying. Eggs were collected every 72 hours and kept in biological chambers. All the groups showed significant differences (p <0.05 during the pre-oviposition period. The laying period and the average weight of overall posture did not change. The egg incubation period also did not differ significantly, but the hatching rate in the group immersed for 96h showed a significant difference. Thus, immersion for up to 96 hours does not impair the survival of A. auricularium females, although it may delay egg laying and reduce the number of offspring.

  1. Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-05

    Mar 5, 1996 ... HERRERA, CM. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian. peninSUla: a study of fruit characteristics. Ecol. Monog. 57' ... in climate, geOlogy, altitude and plant community composi- tion ('lable I). Rainfall is highest, and ...

  2. Nesting success and survival rates of suburban Olive Thrushes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive rate, clutch size, nesting success and survival rate of dependent fledglings were estimated from breeding records in the Eastern Cape. These data were used to estimate survival rate of independent fledglings. The estimated adult survival rate in this region was high and the clutch size was small, compared to ...

  3. Breastfeeding keratosis: this frictional keratosis of newborns may mimic thrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat-Amnuay, Sudarat; Bouquot, Jerry

    2013-09-01

    We report the first example, to our knowledge, of a frictional keratosis from exuberant sucking in a breastfeeding infant. A 2-month-old girl was referred for evaluation of a well-demarcated, nonsloughing white keratotic plaque of the lower lip mucosa, just inside the vermilion border. The plaque had a slightly irregular surface, had no surrounding erythema, and was the only such plaque in the mouth. It had been present for at least 3 weeks and had been unsuccessfully treated by her pediatrician via oral Mycostatin (nystatin). Her parents sought a second opinion when the infant was prescribed a full course of oral Diflucan (fluconazole). A cytopathology smear (Papanicolaou test) revealed abundant mature keratinocytes with no evidence of Candida. The mother admitted that the infant "worked hard" at sucking during breastfeeding and continued sucking long after feeding. The parents were unaware of any other habit or potential irritation of the lips. After 3 months of age the infant's sucking pattern became more "normal" and the keratosis disappeared; it did not recur during 3 years of follow-up. We propose the term "breastfeeding keratosis" for this entity.

  4. Sex determination in Turdus amaurochalinus (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: morphometrical analysis supported by CHD gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyucha Von Kossel de Andrade Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important for conservation and population studies, particularly for reproduction programs of threatened species and behavioural ecology. Turdus amaurochalinus, Creamy-bellied Thrush, only exhibits sexual dimorphism during the breeding season, when males are considered to show intense yellow bills, and females and immature males show dark brown bills. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the sex of individuals using genetic techniques, and 2 to test the hypothesis that sex dimorphism can be detected by morphometry. This study was carried out at Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, a preserved area located on the North coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The birds were captured using ornithological nets, singly marked with metal rings, weighed, measured and had blood samples collected before being released. The sex of 42 T. amaurochalinus individuals was determined using the CHD gene marker. A total of 20 males and 22 females were identified from June to August, with peak capture frequency in June. Turdus amaurochalinus females and males differed significantly in morphometrical measures. The most important traits to distinguish males from females were wing length (Student t-test=4.34, df=40, p=0.0001 and weight (Student t-test=2.08,df=40, p=0.044: females were heavier and had significantly shorter wing length than males. Females and males were correctly classified in 86% and 75% of cases, respectively, using Discriminant Analysis. The molecular analysis was the most secure method for sex determination in the studied species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 789- 794. Epub 2011 June 01.La determinación del sexo es importante para la conservación y los estudios poblacionales. Turdus amaurochalinus no presenta aparente dimorfismo sexual. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el sexo a través de una técnica genética, mediante el uso del marcador del gen CHD y se puso a prueba la hipótesis de que el dimorfismo

  5. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition and metabolism of parasitized and non-parasitized ruminants. Some approaches for studying the mode of action of parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of helminth infections on ruminant digestive function and metabolism are discussed against the background of current information on the mechanisms controlling feed intake and utilization in normal animals. Although parasites reduce productivity by impairing appetite and utilization of nutrients, few studies have been conducted on the function of the digestive tract and the metabolism of parasitized animals. Those areas which warrant further investigation are described, and the techniques which could be usefully applied are outlined. It is concluded that more emphasis should be given to the diet available to parasitized animals, and that by using diets of different digestibility and protein content, valuable information could be obtained as to the relative importance of reduced appetite and reduced efficiency of feed utilization. Central to all studies is a proper delineation of the fate of proteins in the small intestine of parasitized animals, and characterization of the types of bacteria in the gut and their effects on endogenous protein losses. The application of 15 N is mentioned. The potential usefulness of 14 C (eg. to measure the flow of digesta, to the lower digestive tract; clearance of 14 C-propionate from blood; etc.) is described

  7. Hermit Thrush is the First Observed Dispersal Agent for Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl G. Smith; Paul B. Hamel; Margaret S. Devall; Natan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    We investigated dispersal opportunities for the endangered pondberry, Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae). In 199 hours of observation at 5 fruiting colonies in the Delta National Forest, Sharkey County, Mississippi, we recorded 82 bird species in the vicinity of a colony. Of these, 12 were observed on pondberry plants, and two consumed ripe pondberry...

  8. Non-Parasitic Chyluria: Our Experience With Sclerotherapy With Solution of Povidone-Iodine and Destrose and A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guttilla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This condition if left untreated it leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia. We report our experience with the use of povidone iodine with dextrose solution as a sclerosing agent in the management of chyluria in two patients.

  9. Perforation of a duodenal ulcer into a non-parasitic liver cyst: a rare case of a penetrate hole blockaded with conservative medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koichi; Takeda, Masaharu; Makihata, Eiichi; Okazaki, Junji; Nagai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An 88-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain with a raised inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography (CT) showed a duodenal ulcer punching a liver cyst. Since neither ascites nor free air were detected on CT and her family did not wish for aggressive medical treatment, the patient received clinical observation and conservative management. Antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor therapy was effective, and she exhibited an uneventful recovery. A reexamination of EGD and CT confirmed that the fistulous tract between the liver cyst and duodenum was blockaded.

  10. Longitudinal study of parasite-induced mortality of a long-lived host: the importance of exposure to non-parasitic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hilary M-H; Luong, Lien T; Shostak, Allen W

    2017-12-01

    Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host. In the presence of even mild environmental stressors, host lifespan was reduced sufficiently that extensive degradation of cysticercoids was never realized. Median host lifespan was 200 days in the absence of stressors, and 3-197 days with parasitism, starvation and/or DE. Early survival of parasitized hosts was higher relative to controls in the presence of intermediate concentrations of DE, but reduced under all other conditions tested. Parasitism increased host mortality in the presence of other stressors at times when parasitism alone did not cause mortality, consistent with an interpretation of synergy. Environmental stressors modified the parasite numbers needed to reveal intensity-dependent host mortality, but only rarely masked intensity dependence. The longitudinal approach produced observations that would have been overlooked or misinterpreted if survival had only been monitored at a single time point.

  11. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... drilling and reaming of outer holes and adding three holes to install a Kaplan splice block for the repair... Dusting, Crop Spraying)--Small Size Classes $0-100 $100-500 $500 thousand- Measure Total thousand thousand...

  12. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds, and neotropical migrants in particular, are found in lower abundance in small patches of forest in the Eastern United States compared to similar, but larger patches in the same region. A common hypothesis for the ...

  13. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  14. Ultraviolet and green parts of the colour spectrum affect egg rejection in the song thrush (Turdus philomelos)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Polačiková, Lenka; Procházka, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2007), s. 269-276 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg appearance * evolution of mimicry * reflectance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  15. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. 78 FR 65843 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius, becomes Blue Rock-Thrush (Clements 2007); Clay-colored Robin, Turdus... (1). Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius Blue Rock-Thrush, Monticola (8). solitarius (8). Rufous... cycle to coincide with updates to the Birds of Conservation Concern, thus balancing the frequency of...

  17. Differences in behaviour of closely related thrushes (Turdus philomelos and T. merula) to experimental parasitism by the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, T.; Honza, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2001), s. 549-556 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/P046 Keywords : brood parasitism * mimicry * nest defence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.208, year: 2001

  18. Susceptibility profile of yeast-like organisms isolated from HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS patients, particularly as the etiologic agent of oral thrush. Fluconazole antibiotic has been most popularly employed in treating cases of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients. Recent reports have recorded antifungal drug resistance amongst ...

  19. Mangosteen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for diarrhea, urinary tract infections (UTIs), gonorrhea, thrush, tuberculosis, menstrual disorders, cancer, osteoarthritis, and an ... as follows:Dysentery. Diarrhea. Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Gonorrhea. Thrush. Tuberculosis. Eczema. Menstrual disorders. Other conditions. More ...

  20. Mouth ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  1. Ecology of the marine protists, the Labyrinthulomycetes (Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    dermal lesions of rainbow trout raised under artificially induced polluted condi- tions (Polglase et al. 1986), but again may not have been the primary cause of the lesions. Non-parasitic associations with marine animals While parasitic associations...

  2. Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes - a potential novel vector of pathogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Salisbury, Vyv; Humphrey, Tom J.; Stafford, Kathryn; Perkins, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we...

  3. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl S; Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that ...

  4. Mouth Problems and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth (periodontitis), canker sores, oral warts, fever blisters, oral candidiasis (thrush), hairy leukoplakia (which causes a rough, white patch on the tongue), and dental caries. Read More Publications Cover image Mouth Problems + HIV Publication files Download Language English PDF — ...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...

  6. 77 FR 48934 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bicknell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... involved annual bird counts at 768 points on 42 transects located along hiking trails. The results revealed... potential benefit of this change is that the Bicknell's thrush is known to use regenerating forests...

  7. African Zoology - Vol 32, No 1 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the importance of colour · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MJ Sanders, RN Owen-Smith, N Pillay ...

  8. Variations in the presence of chloride cells in the gills of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) and their evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, H; Docker, M F; Krappe, M; White, M M; Wrede, C; Potter, I C

    2015-04-01

    Although confined to fresh water, non-parasitic species of lampreys and the landlocked parasitic sea lamprey, all of which were derived relatively recently from an adromous ancestors, still develop chloride cells, whose function in their ancestors was for osmoregulation in marine waters during the adult parasitic phase. In contrast, such cells are not developed by the non-parasitic least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera, which has been separated from its ancestor for >2 million years, nor by the freshwater parasitic species of the genus Ichthyomyzon. The length of time that a non-parasitic species or landlocked parasitic form or species has spent in fresh water is thus considered the overriding factor determining whether chloride cells are developed by those lampreys.

  9. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  10. The Convolvulaceae of Malaysia, V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1945-01-01

    1a. Parasitic plants with filiform, twining stems, leafless or with minute pale scales. Flowers small, in clusters or short racemes; corolla mostly with 5 episepalous fimbriate scales inside ( Cuscuteae Hall, f.) 1. Cuscuta b. Non-parasitic plants with green leaves 2 2a. Pollen spinulose (

  11. Kin recognition by the predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans: discrimination among own, conspecific and heterospecific eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; van Rijn, P.C.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    1. Kin recognition is important in many social insects, but has also been found in several nonsocial insects such as parasitoids, where it plays an important role in oviposition behaviour. In nonparasitic arthropods, however, the fitness of ovipositing females also depends on the oviposition

  12. Reproductive conflict in social insects: Male production by workers in a slave-making ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...

  13. Parasites modify sub-cellular partitioning of metals in the gut of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah, E-mail: elijaoyoo2009@gmail.com [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Admiraal, Wim [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Osano, Odipo [Division of Environmental Health, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, P.O. Box 3900, Eldoret (Kenya); Kraak, Michiel H.S. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 9424/1090 GE (Netherlands); Gichuki, John; Ogwai, Caleb [Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, P.O. Box 1881, Kisumu (Kenya)

    2012-01-15

    Infestation of fish by parasites may influence metal accumulation patterns in the host. However, the subcellular mechanisms of these processes have rarely been studied. Therefore, this study determined how a cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) partitioned four metals (Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in the subcellular fractions of the gut in presence of an endoparasite (Ligula intestinalis). The fish were sampled along four sites in Lake Victoria, Kenya differing in metal contamination. Accumulation of Cd, Cr and Zn was higher in the whole body and in the gut of parasitized fish compared to non-parasitized fish, while Cu was depleted in parasitized fish. Generally, for both non-parasitized and parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn partitioned in the cytosolic fractions and Cu in the particulate fraction. Metal concentrations in organelles within the particulate fractions of the non-parasitized fish were statistically similar except for Cd in the lysosome, while in the parasitized fish, Cd, Cr and Zn were accumulated more by the lysosome and microsomes. In the cytosolic fractions, the non-parasitized fish accumulated Cd, Cr and Zn in the heat stable proteins (HSP), while in the parasitized fish the metals were accumulated in the heat denatured proteins (HDP). On the contrary, Cu accumulated in the HSP in parasitized fish. The present study revealed specific binding of metals to potentially sensitive sub-cellular fractions in fish in the presence of parasites, suggesting interference with metal detoxification, and potentially affecting the health status of fish hosts in Lake Victoria.

  14. Compilation of 1989 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G, H

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Regulus calendula ! Eastern Bluebird 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sialia sialis 3 Veery 0 0 20 18 17 25 1 0 2 0 Catharus fuscescens Swainson’s Thrush 0 0 0 2 0 0...Regulus satrapa3 Ruby-crowned -Kinglet 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 Regulus calendula Veery 1 0- 12 4 2 2 0- 3 0 0 Catharus fuscescens -Swainson’s Thrush 0 0- 0...calculations, andIspecies determinations was done at 1250X magnification on a Zeiss microscope equipped with phase contrast illumination and an oil

  15. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated

  16. Mortality in a cohort of children born to HIV-1 infected women from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest diagnoses at the time of death were diarrhoea, pneumonia, failure to thrive and severe thrush. These findings, together with neurological abnormalities, often presaged rapid deterioration and death. Conclusions. Mortality among children with vertically acquired HIV infection is high in the first year of life.

  17. Albicans candidiasis amongs women and infants at two health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albicans candidiasis amongs women and infants at two health facilities in Port ... and in infants – Oral Thrush (OT) was investigated in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. ... UPTH (28.6%) had more infection rate than BMSH (22.9%), pregnant women ...

  18. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... hospice or palliative care service (Demmer, 2007). In the absence of effective ... most common herbal product used. It was reported that .... Vaginal discharge. 3. 51. 11.16. White spots in the mouth (oral thrush). 4. 51. 11.16. Skin rash. 5. 46. 10.06. Skin itch. 6. 38. 8.2. Respiratory problems. 7. 29. 6.79.

  19. Pentoxifylline Plus Prednisolone versus Pentoxifylline Only for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    few days. Oral thrush, impaired glucose tolerance, poor wound healing were some of the significant problems faced by the patients in the PTX plus prednisolone group. Retrospectively, on analyzing different liver function scores at the time of inclusion, higher MDF, MELD, GASH, Child-Pugh. Table 2: Morbidity/complications ...

  20. Case Report Kaposi\\'s Sarcoma Of Rare Anatomical Site: A Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) of unusual sites are commonly associated with immunodeficiency and it is therefore known as one of the AIDS defining tumors. KS of the conjunctiva and traumatized areas of the foot especially the sole are listed as some of the uncommon sites for this tumor. One of the patients developed oral thrush ...

  1. 75 FR 7287 - John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, Merrimack County, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... shape the almost 80 acres of mature upland forest to maintain the cultural legacy, encourage natural... Canada warbler and wood thrush). Natural processes would also shape the fens, vernal pools, and other... and riparian corridor along the approximately 1,750 feet of Beech Brook on the refuge for species...

  2. Evaluation of habitat suitability models for forest passerines using demographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Richard L. Clawson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat suitability is often used as a surrogate for demographic responses (i.e., abundance, survival, fecundity, or population viability) in the application of habitat suitability index (HSI) models. Whether habitat suitability actually relates to demographics, however, has rarely been evaluated. We validated HSI models of breeding habitat suitability for wood thrush...

  3. Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a mouth rinse for speeding healing following oral surgery; and for the treatment of minor burns. In ... healing and reduce pain and swelling after mouth surgery.Canker sores. ... can prevent oral thrush in people with dentures. Upper respiratory tract ...

  4. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A.; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    in migrating raptors (satellite telemetry) and thrushes (conventional telemetry), highlighting that findings in the natural setting may not always be as expected on the basis of cage-experiments. Furthermore, field tracking methods combined with experimental approaches have finally allowed for an extension...

  5. Southwest Mississippi Tributaries Study Area Environmental Inventory; Wildlife Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    X Ruby-crowned kinglet (R. calendula ) X Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) X X *’ Bluebirds and thrushes Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) X...struction, timber sales, and oil well operations, are restricted within that zone. Understory and midstory growth must be periodically removed to maintain

  6. Survival of children in Cape Town known to be vertically infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected with HIV-1. G D Hussey, R M Reijnhart, A M Sebens,. J Burgess, S Schaaf, S Potgieter. Objective. To determine the survival patterns of children in. Cape Town known ... age and clinical manifestations was determined by calculation of odds .... dermatological problems (45%) and oral thrush (34%). Tuberculosis was ...

  7. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  8. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Natalia Stefanini; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S; Muylaert, Renata de Lara; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles) inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians) in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture). We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas) collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation), and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological processes such as

  9. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stefanini Da Silveira

    Full Text Available Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture. We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation, and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological

  10. [Giant splenic cyst in a teenager girl: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Torres, Beatriz; Medina García, Manuel; Zafra Anta, Miguel Ángel; García Muñoz-Najar, Alejandro José; Tardío Dovao, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    Giant nonparasitic splenic epidermoid cysts are relatively uncommon. These lesions can lead abdominal pain, but most of then are asymptomatic, and they are discovered incidentally. We report a 13-y old female with a giant splenic epidermoid cystic, given the special interest of diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making of this rare entity. A 13-y old female with clinical history of abdominal pain since the last two months. On physical examination a firm, tender mass was palpable in left hypochondrium. Diagnosis of a large cystic splenic mass was made based on ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography scan. Splenectomy was performed, and histopathological-immunohistochemistry studies revealed findings suggestive of primary epithelial cyst. The post-operative clinical course was satisfactory and uneventful. Treatment of giant nonparasitic splenic cysts is surgical. Preserve splenic parenchyma must be the aim in an individualized decision-making. The different types of surgical modalities will be according to the diagnosis and clinical situation (cyst size, age, comorbidities).

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of cysts of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'perovich, B.I.; Mitasov, V.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Is is shown that ultrasonography, computer tomography, laparoscopy provide for liver cyst detection. Parasitic cyst of Echinococcus and opisthhordeiasis nature are subject to surgical treatment. Selective procedures under echinococcosis include echinococcotomy and liver resection, and under opisthorchiasis - liver resection. Under nonparasitic liver cysts of minor size dynamic observation is advisable, under medium, hard and multiple complication cysts - sergical treatment is advisable. Selective procedures under non-complicated cysts include cyst resection with tamponage using omentum, and under complicated multiple cysts - liver resection

  12. Seasonal dynamics of the tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M; Li, T; Yu, Z J; Qiu, Z X; Yan, P; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2017-12-01

    The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis (Acari: Ixodidae) Hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. The current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic H. tibetensis over a 2-year period from March 2014 to February 2016 in the Tibetan Plateau, China. During this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and parasitic ticks were removed weekly from selected sheep. Plateau pikas were captured using traps and examined for immature ticks between May to September 2014. Results suggest that non-parasitic H. tibetensis were mainly distributed in the grassland, and the parasitic adults and nymphs were found mostly on sheep. Larvae were usually found on Plateau pikas and the prevalence of infestation and mean parasitic intensity were 72.1 and 1.81%, respectively. Adults were observed from March to July with the major peak occurring in mid-April. Nymphs were found from March to August and reached a peak in late June. Larvae were collected from April to September, and their numbers peaked in late May. In the parasitic and non-parasitic period, the overall sex ratio of males to females was 1.62 and 1.30, respectively. Results show that H. tibetensis can complete one generation per year, with a population overlap between stages over the spring-summer months. These findings provide additional information on the biology and ecology of H. tibetensis as well as insights on its control in the environment and on sheep. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. The birds-consumers of the fruits and disseminators of Phellodendron Rupr. seeds in the south of Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nechaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the long-term investigation, carried out in the Russian Far East (Primorye and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin regions, and published data about bird ecology, the actual material about the birds feeding seeds and berries of the Amur cork-tree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis (Fr. Schmidt Sarg., is given in the article. It has been found 43 carpophagous bird species from 15 families and 5 orders. The cork-tree berries, small roundish juicy fruits with little stones, are eaten by the birds of 40 species from 13 families; basically by Grey-headed Woodpecker – Picus canus, Azure-winged Magpies – Cyanopica cyanus, Bohemian and Japanaese Waxwings – Bombycilla garrulus and B. japonica, Thrushes: Pale Thrush – Turdus pallidus, Eyebrowed Thrush – Turdus obscurus, Grey-backed Thrush – T. hortulorum, Naumann’s Thrush – T. naumanni, and Dusky Thrush – T. eunomus, Eurasian Nuthatch – Sitta europaea, Pallas’s Rose Finch – Carpodacus roseus. The secondary birds – 16 species. On the Sakhalin isl. the Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis berries are eaten by the birds of 33 species from 12 families, on the South Kuriles (Kunashir isl. – by the birds of 28 species from 11 families. On Sakhalin the berries are eaten basically by the Waxwings (2 species, Dusky and Brown-headed – Turdus chrysolaus – Thrushes, Eurasian Nuthatch, Pallas’s Rose Finch; and secondary birds – 12 species. There are 5 species of the primary birds and 8 species of the secondary birds on the Kunashir isl. A participation of the birds in the dissemination of the cork-tree, Phellodendron Rupr., during seasonal migrations in winter and autumn has been considered. The active birds in the seed distribution are Grey-headed Woodpecker, Azure-winged Magpies, Waxwings, Thrushes and others; while they are eating the berries, the seeds are not damaged in the gastrointestinal tract and pushed

  14. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  15. Compilation of 1988 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Golden-cro:wmed Kinqlet 61 67 41 30 57 27 83 42 33 40 ReglIl satrapa Ruby-cro’ined Kinglet 23 9 6 1 5 0 1 2 Regulus calendula Eastern Bluebird 1 0 4 1I...callinao 3 American Woodcock 1 0 0 3 3 1 1 1 Scolooax minor Yello’-billea Cuckoo 0 11 Coccyzus americanus Great Horned 04i 0 1I Bubo virginianus Barred Oil ...Regulus calendula I Veery 4 2 11 10 10 5 2 2 0 0 Catharus fuscescens I Swainson’s Thrush 33 41 0 7 0 1 0 0 6 10 Catharus ustulatus I Hermit thrush 34 28

  16. Statistical Methods for Studying Genetic Variation in Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    iteration will converge to a local optimum, similar to what happens in an EM algorithm. Empirically, a near global optimal can be obtained by multiple...and E Matthysen. Genetic variability and gene flow 131 in the globally , critically-endangered Taita thrush. Conservation Genetics, 1:45–55, 2000. 4.5.2...Libioulle, Edouard Louis, Sarah Hansoul, Cynthia Sandor, Frédéric Farnir, Denis Franchi - mont, Séverine Vermeire, Olivier Dewit, Martine de Vos, Anna

  17. Discovery of Seven Novel Mammalian and Avian Coronaviruses in the Genus Deltacoronavirus Supports Bat Coronaviruses as the Gene Source of Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and Avian Coronaviruses as the Gene Source of Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, John H. N.; Bai, Ru; Teng, Jade L. L.; Tsang, Chris C. C.; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we discovered seven additional novel deltacoronaviruses in pigs and birds, which we named porcine coronavirus HKU15, white-eye coronavirus HKU16, sp...

  18. The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, Jana; Petrusková, Tereza; Reifová, Radka; Kozman, Alexandra; Mořkovský, Libor; Kipper, Silke; Weiss, Michael; Reif, Jiří; Dolata, Paweł T.; Petrusek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the

  19. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  20. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds' departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R; Benson, Thomas J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Schofield, Lynn N; Enstrom, David A; Paxton, Eben H; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W

    2015-11-17

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson's Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  1. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  2. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins - Water and Related Land Resources Study. Volume III. Appendices H-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    House wren --- -*- --- --- R Mockingbird --- --- --- -- Catbird Q R C C C Brown thrasher --- -- - --- R Robin R - C R 0 Wood thrush --- --- 0...new growth and kill it. At this stage, the terrestrial ecosystem will have been all but replaced by a large area of standing water. Hilltops vegetated...mice, voles, shrews, etc.) will be unavoidably killed or injured as clearing and construction occurs. Animals occu- pying burrows will suffer high

  3. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    cattle, 2.90 million goats, 1.98 million sheep,. 2.0 million chickens, 45000 camels, 34532 horses and ... Traumatic myositis. 1(2.04). Laminitis. 1(2.04). Polyarthritis. 1(2.04). Gonitis. 1(2.04). Thrush. 1(2.04). Rhabdomyolysis. 1(2.04). Recumbency. 1(2.04). 32.65. Ocular. Conjunctivitis. 1(2.04). Corneal opacity. 1(2.04). 6.12.

  4. The Behavior and Ecology of Fall Peregrine Falcons at Lummi Bay and Vicinity, Whatcom County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Regulus calendula ) 104. American Robin (Turdus migratorius) 105. Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius) 106. Water Pipit (Anthus spinoletta) 107. Northern...Sparrow (Passer domesticus) 67 Cq n n Ln4 in 0n IV~ Oil xoi CDw q f) D"j4 ( O N r-IN" HI-4 r-1 N O% OD 0% 14 % 4 E4-40 "- Z r4 0D C 00 P-4 CD" NN C4 r4

  5. Pseudomembranous candidiasis in patient wearing full denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiana Nurdiana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a harmless commensal organism inhabiting the mouths but it can change into pathogen and invade tissue and cause acute and chronic disease. Dentures predispose to infection with Candida in as many as 65% of elderly people wearing full upper dentures. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to discuss thrush in patient wearing full denture which rapidly developed. Case: This paper report a case of 57 year-old man who came to the Oral Medicine Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University with clinical appearance of pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush. Case Management: Diagnosis of this case is confirmed with microbiology examination. Patient was wearing full upper dentures, and from anamnesis known that patient wearing denture for 24 hours and he had poor oral hygiene. Patient was treated with topical (nystatin oral suspension and miconazole oral gel and systemic (ketoconazole antifungal. Patient also instructed not to wear his denture and cleaned white pseudomembrane on his mouth with soft toothbrush. Conclusion: Denture, habit of wearing denture for 24 hours, and poor oral hygiene are predisposing factors of thrush and it can healed completely after treated with topical and systemic antifungal.

  6. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  7. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; de Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Host defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. Recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. This result was interpreted as a consequence of the antipredatory properties of a fetid cloacal secretion produced by cuckoo nestlings, which presumably deters predators from parasitized host nests. This potential defensive mechanism would therefore explain the detected higher fledgling success of parasitized nests during breeding seasons with high predation risk. Here, in a different study population, we explored the expected benefits in terms of reduced nest predation in naturally and experimentally parasitized nests of two different host species, carrion crows and magpies (Pica pica). During the incubation phase non-parasitized nests were depredated more frequently than parasitized nests. However, during the nestling phase, parasitized nests were not depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests, neither in magpie nor in carrion crow nests, and experimental translocation of great spotted cuckoo hatchlings did not reveal causal effects between parasitism state and predation rate of host nests. Therefore, our results do not fit expectations and, thus, do not support the fascinating possibility that great spotted cuckoo nestlings could have an antipredatory effect for host nestlings, at least in our study area. We also discuss different possibilities that may conciliate these with previous results, but also several alternative explanations, including the lack of generalizability of the previously documented mutualistic association.

  10. Integrated control of Strongylus vulgaris infection in horses using ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, J D

    1985-05-01

    An attempt was made to control or eliminate Strongylus vulgaris from a closed group of three horses at pasture near Perth, Western Australia, by dosing with ivermectin on four occasions during the time of year when it was believed that environmental conditions would eliminate all the non-parasitic stages of that species. At necropsy, five months after the last dose of anthelmintic and after continually grazing the same pastures, no S vulgaris or arterial lesions were found in those horses and S edentatus, Draschia megastoma and Habronema species were also almost completely eliminated.

  11. Effect of parasitism on the toxicity of cadmium to the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D.; Cram, P.

    1977-03-25

    The toxicity of cadmium to sticklebacks was determined over a wide range of concentrations. The 96 h LC50 was found to be 6.5 mg Cd 1/sup -1/. The shape of the time-concentration curve suggests that cadmium may have two toxic mechanisms. The median period of survival for fish infected with the plerocercoids of the cestode, Schistocephalus solidus, was found to be considerably shorter than for non-parasitized fish. This observation is considered in the light of the known effects of S. solidus on its host.

  12. Intestinal helminths induce haematological changes in dogs from Jabalpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, S; Dixit, A K; Dixit, P; Sharma, R L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of canine intestinal helminths on the haematological profile of 200 dogs, of both sexes and variable age, visiting university veterinary clinics for routine examination was investigated. The dogs were assigned to parasitized (n = 39) and non-parasitized (n = 161) groups of animals. Coprological examination revealed a 19.5% prevalence of different species of the helminths. Of these animals, 10.25% had mixed infections with Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris spp. and Dipylidium caninum. The intensity of A. caninum infection was the highest, with mean egg counts of 951.43 (standard error 88.66), followed by Toxascaris 283.33 (standard error 116.81) and D. caninum. The parasitized animals had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts than non-parasitized animals (P < 0.01). Values of other parameters, except for lymphocytes and eosinophils, were not different between the two groups. Analyses of the haematological profile revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia in the parasitized group of animals.

  13. Potential interactions between metazoan parasites of the Mayan catfish Ariopsis assimilis and chemical pollution in Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Noreña-Barroso, E; Gold-Bouchot, G; Caballero-Pinzón, P I

    2003-06-01

    The effect of pollutants on the intensity of infection of metazoan parasites in the Mayan catfish, Ariopsis assimilis was investigated. Data were collected on pollutants and metazoan parasites from 76 catfish from five localities in Chetumal Bay in October, 1996. Nineteen pollutants (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were found in the catfish livers. Heavy metal content was not determined. Nineteen metazoan parasite species were recovered. After controlling for fish length and sampling station, there was a significant negative linear relationship between the intensity of the larval digenean Mesostephanus appendiculatoides and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) concentrations. This negative relationship may be explained either by the effect of the pesticide on the mortality of (i) free-living larval forms, (ii) metacercariae in the fish, (iii) infected fish or (iv) intermediate host snails. There were significant differences between fish parasitized and not parasitized with M. appendiculatoides with respect to their DDT concentrations. There were also significant differences between the variances of the mean Clark's coefficient of condition values between catfish parasitized and not parasitized by M. appendiculatoides, with the variance of non-parasitized catfish being significantly larger. The results provided statistical evidence that DDT has a detrimental effect on M. appendiculatoides infection intensity. Furthermore, the significantly larger variance value of Clark's coefficient for non-parasitized fish suggested that DDT affects both the parasite and general host condition.

  14. Laparoscopic unroofing of splenic cysts results in a high rate of recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Felix; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Ure, Benno

    2007-11-01

    Laparoscopic unroofing is described as an appropriate treatment modality of nonparasitic splenic cysts. However, we repeatedly encountered recurrences with this technique. Because splenic cysts are rare, we analyzed the combined experience of 3 German pediatric surgical departments. Between 1995 and 2005, primary and secondary nonparasitic splenic cysts were unroofed laparoscopically in 14 children (aged 5-12 years; median, 8.5 years). In 3 patients, the inner surface was coagulated with the argon beamer. In most children, the cavity was surfaced with omentum. In addition, in 4 patients the omentum was sutured to the splenic parenchyma. No intraoperative complications occurred, and no inadvertent splenectomy or blood transfusions were necessary. However, in 9 children (64%) the cysts recurred at intervals ranging from 6 to 12 months (median, 12 months). Also, argon laser treatment of the surface resulted in recurrence. Laparoscopic unroofing of true splenic cysts alone proved inadequate in this series. Either removal of the inner layer or partial splenectomy appears to be necessary to prevent recurrences.

  15. Impact of terbufos on Cotesia flavipes, a parasitoid of Diatraea saccharalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, E.; Valverde, B.; Carazo, E.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of terbufos on larvae of Diatraea saccharalis and its parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes was evaluated in the laboratory. Bioassays were conducted to determine the dose response of non-parasitized larvae of D. saccharalis feeding on artificial diet contaminated with terbufos. From the dose-response curve based on larval fresh weight, sublethal doses ranging from 1.32 ppm to 108 ppm of terbufos were selected for further studying the effect of the insecticide on both species. Both parasitized and non-parasitized larvae were exposed to the selected sublethal doses of terbufos in the diet. Consumption of the insecticide by the host resulted in mortality of the parasitoid, increased length of its larval and pupal periods, decreased adult fresh weight and changes in sex proportions. These negative effects were more severe as the dose of the insecticide increased. D. saccharalis was also affected by terbufos; larvae showed abnormalities, the length of the larval and pupal periods increased and the proportion of the females was reduced. In a preliminary greenhouse bioassay, only traces of terbufos or its metabolites were found in treated maize plants and in tissue of D. saccharalis larvae feeding on them. (author)

  16. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An Air Force Readiness Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    will continue to harbor the infection. The term retroviral refers to the genettic makeup and specific enzyme of the virus that a;lows it to replicate...stages and criteria. Table 1 Walter Reed Classification System HTLV- III Chronic T Helper STAGE Antibody Lymohadenonathy Qells/mm- DHS Thrush 0.1 WR 1...0.80 Reserve 88,411 122 1.38 Guard 126,934 96 0.76 Infection rates are per thousand (Wolfe, 1988; 1989). The figures in table 3 reflect the entire

  17. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  19. Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Ávila, Gema; Pías, Beatriz; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (DQ, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). Fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on DQ in novel scenarios. We assess here the DQ, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds dispersed by several bird species (Turdus spp.) and carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina) in mature woodland remnants of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) and old fields which are being colonized by this species. Results showed that DQ was similar in mature woodlands and old fields. Germination rate for seeds dispersed by carnivores (11.5%) and thrushes (9.12%) was similar, however, interacted with microhabitat suitability. Seeds dispersed by carnivores reach the maximum germination rate on shrubs (16%), whereas seeds dispersed by thrushes did on female juniper canopies (15.5) indicating that each group of dispersers performed a directed dispersal. This directional effect was diluted when survival probability was considered: thrushes selected smaller seeds which had higher mortality in the seedling stage (70%) in relation to seedlings dispersed by carnivores (40%). Overall, thrushes resulted low-quality dispersers which provided a probability or recruitment of 2.5%, while a seed dispersed by carnivores had a probability of recruitment of 6.5%. Our findings show that generalist dispersers (i.e., carnivores) can provide a higher probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (i.e., Turdus spp.). However, generalist species are usually opportunistic dispersers as their role as seed dispersers is dependent on the availability of trophic resources and species feeding preferences. As a result, J. thurifera dispersal community is composed by two functional groups of

  20. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  1. Mucocutaneous disorders in Hiv positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight HIV positive patients were included in this study. They were evaluated for their mucocutaneous disorders, sexually transmitted diseases and other systemic disorders between 1994-95 in the department of Dermatology and STD Dr R M L Hospital of New Delhi. The heterosexual contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs was the most common route of HIV transmission. Chancroid, syphilis and genital warts were common STDs found in HIV positive patients. Oral thrush (67.9% was the commonest mucocutaneous disorder found in these patients followed by herpes zoster (25% and seborrhoeic dermatitis (21.4%. There was no unusual clinical presentation seen in mucocutaneous disorders and STDs.

  2. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  3. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  5. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products.

  7. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Clinical Correlates of Diarrhea and Gut Parasites among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Bisong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster differentiation 4 (CD4 count estimation, which is not readily available in most resource poor settings in Nigeria, is an important indexdetermining commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART. It is imperative for physicians who come in contact with these patients in such settings to recognize other parameters to evaluate these patients. The clinical correlates of diarrhea and gut parasites among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-seropositive patients attending our special treatment clinic were studied. Three hundred and forty consenting HIV-positive adult subjects were enrolled. Their stool and blood specimens were collected for a period of three months. Stool samples were analyzed for the presence of diarrhea and gut parasites. The patients were clinically evaluated by physical examination for the presence of pallor, dehydration, oral thrush, wasting lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, skin hyperpigmentation, and finger clubbing. Participants with diarrhea represented 14.1% of the population, while 21.5% harbored one or more parasites. In the subjects with diarrhea, 14.6% harbored gut parasites. The presence of diarrhea was associated with a low CD4 count. Clinically, oral thrush, wasting, and rashes were more reliable predictors of low CD4 count levels; whereas, the presence of pallor, dehydration, wasting, and rashes correlated with the presence of diarrhea. HIV patients presenting with pallor, dehydration, wasting, and rashes should be evaluated for the presence of diarrhea. The clinical variables associated with low CD4 count in this study may guide commencing antiretroviral therapy in resource poor settings.

  9. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Alismatales: Size reduction and extensive loss of ribosomal protein genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Cuenca, Argelia; Zervas, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes...... aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known...... mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant. Using a broad sample of the Alismatales, the evolutionary history of ribosomal protein gene loss is analyzed. In Zostera almost all ribosomal protein genes are lost from the mitogenome, but only some can be found in the nucleus....

  10. Ascaridia galli infection in chickens - immunological and immuno-modulatory aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup

    system. Helminthic infections are known to induce Th2 cytokine responses and have been shown to alter the immune responses to non-parasitic antigens by suppressing Th1 cytokine production in experimental animal models. Additionally, both animal models and human studies have suggested that chronic...... parasite infections can result in reduced vaccine efficacy. The scientific objective of the PhD project was to describe the immune response to the parasite A.galli in chickens in order to determine the mechanisms used by the immune system to fight the parasite and to utilise the information in early....... In manuscript II the specific objective was to investigate whether NDV vaccination induces adaptive immune responses and protective immunity in A.galli infected chickens to the same extent as it does in A. galli-free chickens. In manuscript III the specific objective was to determine Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokine...

  11. Single-port laparoscopic partial splenectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae Ho; Lee, Sang Kuon; You, Young Kyoung; Kim, Jun Gi

    2010-10-01

    With the better understanding of the importance of the spleen as a primary organ of the human immune system, there has been an increased interest in performing the partial splenectomy for a number of indications such as nonparasitic cysts, benign tumors, staging of lymphomas, etc. Moreover, laparoscopic partial splenectomy has been gaining more interest as the recommended approach for benign splenic disorders to preserve the splenic function with very low recurrence rates. Meanwhile, many surgeons have attempted to reduce the number and size of the ports in laparoscopic surgery with the aim of inducing less parietal trauma and fewer scars. One of these efforts is single-port laparoscopic surgery, which is a rapidly evolving field all over the world. Here, we describe a feasible method of single-port laparoscopic partial splenectomy for treating a benign splenic cyst that was located in the upper medial aspect of the spleen.

  12. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eTóth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae, are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae.

  13. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K.; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  14. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modern pressurized water reactors. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  15. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  16. Splenic epithelial cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Jalali, U.

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

  17. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Gupta, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm -1 (υ 13 or υ 42 ) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm -1 (υ 5 + υ 18 ) and 1546 cm -1 (υ 11 ) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm -1 (υ 46 ), 1244 cm -1 (υ 42 ) and 1366 cm -1 (υ 4 ) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm -1 (υ 11 ) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)

  18. A SURVEY OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF BEMISIA TABACI(HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)B BIOTYPE LIFE STAGES FROM FIELD GROWN COTTON AND CANTALOUPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chiChu; JamesS.Buckner; KamilKarut; ThomasP.Freeman; DennisR.Nelson; ThomasJ.Henneberryl

    2003-01-01

    Size and weight measurements were made for all the life stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype from field grown cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) and cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo L., var. cantalupensis )in Phoenix, AZ and Fargo, ND, USA in 2000 and 2001. Nymphal volumes were derived from the measurements.The average nymphal volume increase for settled 1 st to the late 4th instar was exponential. The greatest increase in body volume occurred during development from the 3rd to early 4th instar. Nymphs on cotton leaves were wider,but not longer compared with those on cantaloupe. Ventral and dorsal depth ratios of nymphal bodies from 1st tolate 4th instars from cantaloupe leaves were significantly greater compared with those from cotton leaves. During nymphal development from 1st to 4th instar, the average (from the two host species) ventral body half volume in-creased by nearly 51 times compared with an increase of 28 times for the dorsal body half volume. Adult female and male average lengths, from heads to wing tips, were 1 126 μm and 953 μm, respectively. Average adult fe-male and male weights were 39 and 17 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights of eggs from cottonand cantaloupe were, 99 μm, 197 μm, and 0.8 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights for exu-viae of non-parasitized nymphs from both cotton and cantaloupe were 492 μm, 673 μm, and 1.20 μg, respective-ly; and widths, lengths, and weights of parasitized nymph exuviae were 452 μm, 665 μm, and 3.62 μg, respec-tively. Both exuviae from non-parasitized and parasitized nymphs from cotton leaves were wider, longer, and heavier than those from cantaloupe leaves.

  19. Characterization of joining sites of a viral histone H4 on host insect chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    Full Text Available A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4 is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV. It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes. Among parasitic factors altering host gene expression, CpBV-H4 alone explained 16.3% of these expressional changes. To characterize the joining sites of CpBV-H4 on host chromosomes, ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing was applied to chromatins extracted from parasitized larvae. It identified specific 538 ChIP targets. Joining sites were rich (60.2% in AT sequence. Almost 40% of ChIP targets included short nucleotide repeat sequences presumably recognizable by transcriptional factors and chromatin remodeling factors. To further validate these CpBV-H4 targets, CpBV-H4 was transiently expressed in nonparasitized host at late larval stage and subjected to ChIP-Seq. Two kinds of ChIP-Seqs shared 51 core joining sites. Common targets were close (within 1 kb to genes regulated at expression levels by CpBV-H4. However, other host genes not close to CpBV-H4 joining sites were also regulated by CpBV-H4. These results indicate that CpBV-H4 joins specific chromatin regions of P. xylostella and controls about one sixth of the total host genes that were regulated by C. plutellae parasitism in an epigenetic mode.

  20. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  1. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral candida species from Iranian HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiraee F

    2012-05-01

    Results: Candida albicans (50.2% was the most frequent isolated yeast, followed by C. glabrata (22%. Non-Candida albicans species were isolated from 71 (61% positive cultures. 25.7% of Candida albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC≥64 µg/ml as were 21.9% and 16.4% to ketoconazole and clotrimazole (MIC>0.125 µg/ml, respectively. Resistance to polyene antifungals including amphotericin B and nystatin, and caspofungin were scarce. 57.7% of candida glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 31% to ketoconazole and 35% to clotrimazole. Conclusion: Screening for antifungal resistant candida isolates by disk diffusion or broth dilution methods in clinical laboratories is an ideal surveillance measure in the management of oral thrush in patients with HIV/AIDS. Although nystatin is widely used in clinical practice for HIV positive patients, there was no evidence of enhanced resistance to it. Regarding no resistance to caspofungin, its administration is suggested.

  2. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  3. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  4. Candidiasis: a fungal infection--current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Shivakumar, Hosakote G; Vaghela, Rudra; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Shrivastava, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis.

  5. Superficial Mycoses In Pregnant Women Consulting At University Hospital Center Of Yaounde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petmy Lohoue J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women may contaminate new borns and babies with vaginal candidiasis and ringworms, thus the choice of this group for our study. Cases were recruited at the UHC Yaounde from June 2001 to September 2002. Four hundred and thirty (29.3% out of 1467 examined presented at least one mycosis. The principal lesions were vaginal thrush 44% and athlete’s foot 22%. The causal fungi were essentially yeasts with the predominance of candida albicans (72% and for the dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum (71.84%. The other species were Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei, Candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon sp., Trichophyton soundanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Thrichophyton mentagrophytes and scytalidium dimidiatum. Because these infections affect up to 30% of pregnant women, they should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.

  6. Internal and external factors shaping movement and distributions of trans-Saharan migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Marta Lomas

    and thrush nightingales Luscinia luscinia. It also looks at how the migration routes can be affected by future climate change. Results indicate that insectivore long-distance migrants temporally adjust migration schedules with seasonal surplus of vegetation greenness during the annual cycle. Climate......he migratory programme provides birds with the capacity to seasonally migrate thousands of kilometres during their annual breeding cycle. This programme is governed by endogenous, and environmentally-shaped, exogenous, processes. Using a diverse set of tracking methods, this thesis investigates...... (vectororientation) and possibly includes a simple navigation capability that enables juveniles to compensate for crosswind en route, but not to compensate for experimental displacement. To study exogenous influence, paper III and IV investigate how environmental factors shape movements of migratory birds at local...

  7. Congenital cutaneous candidiasis: A rare and unpredictable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit A Jagtap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC is an extremely rare disorder that presents within the first 6 days of life. The manifestations ranges from diffuse skin eruption without any systemic symptoms to respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with generalized skin eruptions at birth, characterized by erythematous macules and papules. The eruption involved head, face, neck, trunk, and extremities. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis. The infection is acquired from the maternal genital tract in an ascending fashion. Clinical features, direct smear examination of specimen, and appropriate cultures are useful in differentiating the lesions from other more common dermatoses of the neonatal period. Topical antifungal therapy is sufficient unless systemic candidiasis is present. Prognosis for congenital cutaneous candidiasis is good.

  8. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  9. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  10. Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samas, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n = 1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights

  11. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  12. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.

  13. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

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    Robert S Rempel

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna, wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina, and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina. We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  14. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  15. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent pneumonia and other complications after measles: community based randomised double blind placebo controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlitos; Martins, Cesário Lourenco; Whittle, Hilton C; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2006-12-16

    To investigate whether prophylactic antibiotics can prevent complications of measles. Community based, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. 84 patients with measles during a measles epidemic in Bissau in 1998 (fewer than originally planned owing to interruption by war). Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole) or placebo for seven days. Pneumonia and admission to hospital. Also weight change during the first month of infection, diarrhoea, severe fever, oral thrush, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, and otitis media. The median age of the patients with measles was 5.4 (range 0.49-24.8) years. One of 46 participants who received co-trimoxazole developed pneumonia, in contrast to six of 38 participants who received placebo (odds ratio 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0 to 0.56), adjusted for age group). The number needed to treat was 7 (4 to 48). All three participants admitted to hospital had received placebo (P=0.09). The weight gain during the first month after inclusion was 15 (2-29) g/day in the placebo group and 32 (23-42) g/day in the co-trimoxazole group (P=0.04, adjusted for age group, weight for age at inclusion, measles vaccination status, and duration of disease). Significantly less conjunctivitis occurred among recipients of co-trimoxazole than placebo, as well as a non-significant tendency to less diarrhoea, severe fever, oral thrush, and stomatitis. Complications of otitis media were the same in the two groups. The group that received prophylactic antibiotics had less pneumonia and conjunctivitis and had significantly higher weight gains in the month after inclusion. The results indicate that prophylactic antibiotics may have an important role in the management of measles infection in low income countries. Clinical trials NCT00168532.

  16. Shell colour, temperature, (micro)habitat structure and predator pressure affect the behaviour of Cepaea nemoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Lesicki, Andrzej; Skórka, Piotr; Kobak, Jarosław; Szymańska, Anna; Osiejuk, Tomasz S.; Kałuski, Tomasz; Jaskulska, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    Although shell colour polymorphism of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis is a well-known phenomenon, proximate and ultimate factors driving its evolution remain uncertain. Polymorphic species show variation in behavioural responses to selective forces. Therefore, we estimated effects of various environmental factors (temperature, humidity, food availability, (micro)habitat structure and predatory pressure) on behavioural response (frequency of locomotion, climbing and hiding) of C. nemoralis morphs, in experimental and natural conditions. In the experimental part of study, the frequency of locomotion was negatively affected by temperature and the presence of food and positively influenced by the presence of light. Morphs significantly differed in behavioural responses to environmental variability. Pink mid-banded and yellow five-banded morphs climbed less often and hide in shelter more often than yellow and pink unbanded individuals when temperature was low and food was absent. Snails fed most often at moderate temperature compared to low and high temperatures. Field investigations partially confirmed differences among morphs in frequency of climbing, but not in terms of probability of hiding in sheltered sites. In natural colonies, temperature and (micro)habitat structure significantly affected frequency of climbing as well as hiding in shelter. Snails more often hid in sheltered sites where thrushes preyed on Cepaea. Tendency of unbanded morphs to climb trees may have evolved under avian predatory pressure as thrushes forage on a ground. Tendency of banded morphs to hide in sheltered sites may reflect prey preferences for cryptic background. The results implicate that differential behaviour of C. nemoralis morphs compensate for their morphological and physiological limitations of adaptation to habitat.

  17. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Do host species evolve a specific response to slave-making ants?

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    Delattre Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. Results Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections towards parasite

  19. Effects of the parasitism of Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae on the fitness of Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, an endemic shrub from rupestrian fields over ironstone outcrops, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Efeitos do parasitismo de Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae na aptidão de Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, um arbusto endêmico dos campos rupestres sobre canga, em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Mourão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants (mistletoes may alter the growth, reproduction and physiology of their hosts. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae is a legume abundant in rupestrian fields on ironstone outcrops, frequently attacked by the hemiparasite Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of parasitism by S. flexicaulis on the fitness of M. calodendron. The intensity of parasitism and mortality on hosts of different sizes was evaluated, and foliage cover, fruit and seed set in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals were compared. More than 65% of a population of 1820 individuals was attacked. Host density positively influenced parasitism. The mortality and number of attacked hosts increased with their crown diameter. Heavily parasitized individuals showed 75 to 95% reduction of leaf cover and fruit production of 25% of those non-parasitized. Although no statistical difference was detected between the number of seeds per fruit, seed weight was lower in attacked plants. Parasitism by S. flexicaulis on M. calodendron may alter its population structure and dynamics, by reducing survival and fecundity rates.As plantas parasitas (ervas-de-passarinho podem alterar o crescimento, reprodução e fisiologia das hospedeiras. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae é uma leguminosa abundante nos campos rupestres sobre canga, freqüentemente atacada pela hemiparasita Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as conseqüências do parasitismo de S. flexicaulis na aptidão de M. calodendron. Foram avaliadas a intensidade de parasitismo e mortalidade em mimosas de diferentes tamanhos, e comparadas a cobertura foliar e a produção de frutos e sementes em indivíduos parasitados e não parasitados. Mais de 65% da população de 1.820 indivíduos estavam parasitados. A densidade de mimosas influenciou positivamente o parasitismo. As taxas de parasitismo e de mortalidade foram maiores nas

  20. Antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sokoto, Nigeria

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    Aghedo FI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Festus I Aghedo,1 Resqua A Shehu,2 Rabiu A Umar,2 Mohammed N Jiya,3 Osaro Erhabor4 1Department of Haematology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria Objective: To assess antioxidant vitamin levels among preschool children with plasmodium malarial infection. Methods: We assessed antioxidant vitamin levels by using a standard procedure in 130 malaria-parasitized preschool children. Packed cell volume and parasite density were also evaluated. Forty healthy age- and gender-matched nonparasitized children were included as controls. Results: Plasmodium falciparum was the causative species in all subjects. The mean malaria parasitemia was 4529.45 ± 1237.5/µL. The mean antioxidant concentrations for vitamins A, C, and E among plasmodium-parasitized subjects were 33.15 ± 1.79 µg/dL, 0.51 ± 0.02 mg/dL, and 0.61 ± 0.02 mg/dL, respectively. The mean concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E among the non-malaria-parasitized controls were 69.72 ± 1.71 µg/dL, 1.25 ± 0.04 mg/dL, and 1.31 ± 0.04 mg/dL respectively. We observed that the mean antioxidant concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E were significantly lower among plasmodium-parasitized subjects compared with non-parasitized controls (P = 0.01. Malaria parasitemia correlated negatively with antioxidant concentrations and packed cell volume (r = -0.736 and -0.723, P = 0.001. We observed that the higher the level of parasitemia, the lower the antioxidant concentration. Conclusion: Our study has shown that the antioxidant levels in plasmodium-parasitized children in the North-West of Nigeria are low and that the more severe the malarial infection, the lower the antioxidant level and the

  1. MORTALITY OF YOUTH Arapaima gigas (PISCES: ARAPAIMIDAE FROM A FISH FARMING IN THE NORTH OF BRAZIL, CAUSED BY Hysterothylacium sp. AND Goezia spinulosa (NEMATODA: ANISAKIDAE

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    Patrizia Batista de Azevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In youth A. gigas the risk of parasitic infections is very high, due to their feeding habit to prey on small invertebrates, which act as intermediate hosts of different endoparasite species, which can cause serious problems and high mortalities in fish farms. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the species that parasitize youth A. gigas raised in captivity in the Manacapuru municipality, Amazonas State and to evaluate their influence on the mortality of these fish. There were examined 66 youth A. gigas and non-parasite was recorded in the host gills. The intestine and stomach of the fish were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae (L3 and Goezia spinulosa larvae (L4. The parasitic indexes were high for the two species, being recorded the highest rates of infection by Hysterothylacium sp. There was observed a weak positive correlation between the host standard length and the abundance of Hysterothylacium sp. The lesions observed in the stomach and intestine of the fish, together with the high parasite index values recorded for Hysterothylacium sp. and Goezia spinulosa, leads to the suspicion that the death of the fish was due to complications and damages caused by the presence of these parasites. Keywords: Amazonia; arapaima; death; nematodes.

  2. Influence of parasitism on the use of small terrestrial rodents in environmental pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovska, Ivana, E-mail: jankovska@af.czu.c [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Miholova, Daniela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Langrova, Iva [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Bejcek, Vladimir [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Vadlejch, Jaroslav [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Kolihova, Dana; Sulc, Miloslav [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc in small terrestrial rodents - voles and their cestode parasite Paranoplocephala dentata was studied. Contents of Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn in the parasite were found to be higher than in the kidney and liver of the parasitized animals. Lead level in the cestode was 37 fold higher than in the liver of the infected rodents. Bioaccumulation factors of zinc, nickel and manganese in the cestode are mostly in the range from 2 to 4.5. Considering the different contents of manganese and zinc in livers of non-parasitized and parasitized rodents, kidney tissue was found to be more reliable than liver as an indicator of environmental pollution by manganese and zinc; the kidneys of parasitized animals showed no significant change in the concentrations of those elements that are accumulated in the cestode. - Liver tissue from voles infected by Paranoplocephala dentata was less suitable as a biomonitor for metal contamination than kidney tissue.

  3. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  4. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outbreaks of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in redtail barbs Barbus haasi in a Mediterranean stream during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceda-Veiga, A; Salvadó, H; Vinyoles, D; De Sostoa, A

    2009-09-01

    In 2008, inland waterways in Catalonia (northeast Iberian Peninsula, Spain) experienced one of the worst droughts recorded in this region in recent decades. During this period, an epizootic of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was detected for the first time in a Mediterranean stream, with 21% prevalence in a population of redtail barbs Barbus haasi. Environmental features and the fish population in this stream were compared during 2007-2009. Fish density and the average fish size were reduced significantly after the outbreak of I. multifiliis in this population. During 2008, parasitized fish were significantly larger than nonparasitized fish. In addition, a significant, positive correlation was found between parasite load and fish size. The origin of I. multifiliis is unknown, but an introduced species detected in April 2007 may have carried it. The combination of stress to the redtail barbs due to suboptimal conditions and favorable environmental conditions for parasite multiplication (e.g., suitable water temperature and low water flow) could have enhanced fish susceptibility to the parasite in April 2008. Further studies are needed to establish the incidence of freshwater fish diseases in Mediterranean watersheds, and water management policies should be reviewed to improve the conservation of native fish fauna.

  6. Hepatozoon caimani in Caiman crocodilus yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae) from North Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouer, Andréa; André, Marcos Rogério; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Luzzi, Mayara de Cássia; Oliveira, Juliana Paula de; Rodrigues, Adriana Carlos; Varani, Alessandro de Melo; Miranda, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira de; Perles, Lívia; Werther, Karin; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most common intracellular hemoparasite found in reptiles. Hepatozoon caimani, whose vectors are Culex mosquitoes, has been detected in a high prevalence among caimans in Brazil by blood smears examinations. The present work aimed to detect and characterize the Hepatozoon spp. found in 33 caimans (24 free-ranging and 9 captive; 28 males and 5 females) (Caiman crocodilus yacare) sampled at Poconé, North Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using blood smears examinations and molecular techniques. Hepatozoon spp.-gametocytes were found in 70.8% (17/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of blood smears from free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA DNA was found in 79.2% (19/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Comparative analysis of parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes showed that all analyzed features were significantly different (PHepatozoon spp. sequences detected in the present study together with H. caimani, recently detected in caimans in southern Pantanal.

  7. Hepatozoon caimani in Caiman crocodilus yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae from North Pantanal, Brazil

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    Andréa Bouer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatozoon species are the most common intracellular hemoparasite found in reptiles. Hepatozoon caimani, whose vectors are Culex mosquitoes, has been detected in a high prevalence among caimans in Brazil by blood smears examinations. The present work aimed to detect and characterize the Hepatozoon spp. found in 33 caimans (24 free-ranging and 9 captive; 28 males and 5 females (Caiman crocodilus yacare sampled at Poconé, North Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using blood smears examinations and molecular techniques. Hepatozoon spp.-gametocytes were found in 70.8% (17/24 and 88.8% (8/9 of blood smears from free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA DNA was found in 79.2% (19/24 and 88.8% (8/9 of free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Comparative analysis of parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes showed that all analyzed features were significantly different (P<0.05 for both linear and area dimensions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences grouped the Hepatozoon spp. sequences detected in the present study together with H. caimani, recently detected in caimans in southern Pantanal.

  8. Profiling mRNAs of two Cuscuta species reveals possible candidate transcripts shared by parasitic plants.

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    Linjian Jiang

    Full Text Available Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions.

  9. Profiling mRNAs of two Cuscuta species reveals possible candidate transcripts shared by parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linjian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions.

  10. Plastome Evolution in the Sole Hemiparasitic Genus Laurel Dodder (Cassytha) and Insights into the Plastid Phylogenomics of Lauraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Wang, Ting-Jen; Wu, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2017-10-01

    To date, little is known about the evolution of plastid genomes (plastomes) in Lauraceae. As one of the top five largest families in tropical forests, the Lauraceae contain many species that are important ecologically and economically. Lauraceous species also provide wonderful materials to study the evolutionary trajectory in response to parasitism because they contain both nonparasitic and parasitic species. This study compared the plastomes of nine Lauraceous species, including the sole hemiparasitic and herbaceous genus Cassytha (laurel dodder; here represented by Cassytha filiformis). We found differential contractions of the canonical inverted repeat (IR), resulting in two IR types present in Lauraceae. These two IR types reinforce Cryptocaryeae and Neocinnamomum-Perseeae-Laureae as two separate clades. Our data reveal several traits unique to Cas. filiformis, including loss of IRs, loss or pseudogenization of 11 ndh and rpl23 genes, richness of repeats, and accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in protein-coding genes. Although Cas. filiformis is low in chlorophyll content, our analysis based on dN/dS ratios suggests that both its plastid house-keeping and photosynthetic genes are under strong selective constraints. Hence, we propose that short generation time and herbaceous lifestyle rather than reduced photosynthetic ability drive the accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in Cas. filiformis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Stunting of the penis in Heleobia parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) and its relationship with parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Matías J; Parietti, Manuela; Etchegoin, Jorge A

    2017-02-08

    Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M. simillimus, and Notocotylidae sp. 1. The penis length of non-parasitized males and those parasitized by M. szidati and M. similimus increased with increased snail length; however, this increase was lower in infected snails. In the case of snails infected with Notocotylidae sp. 1, no relationship between shell length and penis length was apparent. Differences in the life cycles of these 3 digeneans could explain the null or lower penis growth rate in relation to host body growth. In contrast, no change was observed in the number of penial papillae of H. parchappii when these snails were infected by larval digeneans compared to those that were not infected. This indicates that penial papillae may be a more stable characteristic than penis length to discriminate between species within the Cochliopidae. The study of penial papillae should be central in the taxonomy and identification of new species within the Cochliopidae, as well as in previously described species.

  12. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  13. Side-effects of pesticides used in irrigated rice areas on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazini, Juliano de Bastos; Pasini, Rafael Antonio; Seidel, Enio Júnior; Rakes, Matheus; Martins, José Francisco da Silva; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei

    2017-08-01

    Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T. podisi). In the choice tests, sprays were conducted only at pre-parasitism stages. For all tests, we prepared cards with 25 eggs of the alternative host Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) non-parasitized (pre-parasitism) and parasitized (post-parasitism), which were subjected to pesticide sprays. The parasitism and emergence rates of T. podisi were determined classifying the pesticides in terms of the reduction of parasitism or emergence rates compared to the control. The neurotoxic insecticide cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin, etofenprox, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid + alpha-cypermethrin, and bifenthrin + alpha-cypermethrin + carbosulfan were more harmful to T. podisi and, therefore, are less suitable for the integrated management of insect pests in irrigated rice areas.

  14. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Six Rehmannia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Zeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia is a non-parasitic genus in Orobanchaceae including six species mainly distributed in central and north China. Its phylogenetic position and infrageneric relationships remain uncertain due to potential hybridization and polyploidization. In this study, we sequenced and compared the complete chloroplast genomes of six Rehmannia species using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the interspecific variations. Rehmannia plastomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structures with good synteny of gene order. The complete genomes ranged from 153,622 bp to 154,055 bp in length, including 133 genes encoding 88 proteins, 37 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. Three genes (rpoA, rpoC2, accD have potentially experienced positive selection. Plastome size variation of Rehmannia was mainly ascribed to the expansion and contraction of the border regions between the inverted repeat (IR region and the single-copy (SC regions. Despite of the conserved structure in Rehmannia plastomes, sequence variations provide useful phylogenetic information. Phylogenetic trees of 23 Lamiales species reconstructed with the complete plastomes suggested that Rehmannia was monophyletic and sister to the clade of Lindenbergia and the parasitic taxa in Orobanchaceae. The interspecific relationships within Rehmannia were completely different with the previous studies. In future, population phylogenomic works based on plastomes are urgently needed to clarify the evolutionary history of Rehmannia.

  15. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yong

    2015-07-15

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. © Woo et al.

  16. with gingivitis and periodontitis referring Resalat Dental Clinic, Chaleshtor in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Khafari ghosheh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax are oral protozoa that could cause periodontitis and gingivitis. The present study was done to determine the prevalence of these two protozoa in people over 14 years with periodontitis and gingivitis.   Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 540 patients referring Resalat Dental Clinic, Shahrekord were enrolled and assigned in two groups of 270 patients with periodontitis and gingivitis and270 healthy individuals. The prepared specimens were examined by extensive wet procedures, Gimsa staining and Trichorom staining. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression in SPSSv.20.   Results: No E. gingivalis- and T. tenax-positive cases were seen in the healthy group. The prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax was obtained 3% by extensive wet procedure, 1.9% by Trichoderma staining, and 0.7% by Giemsa staining respectively. By logistic regression model, none of variables of age, gender, place of residence, smoking, tooth brushing, flossing, and oral PH were associated protozoan infection of E. gingivalis and T. tenax (P>0.05. Conclusion: In patients with periodontitis and gingivitis referred to the dental clinic, parasitic infections were attenuated to gingivialis and trichomoniasis vaginalis, and possibly other non-parasitic agents, including bacteria or other microorganisms, may play a role.    

  17. Can the behaviour of threespine stickleback parasitized with Schistocephalus solidus be replicated by manipulating host physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grécias, Lucie; Hébert, François Olivier; Berger, Chloé Suzanne; Barber, Iain; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

    2017-01-15

    Sticklebacks infected by the parasitic flatworm Schistocephalus solidus show dramatic changes in phenotype, including a loss of species-typical behavioural responses to predators. The timing of host behaviour change coincides with the development of infectivity of the parasite to the final host (a piscivorous bird), making it an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of infection-induced behavioural modification. However, whether the loss of host anti-predator behaviour results from direct manipulation by the parasite, or is a by-product (e.g. host immune response) or side effect of infection (e.g. energetic loss), remains controversial. To understand the physiological mechanisms that generate these behavioural changes, we quantified the behavioural profiles of experimentally infected fish and attempted to replicate these in non-parasitized fish by exposing them to treatments including immunity activation and fasting, or by pharmacologically inhibiting the stress axis. All fish were screened for the following behaviours: activity, water depth preference, sociability, phototaxis, anti-predator response and latency to feed. We were able to change individual behaviours with certain treatments. Our results suggest that the impact of S. solidus on the stickleback might be of a multifactorial nature. The behaviour changes observed in infected fish might result from the combined effects of modifying the serotonergic axis, lack of energy and activation of the immune system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future.

  19. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  20. Parasitoid-host endocrine relations: self-reliance or co-optation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Beckage, N E; Tan, F F; Srinivasan, A; Ramaswamy, S B

    2002-12-01

    High titers of juvenile hormone (JH) maintain developmental arrest in Manduca sexta larvae parasitized by Cotesia congregata. Parasitized hosts exhibit up to 9.5 times greater amounts of total hemolymph JH (from 0.6+/-0.09 to 2.51+/-0.43ng/ml) compared to non-parasitized controls. Elevated titers are observed throughout the fifth instar, even beyond egression of the parasitoids on day 5. GC-MS analysis revealed that in hemolymph of unparasitized control larvae, JH I is the major homolog and levels of JH III are negligible; in parasitized individuals the amounts of JH I, II, and III rise, and JH III predominates. Neck ligation ensured separation of M. sexta's corpora allata from the posterior section, which contained most of the parasitoids in the infected insects. When the posterior region was sampled, JHs were not detected in the non-parasitzed larvae, but in those parasitized, JH III was found (1.98+/-0.29ng/ml, 24 h post-ligation). JH III was the only homolog produced and secreted by the parasitoid in in vitro culture. This is the first report stating that a parasitoid secretes JH III and may contribute, at least in part, to the circulating titer in the host hemocoel, concurrently promoting host production of JH I and II.

  1. The inverse niche model for food webs with parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher P.; Pascual, Mercedes; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2010-01-01

    Although parasites represent an important component of ecosystems, few field and theoretical studies have addressed the structure of parasites in food webs. We evaluate the structure of parasitic links in an extensive salt marsh food web, with a new model distinguishing parasitic links from non-parasitic links among free-living species. The proposed model is an extension of the niche model for food web structure, motivated by the potential role of size (and related metabolic rates) in structuring food webs. The proposed extension captures several properties observed in the data, including patterns of clustering and nestedness, better than does a random model. By relaxing specific assumptions, we demonstrate that two essential elements of the proposed model are the similarity of a parasite's hosts and the increasing degree of parasite specialization, along a one-dimensional niche axis. Thus, inverting one of the basic rules of the original model, the one determining consumers' generality appears critical. Our results support the role of size as one of the organizing principles underlying niche space and food web topology. They also strengthen the evidence for the non-random structure of parasitic links in food webs and open the door to addressing questions concerning the consequences and origins of this structure.

  2. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals the Impact of Repetitive DNA Across Phylogenetically Closely Related Genomes of Orobanchaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piednoël, Mathieu; Aberer, Andre J.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Macas, Jiri; Novak, Petr; Gundlach, Heidrun; Temsch, Eva M.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the genomes of nine species of Orobanchaceae of known phylogenetic relationships, different life forms, and including a polyploid species. The study species are the autotrophic, nonparasitic Lindenbergia philippensis, the hemiparasitic Schwalbea americana, and seven nonphotosynthetic parasitic species of Orobanche (Orobanche crenata, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche gracilis (tetraploid), and Orobanche pancicii) and Phelipanche (Phelipanche lavandulacea, Phelipanche purpurea, and Phelipanche ramosa). Ty3/Gypsy elements comprise 1.93%–28.34% of the nine genomes and Ty1/Copia elements comprise 8.09%–22.83%. When compared with L. philippensis and S. americana, the nonphotosynthetic species contain higher proportions of repetitive DNA sequences, perhaps reflecting relaxed selection on genome size in parasitic organisms. Among the parasitic species, those in the genus Orobanche have smaller genomes but higher proportions of repetitive DNA than those in Phelipanche, mostly due to a diversification of repeats and an accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy elements. Genome downsizing in the tetraploid O. gracilis probably led to sequence loss across most repeat types. PMID:22723303

  3. Testing the Hypothesis of Multiple Origins of Holoparasitism in Orobanchaceae: Phylogenetic Evidence from the Last Two Unplaced Holoparasitic Genera, Gleadovia and Phacellanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirui Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is the largest family among the parasitic angiosperms. It comprises non-parasites, hemi- and holoparasites, making this family an ideal test case for studying the evolution of parasitism. Previous phylogenetic analyses showed that holoparasitism had arisen at least three times from the hemiparasitic taxa in Orobanchaceae. Until now, however, not all known genera of Orobanchaceae were investigated in detail. Among them, the unknown phylogenetic positions of the holoparasites Gleadovia and Phacellanthus are the key to testing how many times holoparasitism evolved. Here, we provide clear evidence for the first time that they are members of the tribe Orobancheae, using sequence data from multiple loci (nuclear genes ITS, PHYA, PHYB, and plastid genes rps2, matK. Gleadovia is an independent lineage whereas Phacellanthus should be merged into genus Orobanche section Orobanche. Our results unambiguously support the hypothesis that there are only three origins of holoparasitism in Orobanchaceae. Divergence dating reveals for the first time that the three origins of holoparasitism were not synchronous. Our findings suggest that holoparasitism can persist in specific clades for a long time and holoparasitism may evolve independently as an adaptation to certain hosts.

  4. OaMAX2 of Orobanche aegyptiaca and Arabidopsis AtMAX2 share conserved functions in both development and drought responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-09-16

    Previous studies in Arabidopsis reported that the MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) gene is a component of the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of biological processes, from plant growth and development to environmental stress responses. Orobanche aegyptiaca is a harmful parasitic plant for many economically important crops. Seed germination of O. aegyptiaca is very sensitive to SLs, suggesting that O. aegyptiaca may contain components of the SL signaling pathway. To investigate this hypothesis, we identified and cloned a MAX2 ortholog from O. aegyptiaca for complementation analyses using the Arabidopsis Atmax2 mutant. The so-called OaMAX2 gene could rescue phenotypes of the Atmax2 mutant in various tested developmental aspects, including seed germination, shoot branching, leaf senescence and growth and development of hypocotyl, root hair, primary root and lateral root. More importantly, OaMAX2 could enhance the drought tolerance of Atmax2 mutant, suggesting its ability to restore the drought-tolerant phenotype of mutant plants defected in AtMAX2 function. Thus, this study provides genetic evidence that the functions of the MAX2 orthologs, and perhaps the MAX2 signaling pathways, are conserved in parasitic and non-parasitic plants. Furthermore, the results of our study enable us to develop a strategy to fight against parasitic plants by suppressing the MAX signaling, which ultimately leads to enhanced productivity of crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial placement and relations of Rehmannia and Triaenophora (Scrophulariaceae s.l.) inferred from five gene regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Wang, Yin-Zheng; Smith, James F

    2009-02-01

    Accurate classification systems based on evolution are imperative for biological investigations. The recent explosion of molecular phylogenetics has resulted in a much improved classification of angiosperms. More than five phylogenetic lineages have been recognized from Scrophulariaceae sensu lato since the family was determined to be polyphyletic; however, questions remain about the genera that have not been assigned to one of the segregate families of Scrophulariaceae s.l. Rehmannia Liboschitz and Triaenophora Solereder are such genera with uncertain familial placement. There also is debate whether Triaenophora should be segregated from Rehmannia. To evaluate the phylogenetic relations between Rehmannia and Triaenophora, to find their closest relatives, and to verify their familial placement, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of one nuclear DNA (ITS) region and four chloroplast DNA gene regions (trnL-F, rps16, rbcL, and rps2) individually and combined. The analyses showed that Rehmannia and Triaenophora are each strongly supported as monophyletic and together are sister to Orobanchaceae. This relation was corroborated by phytochemical and morphological data. Based on these data, we suggest that Rehmannia and Triaenophora represent the second nonparasitic branch sister to the remainder of Orobanchaceae (including Lindenbergia).

  6. Evaluation of Clonostachys rosea for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Soil and in Roots of Carrot and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mudassir; Dubey, Mukesh; McEwan, Kerstin; Menzel, Uwe; Franko, Mikael Andersson; Viketoft, Maria; Jensen, Dan Funck; Karlsson, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Biological control is a promising approach to reduce plant diseases caused by nematodes. We tested the effect of the fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 inoculation on nematode community composition in a naturally nematode infested soil in a pot experiment, and the effect of C. rosea on plant health. The numbers of plant-parasitic nematode genera extracted from soil and plant roots decreased by 40 to 73% when C. rosea was applied, while genera of nonparasitic nematodes were not affected. Soil inoculation of C. rosea increased fresh shoot weight and shoot length of wheat plants by 20 and 24%, respectively, while only shoot dry weight increased by 48% in carrots. Light microscopy of in vitro C. rosea-nematode interactions did not reveal evidence of direct parasitism. However, culture filtrates of C. rosea growing in potato dextrose broth, malt extract broth and synthetic nutrient broth exhibited toxicity toward nematodes and immobilized 57, 62, and 100% of the nematodes, respectively, within 48 h. This study demonstrates that C. rosea can control plant-parasitic nematodes and thereby improve plant growth. The most likely mechanism responsible for the antagonism is antibiosis through production of nematicidal compounds, rather than direct parasitism.

  7. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yong; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Otto, Thomas D.; Linger, Christen M K; Olisko, Martin K.; Michá lek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; Del Campo, Javier; Cihlá ř, Jaromí r; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Hajdušková , Eva; Horá k, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J.; Mast, Fred D.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; Rawlings, Neil D.; Padron Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J.; Roos, David S.; Dacks, Joel B.; Templeton, Thomas J.; Waller, Ross F.; Lukeš, Julius; Oborní k, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. © Woo et al.

  8. Experimental infection of Rickettsia parkeri in the Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. View of environmental radiation effects from the study of radiation biology in C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans is a non-parasitic soil nematode and is well-known as a unique model organism, because of its complete cell-lineage, nervous network and genome sequences. Also, C. elegans can be easily manipulated in the laboratory. These advantages make C. elegans as a good in vivo model system in the field of radiation biology. Radiation effects in C. elegans have been studied for three decades. Here, I briefly review the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation in C. elegans with a scope of environmental radiation effects. Firstly, basic information of C. elegans as a model organism is described. Secondly, historical view is reported on the study of radiation biology in C. elegans. Thirdly, our research on learning behavior is presented. Finally, an opinion of the use of C. elegans for environmental radiation protection is referred. I believe that C. elegans may be a good promising in vivo model system in the field of environmental radiation biology. (author)

  10. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon , which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  11. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

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    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  12. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

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    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  13. An in vitro investigation of indigenous South African medicinal plants used to treat oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalwaya, S; van Vuuren, S; Patel, M

    2018-01-10

    Over a 120 South African medicinal plants are used for the treatment of oral diseases. Despite the vast collection of antimicrobial studies being done on South African plants, there is still limited research on pathogens associated with oral infections. In consultation with the available ethnobotanical literature, this study investigates the antimicrobial efficacy of some South African medicinal plants against oral pathogens. To provide a detailed account of the antimicrobial properties of selected South African medicinal plants used traditionally to treat oral infections. The effect on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and the toxicity profiles of these plants are also investigated. A total of 136 aqueous and organic extracts and six essential oils were prepared from 31 different plant species. These plant samples were screened for antimicrobial efficacy against nine oral pathogens using the micro-titre plate dilution assay. Plant extracts that were found to have noteworthy antimicrobial activity against S. mutans were further evaluated on the effect on S. mutans biofilm formation using the glass slide technique. The toxicity profiles of plant samples that were found to have noteworthy antimicrobial activity were evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality assay. The organic extract of Cissampelos torulosa stems displayed the lowest MIC value of 0.05mg/mL against both Lactobacillus spp. This high antimicrobial activity was also observed with the organic extract of Spirostachys africana leaves against Candida albicans. In some instances, a direct relationship was found between the traditional use of the plant and the antimicrobial activity observed. For example, noteworthy activity (MIC plant traditionally used to treat oral thrush. Englerophytum magalismonatanum stems displayed notable activity against both Streptococcus spp. (MIC 0.83mg/mL against S. mutans and MIC 0.67mg/mL against S. sanguis). Spirostachys africana leaves displayed the greatest anti

  14. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  15. Campylobacter jejuni sequence types show remarkable spatial and temporal stability in Blackbirds

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    Petra Griekspoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has a broad host range but is especially associated with birds, both domestic and wild. Earlier studies have indicated thrushes of the genus Turdus in Europe to be frequently colonized with C. jejuni, and predominately with host-associated specific genotypes. The European Blackbird Turdus merula has a large distribution in Europe, including some oceanic islands, and was also introduced to Australia by European immigrants in the 1850s. Methods: The host specificity and temporal stability of European Blackbird C. jejuni was investigated with multilocus sequence typing in a set of isolates collected from Sweden, Australia, and The Azores. Results: Remarkably, we found that the Swedish, Australian, and Azorean isolates were genetically highly similar, despite extensive spatial and temporal isolation. This indicates adaptation, exquisite specificity, and stability in time for European Blackbirds, which is in sharp contrast with the high levels of recombination and mutation found in poultry-related C. jejuni genotypes. Conclusion: The maintenance of host-specific signals in spatially and temporally separated C. jejuni populations suggests the existence of strong purifying selection for this bacterium in European Blackbirds.

  16. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  17. Functional characterization of Candida albicans Hos2 histone deacetylase [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3xh

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    G Karthikeyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a mucosal commensal organism capable of causing superficial (oral and vaginal thrush infections in immune normal hosts, but is a major pathogen causing systemic and mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Azoles have been very effective anti-fungal agents and the mainstay in treating opportunistic mold and yeast infections. Azole resistant strains have emerged compromising the utility of this class of drugs. It has been shown that azole resistance can be reversed by the co-administration of a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suggesting that resistance is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms possibly involving Hos2, a fungal deacetylase. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of HOS2 (HighOsmolarity Sensitive, a gene coding for fungal histone deacetylase from C. albicans. Inhibition studies showed that Hos2 is susceptible to pan inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, but is not inhibited by class I inhibitors such as MS-275. This in vitro enzymatic assay, which is amenable to high throughput could be used for screening potent fungal Hos2 inhibitors that could be a potential anti-fungal adjuvant. Purified Hos2 protein consistently deacetylated tubulins, rather than histones from TSA-treated cells. Hos2 has been reported to be a putative NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase, a feature of sirtuins. We assayed for sirtuin activation with resveratrol and purified Hos2 protein and did not find any sirtuin activity.

  18. Pain and disease according to integral anthroposophical dentistry

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    Célia Regina Lulo Galitesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From an academic standpoint, the university format, in general, has been nurturing a "paradigm of expertise" and, consequently, the relationship between specialties has declined. The upshot is that recent college dental graduates have adopted a clinical performance focusing on system parts and their specificities, in detriment to a more comprehensive view of the mouth and of the patient as a whole, with his/her vital, emotional and individual attributes. An interaction between the several different areas of human knowledge is needed imminently to decrease the dichotomy in professional behavior, because the demand for professionals and dental patients interested in a more comprehensive approach are increasing day by day. Patients want to know: "What, in fact, is behind the etiological extrinsic and intrinsic factors that maintain neuropathic pain, recurrent thrush, or persistent halitosis," among other questions, "even under the care of a dentist?" or "Why is this disease affecting me?" There are several issues composing the paradigm of salutogenesis: What are the essential aspects that constitute a healthy individual, overlapping the usual investigation: How to destroy, avoid and quell the pathological agents? A proposed approach is based on salutogenesis, which examines such issues. According to this approach, anthroposophical dentistry includes determinant factors, determinants of health, basic research and the development of oral health promotion, thus connecting dental academia with integrative thinking, while also complementing and gathering information that subsidizes basic research with the primordial concepts on laws governing the parameters involved in the vital processes of nature.

  19. New mechanism of oral immunity to mucosal candidiasis in hyper-IgE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, H R; Baker, O; Freeman, A F; Jang, W S; Holland, S M; Li, R A; Edgerton, M; Gaffen, S L

    2011-07-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, thrush) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. An understanding of immunity to Candida has recently begun to unfold with the identification of fungal pattern-recognition receptors such as C-type lectin receptors, which trigger protective T-helper (Th)17 responses in the mucosa. Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES/Job's syndrome) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency characterized by dominant-negative mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is downstream of the Th17-inductive cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, and hence patients with HIES exhibit dramatic Th17 deficits. HIES patients develop oral and mucocutaneous candidiasis, supporting a protective role for Th17 cells in immunity to OPC. However, the Th17-dependent mechanisms of antifungal immunity in OPC are still poorly defined. An often unappreciated aspect of oral immunity is saliva, which is rich in antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and exerts direct antifungal activity. In this study, we show that HIES patients show significant impairment in salivary AMPs, including β-defensin 2 and Histatins. This tightly correlates with reduced candidacidal activity of saliva and concomitantly elevated colonization with Candida. Moreover, IL-17 induces histatins in cultured salivary gland cells. This is the first demonstration that HIES is associated with defective salivary activity, and provides a mechanism for the severe susceptibility of these patients to OPC.

  20. Interleukin-17-induced protein lipocalin 2 is dispensable for immunity to oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Whibley, Natasha; Mamo, Anna J; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chan, Yvonne R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the commensal microbe Candida albicans. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on CD4+ T cells, particularly those of the Th17 subset. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) deficiency in mice or humans leads to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the specific downstream mechanisms of IL-17-mediated host defense remain unclear. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; 24p3; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) is an antimicrobial host defense factor produced in response to inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-17. Lcn2 plays a key role in preventing iron acquisition by bacteria that use catecholate-type siderophores, and lipocalin 2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to infection by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The role of Lcn2 in mediating immunity to fungi is poorly defined. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of Lcn2 in immunity to oral infection with C. albicans. Lcn2 is strongly upregulated following oral infection with C. albicans, and its expression is almost entirely abrogated in mice with defective IL-17 signaling (IL-17RA(-/-) or Act1(-/-) mice). However, Lcn2(-/-) mice were completely resistant to OPC, comparably to wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency mediated protection from OPC induced by steroid immunosuppression. Therefore, despite its potent regulation during C. albicans infection, Lcn2 is not required for immunity to mucosal candidiasis.

  1. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Inherited IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency in a Child With BCG Adenitis and Oral Candidiasis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nevin; Güvenç, B Haluk; Deswarte, Caroline; Koksalan, Kaya; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2017-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a major worldwide problem, and protection from it is achieved mainly by live attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which is capable of causing disease in immunocompromised host. Oral thrush is abnormal in healthy children, which suggests an underlying immunodeficiency. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a selective predisposition to weakly virulent Mycobacteria and Salmonella and also predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Interleukin 12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency is the most common disease of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, and to date only 50 IL-12Rβ1 deficient patients with clinical signs of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis have been reported. We report a 2.5-year-old daughter of consanguineous parents with both regional bacille Calmette-Guérin lymphadenitis and recurrent oral candidiasis carrying biallelic R175W mutation in the IL12RB1 gene, resulting in complete loss of expression of IL-12Rβ1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacille Calmette-Guérin lymphadenitis with concurrent oral candidiasis displaying such a mutation. New mutations and wide clinical diversities are the indisputable fact of populations with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Seasonal variation of infestation by ectoparasitic chigger mite larvae (Acarina: Trombiculidae) on resident and migratory birds in coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Thomas V

    2005-12-01

    Parasitism is not well documented for birds found in tropical habitats. Long-distance migratory birds may face additional risks to an already hazardous journey when infected. This study explores the ecology of an ectoparasite infestation in Chiapas, Mexico. During a mist-netting project in 2 different coffee management systems, chigger mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae), ectoparasitic during the larval stage, were found on both resident and migratory birds. Using a rapid assessment protocol, it was observed that 17 of 26 species of long-distance migrants and 33 of 71 resident species had at least 1 infested individual. Infestation prevalences were unexpectedly high on some long-distance migrants, as high as 0.73 for Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), a value on par with heavily infested resident species. Prevalence was highest during winter sampling: 0.18 overall, 0.16 of migrants, and 0.23 of residents. Prevalence was 0.14 for resident birds during the summer breeding season. Mean abundance and mean intensity of infestation are reported for 97 species captured and inspected during the course of this study. In this region, chigger mite larvae are relatively common on birds and their abundance varies seasonally. High prevalence for some migratory birds suggests that more research and monitoring of ectoparasites are needed, especially in light of emerging diseases.

  4. Factors influencing the movement biology of migrant songbirds confronted with an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinsky, J. A.; Diehl, Robert H.; Radzio, T. A.; Delaney, D. K.; Moore, F. R

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a migratory songbird embarks on a long-distance flight across an ecological barrier is likely a response to a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. During autumn 2008 and 2009, we used automated radio tracking to investigate how energetic condition, age, and weather influenced the departure timing and direction of Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory stopover along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Most birds left within 1 h after sunset on the evening following capture. Those birds that departed later on the first night or remained longer than 1 day were lean. Birds that carried fat loads sufficient to cross the Gulf of Mexico generally departed in a seasonally appropriate southerly direction, whereas lean birds nearly always flew inland in a northerly direction. We did not detect an effect of age or weather on departures. The decision by lean birds to reorient movement inland may reflect the suitability of the coastal stopover site for deposition of fuel stores and the motivation to seek food among more extensive forested habitat away from the barrier.

  5. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a case report

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    Xiomara Serpa-Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthosus stomatitis is an alteration of the oral mucosa in some cases associated with depression of the immune system that affects the tissue response at the level of the epithelium, triggering repetitive clinical picture of small and medium ulcers (3-5 mm which necrotic presented erythematous background and lasting no more than 15 days. The picture becomes recurrent, symptomatic, compromising the health of the patient who consults again with the same characteristics in oral cavity. The literature associates the process with hormonal changes, trauma, prolonged intake of medications, and stress. A case of female patient 53, who attends the service of dentistry to present multiple oral thrush that hard to swallow, drooling and feverish marked presents in Santa Marta, at the Center for Implantology and Oral Rehabilitation. According to the interrogation and clinical examination it is associated with a reactive inflammatory process caused by the intake of drugs to treat infectious or viral process, which is given the presumptive diagnosis of erythema drug. Any medication intake was suspended and additional tests are ordered antinuclear antibodies

  6. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Willemoes, Mikkel; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Vega, Marta Lomas; Dasari, Hari P; Araújo, Miguel B; Wikelski, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  7. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

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    Dinesh E. Gabadage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic species. We also report the first-ever records of Chestnut-backed Owlet, Red-faced Malkoha, and Spot-winged Thrush from this dry area. However, these precious habitats and its species are threatened because of irresponsible human activities such as forest fires, land filings, hunting, road kills, encroachments, garbage dumping, agrochemicals, granite-rock blasting, logging, and road constructions. Therefore, we recommend that relevant authorities take immediate conservation action to increase the protection of these marginal areas or buffer zone in the near future.

  9. Host selection by the shiny cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Factors important in Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) host selection were examined within the mangrove community in Puerto Rico. Cowbirds did not parasitize birds in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with those of its major hosts, which were 'high-quality' foster species (i.e., species that fledge .gtoreq. 55% of cowbirds hatched: Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia; Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus; Black-whiskered Vireo, Vireo altiloquus; Black-cowled Oriole, Icterus dominicensis; Peurto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum; Troupial, Icterus icterus), and did not extend into other periods even though nests of 'low-quality: species (i.e., species that fledge < 55% of cowbird chicks that hatched: Bronze Mannikin, Lonchura cucullata; Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger; Gray Kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis; Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos; Red-legged Thrush, Turdus plumbeus) were available. Shiny Cowbird food habits and egg size were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this combination. Cowbirds located host nests primarily by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitats. Other nest locating strategies were active searching of suitable habitat and 'flushing' of hosts by the cowbird's noisy approach. Cowbirds closely monitored nest status with frequent visits that peaked on the host's first day of egg laying. Hosts using covered nests (e.g., cavities, domed nests) were as vulnerable to cowbird parasitism as those building open nests.

  10. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  11. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  13. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Results We conducted principal component (PC) analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1) and diverged in relative bill size (PC3) in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation. PMID:21609448

  14. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants

    KAUST Repository

    Thorup, Kasper

    2017-01-05

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  15. Incidence of Candida spp. mucosal oral patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency (HIV in Santo Angelo-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Hartmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Currently, there is an increase in fungal infections, especially in immune compromised patients. Among the fungi that cause invasive infections there is the yeast of the genus Candida, considered HIV progression marker. Antifungal therapy and diagnosis are important for the treatment of oral candidiasis, due to the resistance attributed to certain species. Thus, the aim this study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with the HIV virus, to define the species, the virulence factors and sensitivity to fluconazole. Methods: Researched to colonization of the oral mucosa of HIV-positive patients with the aid of a sterile swab and culture in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The activity of proteinase and phospholipase were done. Susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. A record filled with socio-economic data, and clinical information regarding medications and symptomatology of patients. Results: The sample was consisted of 45 people. The average age of patients was 38 years (± 13.63. The rate of oral colonization by Candida in HIV patients was 53.3%, of these, 95.83% owned by albicans species. The isolates showed positive activity and strongly positive for phospholipase and proteinase. In the susceptibility test showed 25% of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of candidiasis in HIV-infected patients is essential both for the immediate treatment, and to improve their quality of life, since the thrush is a very common oral lesions in this population.

  16. Drug utilization review of cephalosporins in a secondary care hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shaaban, Mohammad; Ali, Areeg Anwer; Rao, Padma G M; Majid, Asif

    2016-12-01

    Background Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antibiotics in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Few studies have been carried out to evaluate the antibiotic utilization pattern in UAE in spite of the obvious increase in cephalosporins resistance during the past decade. Objective To assess the prescriptions pattern of cephalosporins among physicians at a secondary care hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Method This observational prospective study was carried out during October 2013 to April 2014. The data of in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and was analyzed for patient's, drug's and drug's therapy related parameters. Results The 3rd generation cephalosporins constituted 83.6 % of the prescriptions, with ceftriaxone being the most commonly used one (81.1 %). They were mainly prescribed for the treatment of the lower respiratory tract infections (60.2 %). Seven (3.5 %) different ADRs linked to cephalosporin use were observed ranging from oral thrush to clostridium difficile infection. A total of 1039 antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial medications were prescribed concomitantly with cephalosporins. Conclusion The 3rd generation cephalosporins were commonly prescribed by parenteral route. Thus, there is a strong need for rationalizing their use to preserve their efficacy and prevent the development of resistance in the region.

  17. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  18. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  19. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)]. E-mail: lpalma@ualg.pt; Beja, Pedro [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); ERENA, Av. Visconde Valmor, 11-3, 1000-289 Lisbon (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal); Monteiro, Luis R. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles.

  20. Management of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS by traditional healers and care givers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Rudolph

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In many communities of South Africa, traditional healers are often the only means of health care delivery available. The level of knowledge and ability to recognize oral lesions of 32 traditional healers and 17 care-givers were assessed after a two-day workshop. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire, complimented by enlarged clinical photographs of the common oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Prior to the workshop, 46 (93.9% of the 49 respondents had never had any formal information on oral health and 43 (87.8% were unfamiliar with the symptoms of oral diseases. Thirty-five (71.4% recognized bleeding gums from A4-size photographs and 11 (22.4% recognized oral thrush. The recognition of other oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS were; oral hairy leukoplakia (41.0%, angular cheilitis (43.6%, herpes virus infection (56.4%, oral ulcerations (56.8%, and in children, parotid enlargement (27.3%, and moluscum contagiosum (56.8%. Traditional healers and caregivers constitute an untapped resource with enormous potential. A positive bridge should be built to link traditional healing with modem medicine in the struggle against HIV/AIDS.

  1. Genomic islands of differentiation in two songbird species reveal candidate genes for hybrid female sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mořkovský, Libor; Janoušek, Václav; Reif, Jiří; Rídl, Jakub; Pačes, Jan; Choleva, Lukáš; Janko, Karel; Nachman, Michael W; Reifová, Radka

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane's Rule, it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone and produce viable hybrid progeny. In accordance with Haldane's Rule, hybrid females are sterile, while hybrid males are fertile, allowing gene flow to occur between the species. Using transcriptomic data from multiple individuals of both nightingale species, we identified genomic islands of high differentiation (F ST ) and of high divergence (D xy ), and we analysed gene content and patterns of molecular evolution within these islands. Interestingly, we found that these islands were enriched for genes related to female meiosis and metabolism. The islands of high differentiation and divergence were also characterized by higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than the rest of the genome in both species indicating that they might be situated in genomic regions of low recombination. This study provides one of the first insights into genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Neutron spectrum measurement by TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1982-01-01

    The TOF experiments by using various facilities are described. The steady neutron spectra in light water which contains non-1/V absorbing materials were measured by the TOF method at a LINAC facility. The results were compared with the calculations based on the Koppel-Haywood model and two others. The leakage neutron spectra from a heavy-water assembly were measured and compared with model calculations. The time-dependent energy spectra in a small graphite assembly were measured. For this measurement, a chopper system was also used. The two-region calculation explains the spectrum just after the neutron burst. The time-dependent spectra in a small Be assembly and in an assembly of coolant-moderator containing hydrogen were also measured. The calculations based on various models are in progress. The TOF experiments at the reactor-chopper facility were carried out for measuring the total cross sections of crystalline moderators, the thermal neutron total cross section of high temperature beryllium, the thermal neutron total cross sections of granular lead and high temperature liquid lead, and the angle-dependent scattering spectra. A pseudo-chopper was designed and constructed. The spectra of the neutron field for medical use were measured by the chopper-TOF system. The thermal neutron total cross sections of Fe, Zr, Nb and Mg were measured, and the results were compared with the calculations by THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes. The random-trigger TOF experiments were made by using Cf-252. (Kato, T.)

  3. Experimental Germ Tube Induction in Candida albicans: An Evaluation of the Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Morphogenesis and Comparison with Pooled Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Matare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The potential of NaHCO3 versus human serum to induce germ tube formation in Candida albicans was investigated. Specimens. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from oral swabs of patients presenting with thrush. Approval for the study was granted by the Joint Research Ethics Committee (JREC/23/08. Method. Confirmed C. albicans isolates by routine methods were tested for germ tube induction using 5 different concentrations of Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 and Tris-maleate buffer control. Standard control strains included were C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and C. krusei (ATCC 6258. Microculture was done in 20 μL inoculums on microscope slides for 3 hours at 37°C. The rate of germ tube formation at 10-minute intervals was determined on 100 isolates using the optimum 20 mM Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 concentration. Parallel germ tube formation using human serum was done in test tubes. Results. The optimum concentration of NaHCO3 in Tris-maleate buffer for germ tube induction was 20 mM for 67% of isolates. Only 21% of isolates formed germ tubes in Tris-maleate buffer control. There was no significant difference in induction between human serum and Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3. Conclusion. Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 induced germ tube formation in C. albicans isolates at rates similar to human serum.

  4. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia. Results We conducted principal component (PC analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1 and diverged in relative bill size (PC3 in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation.

  5. Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives. Results Firstly, using both S. mansoni DNA methyltransferase 2 (SmDNMT2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (SmMBD) as query sequences, we illustrate that essential DNA methylation machinery components are well conserved throughout the phylum. Secondly, using both molecular (methylation specific amplification polymorphism, MSAP) and immunological (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, ELISA) methodologies, we demonstrate that representative species (Echinococcus multilocularis, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Polycelis nigra) within all four platyhelminth classes (Cestoda, Monogenea, Trematoda and ‘Turbellaria’) contain methylated cytosines within their genome compartments

  6. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  7. Review of laboratory submissions from New World camelids in England and Wales (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D F; Wu, G; Nicholson, R; Watson, E N; Foster, A P

    2014-04-01

    Sample submissions to the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) diagnostic laboratory network in England and Wales were reviewed for diseases affecting New World camelids (NWCs). In the years 2000-2011, 6757 submissions were analysed, including 5154/6757 (76.3%) for diagnosing a disease problem and 1603/6757 (23.7%) for monitoring (no clinical disease). Wasting (weight loss, ill-thrift) was the most commonly reported clinical sign across all age groups. A diagnosis was reached for 1765/5154 (34.2%) diagnostic submissions. The proportion of submissions with diagnoses was higher for carcasses than non-carcass samples and multiple diagnoses were more likely to be reached from carcasses. Parasitic diseases were collectively the most common problem, including parasitic gastroenteritis (319/1765, 18.2%), coccidiosis (187/1765, 10.6%), fascioliasis (151/1765, 8.6%), ectoparasitic infestations (86/1765, 4.9%) and cryptosporidiosis (24/1765, 1.4%). The most frequently diagnosed non-parasitic problems included nutritional diseases (182/1765, 10.3%), septicaemia (104/1765, 5.9%, including 45 cases of colisepticaemia), gastric ulceration (79/1765, 4.5%), tumours/neoplastic diseases (65/1765, 3.7%), tuberculosis (57/1765, 3.2%), clostridial diseases (44/1765, 2.5%), congenital anomalies (41/1765, 2.3%), peritonitis (39/1765, 2.2%) and Johne's disease (20/1765, 1.1%). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26% showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular

  9. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  10. Transcriptomic Immune Response of Tenebrio molitor Pupae to Parasitization by Scleroderma guani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. Conclusions/Significance obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host

  11. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  12. Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta.

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    McNeal, Joel R; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; de Pamphilis, Claude W

    2007-10-24

    Plastid genome content and protein sequence are highly conserved across land plants and their closest algal relatives. Parasitic plants, which obtain some or all of their nutrition through an attachment to a host plant, are often a striking exception. Heterotrophy can lead to relaxed constraint on some plastid genes or even total gene loss. We sequenced plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic genus Cuscuta along with a non-parasitic relative, Ipomoea purpurea, to investigate changes in the plastid genome that may result from transition to the parasitic lifestyle. Aside from loss of all ndh genes, Cuscuta exaltata retains photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes that evolve under strong selective constraint. Cuscuta obtusiflora has incurred substantially more change to its plastid genome, including loss of all genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Despite extensive change in gene content and greatly increased rate of overall nucleotide substitution, C. obtusiflora also retains all photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes with only one minor exception. Although Epifagus virginiana, the only other parasitic plant with its plastid genome sequenced to date, has lost a largely overlapping set of transfer-RNA and ribosomal genes as Cuscuta, it has lost all genes related to photosynthesis and maintains a set of genes which are among the most divergent in Cuscuta. Analyses demonstrate photosynthetic genes are under the highest constraint of any genes within the plastid genomes of Cuscuta, indicating a function involving RuBisCo and electron transport through photosystems is still the primary reason for retention of the plastid genome in these species.

  13. Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta

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    Kuehl Jennifer V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome content and protein sequence are highly conserved across land plants and their closest algal relatives. Parasitic plants, which obtain some or all of their nutrition through an attachment to a host plant, are often a striking exception. Heterotrophy can lead to relaxed constraint on some plastid genes or even total gene loss. We sequenced plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic genus Cuscuta along with a non-parasitic relative, Ipomoea purpurea, to investigate changes in the plastid genome that may result from transition to the parasitic lifestyle. Results Aside from loss of all ndh genes, Cuscuta exaltata retains photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes that evolve under strong selective constraint. Cuscuta obtusiflora has incurred substantially more change to its plastid genome, including loss of all genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Despite extensive change in gene content and greatly increased rate of overall nucleotide substitution, C. obtusiflora also retains all photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes with only one minor exception. Conclusion Although Epifagus virginiana, the only other parasitic plant with its plastid genome sequenced to date, has lost a largely overlapping set of transfer-RNA and ribosomal genes as Cuscuta, it has lost all genes related to photosynthesis and maintains a set of genes which are among the most divergent in Cuscuta. Analyses demonstrate photosynthetic genes are under the highest constraint of any genes within the plastid genomes of Cuscuta, indicating a function involving RuBisCo and electron transport through photosystems is still the primary reason for retention of the plastid genome in these species.

  14. Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.

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    Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

    2010-03-15

    Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. (c) 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology

  15. Investigation of volatile organic biomarkers derived from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro

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    Wong Rina PM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains a need for techniques that improve the sensitive detection of viable Plasmodium falciparum as part of diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in clinical studies and usual-care management of malaria infections. A non-invasive breath test based on P. falciparum-associated specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs could fill this gap and provide insights into parasite metabolism and pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether VOCs are present in the headspace above in vitro P. falciparum cultures. Methods A novel, custom-designed apparatus was developed to enable efficient headspace sampling of infected and non-infected cultures. Conditions were optimized to support cultures of high parasitaemia (>20% to improve the potential detection of parasite-specific VOCs. A number of techniques for VOC analysis were investigated including solid phase micro-extraction using two different polarity fibres, and purge and trap/thermal desorption, each coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Each experiment and analysis method was performed at least on two occasions. VOCs were identified by comparing their mass spectra against commercial mass spectral libraries. Results No unique malarial-specific VOCs could be detected relative to those in the control red blood cell cultures. This could reflect sequestration of VOCs into cell membranes and/or culture media but solvent extractions of supernatants and cell lysates using hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate also showed no obvious difference compared to control non-parasitized cultures. Conclusions Future in vivo studies analysing the breath of patients with severe malaria who are harbouring a parasite biomass that is significantly greater than achievable in vitro may yet reveal specific clinically-useful volatile chemical biomarkers.

  16. Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.Behavioural observations and limited nest excavations revealed that R. minuchae does not produce sexuals every year, the number of sexuals is low, and the sex ratio tends to be female biased. Females typically exhibit two distinct activity periods. The first, the mating period, takes place in early afternoon: the ants "call" near the natal nest, mate and then return to their nest. The second, the dispersal period takes place in late afternoon: the mated females exit their nest and fly in search of a new, non-parasitized Proformica longiseta host nest. Males are highly active during the mating period, but will remain inactive in the dispersal period even if experimentally presented with virgin females. It appears that females are monogamous, while males are polygamous. When males are late arriving at the female calling site, the females will frequently congregate presumably calling in chorus. The low reproductive efficiency exhibited by R. minuchae, coupled with the postulated low genetic variation in the population, as sisters may mate with the same male, could result in a low survival rate and risk of eventual extinction. The observed decrease in nest density we observed during the 2004 season may be indicative of such a process.

  17. Inevitability of Genetic Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime; Puigbò, Pere; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Almost all cellular life forms are hosts to diverse genetic parasites with various levels of autonomy including plasmids, transposons and viruses. Theoretical modeling of the evolution of primordial replicators indicates that parasites (cheaters) necessarily evolve in such systems and can be kept at bay primarily via compartmentalization. Given the (near) ubiquity, abundance and diversity of genetic parasites, the question becomes pertinent: are such parasites intrinsic to life? At least in prokaryotes, the persistence of parasites is linked to the rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We mathematically derive the threshold value of the minimal transfer rate required for selfish element persistence, depending on the element duplication and loss rates as well as the cost to the host. Estimation of the characteristic gene duplication, loss and transfer rates for transposons, plasmids and virus-related elements in multiple groups of diverse bacteria and archaea indicates that most of these rates are compatible with the long term persistence of parasites. Notably, a small but non-zero rate of HGT is also required for the persistence of non-parasitic genes. We hypothesize that cells cannot tune their horizontal transfer rates to be below the threshold required for parasite persistence without experiencing highly detrimental side-effects. As a lower boundary to the minimum DNA transfer rate that a cell can withstand, we consider the process of genome degradation and mutational meltdown of populations through Muller’s ratchet. A numerical assessment of this hypothesis suggests that microbial populations cannot purge parasites while escaping Muller’s ratchet. Thus, genetic parasites appear to be virtually inevitable in cellular organisms. PMID:27503291

  18. Small subunit ribosomal metabarcoding reveals extraordinary trypanosomatid diversity in Brazilian bats.

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    Maria Augusta Dario

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail.Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil. 18S ribosomal RNA was amplified by standard and/or nested PCR, then deep sequenced to recover and identify Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs for phylogenetic analysis. Blood samples from 34 bat individuals (13 species tested positive for infection by 18S rRNA amplification. Amplicon sequences clustered to 14 OTUs, of which five were identified as Trypanosoma cruzi I, T. cruzi III/V, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma dionisii, and seven were identified as novel genotypes monophyletic to basal T. cruzi clade types of the New World. Another OTU was identified as a trypanosome like those found in reptiles. Surprisingly, the remaining OTU was identified as Bodo saltans-closest non-parasitic relative of the trypanosomatid order. While three blood samples featured just one OTU (T. dionisii, all others resolved as mixed infections of up to eight OTUs.This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation barcoding methods to screen parasite diversity in mammalian reservoir hosts. We exposed high rates of local bat parasitism by multiple trypanosome species, some known to cause fatal human disease, others non-pathogenic, novel or yet little understood. Our results highlight bats as a long-standing nexus among host-parasite interactions of multiple niches, sustained in part by opportunistic and incidental infections of consequence to evolutionary theory as much as to

  19. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Broomrape weeds. Underground mechanisms of parasitism and associated strategies for their control: a review.

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    Monica eFernandez-Aparicio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes are plant-parasitic weeds which constitute one of the most difficult-to-control of all biotic constraints that affect crops in Mediterranean, central and eastern Europe, and Asia. Due to their physical and metabolic overlap with the crop, their underground parasitism, their achlorophyllous nature, and hardly destructible seed bank, broomrape weeds are usually not controlled by management strategies designed for non-parasitic weeds. Instead, broomrape are in a current state of intensification and spread due to lack of broomrape-specific control programs, unconscious introduction to new areas and may be decline of herbicide use and global warming to a lesser degree. We reviewed relevant facts about the biology and physiology of broomrape weeds and the major feasible control strategies. The points of vulnerability of some underground events, key for their parasitism such as crop-induced germination or haustorial development are reviewed as inhibition targets of the broomrape-crop association. Among the reviewed strategies are those aimed 1 to reduce broomrape seed bank viability, such as fumigation, herbigation, solarization and use of broomrape-specific pathogens; 2 diversion strategies to reduce the broomrape ability to timely detect the host such as those based on promotion of suicidal germination, on introduction of allelochemical interference, or on down-regulating host exudation of germination-inducing factors; 3 strategies to inhibit the capacity of the broomrape seedling to penetrate the crop and connect with the vascular system, such as biotic or abiotic inhibition of broomrape radicle growth, crop resistance to broomrape penetration either natural, genetically engineered or elicited by biotic- or abiotic-resistance-inducing agents and 4 strategies acting once broomrape seedling has bridged its vascular system with that of the host, aimed to impede or to endure the parasitic sink such as those based on the delivery of herbicides

  1. Broomrape Weeds. Underground Mechanisms of Parasitism and Associated Strategies for their Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Reboud, Xavier; Gibot-Leclerc, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Broomrapes are plant-parasitic weeds which constitute one of the most difficult-to-control of all biotic constraints that affect crops in Mediterranean, central and eastern Europe, and Asia. Due to their physical and metabolic overlap with the crop, their underground parasitism, their achlorophyllous nature, and hardly destructible seed bank, broomrape weeds are usually not controlled by management strategies designed for non-parasitic weeds. Instead, broomrapes are in current state of intensification and spread due to lack of broomrape-specific control programs, unconscious introduction to new areas and may be decline of herbicide use and global warming to a lesser degree. We reviewed relevant facts about the biology and physiology of broomrape weeds and the major feasible control strategies. The points of vulnerability of some underground events, key for their parasitism such as crop-induced germination or haustorial development are reviewed as inhibition targets of the broomrape-crop association. Among the reviewed strategies are those aimed (1) to reduce broomrape seed bank viability, such as fumigation, herbigation, solarization and use of broomrape-specific pathogens; (2) diversion strategies to reduce the broomrape ability to timely detect the host such as those based on promotion of suicidal germination, on introduction of allelochemical interference, or on down-regulating host exudation of germination-inducing factors; (3) strategies to inhibit the capacity of the broomrape seedling to penetrate the crop and connect with the vascular system, such as biotic or abiotic inhibition of broomrape radicle growth and crop resistance to broomrape penetration either natural, genetically engineered or elicited by biotic- or abiotic-resistance-inducing agents; and (4) strategies acting once broomrape seedling has bridged its vascular system with that of the host, aimed to impede or to endure the parasitic sink such as those based on the delivery of herbicides via

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Pirk, Christian W; Allsopp, Mike H; Webster, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS IN WASTEWATER USED FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE IN NAIROBI, KENYA

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    Nancy Njarua Karanja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops.  Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1, Cr (9.7 mg kg-1 and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1 and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1,  Cr (4.0 mg kg-1 and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1, respectively.  This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

  5. Virus-like particles in venom of Meteorus pulchricornis induce host hemocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Tanaka, T

    2006-06-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the reproductive tract and venom apparatus of a female braconid, Meteorus pulchricornis, revealed that the parasitoid lacks the calyx region in its oviduct, but possesses a venom gland with two venom gland filaments and a venom reservoir filled with white and cloudy fluid. Its venom gland cell is concaved and has a lumen filled with numerous granules. Transmisson electron microscopic (TEM) observation revealed that virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in venom gland cells. The virus-like particle observed in M. pulchricornis (MpVLP) is composed of membranous envelopes with two different parts: a high-density core and a whitish low-density part. The VLPs of M. pulchricornis is also found assembling ultimately in the lumen of venom gland cell. Microvilli were found thrusting into the lumen of the venom gland cell and seem to aid in driving the matured MpVLPs to the common duct of the venom gland filament. Injection of MpVLPs into non-parasitized Pseudaletia separata hosts induced apoptosis in hemocytes, particularly granulocytes (GRs). Rate of apoptosis induced in GRs peaked 48h after VLP injection. While a large part of the GR population collapsed due to apoptosis caused by MpVLPs, the plasmatocyte population was minimally affected. The capacity of MpVLPs to cause apoptosis in host's hemocytes was further demonstrated by a decrease ( approximately 10-fold) in ability of host hemocytes to encapsulate fluorescent latex beads when MpVLPs were present. Apparently, the reduced encapsulation ability was due to a decrease in the GR population resulting from MpVLP-induced apoptosis.

  6. Oral Vaccination with Salmonella enterica as a Cruzipain-DNA Delivery System Confers Protective Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Silvia I.; Becker, Pablo D.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Ebensen, Thomas; Sartori, María J.; Corral, Ricardo S.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    To stimulate both local and systemic immune responses against Trypanosoma cruzi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA was exploited as a DNA delivery system for cruzipain (SCz). In a murine model we compared SCz alone (GI) or coadministered with Salmonella carrying a plasmid encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GII), as well as protocols in which SCz priming was followed by boosting with recombinant cruzipain (rCz) admixed with either CpG-ODN (GIII) or MALP-2, a synthetic derivative of a macrophage-activating lipopeptide of 2 kDa from Mycoplasma fermentans (GIV). The results showed that protocols that included four oral doses of SCz (GI) elicited mainly a mucosal response characterized by immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue cells, with weak systemic responses. In contrast, the protocol that included a boost with rCz plus CpG (GIII) triggered stronger systemic responses in terms of Cz-specific serum IgG titers, splenocyte proliferation, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, and delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Trypomastigote challenge of vaccinated mice resulted in significantly lower levels of parasitemia compared to controls. Protection was abolished by depletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Parasite control was also evident from the reduction of tissue damage, as revealed by histopathologic studies and serum levels of enzymes that are markers of muscle injury in chronic Chagas' disease (i.e., creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase). Enhanced release of IFN-γ and interleukin-2 was observed in GI and GII upon restimulation of splenocytes in the nonparasitic phase of infection. Our results indicate that Salmonella-mediated delivery of Cz-DNA by itself promotes the elicitation of an immune response that controls T. cruzi infection, thereby reducing parasite loads and subsequent damage to muscle tissues. PMID:17967857

  7. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

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    Andreas Wallberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis, worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  8. A role for fetal hemoglobin and maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Chanaki Amaratunga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, infant susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases substantially as fetal hemoglobin (HbF and maternal immune IgG disappear from circulation. During the first few months of life, however, resistance to malaria is evidenced by extremely low parasitemias, the absence of fever, and the almost complete lack of severe disease. This resistance has previously been attributed in part to poor parasite growth in HbF-containing red blood cells (RBCs. A specific role for maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to malaria has been hypothesized but not yet identified.We found that P. falciparum parasites invade and develop normally in fetal (cord blood, CB RBCs, which contain up to 95% HbF. However, these parasitized CB RBCs are impaired in their binding to human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs, monocytes, and nonparasitized RBCs--cytoadherence interactions that have been implicated in the development of high parasite densities and the symptoms of malaria. Abnormal display of the parasite's cytoadherence antigen P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1 on CB RBCs accounts for these findings and is reminiscent of that on HbC and HbS RBCs. IgG purified from the plasma of immune Malian adults almost completely abolishes the adherence of parasitized CB RBCs to MVECs.Our data suggest a model of malaria protection in which HbF and maternal IgG act cooperatively to impair the cytoadherence of parasitized RBCs in the first few months of life. In highly malarious areas of Africa, an infant's contemporaneous expression of HbC or HbS and development of an immune IgG repertoire may effectively reconstitute the waning protective effects of HbF and maternal immune IgG, thereby extending the malaria resistance of infancy into early childhood.

  9. O papel das aves na dispersão e germinação de sementes do pau-incenso (Pittoporum undulatum Vent. em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica. Bird role in seed dispersion and germination of Pittosporum undulatum Vent., seeds in an Atlantic Forest remnant.

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    Mariana Lopes CAMPAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    fgren State Park, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, and aimed to verify which bird species are P. undulatum potential dispersers; to compare feeding bouts to P. undulatum with another six arboreal species and to evaluate the influence of seed ingestion in germination rates. We sampled data using focal observation of foraging birds in P. undulatum and captured individuals with mist nets to collect seed from their faeces. In addition, we have made seed germination tests that included seeds collected from bird faeces and directly from mature fruits in trees. We found 107 seeds inside the faeces of eight thrushes, belonging to three species: Turdus rufiventris, Turdus amaurochalinus and Turdus albicollis. We did not find significant differences in germination rates between treatments. Although the passage through the birds’ digestive system did not change significantly germination rates, thrushes can be important dispersers of P. undulatum, allowing colonization of new areas and intensifying the biological invasion process in Atlantic Forest.

  10. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M; DeLap, Jack H; Oleyar, M David; Whittaker, Kara A; Gardner, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal-the annual movement of territorial adults-of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000-2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study) landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson's Thrush and Pacific wren), which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick's wren) dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape) to 83% (Bewick's wren in forest reserve). Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco) to 100% (Bewick's wren). Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them to maintain

  11. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Marzluff

    Full Text Available Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal-the annual movement of territorial adults-of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000-2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson's Thrush and Pacific wren, which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick's wren dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape to 83% (Bewick's wren in forest reserve. Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco to 100% (Bewick's wren. Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them

  12. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  13. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  14. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra B.

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  15. Tracking from the tropics reveals behaviour of juvenile songbirds on their first spring migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A McKinnon

    Full Text Available Juvenile songbirds on spring migration travel from tropical wintering sites to temperate breeding destinations thousands of kilometres away with no prior experience to guide them. We provide a first glimpse at the migration timing, routes, and stopover behaviour of juvenile wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina on their inaugural spring migration by using miniaturized archival geolocators to track them from Central America to the U.S. and Canada. We found significant differences between the timing of juvenile migration and that of more experienced adults: juveniles not only departed later from tropical wintering sites relative to adults, they also became progressively later as they moved northward. The increasing delay was driven by more frequent short stops by juveniles along their migration route, particularly in the U.S. as they got closer to breeding sites. Surprisingly, juveniles were just as likely as adults to cross the Gulf of Mexico, an open-water crossing of 800-1000 km, and migration route at the Gulf was not significantly different for juveniles relative to adults. To determine if the later departure of juveniles was related to poor body condition in winter relative to adults, we examined percent lean body mass, fat scores, and pectoral muscle scores of juvenile versus adult birds at a wintering site in Belize. We found no age-related differences in body condition. Later migration timing of juveniles relative to adults could be an adaptive strategy (as opposed to condition-dependent to avoid the high costs of fast migration and competition for breeding territories with experienced and larger adults. We did find significant differences in wing size between adults and juveniles, which could contribute to lower flight efficiency of juveniles and thus slower overall migration speed. We provide the first step toward understanding the "black box" of juvenile songbird migration by documenting their migration timing and en route performance.

  16. Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Carol S F; Lau, Candy C Y; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, John H N; Bai, Ru; Teng, Jade L L; Tsang, Chris C C; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-04-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we discovered seven additional novel deltacoronaviruses in pigs and birds, which we named porcine coronavirus HKU15, white-eye coronavirus HKU16, sparrow coronavirus HKU17, magpie robin coronavirus HKU18, night heron coronavirus HKU19, wigeon coronavirus HKU20, and common moorhen coronavirus HKU21. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that the avian and mammalian deltacoronaviruses have similar genome characteristics and structures. They all have relatively small genomes (25.421 to 26.674 kb), the smallest among all coronaviruses. They all have a single papain-like protease domain in the nsp3 gene; an accessory gene, NS6 open reading frame (ORF), located between the M and N genes; and a variable number of accessory genes (up to four) downstream of the N gene. Moreover, they all have the same putative transcription regulatory sequence of ACACCA. Molecular clock analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of all coronaviruses was estimated at approximately 8100 BC, and those of Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus were at approximately 2400 BC, 3300 BC, 2800 BC, and 3000 BC, respectively. From our studies, it appears that bats and birds, the warm blooded flying vertebrates, are ideal hosts for the coronavirus gene source, bats for Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and birds for Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus, to fuel coronavirus evolution and dissemination.

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Breeding biology of an endemic Bornean turdid, the Fruithunter (Chlamydochaera jefferyi), and life history comparisons with Turdus species of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam E.; Tuh, Fred; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first description of the breeding biology for the Fruithunter (Chlamydochaera jefferyi), a member of the cosmopolitan family Turdidae, and a montane endemic to the tropical Asian island of Borneo. We also compile breeding biology traits from the literature to make comparisons between the Fruithunter and the thrush genus Turdus. Our comparisons indicate that Fruithunters exhibit a slower life history strategy than both tropical and north temperate Turdus. We located and monitored 42 nests in 7 years in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia. The mean clutch size was 1.89 ± 0.08 eggs, and the modal clutch size was 2 eggs. Mean fresh egg mass was 6.15 ± 0.13 g, representing 9.5% of adult female body mass. Average lengths of incubation and nestling periods were 14.56 ± 0.24 and 17.83 ± 0.31 days respectively. Only the female incubated and brooded the eggs and nestlings, but both the male and female fed nestlings. Female attentiveness during incubation was high throughout, reaching an asymptote around 85% with average on-bouts of 39.0 ± 2.5 mins. The daily nest survival probability was 0.951 ± 0.025, and the daily predation rate was 0.045 ± 0.024. Female feeding rate increased as brooding effort decreased, suggesting that female feeding rate may be constrained by the need to provide heat while nestlings are unable to thermoregulate. This contrasts with the feeding behavior of males, which showed much less of an increase across the nestling period. Furthermore, we describe a new vocalization which expands the vocal repertoire for Fruithunters, and we provide a brief audio clip and spectrogram.

  19. Silver nanoparticles embedded mesoporous SiO_2 nanosphere: an effective anticandidal agent against Candida albicans 077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M; Paik, P; Das, D; Singh, Braj R; Naqvi, A H

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO_2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO_2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ∼ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO_2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4–6 nm), were generated on the SiO_2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO_2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO_2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO_2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO_2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO_2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077. (paper)

  20. Too little, too late: comparison of nutritional status and quality of life of nutrition care and support recipient and non-recipients among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Jecinter Akinyi; Paterson, Marie; Maunder, Eleni Winfred; Rollins, Nigel Campbell

    2011-03-01

    Compare the nutritional vulnerability, risk of malnutrition, nutritional status and quality of life (QoL) between recipients and non-recipients of nutrition care and support (NCS) of HIV-positive adults. In 2009, a household-based cross-sectional study of HIV-positive adults, NCS recipients (n=97) and non-NCS recipients (n=203) from KwaZulu-Natal was conducted. Nutritional vulnerability (socio-economic status; food security; self-reported health status; nutritional knowledge and attitude), risk of malnutrition (nutrition assessment screening tool), anthropometry (body mass index; mid-upper arm circumference; waist-to-hip ratio) and QoL (general health; self-care; physical functioning) were compared between the two groups. Although the result suggests a modest impairment of QoL, NCS recipients were twice as likely to have severe impairment of general health; self-care functioning and QoL. Overweight and obesity were common despite indications of high prevalence of food insecurity, possible-risk of malnutrition and diets predominantly of cereals. NCS recipients were more frequently taking anti-retroviral drugs, receiving social grants, reporting good eating plans and owning kitchen gardens. Non-NCS recipients had been generally sick, reported fatigue, nausea, appetite loss and diarrhoea. NCS recipients were twice as likely to experience oral thrush. Contextual factors such as low dietary diversity and household food insecurity that exacerbates nutritional vulnerability and malnutrition should be considered when providing NCS to fully achieve nutritional recovery and QoL of HIV-positive adults. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  2. Lactation mastitis: occurrence and medical management among 946 breastfeeding women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Betsy; D'Arcy, Hannah; Gillespie, Brenda; Bobo, Janet Kay; Schwartz, Kendra

    2002-01-15

    In 1994-1998, the authors followed 946 breastfeeding women from Michigan and Nebraska for the first 3 months postpartum or until they stopped breastfeeding to describe mastitis incidence, mastitis treatment, and any associations between mastitis occurrence and hypothesized host characteristics and behaviors. Participants were interviewed by telephone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks postpartum or until they ceased breastfeeding. A total of 9.5% reported provider-diagnosed lactation mastitis at least once during the 12-week period, with 64% diagnosed via telephone. After adjustment in a logistic regression model, history of mastitis with a previous child (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.64, 6.11), cracks and nipple sores in the same week as mastitis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.04, 5.51), using an antifungal nipple cream (presumably for nipple thrush) in the same 3-week interval as mastitis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.37, 8.54), and (for women with no prior mastitis history) using a manual breast pump (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.92, 5.62) strongly predicted mastitis. Feeding fewer than 10 times per day was protective regardless of whether or not feeding frequency in the same week or the week before mastitis was included in the model (for the same week: 7-9 times: OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.41, 1.01; < or =6 times: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.82). Duration of feeding was not associated with mastitis risk.

  3. Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  5. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  6. Presentation and outcome of HIV-1 infection in hospitalised infants and other children in north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpede, G O; Ambe, J P; Rabasa, A I; Akuhwa, T R; Ajayi, B B; Akoma, M A; Bukbuk, D N; Harry, T O

    1997-01-01

    There is limited information on HIV infection in children in West Africa. This prospective case series study was done to determine the size of the problem and the feasibility of selective screening for infection based on clinical presentation. It involved infants and other children admitted to the Children's Emergency Ward and Paediatric Medical Ward of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from the beginning of September 1992 to the end of September 1994. Clinical evaluation followed by serologic tests (ELISA and Western blot techniques) was undertaken. Descriptive study; frequencies were compared using chi 2 test for Fisher's exact test as appropriate. One hundred and ninety nine (10.9%) of 1,822 admissions were screened. One hundred and fifty eight (79.4%) were ELISA negative and 17 (8.6%) ELISA and WB positive; a further 10 (5%) were ELISA positive but WB indeterminate and 14 (7%) were ELISA positive but WB negative in 12 or untested in two. All the infections were HIV-1. Sixteen (39%) patients (nine WB positive, three WB indeterminate and four ELISA positive only) are dead, 14 from HIV-related illnesses, two (4.9]) are alive and 23 (56.1%) lost to follow up; 11 of the HIV-related deaths involved infants. Presence of persistent diarrhoea, prolonged fever, oral thrush, hepatosplenomegaly, diagnosis of tuberculosis and severe malnutrition with gastroentereritis, and multiple (> 3) diagnosis on admission were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with WB confirmed HIV-1 seropositivity and could serve as indicators for selective screening. HIV-1 infection in hospitalised infants and children has become an important problem in Nigeria, presentation in infancy is associated with a high case fatality rate, and the practice of selective screening based on clinical presentation would appear to be feasible.

  7. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  8. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (μg m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) μg m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with

  9. Development and validation of a risk score to assist screening for acute HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men

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    Maartje Dijkstra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early treatment of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI is beneficial for patients and could reduce onward transmission. However, guidelines on whom to test for AHI with HIV-1 RNA testing are lacking. Methods A risk score for possible AHI based on literature and expert opinion – including symptoms associated with AHI and early HIV-1 – was evaluated using data from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among men who have sex with men (MSM. Subsequently, we optimized the risk score by constructing two multivariable logistic regression models: one including only symptoms and one combining symptoms with known risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, using generalized estimating equations. Several risk scores were generated from these models and the optimal risk score was validated using data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Results Using data from 1562 MSM with 175 HIV-1 seroconversion visits and 17,271 seronegative visits in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, the optimal risk score included four symptoms (oral thrush, fever, lymphadenopathy, weight loss and three risk factors (self-reported gonorrhea, receptive condomless anal intercourse, more than five sexual partners, all in the preceding six months and yielded an AUC of 0.82. Sensitivity was 76.3% and specificity 76.3%. Validation in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study resulted in an AUC of 0.78, sensitivity of 56.2% and specificity of 88.8%. Conclusions The optimal risk score had good overall performance in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies and performed comparable (but showed lower sensitivity in the validation study. Screening for AHI with four symptoms and three risk factors would increase the efficiency of AHI testing and potentially enhance early diagnosis and immediate treatment.

  10. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f anti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f anti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f anti values were observed. • The f anti values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations

  11. Ecosystems effects 25 years after Chernobyl: pollinators, fruit set and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Barnier, Florian; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-12-01

    Animals are assumed to play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their effects on seed set, seed consumption, seed dispersal, and maintenance of plant communities. However, there are no studies investigating the consequences of animal scarcity on seed set, seed consumption and seed dispersal at large geographical scales. We exploited the unprecedented scarcity of pollinating bumblebees and butterflies in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine, linked to the effects of radiation on pollinator abundance, to test for effects of pollinator abundance on the ecosystem. There were considerably fewer pollinating insects in areas with high levels of radiation. Fruit trees and bushes (apple Malus domestica, pear Pyrus communis, rowan Sorbus aucuparia, wild rose Rosa rugosa, twistingwood Viburnum lantana, and European cranberry bush Viburnum opulus) that are all pollinated by insects produced fewer fruit in highly radioactively contaminated areas, partly linked to the local reduction in abundance of pollinators. This was the case even when controlling for the fact that fruit trees were generally smaller in more contaminated areas. Fruit-eating birds like thrushes and warblers that are known seed dispersers were less numerous in areas with lower fruit abundance, even after controlling for the effects of radiation, providing a direct link between radiation, pollinator abundance, fruit abundance and abundance of frugivores. Given that the Chernobyl disaster happened 25 years ago, one would predict reduced local recruitment of fruit trees if fruit set has been persistently depressed during that period; indeed, local recruitment was negatively related to the level of radiation and positively to the local level of fruit set. The patterns at the level of trees were replicated at the level of villages across the study site. This study provides the first large-scale study of the effects of a suppressed pollinator community on ecosystem functioning.

  12. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

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    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  13. Clinical spectrum of paediatric HIV in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, E F

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a predominant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in this part of the world. A descriptive, prospective study was carried out at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria, to ascertain the clinical features and probable modes of transmission of HIV infection in Children. Out of 128 HIV -infected children, 53.1% were males and 46.9% females, giving a male: female ratio 1.1:1. They were aged from 3 months to 16 years, with a mean of 4.78 (+/- 3.97) years. Those in the 1-5 year age bracket made up 47.7%. The presumed route of infection was mother-to-child in 79.7% and blood transfusion in 16.4%. Majority (82.0%) presented with WHO clinical stage 3 disease and 55.7% were severely immunosuppressed. The most frequent clinical features were recurrent/persistent fever, persistent cough,weight loss/failure to thrive and generalised lymphadenopathy. There was co-infection with tuberculosis in 15.6% of patients. Eighteen patients (14.0%) were lost to follow up. Six children (4.7%) died during the period under review. They all presented in WHO stage 3 and 4. A hundred percent of the dead children had severe weight loss, 83.3% had generalized lymphadenopathy and recurrent or persistent fever respectively. Fifty percent presented with diarrhea and oral thrush. There was no gender difference in mortality. Mortality was highest among infants. The high rate of vertical transmission of HIV reinforces the need for effective PMTCT interventions in reducing the incidence of HIV in children. A high index of suspicion and awareness of modes of presentation of HIV infection in children is needed for early diagnosis of those infected with HIV.

  14. Prioritizing tropical habitats for long-distance migratory songbirds: an assessment of habitat quality at a stopover site in Colombia

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    Nicholas J. Bayly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migratory birds are declining globally and migration has been identified as the primary source of mortality in this group. Despite this, our lack of knowledge of habitat use and quality at stopovers, i.e., sites where the energy for migration is accumulated, remains a barrier to designing appropriate conservation measures, especially in tropical regions. There is therefore an urgent need to assess stopover habitat quality and concurrently identify efficient and cost-effective methods for doing so. Given that fuel deposition rates directly influence stopover duration, departure fuel load, and subsequent speed of migration, they are expected to provide a direct measure of habitat quality and have the advantage of being measurable through body-mass changes. Here, we examined seven potential indicators of quality, including body-mass change, for two ecologically distinct Neotropical migratory landbirds on stopover in shade-coffee plantations and tropical humid premontane forest during spring migration in Colombia: (1 rate of body-mass change; (2 foraging rate; (3 recapture rate; (4 density; (5 flock size; (6 age and sex ratios; and (7 body-mass distribution. We found higher rates of mass change in premontane forest than in shade-coffee in Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina, a difference that was mirrored in higher densities and body masses in forest. In Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus, a lack of recaptures in shade-coffee and higher densities in forest, also suggested that forest provided superior fueling conditions. For a reliable assessment of habitat quality, we therefore recommend using a suite of indicators, taking into account each species' ecology and methodological considerations. Our results also imply that birds stopping over in lower quality habitats may spend a longer time migrating and require more stopovers, potentially leading to important carryover effects on reproductive fitness. Evaluating habitat quality is

  15. Reduced inflammation in expanding populations of a neotropical bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Juliette; Garnier, Stéphane; Khimoun, Aurélie; Arnoux, Emilie; Eraud, Cyril; Goret, Jean-Yves; Luglia, Thomas; Gaucher, Philippe; Faivre, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    The loss of regulating agents such as parasites is among the most important changes in biotic interactions experienced by populations established in newly colonized areas. Under a relaxed parasite pressure, individuals investing less in costly immune mechanisms might experience a selective advantage and become successful colonizers as they re-allocate resources to other fitness-related traits. Accordingly, a refinement of the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis proposed that immunity of invasive populations has evolved toward a reduced investment in innate immunity, the most costly component of immunity, and an increased humoral immunity that is less costly. Biogeographical approaches comparing populations between native and expansion ranges are particularly relevant in exploring this issue, but remain very scarce. We conducted a biogeographical comparison between populations of Spectacled Thrush ( Turdus nudigenis ) from the native area (South America) and from the expansion range (Caribbean islands). First, we compared haemosporidian prevalence and circulating haptoglobin (an acute-phase protein produced during inflammation). Second, we challenged captive birds from both ranges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides ( LPS ) and measured postchallenge haptoglobin production and body mass change. Birds from the expansion range showed lower haemosporidian prevalence and lower levels of haptoglobin than birds from the native range. In addition, the inflammation elicited by LPS injection and its associated cost in terms of body mass loss were lower in birds from the expansion range than in birds from the native range. In accordance with the enemy release hypothesis, our results suggest that range expansion is associated with a reduced infection risk. Our study also supports the hypothesis that individuals from newly established populations have evolved mechanisms to dampen the inflammatory response and are in accordance with one prediction

  16. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  17. Experimental test of postfire management in pine forests: impact of salvage logging versus partial cutting and nonintervention on bird-species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Hódar, José A

    2010-06-01

    There is an intense debate about the effects of postfire salvage logging versus nonintervention policies on regeneration of forest communities, but scant information from experimental studies is available. We manipulated a burned forest area on a Mediterranean mountain to experimentally analyze the effect of salvage logging on bird-species abundance, diversity, and assemblage composition. We used a randomized block design with three plots of approximately 25 ha each, established along an elevational gradient in a recently burned area in Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeastern Spain). Three replicates of three treatments differing in postfire burned wood management were established per plot: salvage logging, nonintervention, and an intermediate degree of intervention (felling and lopping most of the trees but leaving all the biomass). Starting 1 year after the fire, we used point sampling to monitor bird abundance in each treatment for 2 consecutive years during the breeding and winter seasons (720 censuses total). Postfire burned-wood management altered species assemblages. Salvage logged areas had species typical of open- and early-successional habitats. Bird species that inhabit forests were still present in the unsalvaged treatments even though trees were burned, but were almost absent in salvage-logged areas. Indeed, the main dispersers of mid- and late-successional shrubs and trees, such as thrushes (Turdus spp.) and the European Jay (Garrulus glandarius) were almost restricted to unsalvaged treatments. Salvage logging might thus hamper the natural regeneration of the forest through its impact on assemblages of bird species. Moreover, salvage logging reduced species abundance by 50% and richness by 40%, approximately. The highest diversity at the landscape level (gamma diversity) resulted from a combination of all treatments. Salvage logging may be positive for bird conservation if combined in a mosaic with other, less-aggressive postfire

  18. Phagocytosis of haemozoin (malarial pigment enhances metalloproteinase-9 activity in human adherent monocytes: Role of IL-1beta and 15-HETE

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    Giribaldi Giuliana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown previously that human monocytes fed with haemozoin (HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs displayed increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 enzyme activity and protein/mRNA expression and increased TNF production, and showed higher matrix invasion ability. The present study utilized the same experimental model to analyse the effect of phagocytosis of: HZ, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ and trophozoites on production of IL-1beta and MMP-9 activity and expression. The second aim was to find out which component of HZ was responsible for the effects. Methods Native HZ freshly isolated from Plasmodium falciparum (Palo Alto strain, Mycoplasma-free, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ, trophozoites and control meals such as opsonized non-parasitized RBCs and inert latex particles, were fed to human monocytes. The production of IL-1beta by differently fed monocytes, in presence or absence of specific MMP-9 inhibitor or anti-hIL-1beta antibodies, was quantified in supernatants by ELISA. Expression of IL-1beta was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MMP-9 activity and protein expression were quantified by gelatin zymography and Western blotting. Results Monocytes fed with HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs generated increased amounts of IL-1beta and enhanced enzyme activity (in cell supernatants and protein/mRNA expression (in cell lysates of monocyte MMP-9. The latter appears to be causally related to enhanced IL-1beta production, as enhancement of both expression and enzyme activity were abrogated by anti-hIL-1beta Abs. Upregulation of IL-1beta and MMP-9 were absent in monocytes fed with beta-haematin or delipidized HZ, indicating a role for HZ-attached or HZ-generated lipid components. 15-HETE (15(S,R-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid a potent lipoperoxidation derivative generated by HZ from arachidonic acid via haem-catalysis was identified as one mediator

  19. Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Helena T; Berg, Sabine; Krupinska, Karin; Maier, Uwe G; Krause, Kirsten

    2007-08-22

    The holoparasitic plant genus Cuscuta comprises species with photosynthetic capacity and functional chloroplasts as well as achlorophyllous and intermediate forms with restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts. Previous data indicated significant differences with respect to the plastid genome coding capacity in different Cuscuta species that could correlate with their photosynthetic activity. In order to shed light on the molecular changes accompanying the parasitic lifestyle, we sequenced the plastid chromosomes of the two species Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii. Both species are capable of performing photosynthesis, albeit with varying efficiencies. Together with the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, an achlorophyllous parasitic plant whose plastid genome has been sequenced, these species represent a series of progression towards total dependency on the host plant, ranging from reduced levels of photosynthesis in C. reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana. The newly sequenced plastid genomes of C. reflexa and C. gronovii reveal that the chromosome structures are generally very similar to that of non-parasitic plants, although a number of species-specific insertions, deletions (indels) and sequence inversions were identified. However, we observed a gradual adaptation of the plastid genome to the different degrees of parasitism. The changes are particularly evident in C. gronovii and include (a) the parallel losses of genes for the subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and the corresponding promoters from the plastid genome, (b) the first documented loss of the gene for a putative splicing factor, MatK, from the plastid genome and (c) a significant reduction of RNA editing. Overall, the comparative genomic analysis of plastid DNA from parasitic plants indicates a bias towards a simplification of the plastid gene expression

  20. Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii

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    Maier Uwe G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The holoparasitic plant genus Cuscuta comprises species with photosynthetic capacity and functional chloroplasts as well as achlorophyllous and intermediate forms with restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts. Previous data indicated significant differences with respect to the plastid genome coding capacity in different Cuscuta species that could correlate with their photosynthetic activity. In order to shed light on the molecular changes accompanying the parasitic lifestyle, we sequenced the plastid chromosomes of the two species Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii. Both species are capable of performing photosynthesis, albeit with varying efficiencies. Together with the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, an achlorophyllous parasitic plant whose plastid genome has been sequenced, these species represent a series of progression towards total dependency on the host plant, ranging from reduced levels of photosynthesis in C. reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana. Results The newly sequenced plastid genomes of C. reflexa and C. gronovii reveal that the chromosome structures are generally very similar to that of non-parasitic plants, although a number of species-specific insertions, deletions (indels and sequence inversions were identified. However, we observed a gradual adaptation of the plastid genome to the different degrees of parasitism. The changes are particularly evident in C. gronovii and include (a the parallel losses of genes for the subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and the corresponding promoters from the plastid genome, (b the first documented loss of the gene for a putative splicing factor, MatK, from the plastid genome and (c a significant reduction of RNA editing. Conclusion Overall, the comparative genomic analysis of plastid DNA from parasitic plants indicates a bias towards

  1. Translational Control of Host Gene Expression by a Cys-Motif Protein Encoded in a Bracovirus.

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    Eunseong Kim

    Full Text Available Translational control is a strategy that various viruses use to manipulate their hosts to suppress acute antiviral response. Polydnaviruses, a group of insect double-stranded DNA viruses symbiotic to some endoparasitoid wasps, are divided into two genera: ichnovirus (IV and bracovirus (BV. In IV, some Cys-motif genes are known as host translation-inhibitory factors (HTIF. The genome of endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia plutellae contains a Cys-motif gene (Cp-TSP13 homologous to an HTIF known as teratocyte-secretory protein 14 (TSP14 of Microplitis croceipes. Cp-TSP13 consists of 129 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 13.987 kDa and pI value of 7.928. Genomic DNA region encoding its open reading frame has three introns. Cp-TSP13 possesses six conserved cysteine residues as other Cys-motif genes functioning as HTIF. Cp-TSP13 was expressed in Plutella xylostella larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV was purified and injected into non-parasitized P. xylostella that expressed Cp-TSP13. Cp-TSP13 was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and used to infect Sf9 cells to transiently express Cp-TSP13. The synthesized Cp-TSP13 protein was detected in culture broth. An overlaying experiment showed that the purified Cp-TSP13 entered hemocytes. It was localized in the cytosol. Recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly inhibited protein synthesis of secretory proteins when it was added to in vitro cultured fat body. In addition, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 directly inhibited the translation of fat body mRNAs in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Moreover, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly suppressed cellular immune responses by inhibiting hemocyte-spreading behavior. It also exhibited significant insecticidal activities by both injection and feeding routes. These results indicate that Cp-TSP13 is a viral HTIF.

  2. Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Jennifer A H; Owen, Jeb P; Knutie, Sarah A; Aguilar, Maria A; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-08-01

    Ecological immunology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defenses. However, a shortcoming has been the failure to link host immune responses to actual parasites under natural conditions. Here, we present one of the first experimental demonstrations of a parasite-induced immune response in a wild bird population. The recently introduced ectoparasitic nest fly Philornis downsi severely impacts the fitness of Darwin's finches and other land birds in the Galápagos Islands. An earlier study showed that female medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) had P. downsi-binding antibodies correlating with presumed variation in fly exposure over time. In the current study, we experimentally manipulated fly abundance to test whether the fly does, in fact, cause changes in antibody levels. We manipulated P. downsi abundance in nests and quantified P. downsi-binding antibody levels of medium ground finch mothers, fathers, and nestlings. We also quantified host behaviors, such as preening, which can integrate with antibody-mediated defenses against ectoparasites. Philornis downsi-binding antibody levels were significantly higher among mothers at parasitized nests, compared to mothers at (fumigated) nonparasitized nests. Mothers with higher antibody levels tended to have fewer parasites in their nests, suggesting that antibodies play a role in defense against parasites. Mothers showed no behavioral changes that would enhance the effectiveness of the immune response. Neither adult males, nor nestlings, had P. downsi-induced immunological or behavioral responses that would enhance defense against flies. None of the parasitized nests fledged any offspring, despite the immune response by mothers. Thus, this study shows that, while the immune response of mothers appeared to be defensive, it was not sufficient to rescue current reproductive fitness. This study further shows the importance of testing the fitness consequences of immune

  3. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

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    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  4. Protective effects of novel organic selenium compounds against oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sílvio Terra Stefanello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic selenium compounds possess numerous biological properties, including antioxidant activity. Yet, the high toxicity of some of them, such as diphenyl diselenide (DPDS, is a limiting factor in their current usage. Accordingly, we tested four novel organic selenium compounds in the non-parasite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and compared their efficacy to DPDS. The novel organic selenium compounds are β-selenoamines 1-phenyl-3-(p-tolylselanylpropan-2-amine (C1 and 1-(2-methoxyphenylselanyl-3-phenylpropan-2-amine (C2 and analogs of DPDS 1,2-bis(2-methoxyphenyldiselenide (C3 and 1,2-bisp-tolyldiselenide (C4. Synchronized worms at the L4 larval stage were exposed for one hour in M9 buffer to these compounds. Oxidative stress conditions were induced by juglone (200 μM and heat shock (35 °C. Moreover, we evaluated C. elegans behavior, GST-4::GFP (glutathione S-transferase expression and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. All tested compounds efficiently restored viability in juglone stressed worms. However, DPDS, C2, C3 and C4 significantly decreased the defecation cycle time. Juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression was not attenuated in worms pretreated with the novel compounds, except with C2. Finally, AChE activity was reduced by DPDS, C2, C3 and C4. To our knowledge, this is study firstly showed the effects of C1, C2, C3 and C4 selenium-derived compounds in C. elegans. Low toxic effects were noted, except for reduction in the defecation cycle, which is likely associated with AChE inhibition. The juglone-induced stress (reduced viability was fully reversed by compounds to control animal levels. C2 was also efficient in reducing the juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression, suggesting the latter may mediate the stress induced by this compound. Future studies could be profitably directed at addressing additional molecular mechanisms that mediate the protective effects of these novel organic selenium compounds.

  5. [Dysplastic cysts of the liver: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardello, O; Muggianu, M; Cabras, V; Farina, G P; Cagetti, M

    2004-08-01

    Systematic surveys with advanced non-invasive imaging techniques have revealed that hepatic cysts are quite common in the general population. Therefore, we retrospectively examined our case series and compared it with the literature. Between January 1990 and December 2000, 228 patients with non-parasitic liver cysts were referred to the outpatients section of the Department of Surgery of the University of Cagliari and 23 were submitted to treatment: 14 patients (60.8%) for solitary cyst and 9 (39.2%) for multiple simple cysts of the liver. One patient (4.5%) had right upper quadrant pain. Eleven (47.8%) patients were asymptomatic: 7 (63.7%) required treatment for other pathologies, 3 (27.3%) for a progressive enlargement of the cyst and 1 (9%) for a suspected hydatid disease. Mean diameter of the treated cysts measured by preoperative CT or US was 8.8 cm (range 7-14). Percutaneous aspiration-injection reaspiration (PAIR) was performed in 5 patients (21.7%), US-guided in 2 cases (40%) and CT-guided in 3 (60%). Twenty patients (86.9%) underwent cysts unroofing, 18 (78.2%) with open surgical fenestration and the latest 2 cases with a laparoscopic approach. Two patients had PAIR as second treatment for recurrence: CT-guided in one and US-guided in the other case. Four (25%) out of 16 patients treated exclusively for cystic liver disease, had fever in 3 cases and nausea and vomiting in 1 case; 8 patients (50%) had an intraperitoneal drainage for a mean of 6-7 days (range 4-11) and of 116 cc of serum-hematic liquid. In our opinion the choice of an adequate treatment must be based on an accurate evaluation of the clinical aspects of the patients and on the characteristics of cystic lesions such as number, size and location. These data let us to choose a surgical treatment rather than a strict US follow-up and to get the best outcome in terms of absence of recurrence, and less biological and economic costs.

  6. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  7. Risk factors for death in children during inpatient treatment of severe acute malnutrition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Maren Jh; Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Namusoke, Hanifa; Christensen, Vibeke B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Ritz, Christian; Mortensen, Charlotte G; Mupere, Ezekiel; Friis, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    Children who receive in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition often have high mortality rates, and the reasons are not well understood. We assessed risk factors for death in children who were treated for malnutrition in a hospital. In a prospective observational study of 120 children who were receiving in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Uganda with therapeutic formulas F-75 and F-100, we collected data on symptoms, clinical findings, plasma markers of refeeding syndrome (electrolytes and phosphate), and acute phase reactants, and recorded the nutritional therapy given in hospital. Seventeen children (14%) died. Clinical risk factors for death were the presence of oral thrush (HR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 15.2), a caretaker-reported severity of illness on a visual analog scale (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6), impaired consciousness (HR: 16.7; 95% CI: 3.1, 90.4), and a capillary refill time >2 s (HR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.4, 11.3). HIV infection was not associated with mortality (HR: 3.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 12.4), which was most likely due to low power. Biochemical risk factors were a plasma C-reactive protein concentration >15 mg/L on admission and low plasma phosphate that was measured on day 2 (HR: 8.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 30.1), particularly in edematous children. The replacement of F-75 with unfortified rice porridge to ameliorate diarrhea was associated with a higher risk of death, particularly if given during the first 2 d (HR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.9, 13.3), which was an association that remained after adjustment for potential confounders (HR: 69.5; 95% CI: 7.0, 694.6). Refeeding syndrome may occur in children who are treated for malnutrition, even with moderately low plasma phosphate, and, in particular, in children with edematous malnutrition. The replacement of F-75 with unfortified rice porridge is associated with increased risk of death, which is possibly mediated by lowering plasma phosphate. The identified clinical risk factors may potentially improve the

  8. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  9. Patient perspectives on fluticasone–vilanterol versus other corticosteroid combination products for the treatment of asthma

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    Bollmeier SG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne G Bollmeier, Theresa R Prosser St Louis College of Pharmacy, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: Fluticasone furoate (FF, an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, and vilanterol (VI, a long-acting beta2 receptor agonist (LABA, is a new combination used in an Ellipta® device. This article compares FF–VI to other ICS–LABA combinations available, particularly emphasizing product selection from the patient perspective. Data sources: A PubMED and EMBASE search completed in October 2015 identified trials using the MeSH terms “fluticasone”, “vilanterol”, and “asthma”. Additional information was gathered from references cited in the identified publications, the manufacturer, package insert, and ClinicalTrials.gov registry. Study selection/data extraction: Preference was given to randomized controlled clinical trials. Animal trials, trials for COPD, and non-English sources were excluded. Data synthesis: Seven efficacy trials of FF–VI in asthma were identified. Only one (24 weeks trial compared FF–VI to another ICS–LABA combination (fluticasone propionate–salmeterol. Primary outcomes (usually lung function and secondary outcomes (eg, quality of life and symptom scores were comparable. In three FF–VI safety trials, the type and frequency of common adverse reactions (ie, thrush and dysphonia were similar to those in clinical trials. Over 90% of subjects rated the Ellipta® device as “easy to use” and demonstrated correct device technique initially and at 4 weeks. Conclusion: Individuals may have drug- and device-specific preferences that should be incorporated into therapeutic decision making. Limited data indicate that clinical and patient-oriented efficacy/safety outcomes of FF–VI are likely comparable to other available combinations for adults with asthma. Patient-friendly features include once-daily dosing, flexibility of dose timing, and design/ease of the use of the device. Additional larger and long-term comparative

  10. Investigation of musicality in birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C; Voss, Henning U; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2014-02-01

    Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for investigating how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for investigating whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music's effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners' emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could

  11. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Fratila, M; Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Rosu, S

    2014-01-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a ''rebellious thrush'' and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babes'' Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 – 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas

  12. When Winners Become Losers: Predicted Nonlinear Responses of Arctic Birds to Increasing Woody Vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Thompson

    Full Text Available Climate change is facilitating rapid changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation at northern latitudes, raising questions about the responses of wildlife that rely on arctic ecosystems. One widely observed change occurring in arctic tundra ecosystems is an increasing dominance of deciduous shrub vegetation. Our goals were to examine the tolerance of arctic-nesting bird species to existing gradients of vegetation along the boreal forest-tundra ecotone, to predict the abundance of species across different heights and densities of shrubs, and to identify species that will be most or least responsive to ongoing expansion of shrubs in tundra ecosystems. We conducted 1,208 point counts on 12 study blocks from 2012-2014 in northwestern Alaska, using repeated surveys to account for imperfect detection of birds. We considered the importance of shrub height, density of low and tall shrubs (i.e. shrubs >0.5 m tall, percent of ground cover attributed to shrubs (including dwarf shrubs <0.5 m tall, and percent of herbaceous plant cover in predicting bird abundance. Among 17 species considered, only gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus abundance was associated with the highest values of all shrub metrics in its top predictive model. All other species either declined in abundance in response to one or more shrub metrics or reached a threshold where further increases in shrubs did not contribute to greater abundance. In many instances the relationship between avian abundance and shrubs was nonlinear, with predicted abundance peaking at moderate values of the covariate, then declining at high values. In particular, a large number of species were responsive to increasing values of average shrub height with six species having highest abundance at near-zero values of shrub height and abundance of four other species decreasing once heights reached moderate values (≤ 33 cm. Our findings suggest that increases in shrub cover and density will negatively

  13. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

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    Nott Mark P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur and how high pathogenicity influenza might travel if it enters wild bird populations in the US. Modelling the number of AIV cases is important because the rate of co-infection with multiple AIV subtypes increases with the number of cases and co-infection is the source of reassortment events that give rise to new strains of influenza, which occurred before the 1968 pandemic. Aquatic birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes have been recognized as reservoirs of AIV since the 1970s. However, little is known about influenza prevalence in terrestrial birds in the order Passeriformes. Since passerines share the same habitat as poultry, they may be more effective transmitters of the disease to humans than aquatic birds. We analyze 152 passerine species including the American Robin (Turdus migratorius and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus. Methods We formulate a regression model to predict AIV cases throughout the US at the county scale as a function of 12 environmental variables, sampling effort, and proximity to other counties with influenza outbreaks. Our analysis did not distinguish between types of influenza, including low or highly pathogenic forms. Results Analysis of 13,046 cloacal samples collected from 225 bird species in 41 US states between 2005 and 2008 indicates that the average prevalence of influenza in passerines is greater than the prevalence in eight other avian orders. Our regression model identifies the Great Plains and the Pacific Northwest as high-risk areas for AIV. Highly significant predictors of AIV include the amount of

  14. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As candidíases bucais (também chamadas sapinhos que ocorrem em crianças são causadas por uma deficiência imunológica, bem como por outros fatores tais como má higiene bucal e esterilização inadequada dos utensílios utilizados pelas mesmas, que potencializam a ocorrência dessa infecção fúngica. Considerando esse fato, foram avaliadas a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida sp. isoladas em crianças de uma creche pública (Aprisco na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas amostras da mucosa bucal de 364 alunos de 1 a 5 anos de idade. Elas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, incubadas por 72 horas a 37ºC e identificadas por testes micológicos. Verificou-se que 67 (18% apresentaram leveduras do gênero Candida. A Candida albicans foi a mais freqüente, com 30 isolados (45%, seguida pelas C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondii (17%, C. glabrata (4,5% e C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Com relação às atividades enzimáticas das cepas de Candida albicans, 20% produziram a enzima proteinase e 33%, a fosfolipase. As Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças dessa creche da prefeitura apresentaram uma fraca atividade enzimática. Assim, conclui-se que essas cepas parecem ter uma baixa virulência.Immunedefficiency is one of the main causes of buccal candidiasis, also called thrush, in children. Other factors like inadequate mouth hygiene and inappropriate sterilization utensils potentialize this fungal infection. Considering these facts, Candida sp. frequency and enzymatic activity were evaluated in 364 stocks from mouth mucous of one to five year-old children from a public day care center in Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil. The samples were cultured in dextrose Sabouraud with chloranfenicol agar and incubated for 72 hours at 37°C. They were identified by mycological tests. It was verified that 67 samples (18% presented Candida sp. and the most frequent genus was Candida albicans (30

  15. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

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    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  16. Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control Percepções e atitudes entre produtores de leite em Minas Gerais relacionado a biologia e controle de carrapatos em bovinos

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    Maria Alice Zacarias do Amaral

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the non-parasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o conhecimento dos produtores de leite sobre o carrapato dos bovinos e seu controle. Foram entrevistados 93 produtores de leite de Minas Gerais. Estes produtores não tinham informação sobre testes de eficiência de carrapaticidas e controle de carrapatos. Foi testada associação entre a escolaridade e as práticas e conhecimento sobre os carrapatos e constatou-se que 92,3% dos produtores nada sabiam sobre o período não-parasitário. Para 96,4%, o que determinava o momento do tratamento era o grau de infestação de carrapatos; e 93

  17. The Native Bee Fauna of Carlinville, Illinois, Revisited After 75 Years: a Case for Persistence

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    John C. Marlin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available As a follow-up to the observations of Charles Robertson from 1884 to 1916, we revisited the Carlinville, Illinois, area between 18 August 1970 and 13 September1972 to sample and identify bee species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea. We concentrated on collecting nonparasitic bees (and excluded Apis and Bombus visiting 24 plant species that bloomed at various times of the year, and upon which Charles Robertson found many bee species. For example, we collected most intensively on spring-blooming Claytonia virginica and fall-blooming Aster pilosus, upon which Robertson reported 58 and 90 bee visitors, respectively. Bees were also collected on an opportunistic basis at some other plants. We updated the species names used by Robertson for revisions and synonymies. This paper summarizes a comparison of the two collections, made about 75 years apart at the same small geographic location. The study considers 214 valid bee species that Robertson collected plus an additional 14 species found by us but not by Robertson. Of these 214, we collected 140 species. The absence of most of the remaining 74 species that we did not collect can be explained by examining their plant preferences. Robertson did not record 47 of these 74 species on the 24 plant species where we collected intensively, and he observed 19 more species on only one or two of the 24 plant species. Additionally, he observed 21 of them on only one of the 441 plants he studied. Of the bee species found by Robertson on the 24 plant species, we collected 82% on the same plant species. The land uses and land cover on Macoupin County's 225,464 ha (558,080 acres, which bear directly on the type and availability of habitat for bees and their host plants, varied considerably over two centuries. For example, in the early 1800s, land cover was about 73% prairie and 27% forest. The estimated 59,792 ha (148,000 acres of forested land in 1820 diminished to 24,644 ha (61,000 acres by 1924. It then grew to 34,340 ha (85

  18. Planarian regeneration under micro- and hyper-gravity simulated contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili

    Planarians are non-parasitic flatworms of the Turbellaria class, some of which show the striking ability to regenerate any part of their body, even the head, in few days. Planarians are common to many parts of the world, living in both saltwater and freshwater, as well as in terrestrial areas. Due to their plasticity Planarians have been a classical model for the study of the mechanisms of regeneration. Currently, their cheap and easy maintenance, as well as the establishment of robust genetic tools, have converted them into an essential system in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The aim of our project is to study the effect that micro- and hyper- gravity could exert during the process of planarians regeneration. The reason for planarians extreme regenerative capability is the maintenance until adulthood of a population of totipotent stem cells as well as the continuous activation of the cell-cell communication molecular pathways. Our prediction is that the alteration of the forces could affect planarians regeneration at different levels: 1) To regenerate, planarians must activate both proliferative and apoptotic responses, in order to create new tissue and to remodel the pre-existing one, respectively. Both cellular processes have been reported to be altered in several models under differential gravitational forces; 2) In planarians, the main intercellular signalling pathways (Wnt, TGFb, BMP, Hh, EGF) must control the process of differentiation and determination of each cell. For instances, it has been demonstrated that the differential activity of the wnt/beta-catenin pathway specifies the posterior (tail) versus the anterior (head) identity. Those pathways rely on the distance that secreted molecules (morphogens) are able to reach. Either this mechanism consist in a passive diffusion or an active transport through phyllopodia, it could sense the magnitude of the gravitational force; 3) The epidermis of planarians is covered by cilia, which beat

  19. Influência do parasitismo por monogeas no desenvolvimento de tilápias-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 criadas em sistemas de tanques-rede na represa de Capivara, PR The influence of branchial parasitism by monogenoid trematodes on the development of Nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757 bred in net-pond systems in Capivara Dam, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zanolo

    2009-03-01

    ectoparisites was high, between 90 and 100% in all months. The highest values of average intensity of infestation - AII and average abundance of infection - AAI occurred during the 2 first months of captivity, presenting a new increase in the last month of breeding. The only monogenoidea group present in the branchiae of the animals examined belonged to the Dactylogyridae family. The values of the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, nitrite and ammonia were within normal rate. In these conditions there were no significant differences between the relative condition factor - Kn among the parasited and non-parasited animals and also in the different levels of infestation, showing that, in these breeding conditions, the relationship parasite-host-environment presented itself in balance without causing great harm to the animals.

  20. Toxicological effects and resistance to pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus from Goiás, Brazil Efeitos toxicológicos e resistência a piretróides em Boophilus microplus de Goiás

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    F.F. Fernandes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor the susceptibility of Boophilus microplus to acaricides and improve control measures, the effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin on larvae obtained in the city of Goiânia in the Brazilian state of Goiás were studied. Although these pyrethroids are already sold as acaricides, their cost-benefit efficiency has been questioned. Fasting 14-21 day-old larvae were immersed in solutions of the acaricides under test, maintained at 27±1° C, and relative humidity over 80%, and observed under the stereoscope within an apparatus originally designed for studying the non-parasitic phase of the tick life cycle. The observed toxicological effects were: excitability, repetitive motion, decreased motor ability, detachment, paralysis, knock-down and cuticular proliferation of liquids and gases. The materials used in the manufacture of this apparatus consisted of disposable Petri dishes, "organza" cloth and paraffin, none of which are toxic to tick larvae. Mean death rates after 24h were 76.3%, 87.5%, 77.6%, 91.2%, 86.2% and 100% for 25 and 50ppm deltamethrin, 150 and 300ppm cypermethrin and 1250 and 2500ppm permethrin, respectively. The ticks were resistant to commercial concentrations of deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Only 2500ppm permethrin produced the mortality recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.Estudaram-se os efeitos de cipermetrina, deltametrina e permetrina sobre larvas de uma cepa de campo de Goiânia, com o objetivo de monitorar a susceptibilidade de Boophilus microplus para esses acaricidas e fomentar medidas de controle. Larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, imersas em soluções desses piretróides, foram mantidas a 27±1°C e UR% > ou = 80% e observadas por 24h ao estereoscópio, contidas em dispositivo desenvolvido originalmente para estudos da fase não parasitária do ciclo evolutivo. O material utilizado em sua confecção, placa de petri descartável, tecido organza e parafina, não foi t

  1. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

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    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para est

  2. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

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    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  3. Different classes of antibiotics given to women routinely for preventing infection at caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyte, Gillian M I; Dou, Lixia; Vazquez, Juan C

    2014-11-17

    women, low quality of the evidence) and maternal composite adverse effects (RR 2.02, 95% CI 0.18 to 21.96, three studies, 1902 women, very low quality of the evidence). None of the included studies looked for infant sepsis nor infant oral thrush.This meant we could only conclude that the current evidence shows no overall difference between the different classes of antibiotics in terms of reducing maternal infections after caesarean sections. However, none of the studies reported on infections diagnosed after the initial postoperative hospital stay. We were unable to assess what impact, if any, the use of different classes of antibiotics might have on bacterial resistance. Based on the best currently available evidence, cephalosporins and penicillins have similar efficacy at caesarean section when considering immediate postoperative infections. We have no data for outcomes on the baby, nor on late infections (up to 30 days) in the mother. Clinicians need to consider bacterial resistance and women's individual circumstances.

  4. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

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    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.

  5. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

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    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9% children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118, Campylobacter in 5% (57, and Shigella in 4% (42 of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196 of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9, and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0 identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8. Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7; having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8; having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8; and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1. A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on

  6. Obituary: Harrison Edward Radford, 1927-2000

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    Moran, James Michael; Kirby, Kate Page; Chance, Kelly V.; Brown, Campbell

    2003-12-01

    , NIST) in Washington DC. While there, he became interested in determining the long wavelength spectra and chemical properties of molecular free radicals, which can be generated in gaseous samples only in extremely low densities. He saw the potential for the application of magnetic resonance techniques to free radical spectroscopy early on. In 1965 he made the definitive measurements of the ground state lambda doublet transition frequencies of OH, which had recently been discovered in the interstellar medium. These measurements made it possible to determine the velocities of molecular clouds with high precision. For his work with the Bureau he earned the Department of Commerce's Silver Medal for Meritorious service. In 1969 Harry moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts where he remained until his retirement in 1992. He continued to do research for four more years, almost until the onset of his illness. He initially joined the group, under A.E. Lilley, that was formed to bring together laboratory spectroscopy and the fledgling field of radio astronomy of interstellar molecules. This interdisciplinary effort led to the discovery of several new molecules based on precise laboratory microwave measurements of their spectra, beginning with methanol, which helped to lay the foundation for the new science of astrochemistry. While at SAO Harry pioneered the application of laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the spectra of free radicals. His measurements of molecules such as OH, NH, CH, SO, HO2, HCO, NH2, N2H4, DO2, DOCO, CH3O, and CH2OH informed and guided research in astrochemistry. He also applied this technique to the study of atmospherically important molecules. In recognition for his work he received the Senior Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1983. Harry spent sabbatical years at Cambridge University in 1977, working with Douglas Russell, Brian Thrush, and Paul Davies. Additional sabbatical years were