WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonorthologous gene displacement

  1. Nonorthologous gene displacement of phosphomevalonate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, S. M.; Waterham, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    Phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK; EC 2.7.4.2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of 5-phosphomevalonate into 5-diphosphomevalonate, an essential step in isoprenoid biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. So far, two nonorthologous genes encoding PMK have been described, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG8

  2. A novel firmicute protein family related to the actinobacterial resuscitation-promoting factors by non-orthologous domain displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finan Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Micrococcus luteus growth and resuscitation from starvation-induced dormancy is controlled by the production of a secreted growth factor. This autocrine resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf is the founder member of a family of proteins found throughout and confined to the actinobacteria (high G + C Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this work was to search for and characterise a cognate gene family in the firmicutes (low G + C Gram-positive bacteria and obtain information about how they may control bacterial growth and resuscitation. Results In silico analysis of the accessory domains of the Rpf proteins permitted their classification into several subfamilies. The RpfB subfamily is related to a group of firmicute proteins of unknown function, represented by YabE of Bacillus subtilis. The actinobacterial RpfB and firmicute YabE proteins have very similar domain structures and genomic contexts, except that in YabE, the actinobacterial Rpf domain is replaced by another domain, which we have called Sps. Although totally unrelated in both sequence and secondary structure, the Rpf and Sps domains fulfil the same function. We propose that these proteins have undergone "non-orthologous domain displacement", a phenomenon akin to "non-orthologous gene displacement" that has been described previously. Proteins containing the Sps domain are widely distributed throughout the firmicutes and they too fall into a number of distinct subfamilies. Comparative analysis of the accessory domains in the Rpf and Sps proteins, together with their weak similarity to lytic transglycosylases, provide clear evidence that they are muralytic enzymes. Conclusions The results indicate that the firmicute Sps proteins and the actinobacterial Rpf proteins are cognate and that they control bacterial culturability via enzymatic modification of the bacterial cell envelope.

  3. Detecting non-orthology in the COGs database and other approaches grouping orthologs using genome-specific best hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessimoz, Christophe; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Roth, Alexander C J; Gonnet, Gaston H

    2006-01-01

    Correct orthology assignment is a critical prerequisite of numerous comparative genomics procedures, such as function prediction, construction of phylogenetic species trees and genome rearrangement analysis. We present an algorithm for the detection of non-orthologs that arise by mistake in current orthology classification methods based on genome-specific best hits, such as the COGs database. The algorithm works with pairwise distance estimates, rather than computationally expensive and error-prone tree-building methods. The accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated through verification of the distribution of predicted cases, case-by-case phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with predictions from other projects using independent methods. Our results show that a very significant fraction of the COG groups include non-orthologs: using conservative parameters, the algorithm detects non-orthology in a third of all COG groups. Consequently, sequence analysis sensitive to correct orthology assignments will greatly benefit from these findings.

  4. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Results We conducted principal component (PC) analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1) and diverged in relative bill size (PC3) in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation. PMID:21609448

  5. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia. Results We conducted principal component (PC analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1 and diverged in relative bill size (PC3 in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation.

  6. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  7. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  9. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  10. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  11. Polycomb Group Protein Displacement and Gene Activation through MSK-Dependent H3K27me3S28 Phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehani, Simmi Suman; Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Dietrich, Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is essential for the expression of genes determining cellular specification and function. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) di- and trimethylates histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me2/me3) to establish repression of specific genes in embryonic stem ...

  12. Selfish restriction modification genes: resistance of a resident R/M plasmid to displacement by an incompatible plasmid mediated by host killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Y; Naito, T; Kobayashi, I

    1998-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that plasmids carrying a type II restriction-modification gene complex are not easily lost from their bacterial host because plasmid-free segregant cells are killed through chromosome cleavage. Here, we have followed the course of events that takes place when an Escherichia coli rec BC sbcA strain carrying a plasmid coding for the PaeR7I restriction-modification (R/M) gene complex is transformed by a plasmid with an identical origin of replication. The number of transformants that appeared was far fewer than with the restriction-minus (r-) control. Most of the transformants were very small. After prolonged incubation, the number and the size of the colonies increased, but this increase never attained the level of the r- control. Most of the transformed colonies retained the drug-resistance of the resident, r+ m+ plasmid. These results indicate that post-segregational host killing occurs when a plasmid bearing an R/M gene complex is displaced by an incompatible plasmid. Such cell killing eliminates the competitor plasmid along with the host and, thus, would allow persistence of the R/M plasmid in the neighboring, clonal host cells in nature. This phenomenon is reminiscent of mammalian apoptosis and other forms of altruistic cell death strategy against infection. This type of resistance to displacement was also studied in a wild type Escherichia coli strain that was normal for homologous recombination (rec+). A number of differences between the recBC sbcA strain and the rec+ strain were observed and these will be discussed.

  13. Inter-genomic displacement via lateral gene transfer of bacterial trp operons in an overall context of vertical genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. Results In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid sequence strings that represent the entire tryptophan pathway. Lateral gene transfer of several whole-pathway trp operons was demonstrated by use of phylogenetic analysis. Lateral gene transfer of partial-pathway trp operons was also shown, with newly recruited genes functioning either in primary biosynthesis (rarely or specialized metabolism (more frequently. Conclusions (i Concatenated tryptophan protein trees are congruent with 16S rRNA subtrees provided that the genomes represented are of sufficiently close phylogenetic spacing. There are currently seven tryptophan congruency groups in the Bacteria. Recognition of a succession of others can be expected in the near future, but ultimately these should coalesce to a single grouping that parallels the 16S rRNA tree (except for cases of lateral gene transfer. (ii The vertical trace of evolution for tryptophan biosynthesis can be deduced. The daunting complexities engendered

  14. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  15. Dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization based signal amplification system for highly sensitive determination of p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Li, Hongling; Wang, Zhenmeng; Le, Jingqing; Zheng, Tingting; Jia, Lee

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, we proposed a novel dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) based signal amplification system for highly sensitive determination of tumor suppressor genes. The system primarily consisted of a signaling hairpin probe (SHP), a label-free hairpin probe (LHP) and an initiating primer (IP). The presence of target DNA was able to induce one CNDP through continuous process of ligation, polymerization and nicking, leading to extensively accumulation of two nicked triggers (NT1 and NT2). Intriguingly, the NT1 could directly hybridize SHP, while the NT2 could act as the target analog to induce another CNDP. The resulting dual-CNDP contributed the striking signal amplification, and only a very weak blank noise existed since the ligation template of target was not involved. In this case, the target could be detected in a wide linear range (5 orders of magnitude), and a low detection limit (78 fM) was obtained, which is superior to most of the existing fluorescent methods. Moreover, the dual-CNDP sensing system provided a high selectivity towards target DNA against mismatched target and was successfully applied to analysis of target gene extracted from cancer cells or in human serum-contained samples, indicating its great potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in rabbit temporo-mandibular joint cartilage with disc displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jing; Gu, Zhi-yuan; Wu, Li-qun; Zhang, Yin-kai; Hu, Ji-an

    2005-06-20

    The urokinase plasminogen activator system is believed to play an important role in degradation of the extracellular matrix associated with cartilage and bone destruction; however its precise roles in temporomandibular disorders have not yet been clarified. The aims of this study were to investigate the gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the articular cartilage of rabbit temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with disc displacement (DD) and to probe the relationship between fibrinolytic activity and cartilage remodeling. Disc displacement of right joints was performed in 36 of 78 rabbits under investigation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively. The right joints of these animals were harvested and processed for the examination of mRNA expression of uPA and PAI-1 in articular cartilage using in situ hybridization techniques. The expression of uPA and PAI-1 was co-expressed weakly in the chondrocytes from transitive zone to hypertrophic zone and mineralized zone, while no hybridizing signals were shown in proliferative zone and superficial zone in control rabbits. The most striking was the up-regulation of uPA and PAI-1 mRNA in 4-day rabbits postoperatively at the onset of cartilage degeneration. The strongest hybridizing signals for uPA and PAI-1 were seen in 2-week rabbits postoperatively. After 2 weeks, the expression of uPA and PAI-1 began to decrease and reached nearly normal level at 12 weeks. The expression of the uPA/PAI-1 system coincides with the pathological changes in condylar cartilage after DD. The uPA/PAI-1 system may be one of the essential mediators in articular cartilage remodeling.

  17. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  18. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  19. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  20. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  1. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  2. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  3. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  4. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  5. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  6. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  7. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...

  8. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  9. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  10. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  11. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  12. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  13. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  14. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  15. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  16. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  17. Identification of fast-evolving genes in the scleractinian coral Acropora using comparative EST analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Iguchi

    Full Text Available To identify fast-evolving genes in reef-building corals, we performed direct comparative sequence analysis with expressed sequence tag (EST datasets from two acroporid species: Acropora palmata from the Caribbean Sea and A. millepora from the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Comparison of 589 independent sequences from 1,421 A. palmata contigs, with 10,247 A. millepora contigs resulted in the identification of 196 putative homologues. Most of the homologous pairs demonstrated high amino acid similarities (over 90%. Comparisons of putative homologues showing low amino acid similarities (under 90% among the Acropora species to the near complete datasets from two other cnidarians (Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis implied that some were non-orthologous. Within 86 homologous pairs, 39 exhibited dN/dS ratios significantly less than 1, suggesting that these genes are under purifying selection associated with functional constraints. Eight independent genes showed dN/dS ratios exceeding 1, while three deviated significantly from 1, suggesting that these genes may play important roles in the adaptive evolution of Acropora. Our results also indicated that CEL-III lectin was under positive selection, consistent with a possible role in immunity or symbiont recognition. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible functions of the genes under positive selection to provide insight into the evolutionary process of corals.

  18. Identification of fast-evolving genes in the scleractinian coral Acropora using comparative EST analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Akira; Shinzato, Chuya; Forêt, Sylvain; Miller, David J

    2011-01-01

    To identify fast-evolving genes in reef-building corals, we performed direct comparative sequence analysis with expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets from two acroporid species: Acropora palmata from the Caribbean Sea and A. millepora from the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Comparison of 589 independent sequences from 1,421 A. palmata contigs, with 10,247 A. millepora contigs resulted in the identification of 196 putative homologues. Most of the homologous pairs demonstrated high amino acid similarities (over 90%). Comparisons of putative homologues showing low amino acid similarities (under 90%) among the Acropora species to the near complete datasets from two other cnidarians (Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis) implied that some were non-orthologous. Within 86 homologous pairs, 39 exhibited dN/dS ratios significantly less than 1, suggesting that these genes are under purifying selection associated with functional constraints. Eight independent genes showed dN/dS ratios exceeding 1, while three deviated significantly from 1, suggesting that these genes may play important roles in the adaptive evolution of Acropora. Our results also indicated that CEL-III lectin was under positive selection, consistent with a possible role in immunity or symbiont recognition. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible functions of the genes under positive selection to provide insight into the evolutionary process of corals.

  19. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  20. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  1. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  2. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  3. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  4. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  5. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  6. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  7. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  8. Divergent gene expression in the conserved dauer stage of the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Amit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organism can respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting gene regulation and by forming alternative phenotypes. In nematodes, these mechanisms are coupled because many species will form dauer larvae, a stress-resistant and non-aging developmental stage, when exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, and execute gene expression programs that have been selected for the survival of the animal in the wild. These dauer larvae represent an environmentally induced, homologous developmental stage across many nematode species, sharing conserved morphological and physiological properties. Hence it can be expected that some core components of the associated transcriptional program would be conserved across species, while others might diverge over the course of evolution. However, transcriptional and metabolic analysis of dauer development has been largely restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use a transcriptomic approach to compare the dauer stage in the evolutionary model system Pristionchus pacificus with the dauer stage in C. elegans. Results We have employed Agilent microarrays, which represent 20,446 P. pacificus and 20,143 C. elegans genes to show an unexpected divergence in the expression profiles of these two nematodes in dauer and dauer exit samples. P. pacificus and C. elegans differ in the dynamics and function of genes that are differentially expressed. We find that only a small number of orthologous gene pairs show similar expression pattern in the dauers of the two species, while the non-orthologous fraction of genes is a major contributor to the active transcriptome in dauers. Interestingly, many of the genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer and orphan genes in P. pacificus, are differentially expressed suggesting that these genes are of evolutionary and functional importance. Conclusion Our data set provides a catalog for future functional investigations and indicates novel insight

  9. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.; Le Saulnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced [fr

  10. The other side of comparative genomics: genes with no orthologs between the cow and other mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmone-Marsan Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth in the availability of genome sequence data, the automated identification of orthologous genes between species (orthologs is of fundamental importance to facilitate functional annotation and studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics. Genes with no apparent orthologs between the bovine and human genome may be responsible for major differences between the species, however, such genes are often neglected in functional genomics studies. Results A BLAST-based method was exploited to explore the current annotation and orthology predictions in Ensembl. Genes with no orthologs between the two genomes were classified into groups based on alignments, ontology, manual curation and publicly available information. Starting from a high quality and specific set of orthology predictions, as provided by Ensembl, hidden relationship between genes and genomes of different mammalian species were unveiled using a highly sensitive approach, based on sequence similarity and genomic comparison. Conclusions The analysis identified 3,801 bovine genes with no orthologs in human and 1010 human genes with no orthologs in cow, among which 411 and 43 genes, respectively, had no match at all in the other species. Most of the apparently non-orthologous genes may potentially have orthologs which were missed in the annotation process, despite having a high percentage of identity, because of differences in gene length and structure. The comparative analysis reported here identified gene variants, new genes and species-specific features and gave an overview of the other side of orthology which may help to improve the annotation of the bovine genome and the knowledge of structural differences between species.

  11. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  12. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  13. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  14. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  15. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  16. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  17. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability

  18. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  19. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  1. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  2. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  3. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  4. The Displaced ‘Dispositif’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edmonds

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dispositif” is a term used in film studies since the 1970s to describe the entire system of mechanical and human factors which together bring about the cinema experience. It therefore refers to (amongst other things the space of the auditorium, the screen, the projection technology and the physiology of the spectator. Many of its qualifying components are masked from the view of participants in the system. The dispositif’s purpose is to set up the conditions for a specific type of cognitive experience, one which mirrors and extends (and in some readings, controls the experience of its participants. The Displaced Dispositif is a performance designed for the space of a cinema theatre, but featuring the projection of fragments of early silent cinema on a coeval (1910s film projector from the auditorium. The film fragments are live-scored by the sound artist, Shaun Lewin, using a combination of closely mic’d sources on the projector itself, luminance data from the projected image and EEG brainwave data recorded from participants during previous projections of the film. Displacing elements in the dispositif in this way, by shifting modalities, situating in parallel, feeding back and layering, draws attention to its hidden existence and creates the potential for a more knowing and informed participation in the cinema experience. It also serves to demonstrate the degree to which dispositifs of modern cinema spectatorship, which have morphed and proliferated since the widespread digitization of film heritage, have radically altered both the technological and experiential qualities of the medium. By integrating EEG data, the performance adds the dimension of electrophysiological experience to the long tradition within experimental cinema of artists calling attention to Cinema’s hidden structures. As well as challenging the dominance of the worldview propagated by the film industry, the performance also signals a means of re-engaging with the

  5. On the Coulomb displacement energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)

  6. Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified....

  7. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  8. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  9. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  10. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  11. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  12. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  13. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  14. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  15. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  16. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  17. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  18. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  19. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  20. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  1. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  2. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  3. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  4. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  5. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  6. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  7. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  8. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  9. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  10. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  11. Regulatory RNA design through evolutionary computation and strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, William; Landrain, Thomas E; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and study of a vast number of regulatory RNAs in all kingdoms of life over the past decades has allowed the design of new synthetic RNAs that can regulate gene expression in vivo. Riboregulators, in particular, have been used to activate or repress gene expression. However, to accelerate and scale up the design process, synthetic biologists require computer-assisted design tools, without which riboregulator engineering will remain a case-by-case design process requiring expert attention. Recently, the design of RNA circuits by evolutionary computation and adapting strand displacement techniques from nanotechnology has proven to be suited to the automated generation of DNA sequences implementing regulatory RNA systems in bacteria. Herein, we present our method to carry out such evolutionary design and how to use it to create various types of riboregulators, allowing the systematic de novo design of genetic control systems in synthetic biology.

  12. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  13. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  14. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  15. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  16. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  17. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  18. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  19. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  20. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  1. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  2. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  3. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  4. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  5. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  6. Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1994-06-01

    Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO 3 and KTaO 3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

  7. Page | 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    development remain one of the greatest concerns of human beings globally.4. This urbanization which most often result in conflicts, ethnic violence, communal rife and clashes, and incessant tussle for natural and artificial resources, has also contributed to the displacement of persons. * By Obinna MBANUGO, LLM, BL, ...

  8. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  9. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  10. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  11. Microbial adhesion in flow displacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    Flow displacement systems are superior to many other (static) systems for studying microbial adhesion to surfaces because mass transport and prevailing shear conditions can be adequately controlled and notoriously ill-defined slight rinsing steps to remove so-called "loosely adhering organisms" can

  12. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  13. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  14. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  15. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  16. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  17. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  18. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  19. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  20. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  1. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  2. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  3. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  4. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  5. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  6. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  7. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  8. Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)

  9. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  10. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  11. Environmentally-induced displacement and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Terminski, Bogumil

    2012-01-01

    We can distinguish two general causes of internal displacement worldwide: 1. the impact of threats to and ensuing decline in the level of human security below that needed for normal existence in the homeland territory, 2. administrative compulsion to leave the current place of residence. Every year, at least tens of millions of people on all continents are forced to leave their places of residence. The predominant cause is the occurrence of natural disasters, creating the most dynamic categor...

  12. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  13. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  14. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  15. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  16. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  17. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  18. Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced graphene/silver nanocomposite ... dissolved oxygen (DO) detection based on a galvanic displacement synthesized reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles ... Current Issue

  19. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  20. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  1. Polymorphism in TNP-1 gene of Murrah buffalo bulls | Panigrahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... spermatids, have been reported to be important for histone displacement and chromatin ... (TNP-1) gene was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-single strand ... Analysis of TNP-1 gene sequence of Murrah buffalo revealed 3 single ...

  2. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  3. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  4. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  5. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  6. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  7. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  8. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  10. In-gel multiple displacement amplification of long DNA fragments diluted to the single molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Yuichi; Sugahara, Keisuke; Suga, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Shiomi, Naoko; Shiomi, Tadahiro; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2008-12-15

    The isolation and multiple genotyping of long individual DNA fragments are needed to obtain haplotype information for diploid organisms. Limiting dilution of sample DNA followed by multiple displacement amplification is a useful technique but is restricted to short (reaction (PCR)-ready form. The haplotypes of seven SNPs spanning 240 kb of the DNA surrounding the human ATM gene region on chromosome 11 were determined for 10 individuals, demonstrating the feasibility of this new method.

  11. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  12. Effects of threshold displacement energy on defect production by displacement cascades in α, β and γ-LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihira, H.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold displacement energy evaluation and a series of displacement cascade simulations in α, β, and γ-LiAlO 2 were performed using molecular dynamics. Threshold displacement energy evaluations indicated that higher absolute ionic charge values and larger densities both increase threshold displacement energy. The displacement cascade simulations suggest that the influence of different crystal structures on the number of interstitial atoms generated in a displacement cascade is explainable almost entirely by the difference of the threshold displacement energy

  13. War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from several populations suggests that war negatively impacts civilian nutrition, physical growth and overall health. This effect is often enduring or permanent, particularly if experienced early in life. To assess whether the number of lifetime displacement experiences and being displaced in infancy were associated with adult height, sitting height, leg length and the sitting height ratio. Retrospective questionnaires on displacement and resettlement experiences and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of Laotian adult refugees (ethnic Hmong and Lao; n = 365). All were born in Laos or Thailand and had resettled in French Guiana or the US. Many had been displaced several times by military conflict in Laos. In bivariate analyses, being displaced in infancy and the number of lifetime displacement experiences one had were negatively associated with final adult height and leg length in both sexes. The association was stronger in females, particularly Hmong females. There was no significant association between total displacement experiences and the sitting height ratio. In multiple regression analyses, linear growth in males was negatively associated with being displaced in infancy; in females, the number of lifetime displacement experiences was a significant predictor. Forced displacement from war appears to have a lasting effect on final adult height, sitting height and leg length, although not necessarily on the sitting height ratio in this sample.

  14. Mirror displacement energies and neutron skins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, J.; Zuker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    A gross estimate of the neutron skin [0.80(5)(N-Z)/A fm] is extracted from experimental proton radii, represented by a four parameter fit, and observed mirror displacement energies (CDE). The calculation of the latter relies on an accurately derived Coulomb energy and smooth averages of the charge symmetry breaking potentials constrained to state of the art values. The only free parameter is the neutron skin itself. The Nolen Schiffer anomaly is reduced to small deviations (rms=127 keV) that exhibit a secular trend. It is argued that with state of the art shell model calculations the anomaly should disappear. Highly accurate fits to proton radii emerge as a fringe benefit

  15. Core polarization and Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Love, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of core polarization terms (other than the Auerbach-Kahana-Weneser (AKW) effect) to Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei near A = 16 and A = 40 are examined within the particle-vibration coupling model. The parameters of the model are determined using updated data on the locations and strengths of multipole core excitations. In the absence of relevant data an energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exploited. Taking into account multipole excitations up to L = 5 and subtracting the contributions which are due to short-range correlations, significant contributions (1-3%) to ΔEsub(c) are found. These corrections arise from particle coupling to low-lying collective states (long-range correlations). The implications of these results on the Coulomb energy problem are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  17. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  18. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James; Harish, Srinivasan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2005-01-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  19. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  20. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  1. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  2. Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wei

    Full Text Available The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  3. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  4. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  5. Distal displacement of the maxilla and the upper first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Molthen, R; West, E E; Miller, D M

    1979-06-01

    Data from a sample of 198 Class II cases treated with various appliances which deliver distally directed forces to the maxilla were examined to determine the frequency of absolute distal displacement of the upper first molar and of the maxilla. Analysis revealed that such distal displacement is possible and that it is, in fact, a frequent finding following treatment. Long-range stability of distal displacement was not assessed.

  6. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  7. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  9. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  10. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  11. Coulomb displacement energies and neutron density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.

    1979-01-01

    We present a short review of the present status of the theory of Coulomb displacement energies, ΔEsub(c), discussing the Okamoto-Nolem-Schiffer anomaly and its solution. We emphasize, in particular, that contrary to previous hopes, ΔEsub(c) does not determine rsub(ex), the root-mean square (rms) radius of the excess (valence) neutron density distribution. Instead, ΔEsub(c) is very sensitive to the value of Δr = rsub(n) - rsub(p), the difference between the rms radii of the density distributions of all neutrons and all protons. For neutron rich nuclei, such as 48 Ca and 208 Pb, a value of Δr = 0.1 fm is found to be consistent with ΔEsub(c). This value of Δr, which is considerably smaller than that (of 0.2 - 0.3 fm) predicted by some common Hartree-Fock calculations, seems to be confirmed by very recent experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  13. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  14. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1990-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of cascades in Cu and Ni with primary-knock-on energies up to 5 keV and lattice temperatures in the range 0 K--700 K are described. Interatomic forces were represented by either the Gibson II (Cu) or Johnson-Erginsoy (Ni) potentials in most of this work, although some simulations using ''Embedded Atom Method'' potentials, e.g., for threshold events in Ni 3 Al, are also presented. The results indicate that the primary state of damage produced by displacement cascades is controlled by two phenomena, replacement collision sequences during the collisional phase of the cascade and local melting during the thermal spike. As expected, the collisional phase is rather similar in Cu and Ni, however, the thermal spike is of longer duration and has a more pronounced influence in Cu than Ni. When the ambient temperature of the lattice is increased, the melt zones are observed to both increase in size and cool more slowly. This has the effect of reducing defect production and enhancing atomic mixing and disordering. The implications of these results for defect production, cascade collapse, atomic disordering will be discussed. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. TREATMENT OF DISPLACED MALLEOLAR FRACTURES AT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  17. Expansion of a function about a displaced centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    We review the progress recently made in obtaining closed form expressions for the expansion of general orbitals about a displaced centre and establish the equivalence between different expansions. We also examine how these expressions do have the desired limit as the displacement approaches zero. (author)

  18. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  19. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  20. Sieve-based lateral displacement technology for suspension separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.P.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse lateral displacement arrays are easier to scale up than full deterministic lateral displacement arrays or deterministic ratchets, because they require lower pressure drop and simplify the construction of the device. However, the asymmetry of sparse arrays leads to a non-homogeneous pressure

  1. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  2. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  3. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  4. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV

  5. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced. To account for the differences in the composition of the women who were displaced in a downturn and the women who were displaced in an upswing, we use a double weighting estimator. Results show that the extent to which job displacement has adverse effects on fertility depends on the business cycle. The first-birth rates were much lower for women who were displaced in an economic downturn than for those who lost a job in an economic upturn. This result cannot be explained by changes in the observed characteristics of the displaced women over the business cycle.

  6. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed and m...

  7. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  8. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  9. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  10. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497–514. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo ... used to calculate dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces up to second nearest ... origin, the lattice is strained, and the host atoms get displaced to new ...

  11. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  13. Miscible fluid displacement: an answer to increasing oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N R; Rivera, R J

    1976-01-01

    This study presents the state of the art on miscible and miscible-type processes. It is well known that when these processes are applied under ideal laboratory conditions, the oil recovery obtained from linear cores approaches 100% of the total oil contained in the porous structure which is contacted by the displacing fluids. In the past few years, a worldwide shortage of crude oil supplies produced an increased interest in new oil recovery methods. Because of this situation, the oil industry turned its eyes back toward the miscible processes. This study discusses the following miscible fluid displacement processes: (1) high-pressure dry gas displacement; (2) enriched gas displacement; (3) GLP slug flooding; and (4) carbon dioxide displacement. In addition to the processes aforementioned, this work presents the main features of the micellar solution flooding process. (17 refs.)

  14. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  15. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  16. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  17. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  18. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  19. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  20. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  1. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  2. Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)

  3. Distally displaced premolars: A dental anomaly associated with palatally displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Leonardi, Maria; Giuntini, Veronica

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of association between distally displaced premolars (DDP) and palatally displaced canines (PDC) in the pattern of associated phenotypes of dental developmental disturbance. A sample of 2811 subjects (mean age, 9 years 7 months +/- 1 year 3 months) was divided randomly into 2 groups. The first group of 500 subjects was the control group. The reference prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated for this group: DDP (measured with the distal angle theta and the premolar-molar angle gamma); PDC; and other dental anomalies, specifically, aplasia of the third molars, aplasia of the contralateral mandibular second premolar, aplasia of the maxillary lateral incisors, and small maxillary lateral incisors. Of the remaining 2311 subjects, the first 100 with a diagnosis of DDP of at least 1 mandibular second premolar comprised experimental group 1 (DDP group). In addition to sex distribution, the same variables that were examined in the control group were analyzed. In the subgroup with the concurrent DDP and PDC (experimental group 2, or DDP-PDC group), the presence of other dental anomalies was investigated. The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 was compared with that in the control group. The same was done for the prevalence rates for the 4 other dental anomalies in the PDC-DDP group (experimental group 2) vs the prevalence rates for these anomalies in the control group. All comparisons were performed with chi-square tests with the Yates correction (P <0.05), as were the comparisons between the sexes in experimental groups 1 and 2. The values for theta and gamma angles in experimental group 1 were compared with the values for these angles in experimental group 2, as well as with those in the control group. These statistical comparisons were made with analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test (P <0.05). The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 (28%) was

  4. [Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Masahiro, Ida

    2006-12-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53 +/- 0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94 +/- 0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11 +/- 0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r = 0.87, p = 0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle

  5. Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Ida, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean±standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53±0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94±0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11±0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle cone

  6. MRI of radial displacement of the meniscus in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Lv Houshan; Lao Shan; Guan Zhenpeng; Hong Nan; Liang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus of the knees in the study population with MR imaging, and to establish MRI diagnostic criteria for radial displacement of the meniscus and displacement index. Methods: MR signs of radial displacement of the meniscus were evaluated retrospectively in 398 patients with knee symptoms who were examined with non- weight bearing MR images from Jan. 2000 to Feb. 2004. The patients younger than 18 years old, with joint effusion or serious arthropathy were excluded and 312 patients were eligible to be enrolled in this study. The criterion for radial displacement of the meniscus was defined as the location of the edge of meniscal body beyond the femoral and tibial outer border line. A displacement index, defined as the ratio of meniscal overhang to meniscal width, was used to quantify meniscal displacement. Results: The prevalence of radial displacement of the meniscus was 16.7% (52/312) and 13.9% (21/151) in right knee and 19.3% (31/161 )in left knee, respectively. There was no significant difference between left and right knee (χ 2 =1.60, P>0.05) and the ratio between medial and lateral meniscus was 7.8:1. The average displacement index was 0.54±0.24. The displacement indices were significant higher in older group (F=3.63, P<0.05). The incidence and indices of radial displacement of the meniscus for patients under or above 50 year older were 12.0%(17/142), 0.46±0.22 and 20.6% (35/170), 0.64±0.20, respectively. Difference was highly significant (t=0.84, P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that radial displacement of the meniscus in knees was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with knee symptoms. The incidence increased in older age group. Further investigations were recommended to understand the etiology and clinical significance of the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus. (authors)

  7. Radiation displacement damage estimates for a radionuclide waste stabilization material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the number of atomic displacements produced in pollucite by the radioactive decay of Cs-134 are made. Pollucite is a candidate material for radionuclide waste stabilization, while Cs-134 is one of the radionuclide products which would be chemically bound in the pollucite lattice. At the maximum concentration of Cs-134 in pollucite, assuming a threshold displacement energy of 15.0 eV, the displacement rate is estimated to be 4.3 x 10 12 atoms/cm 3 /second which includes all atomic species in the pollucite lattice. It was found that most of the displacements, 85 percent, were caused by elastic scattering of photoelectrons and Compton electrons which are products of γ-ray interactions in the material. Most of the remaining displacements are caused by elastic scattering of β-particles. Recoil energies of the Ba daughter product are insufficient to cause displacement. Atomic displacements of nearest neighbors, atoms within one lattice spacing of the decay site, are estimated to be 2.7 x 10 6 atoms/cm 3 /second. These estimates provide a starting point for assessing the long term stability of pollucite to radiation damage

  8. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On virtual displacement and virtual work in Lagrangian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Subhankar; Shamanna, J

    2006-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work is discussed in this paper. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for holonomic (velocity independent), non-holonomic (velocity dependent), scleronomous (time independent) and rheonomous (time dependent) constraints. It is observed that for holonomic, scleronomous constraints, the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However, this is not so for a general class of constraints. For simple physical systems, it is shown that the work done by the constraint forces on virtual displacements is zero. This motivates Lagrange's extension of d'Alembert's principle to a system of particles in constrained motion. However, a similar zero work principle does not hold for the allowed displacements. It is also demonstrated that d'Alembert's principle of zero virtual work is necessary for the solvability of a constrained mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint forces are central to both Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers and Lagrange's equations in generalized coordinates

  10. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  11. A study of the displacement of a Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. E.; Pennock, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    The volumetric displacement of a Wankel rotary engine is a function of the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio, assuming the engine has a unit depth and the number of lobes is specified. The mathematical expression which defines the displacement contains a function which can be evaluated directly and a normal elliptic integral of the second type which does not have an explicit solution. This paper focuses on the contribution of the elliptic integral to the total displacement of the engine. The influence of the elliptic integral is shown to account for as much as 20 percent of the total displacement, depending on the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio. Two numerical integration techniques are compared in the paper, namely, the trapezoidal rule and Simpson's 1/3 rule. The bounds on the error, associated with each numerical method, are analyzed. The results indicate that the numerical method has a minimal effect on the accuracy of the calculated displacement for a practical number of integration steps. The paper also evaluates the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the calculated displacement and the actual displacement. Finally. a numerical example of the common three-lobed Wankel rotary engine is included for illustrative purposes.

  12. Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2012-04-01

    It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  14. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  16. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  17. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  18. Nanomechanical displacement sensing using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.; Aldridge, J.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a radio frequency mechanical resonator that includes a quantum point contact, defined using electrostatic top gates. We can mechanically actuate the resonator using either electrostatic or magnetomotive forces. We demonstrate the use of the quantum point contact as a displacement sensor, operating as a radio frequency mixer at the mechanical resonance frequency of 1.5 MHz. We calculate a displacement sensitivity of about 3x10 -12 m/Hz 1/2 . This device will potentially permit quantum-limited displacement sensing of nanometer-scale resonators, allowing the quantum entanglement of the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of a nanoscale system

  19. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  20. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium is described. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement. 3 claims, 3 figures

  1. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  2. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  3. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  4. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2008-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  5. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Geneva based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), there are ..... adequate machinery in place to address IDPs issues and the organizations ... could be deduced that the mandates and organizational structures of the National.

  6. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  7. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Atomic displacements; density functional theory; Kanzaki method. ... pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. ... Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and ...

  8. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  9. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  10. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  11. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  12. FOREIGN AFFAIRS: Internally Displaced Persons Lack Effective Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Internally displaced persons--those forced to flee their homes because of armed conflict and persecution but who remain within their own country are among the most at-risk, vulnerable populations in the world...

  13. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  14. Searches for light sterile neutrinos with multitrack displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-03-01

    We study discovery prospects for long-lived sterile neutrinos at the LHC with multitrack displaced vertices, with masses below the electroweak scale. We reinterpret current displaced vertex searches making use of publicly available, parametrized selection efficiencies for modeling the detector response to displaced vertices. We focus on the production of right-handed WR bosons and neutrinos N in a left-right symmetric model, and find poor sensitivity. After proposing a different trigger strategy (considering the prompt lepton accompanying the neutrino displaced vertex) and optimized cuts in the invariant mass and track multiplicity of the vertex, we find that the LHC with √{s }=13 TeV and 300 fb-1 is able to probe sterile neutrino masses between 10 GeV right-handed gauge boson mass of 2 TeV work joins other efforts in motivating dedicated experimental searches to target this low sterile neutrino mass region.

  15. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...... population of Denmark for the years 1981-1999 with full records on demographics, health and work status for each person, and with a link from every working person to a plant. We use the method of matching on observables to estimate the counter-factual of what would have happened to the health of a particular...

  16. Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial homecoming. From Throne (Cathedra) to Home ( Oikos ) in a grassroots ecclesiology of place and space: Fides Quaerens Domum et Locum [Faith Seeking Home and Space

  17. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  18. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.

    1986-01-01

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  19. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  20. Noise cancellation properties of displacement noise free interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the practical feasibility of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free laser interferometer (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The noise cancellation efficiency was evaluated by comparing the displacement noise spectrum of the MZIs and the DFI, demonstrating up to 50 dB of noise cancellation. In addition, the possible extension of DFI as QND device is explored.

  1. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid; Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  2. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  3. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Gallup

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  4. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  5. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  6. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  7. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  8. Urban revitalization and displacement: types, causes, and public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagin, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.

  9. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  10. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  11. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  12. Prostate HDR brachytherapy catheter displacement between planning and treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, May; Hruby, George; Lovett, Aimee; Patanjali, Nitya

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: HDR brachytherapy is used as a conformal boost for treating prostate cancer. Given the large doses delivered, it is critical that the volume treated matches that planned. Our outpatient protocol comprises two 9 Gy fractions, two weeks apart. We prospectively assessed catheter displacement between CT planning and treatment delivery. Materials and methods: Three fiducial markers and the catheters were implanted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Metal marker wires were inserted into 4 reference catheters before CT; marker positions relative to each other and to the marker wires were measured from the CT scout. Measurements were repeated immediately prior to treatment delivery using pelvic X-ray with marker wires in the same reference catheters. Measurements from CT scout and film were compared. For displacements of 5 mm or more, indexer positions were adjusted prior to treatment delivery. Results: Results are based on 48 implants, in 25 patients. Median time from planning CT to treatment delivery was 254 min (range 81–367 min). Median catheter displacement was 7.5 mm (range −2.9–23.9 mm), 67% of implants had displacement of 5 mm or greater. Displacements were predominantly caudal. Conclusions: Catheter displacement can occur in the 1–3 h between the planning CT scan and treatment. It is recommended that departments performing HDR prostate brachytherapy verify catheter positions immediately prior to treatment delivery.

  13. Ultraselective electrochemiluminescence biosensor based on locked nucleic acid modified toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and junction-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dongzhi; Liu, Zhijing; Cai, Shuxian; Chen, Mei; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-12-07

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is applied in toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) to develop a junction-probe electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the BRCA1 gene related to breast cancer. More than 65-fold signal difference can be observed with perfectly matched target sequence to single-base mismatched sequence under the same conditions, indicating good selectivity of the ECL biosensor.

  14. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Universal Fast Colorimetric Method for DNA Signal Detection with DNA Strand Displacement and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA or gene signal detection is of great significance in many fields including medical examination, intracellular molecular monitoring, and gene disease signal diagnosis, but detection of DNA or gene signals in a low concentration with instant visual results remains a challenge. In this work, a universal fast and visual colorimetric detection method for DNA signals is proposed. Specifically, a DNA signal amplification “circuit” based on DNA strand displacement is firstly designed to amplify the target DNA signals, and then thiol modified hairpin DNA strands and gold nanoparticles are used to make signal detection results visualized in a colorimetric manner. If the target DNA signal exists, the gold nanoparticles aggregate and settle down with color changing from dark red to grey quickly; otherwise, the gold nanoparticles’ colloids remain stable in dark red. The proposed method provides a novel way to detect quickly DNA or gene signals in low concentrations with instant visual results. When applied in real-life, it may provide a universal colorimetric method for gene disease signal diagnosis.

  16. The effect of multi-component adsorption on selectivity in ion exchange displacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, N; Cramer, S M

    2005-01-21

    This paper examines chemically selective displacement chromatography using affinity ranking plots, batch displacer screening experiments, column displacements, multi-component adsorption isotherms and spectroscopy. The affinity ranking plot indicated that the displacers, sucrose octasulfate (SOS) and tatrazine, should possess sufficient affinity to displace the proteins amyloglucosidase and apoferritin over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the plots indicated that the separation of these proteins by displacement chromatography would be extremely difficult. Further, the two proteins were shown to have very similar retention times under shallow linear gradient conditions. When batch displacement experiments were carried out, both tartrazine and SOS exhibited significant selectivity differences with respect to their ability to displace these two proteins, in contrast to the affinity ranking plot results. Column displacement experiments carried out with sucrose octasulfate agreed with the predictions of the affinity ranking plots, with both proteins being displaced but poorly resolved under several column displacement conditions. On the other hand, column displacement with tartrazine as the displacer resulted in the selective displacement and partial purification of apoferritin. Single- and multi-component isotherms of the proteins with or without the presence of displacers were determined and were used to help explain the selectivity reversals observed in the column and batch displacement experiments. In addition, fluorescence and CD spectra suggested that the displacers did not induce any structural changes to either of the proteins. The results in this paper indicate that multi-component adsorption behavior can be exploited for creating chemically selective displacement separations.

  17. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  18. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Peng, Kai-Ling; Lin, Chien-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK. A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of -0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later. We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014. Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could mostly be restored with immediate and proper management.

  19. Desplazamientos (inmóviles = (immobile displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar García Ranedo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proponemos un acercamiento, analítico y comparativo, al movimiento desde una serie de obras organizadas como pictogramas visuales que argumentan la sintaxis de la representación desde el empleo de la imagen fotográfica, el dibujo y la palabra. Por un lado, en el pictograma fotográfico, el movimiento no sólo aparece como inscripción de un recorrido físico, recogido a través de una serie de imágenes fotosecuenciadas, o por la acción de capturar e ir tras el objetivo, sino también como un trayecto ideológico organizado a través del orden semiótico de la propia imagen fotográfica y del encuadre como estructurador de la mirada. Por otro lado, en el pictograma dibujado, el movimiento es iniciado por el propio acto de marcar y manchar el papel. El dibujo es interpretado como una acción que establece relaciones escénicas y temporales tanto con el espacio real y físico como con la psique. Las obras que han motivado este análisis tituladas La Imagen Negada, Affidamento y Correspondencias persiguen poner en pie una gramática dinámica de la representación. With this article I propose an analytical and comparative approach to movement based on a series of works organised as visual sequences which argue for the syntax of representation using the photographic image, drawing and words. On the one hand, in the sequences of photos, movement does not only appear as an inscription of a physical route, recorded by a fluency of photography images or by the action of capturing and pursuing the objective, but also as an ideological trajectory organised through the semiotic order of the photographic image itself and of the framing as the element that structures the gaze. And on the other hand, in the drawn pictogram, movement is initiated by the very act of marking and staining the paper. Drawing  is interpreted as an action that establishes scenic and temporary relations both with the real, physical space and with the psyche. The works

  20. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  1. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  2. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  3. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling magnetic forces during asymmetric vertical displacement events at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Walker, S.; Noll, P.

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetric vertical disruption events (AVDEs) are fortunately rare, but can induce large lateral forces which can cause significant mechanical damage to tokamaks. In this paper we present a simple model which allows the lateral forces generated during such a disruption to be estimated as a function of relatively easily obtained electromagnetic parameters: the asymmetries in the vertical current moment. This model is validated by using it to predict the displacement history of the JET tokamak caused by a number of major AVDEs. It is shown that the predicted forces and displacements agree well with quantities measured during these disruptions. One conclusion from the model is that the maximum sideways displacement scales with the product of the plasma current and the toroidal field, and this recipe is now used at JET to assess a priori the hazards of performing high current and high field pulses when they are known to be likely to disrupt. (author)

  5. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC’s Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as 10{sup −11}.

  6. Reconstructing particle masses in events with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple way to extract particle masses given a displaced vertex signature in event topologies where two long-lived mother particles decay to visible particles and an invisible daughter. The mother could be either charged or neutral and the neutral daughter could correspond to a dark matter particle in different models. The method allows to extract the parent and daughter masses by using on-shell conditions and energy-momentum conservation, in addition to the displaced decay positions of the parents, which allows to solve the kinematic equations fully on an event-by-event basis. We show the validity of the method by means of simulations including detector effects. If displaced events are seen in discovery searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), this technique can be applied.

  7. Time varying behavior of the loudspeaker suspension: Displacement level dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e. the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the speaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal excitation...... the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role...

  8. Summary of ionizing and displacive irradiation fields in various facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to estimate the ionizing and displacive irradiation fields that will occur in ceramics during irradiation in accelerators and fission and fusion reactors. A useful measure of the relative strength of ionizing vs. displasive radiation is the ratio of the absorbed ionizing dose to the displacement damage dose, which in the case of ion irradiation is equal to the ratio of the electronic stopping power to the nuclear stopping power. In ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , this ratio is about 20 at a fusion reactor first wall, and has a typical value of about 100 in a fusion reactor blanket region and in mixed spectrum reactors such as HFIR. Particle accelerator sources typically have much higher ionizing to displacive radiation ratios, ranging from about 2000 for 1 MeV protons to >10,000 for 1 MeV electrons

  9. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2010-07-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μ m of static displacement, with 80-90 μ m displacements being typical, using four 920 μ m long by 70 μ m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy.

  10. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, R.

    1973-01-01

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14 C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14 C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK) [de

  11. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  12. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  13. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Schmidsfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.

    The effects of atomic displacements on the energetics of alloys plays important role in the determining the properties of alloys. We studied the atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys using molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo methods. The diffuse scattering of pure materials, copper, gold, nickel, and palladium was calculated. The experimental data for pure Cu was obtained from diffuse scattering intensity of synchrotron x-ray radiation. The comparison showed the advantages of molecular dynamics method for calculating the atomic displacements in solid alloys. The individual nearest neighbor separations were calculated for Cu 50Au50 alloy and compared to the result of XAFS experiment. The molecular dynamics method provided theoretical predictions of nearest neighbor pair separations in other binary alloys, Cu-Pd and Cu-Al for wide range of the concentrations. We also experimentally recovered the diffuse scattering maps for the Cu47.3Au52.7 and Cu85.2Al14.8 alloy.

  15. Displacement disorder and reconstruction of the (001) face of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorushkin, V.E.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.; Savushkin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of the (001) border of tungsten is examined taking into consideration random static displacements of surface atoms in the high-temperature (1 x 1) phase. A microscopic model is proposed, in which the creation of c(2 x 2) phase is described as a transition of the Jahn-Teller type and an ordering of static displacements. It is shown that displacement disorder induces instability of (001) tungsten with respect to reconstruction. The effect of a uniform electric field on a disordered reconstructing surface is examined. A possible reason is given for pronounced differences in the results of investigations of the structural conversion of the (001) face in tungsten when different experimental methods are used

  16. The Displaced Female Voice: Poetry of Natalya Gorbanevskaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneerah Badr Almahasheer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Gorbanevskaya’s poetry uses unanchored imagery, direct address, and other specific means of creating a mood of rootlessness that is ambiguous and echoes her own experience as a Russian exile. Her work focuses on themes of displacement and trauma that are common to those who are forcibly made to leave their homes. This article is one of the first close readings of selected poems by Gorbanevskaya that is to merit attention to her displacement, marginalized feminine identity and resistance to the hegemony of political repression. The loss of her home in a literal and a geographical sense, and her status as an expatriate in Paris, can be understood as a complete displacement for Gorbanevskaya, forging her identity as a political refugee poet. Her work further reveals the power of poetry in reclaiming identity, asserting memory, and resisting the patriarchal system.

  17. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2010-08-01

    War victims are regarded as one of the highest risk groups for mental disturbances. This study investigated the effects of the Darfur conflict on mental health of 430 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from three camps located around Fasher and Nyala towns. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select participants. Male participants represented 50.6% of the sample while female participants represented 49.4%. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used in addition to a questionnaire measuring demographic variables and living conditions. It was hypothesized that high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms will be evident. Results showed a high dissatisfaction rate (72%) with living conditions among IDPs. There was also high prevalence of PTSD (54%) and general distress (70%) among IDPs. Female participants showed more somatic symptoms than their male counterparts. Married participants were more distressed, anxious, and showed more social dysfunction, while single ones reported more avoidance symptoms. Significant differences related to date of displacement were found in PTSD and hyperarousal. The group of IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales than those displaced in 2004 and 2005. There was also significant difference related to date of displacement in distress, somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales. Results are discussed in light of the study hypotheses and previous findings. It is concluded that three factors might affect the dissatisfaction of IDPs with living conditions inside camps. These are: lack of employment, unsuitability of food items, and lack of security around camps. It was recommended that psychological support services should be among the prime relief services provided by aid agencies.

  18. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  20. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  1. Nanoscale displacement sensing using microfabricated variable-inductance planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, M. Bulut; Thotahewa, Kasun; Ying, York-Sing; Yuce, Mehmet; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    2013-09-01

    Microfabricated spiral inductors were employed for nanoscale displacement detection, suitable for use in implantable pressure sensor applications. We developed a variable inductor sensor consisting of two coaxially positioned planar coils connected in series to a measurement circuit. The devices were characterized by varying the air gap between the coils hence changing the inductance, while a Colpitts oscillator readout was used to obtain corresponding frequencies. Our approach shows significant advantages over existing methodologies combining a displacement resolution of 17 nm and low hysteresis (0.15%) in a 1 × 1 mm2 device. We show that resolution could be further improved by shrinking the device's lateral dimensions.

  2. Monitoring of pipe displacements in French LMFBR SUPERPHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Debaene, J.P.; Renault, Y.; Blin, B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to check that pipe supports work properly and that the locking of snubbers or the loss of supports do not put a pipe in unacceptable loading conditions, a monitoring of the behaviour of the main pipes of SUPERPHENIX is planned. This monitoring system consists in measuring the displacements at selected points of the pipe by means of measuring rods and checking that these displacements remain inside allowable domains. These allowable domains are defined so that, if the displacements of the pipe are inside all these domains, the plant operator is sure that the stresses verify the allowable limits and then no additional inspection is carried out. In the opposite case, the operator will inspect the pipe in detail in order to determine the consequences and repair if necessary before restarting. Selection of points for monitoring was done with the to minimize the number of measures to be carried out and to use as far as possible the measuring rods that were installed to check that pipe displacements were consistent with what has been obtained in design calculations. However, it appears necessary to ensure that any incident occurring at any point of the pipe can be detected and, if necessary, additional measuring rods may be installed. An incident is said detectable if it induces on at least one measuring rod a deviation with respect to expected displacement not lower than 5 mm. It has been chosen so that small normal changes in measured displacements are not mistaken as incidents. The incidents that are supposed likely to occur are: 1) loss of a support which induces mainly primary stresses, 2) locking of a snubber which induces mainly secondary stresses. Monitoring of pipe displacements is a simple and effective way of checking that no damaging perturbation has occurred on the pipe. Calculations carried out on the DHR loops of SUPERPHENIX show that allowable domains of acceptable size may be obtained using a relatively small number of measuring rods. The method

  3. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women?s first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control ...

  4. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei

    2004-01-01

    We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves

  5. SPS data on tunnel displacements and the ATL law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1993-09-01

    In this article we analyze data from long-term measurements of quadrupole displacements in the Super Proton Synchrotron ring at CERN. The variance of displacement can be approximated by ATL law with coefficient A = (0.1--0.4) * 10 -4 μm 2 /s/m, with T the time interval between measurements and L the distance between two points of the tunnel. The shape of the distribution function is found to be close to Gaussian. The results of the analysis are compared with other data on slow ground motion

  6. Airflow and Temperature Distribution in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T. V.

    This thesis deals with air flow and temperature distribution in a room ventilated by the displacement principle. The characteristic features of the ventilation system are treated in the whole room but main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the stratified flow region in front of the inlet device....... After a prefatory description of the background and the fundamentals of displacement ventilation the objectives of the current study are specified. The subsequent sections describe the measurements of velocity and temperature profiles carried out in a full scale test room. Based on experimental data...... of measured data is of crucial importance. Qualitatively satisfactory results do not ensure quantitative agreement....

  7. Kinetics of spontaneous displacement of RNA from heteroduplexes by DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, R; Ramamurthi, K S; Sigman, D S

    1996-01-01

    We have used R-loop formation and direct hybridization techniques to analyze the kinetics by which RNA is displaced from a heteroduplex by DNA of identical sequence. Using random walk simulations we were able to calculate the step times for a single displacement reaction. For RNA with a GC content of 57-60% the data indicate an RNA exchange probability of 50.06%, which is indicative of a modest destabilization of the heteroduplex compared with a DNA duplex in the presence of magnesium. The av...

  8. A Computer Based Moire Technique To Measure Very Small Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Amadshahi, Mansour A.; Subbaraman, B.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in the measurement of very small displacements in techniques such as moire, holography and speckle is limited by the noise inherent to the utilized optical devices. To reduce the noise to signal ratio, the moire method can be utilized. Two system of carrier fringes are introduced, an initial system before the load is applied and a final system when the load is applied. The moire pattern of these two systems contains the sought displacement information and the noise common to the two patterns is eliminated. The whole process is performed by a computer on digitized versions of the patterns. Examples of application are given.

  9. Coulomb displacement energies in nuclei: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Bernard, V.; Nguyen, V.G.

    1978-04-01

    The neutron core polarization gives rise to an important correction to the direct Coulomb contribution when one calculates the Coulomb displacement energies. In the Hartree-Fock model it is shown that this correction is about 2% to 4.5% in medium and heavy nuclei. The core polarization as well as other higher order effects can be included by using a selfconsistent description of the analog state in a complete proton particle-neutron hole space. The Coulomb displacement energies in 48 Ca, 88 Sr and 208 Pb have been calculated using Skyrme interactions SIII and SIV. A good agreement with experiment is obtained

  10. The Displacement of Regimes of Action in the Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsting, Vilhelm Stefan

    The aim of this paper is to explore how one might approach the profession of military command using the concepts of regimes of justification by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot in an analysis of the contemporary disputes and tensions between political and professional actors and in a time where...... of their contemporary role, responsibility and challenges) and an analysis of the displacement of military regimes in the light of economic and security changes at the societal level. I am arguing that the entrance of new regimes of justification are challenging and displacing the traditional professional justificatory...

  11. Dependence of displacement fields on the damage cluster nucleus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Zabela, A.G.; Nikolajchuk, L.I.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Displacement fields in doped crystals of cubic and hexagonal structures containing extended defects are studied. The numerical results are presented depending on the damage cluster nucleus geometry. All calculations are based on analytical representations of displacement fields in an integral form using elasticity theory equations. The investigation results are vital for radiation physics as they permit to predict and calculate both the character and geometry of distortions near damaged region cluster and determine cluster parameters on the basis of the known structure of distortions. Dependences are obtained for the following monocrystals: Mg, ZnO, CdS, W, Au. 6 refs.; 3 figs

  12. A comparison of cord gingival displacement with the gingitage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G; Neacy, K

    1981-11-01

    Fifteen young adult dogs were divided into three groups representing 0, 7- and 21-day healing periods. Randomly selected cuspid teeth were used to compare cord gingival displacement and gingitage techniques for subgingival tooth preparation and impression making. Clinical and histologic measurements were used as a basis for comparison. Results indicate that (1) the experimental teeth were clinically healthy at the beginning of the experiment, (2) clinical health of the gingival tissues was controlled throughout the course of the experiment, and (3) within this experimental setting, there was no significant difference between the cord gingival displacement technique and the gingitage technique.

  13. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  14. Relation between anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint disc and size of the condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Kubota, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Shibata, Takanori

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the cause of anterior displacement of the disc, we evaluated the relation between anterior displacement and the size of the condyle from MR images in 301 patients (602 TMJs) with clinical diagnosis of internal derangement. We found that the size of condyles with anterior displacement of the disc was significantly smaller than that of condyles without anterior displacement. This result suggests that small condyles may give rise to anterior displacement of the disc. (author)

  15. Forced population displacement | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2015 ... Increase land and housing tenure for the poor and help displaced communities rebuild the social fabric in their new neighbourhoods. ... The urban poor in Zimbabwe live in extreme stress and anxiety because they are unable to buy or rent property, or meet government requirements to develop their land.

  16. Current techniques for management of transverse displaced olecranon fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.; Heusinkveld, M.H.G.; Traa, W.; Oomen, P.; Oliva, F.; Del Buono, A.; Maffulli, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: displaced transverse fractures of the olecranon are the most common fractures occurring in the elbow in adults that requires operative intervention. METHODS: a literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct/Scopus, Google Scholar and Google using the keywords

  17. The internally displaced persons in Ukraine: Lviv’s example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bubniak

    2016-11-01

    As a result, the conclusions indicate that the internally displaced persons are gradually adopting in Lviv, as they got new social relations, gained new knowledge and skills, understood local social norms, realized that they are masters of their life and they are the only ones, who determine their future.

  18. Libyan armed conflict 2011: Mortality, injury and population displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Daw

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The Libyan armed conflict resulted in great human loss and social damage mirrored by high rates of mortality, injury and human displacement. Such parameters peaked as the conflict escalated and differed according to the Libyan regions and provinces involved. National and international efforts should be combined to overcome the consequences of these conflicts.

  19. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  20. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  1. Disaster-induced displacement in the Caribbean and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Hamza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available People in Small Island Developing States are particularly vulnerable to displacement by disaster. Governments in the Caribbean and the Pacific need urgently to do more risk management and planning, rather than focusing almost exclusively on response and relocation.

  2. Hydrodynamic Excitation Forces on Floating Structures with Finite Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2015-01-01

    excitation force is solely a function of time, hence the body is fixed in reference to the wave field. In this paper, the instantaneous position of the body is included in the calculation of the excitation force. Even though the displacement of the structure relative to a characteristic wavelength...

  3. Finding small displacements of recorded speckle patterns: revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Chakrabarti, Maumita

    2015-01-01

    An analytical expression for the bias effect in digital speckle correlation is derived based on a Gaussian approximation of the spatial pixel size and array extent. The evaluation is carried out having assumed an incident speckle field. The analysis is focused on speckle displacements in the order...

  4. Internal population displacement and its aftermath on Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interrogated the corporate existence of Nigeria and raised some fundamental questions regarding reasons for discontent, violent conflicts and internal population displacement in Nigeria given her enormous resources, both human and material. The paper through intensive content analysis provided answers to ...

  5. The importance of social capital in protracted displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Uzelac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available By understanding the role that social capital plays in the lives of Syrian refugees in Lebanon – how it is created, sustained, converted and what happens when it breaks down – we hope to generate discussion about ways to further tailor assessments, targeting and programming in this and other situations of protracted displacement.

  6. Crystal structure of vanadite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Skála, Roman; Haloda, J.; Císařová, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2006), s. 271-275 ISSN 1210-8197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : anisotropic displacement parameter * crystal structure * single-crystal X-ray refinement * vanadinite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.

  8. Classification of displacive transformations: what is a martensitic transformation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.W.; Olson, G.B.; Cohen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The displacive transformation classification proposed at ICOMAT 79 is reviewed in light of recent progress in mechanistic understanding. Issues considered include distinctions between shuffle transformation vs. self-accommodating shear, dilatation vs. shear-dominant transformation, and nucleated vs. continuous transformation. (orig.)

  9. The UN Security Council and prevention of displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjula Weerasinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the prohibitions against forced and arbitrary displacementcould significantly reduce the risk of, or prevent, displacement insituations of armed conflict, as could insisting on accountabilityfor violations of these prohibitions that amount to war crimes orcrimes against humanity. The UN Security Council has only partiallyaddressed these issues.

  10. Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.; Pape, A.

    1985-08-01

    Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given

  11. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  12. Urban Displacement: Fruits of a History of Collusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, June Manning

    1979-01-01

    Examines evidence supporting the theory that urban displacement is an example of the link between social injustice and economic interests. Considers federal policies regarding public housing, urban renewal, and highway construction and demonstrates how they have resulted in perpetuating discrimination against poorer citizens. (Author/WP)

  13. Lumped impulses, discrete displacements and a moving load analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Finite element models are usually presented as relations between lumped forces and discrete displacements. Mostly finite element models are found by the elaboration of the method of the virtual work - which is a special case of the Galerkin's variational principle -. By application of Galerkin's

  14. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2018-03-01

    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80 {nm}/√{ {Hz}} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  15. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...

  16. Inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Fortunato; Iovane, Angelo; Nicosia, Antonio; Candela, Fabrizio; Midiri, Massimo; De Maria, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To define the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of inferomedial displacement of the meniscal fragments. Materials and methods. The MR examinations of the knee performed between December 2002 and April 2004 on 676 patients (mean age 32 years) with knee trauma and subsequently subjected to arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed to assess the presence of bucket-handle meniscal tear and inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment. The MR examinations were performed using a superconductive 0.5 T MR unit with a transmitting/receiving coil dedicated for the extremities. The MR images were acquired with SE T1 and GE T2 sequences in the sagittal, coronal and axial planes with 3 mm thickness and 1 mm gap. The images were independently reviewed by two authors blinded to the arthroscopy findings. In case of disagreement, a third author, unaware of the arthroscopic findings, gave his judgment. Results. On MR images a bucket-handle meniscal tear was identified in 54/676 patients. In 6 out of 54 patients, an inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement of the medical meniscus with associated inflammatory synovial reaction around the distal insertion of the medial homolateral collateral ligament was detected. All cases were confirmed by arthroscopy and no statistical differences between the two authors were observed. Conclusions. MR allows the detection of the inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement and a more correct planning of arthroscopy with a strong reduction of repeat interventions [it

  17. Internal displacement in Kenya: the quest for durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal displacement in Kenya has been a challenge since the colonial era but only recently has a legal framework been developed to address IDP protection issues. The process of developing this framework offers some useful lessons for stakeholders in similar situations.

  18. Thirty years of development-induced displacement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dubé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the process of poverty reduction in its poorer regions, China decided in 2001 to implement a national programme of displacement of populations living in areas considered environmentally fragile. But these programmes were hardly a novelty for China, and the record of previous such attempts has been far from positive.

  19. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  20. The Right to Education for Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A distinctive challenge facing internally displaced persons (IDPs) are structural conditions that deny them access to the right to education. The main aim of the study is to investigate the role of open and distance learning in providing access and educational opportunities to the IDPs. The research methodology for this study ...

  1. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...

  2. Case report: traumatic displacement of a cochlear implant magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keereweer, Stijn; Van der Schroeff, Marc P; Pullens, Bas

    2014-04-01

    To date, over 200 000 cochlear implants (CIs) have been implanted worldwide and the incidence is still increasing. We present a case of traumatic displacement of CI magnet to raise awareness about this complication and to highlight the need for vigilance during surgery as well as for proper counseling. The clinical presentation of a 1.5-year-old boy with a traumatic displacement of a CI magnet was presented and the literature was reviewed for this rare complication. After minor head injury, the sound processor could no longer connect to the CI. X-ray imaging demonstrated displacement of the CI magnet. During revision surgery, the magnet was replaced by a new magnet in the silicon holding cap. Intraoperative impedance measurements were normal and the CI was successfully activated 4 weeks postoperatively. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the risk of displacement of the CI magnet after (minor) head injury. Young boys tend to have a higher risk for this complication.

  3. Whose Community Is This? Mathematics of Neighborhood Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstein, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Displacement was part of students' realities--gentrification in North Lawndale (a Chicago community), deportation in Little Village, and foreclosures in both. The author started the unit in his 12th-grade "math for social justice" class by telling the story (with family permission) of Carmen, a student in his class. Her grandmother paid…

  4. Displacement-length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2011-11-01

    Within a low-grade ductile shear zone, we investigated exceptionally well exposed brittle faults, which accumulated antithetic slip and rotated into the shearing direction. The foliation planes of the mylonitic host rock intersect the faults approximately at their centre and exhibit ductile reverse drag. Three types of brittle faults can be distinguished: (i) Faults developing on pre-existing K-feldspar/mica veins that are oblique to the shear direction. These faults have triclinic flanking structures. (ii) Wing cracks opening as mode I fractures at the tips of the triclinic flanking structures, perpendicular to the shear direction. These cracks are reactivated as faults with antithetic shear, extend from the parent K-feldspar/mica veins and form a complex linked flanking structure system. (iii) Joints forming perpendicular to the shearing direction are deformed to form monoclinic flanking structures. Triclinic and monoclinic flanking structures record elliptical displacement-distance profiles with steep displacement gradients at the fault tips by ductile flow in the host rocks, resulting in reverse drag of the foliation planes. These structures record one of the greatest maximum displacement/length ratios reported from natural fault structures. These exceptionally high ratios can be explained by localized antithetic displacement along brittle slip surfaces, which did not propagate during their rotation during surrounding ductile flow.

  5. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the nearest whole cubic centimetre, in accordance with ASTM E 29-67. (2) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  6. The Aesthetics of Displacement and the Performance of Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.; Bal, M.; Hernández-Navarro, M.Á.

    2011-01-01

    The essay takes migration as both the content of a film, and the mode through which it is constructed. Aesthetics becomes the practice of constructing displacements between forms (poem, theater, film, song) and the manipulation of their materiality, in order to render the complexity of migration in

  7. A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G., E-mail: guillaume.martin@cea.fr [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Devynck, F.; Krack, M. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Maillard, S. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO{sub 2}. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO{sub 2}. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.

  8. Effect of displacement on resistance and capacitance of polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan Sanginovich; Saeed, Muhammad Tariq; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Moiz, Syed Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of displacement sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) films. About 1 wt% of PANI micropowder is mixed and stirred in a solution of 90 wt% water and 10 wt% alcohol at room temperature. The films of PANI are deposited from solution by drop-casting on Ag electrodes, which are preliminary deposited on glass substrates. The thicknesses of the PANI films are in the range of 20 μm–80 μm. A displacement sensor with polyaniline film as an active material is designed and fabricated. The investigations showed that, on average, the AC resistance of the sensor decreases by 2 times and the capacitance accordingly increases by 1.6 times as the displacement changes in the range of 0 mm–0.5 mm. The polyaniline is the only active material of the displacement sensor. The resistance and capacitance of the PANI changes under the pressure of spring and elastic rubber, and this pressure is created by the downward movement of the micrometer. (general)

  9. Heeding the warning signs: further displacement predicted for Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeidl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much evidence pointing to another wave of displacement likely to occur in Afghanistan. Ignoring these early warning signs and failing to act may mean paying a higher price in the future, both financially and in human terms.

  10. Displacive processes in systems with bcc patent lattice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2011), s. 841-851 ISSN 0079-6425 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : diffusionless phase transformations * displacive processes * gamma surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 18.216, year: 2011

  11. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  12. Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... SAIC experts explored poverty, violence, and inequality in 40 cities across Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The 15 research ... Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties. October 20 ... in urban spaces. Return to main page: Solutions to make cities safe and inclusive.

  13. White Collar Displacement: Job Erosion in the Service Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Lonnie; Danann, Sharon

    The National Commission for Employment Policy estimates that 19 million workers--17 percent of the work force--are in jobs directly threatened by office automation, and the consequences of the displacement of clerical workers due to increasing office computerization are as serious as those from manufacturing job loss. Between 1983 and 1988, almost…

  14. Mining Induced Displacement and Mental Health: A Call for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, Kristen P.

    2010-01-01

    India is a country of unparalleled diversity within both the cultural and ecological spheres of life. This paper examines the author's experience exploring and inquiring into the mental health implications of mining and mining induced displacement within several Adivasi (tribal) communities in Andhra Pradesh, India. Through collaboration with…

  15. Light Ray Displacements due to Air Temperature Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Teymurazyan, A; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In the optical monitoring systems suggested to control the geometry of tracking spectrometers, light beams serve as reference frames for the measurement of the tracking chamber displacements and deformations. It is shown that air temperature gradients can induce systematic errors which considerably exceed the intrinsic resolution of the monitoring system.

  16. All-fiber multimode interference micro-displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2013-01-01

    We report an all-fiber micro-displacement sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) effects. The micro-displacement sensor consists of a segment of No-Core multimode fiber (MMF) with one end spliced to a segment of single mode fiber (SMF) which acts as the input. The other end of the MMF and another SMF are inserted into a capillary ferrule filled with index matching liquid. Since the refractive index of the liquid is higher than that of the ferrule, a liquid MMF with a diameter of 125 µm is formed between the fibers inside the ferrule. When the fibers are separated this effectively increases the length of the MMF. Since the peak wavelength response of MMI devices is very sensitive to changes in the MMF's length, this can be used to detect micro-displacements. By measuring spectral changes we have obtained a sensing range of 3 mm with a sensitivity of 25 nm mm −1 and a resolution of 20 µm. The sensor can also be used to monitor small displacements by using a single wavelength to interrogate the transmission of the MMI device close to the resonance peak. Under this latter regime we were able to obtain a sensitivity of 7000 mV mm −1 and a sensing range of 100 µm, with a resolution up to 1 µm. The simplicity and versatility of the sensor make it very suitable for many diverse applications. (paper)

  17. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor.

  18. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-04

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women.

  19. Displacement of oil by carbon dioxide. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Jr., F. M.; Taber, J. J.

    1981-05-01

    Results of a comprehensive research program on factors influencing CO/sub 2/ flooding are reported. Equipment constructed for static equilibrium measurements of phase volumes, compositions, densities and viscosities is described. Design of an apparatus used for a variety of displacement tests is also reported. Apparatus and experimental procedures are described for a new experiment in which equilibrium phase compositions can be measured rapidly and continuously. Results of displacements of crude oil from slim tubes, cores and mixing cells are presented and interpreted in terms of detailed measurements of the phase behavior and fluid properties of the CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures. The complex phase behavior of low temperature CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures is described and compared with similar behavior for CO/sub 2/-alkane mixtures. A simple correlation is offered for the ranges of reservoir temperature and pressure at which liquid-liquid and liquid-liquid-vapor phase behavior should be expected to occur. Direct evidence is presented of the efficiency with which a CO/sub 2/-rich liquid phase can extract hydrocarbons from a crude oil. A simple one-dimensional process simulator for CO/sub 2/ flooding applications is described. Simulation results are compared with experimental data from slim tube displacements. Good agreement is reported between calculated and experimental results as long as the volume change of CO/sub 2/ on mixing with the oil is not too great.Sensitivity of calculated results to phase behavior and fluid properties is discussed. Comparison of displacement results, phase behavior measurements, and model calculations provides strong evidence that the high displacement efficiency which can be obtained when pressure is high enough and viscous fingering is controlled is the result of efficient extraction of a broad range of hydrocarbons by a dense CO/sub 2/-rich phase which is a liquid if the temperature is below about 50/sup 0/C (130/sup 0/F).

  20. The Banality of Displacement: Turning a (ColourBlind Eye on the Ethnic Representation of the Internally Displaced in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Oslender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has one of the highest numbers of internally displaced persons, or IDPs, world-wide. Yet, there exists a conundrum. While latest NGO figures put the total number of IDPs since 1985 at 4 million, Colombian government figures show much lower estimates of 1.9 million. In fact, there are significant discrepancies in the ways how IDPs are identified, counted and categorised. Moreover, whereas it is now commonly argued that displacement has affected black populations proportionately higher than mestizo populations, no data exists to sustain such a view. The displaced population has simply not been accounted for in terms of its ethnic composition. In this article, drawing on Hannah Arendt’s work on terror and evil, I propose the notion of the “banality of displacement” to explain such a colour-blind approach in the discourses and representation of displacement in Colombia. I will refer in particular to the case of the Afro-Colombian population, drawing on fieldwork data collected since 1996, when I begun to work with the social movement of black communities in Colombia

  1. Barrier displacement on a neutral landscape: Towards a theory of continental biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Tagliacollo, Victor; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Macroevolutionary theory posits three processes leading to lineage diversification and the formation of regional biotas: dispersal (species geographic range expansion), speciation (species lineage splitting), and extinction (species lineage termination). The Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) predicts species richness values using just two of these processes; dispersal and extinction. Yet most species on Earth live on continents or continental shelves, and the dynamics of evolutionary diversification at regional and continental scales are qualitatively different from those that govern the formation of species richness on biogeographic islands. Certain geomorphological processes operating perennially on continental platforms displace barriers to gene flow and organismal dispersal, and affect all three terms of macroevolutionary diversification. For example, uplift of a dissected landscape and river capture both merge and separate portions of adjacent areas, allowing dispersal and larger geographic ranges, vicariant speciation and smaller geographic ranges, and extinction when range sizes are subdivided below a minimum persistence threshold.

  2. Sensorless displacement estimation of a shape memory alloy coil spring actuator using inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hongjip; Lee, Dae-young; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Han, Yongsu; Ha, Jung-Ik

    2013-01-01

    To measure the displacement of a shape memory alloy (SMA) coil spring actuator for feedback control, displacement sensors larger than the actuator are normally required. In this study, a novel method for estimating the displacement of an SMA coil spring actuator without a sensor is proposed. Instead of a sensor, coil inductance is used for estimating the displacement. Coil inductance is estimated by measuring the voltage and the transient response of the current. It has a one-to-one relationship with the displacement of the coil and is not affected by load. Previous methods for estimating displacement using resistance measurements are heavily affected by load variations. The experimental results herein show that displacement is estimated with reasonable accuracy under varying loads using coil inductance. This sensorless method of estimating the displacement of an SMA coil spring actuator can be used to build a compact feedback controller because there is no need for a bulky displacement sensor. (paper)

  3. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  4. Object permanence in dogs: invisible displacement in a rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Gipson, Cassie D; Vaughan, Aubrey; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R

    2009-02-01

    Dogs were tested for object permanence using an invisible displacement in which an object was hidden in one of two containers at either end of a beam and the beam was rotated. Consistent with earlier research, when the beam was rotated 180 degrees , the dogs failed to find the object. However, when the beam was rotated only 90 degrees , they were successful. Furthermore, when the dogs were led either 90 degrees or 180 degrees around the apparatus, they were also successful. In a control condition, when the dogs could not see the direction of the 90 degrees rotation, they failed to find the object. The results suggest that the 180 degrees rotation may produce an interfering context that can be reduced by rotating the apparatus only 90 degrees or by changing the dogs' perspective. Once the conflict is eliminated, dogs show evidence of object permanence that includes invisibly displaced objects.

  5. Nano-displacement measurement based on virtual pinhole confocal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long; Kuang, Cuifang; Xue, Yi; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A virtual pinhole confocal system based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection and image processing techniques is built to measure axial displacement with 10 nm resolution, preeminent flexibility and excellent robustness when facing spot drifting. Axial displacement of the sample surface is determined by capturing the confocal laser spot using a CCD detector and quantifying the energy collected by programmable virtual pinholes. Experiments indicate an applicable measuring range of 1000 nm (Gaussian fitting r = 0.9902) with a highly linear range of 500 nm (linear fitting r = 0.9993). A concentric subtraction algorithm is introduced to further enhance resolution. Factors affecting measuring precision, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio are discussed using theoretical deductions and diffraction simulations. The virtual pinhole technique has promising applications in surface profiling and confocal imaging applications which require easily-customizable pinhole configurations. (paper)

  6. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    rates indicates, that the modeled elastic displacements are well captured. Based on this analysis, the GIA rates are estimated to -1 ± 0.6 mm/yr at KELY, 2 ± 0.7 mm/yr at SCOR, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr at QAQ1. At the sites KULU and THU2 the elastic displacement rates could not be accurately estimated...... modeled and removed. Over a period of a few decades, the GIA rate is assumed to be constant. Hence, changes in the observed rate results from the present-day changes. Here, mass change grids, derived from Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data from three overlapping time spans are used...

  7. Multiplexed displacement fiber sensor using thin core fiber exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This letter reports a multiplexed optical displacement sensor using a thin core fiber (TCF) exciter. The TCF exciter is followed by a stripped single mode optical fiber. A small section of buffer is used as the movable component along the single mode fiber. Ultra-weak cladding mode reflection (< - 75 dB) was employed to probe the refractive index discontinuity between the air and buffer coating boundary. The position change of the movable buffer segment results in a delay change of the cladding mode reflection. Thus, it is a measure of the displacement of the buffer segment with respect to the glass fiber. The insertion loss of one sensor was measured to be less than 3 dB. A linear relationship was evaluated between the measurement position and absolute position of the moving actuator. Multiplexed capability was demonstrated and no cross talk was found between the sensors.

  8. Does boat traffic cause displacement of fish in estuaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Alistair; Whitfield, Alan K; Cowley, Paul D; Järnegren, Johanna; Næsje, Tor F

    2013-10-15

    Estuaries are increasingly under threat from a variety of human impacts. Recreational and commercial boat traffic in urban areas may represent a significant disturbance to fish populations and have particularly adverse effects in spatially restricted systems such as estuaries. We examined the effects of passing boats on the abundance of different sized fish within the main navigation channel of an estuary using high resolution sonar (DIDSON). Both the smallest (100-300 mm) and largest (>501 mm) size classes had no change in their abundance following the passage of boats. However, a decrease in abundance of mid-sized fish (301-500 mm) occurred following the passage of boats. This displacement may be attributed to a number of factors including noise, bubbles and the rapidly approaching object of the boat itself. In highly urbanised estuarine systems, regular displacement by boat traffic has the potential to have major negative population level effects on fish assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy enhancement of point triangulation probes for linear displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Oh, SeBaek; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2000-03-01

    Point triangulation probes (PTBs) fall into a general category of noncontact height or displacement measurement devices. PTBs are widely used for their simple structure, high resolution, and long operating range. However, there are several factors that must be taken into account in order to obtain high accuracy and reliability; measurement errors from inclinations of an object surface, probe signal fluctuations generated by speckle effects, power variation of a light source, electronic noises, and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing algorithm, named as EASDF (expanded average square difference function), for a newly designed PTB which is composed of an incoherent source (LED), a line scan array detector, a specially selected diffuse reflecting surface, and several optical components. The EASDF, which is a modified correlation function, is able to calculate displacement between the probe and the object surface effectively even if there are inclinations, power fluctuations, and noises.

  10. Displaced mothers: birth and resettlement, gratitude and complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise

    2013-01-01

    In narratives of displaced Karen women from Burma, both before and after resettlement in Australia, women framed their birthing experiences with those of persecution and displacement. Although grateful for the security of resettlement in Australia, social inclusion was negligible and women's birthing experiences occurred in that context. Women described the impact of the lack of interpreting services in Australian hospitals and an absence of personal and communal care that they expected. Frequently, this made straightforward births confusing or difficult, and exacerbated the distress of more complicated births. Differences in individual responses related to women's histories, with younger women displaying more preparedness to complain and identify discrimination. The problems identified with health care, coupled with the inability of many of the women to complain requires attention, not just within the health care system, but more widely as part of social attitudes concerning Australia's obligations to those who seek asylum.

  11. Dynamic protein assembly by programmable DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca P.; Blackstock, Daniel; Sun, Qing; Chen, Wilfred

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by the remarkable ability of natural protein switches to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental queues, here we report a strategy to engineer synthetic protein switches by using DNA strand displacement to dynamically organize proteins with highly diverse and complex logic gate architectures. We show that DNA strand displacement can be used to dynamically control the spatial proximity and the corresponding fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two fluorescent proteins. Performing Boolean logic operations enabled the explicit control of protein proximity using multi-input, reversible and amplification architectures. We further demonstrate the power of this technology beyond sensing by achieving dynamic control of an enzyme cascade. Finally, we establish the utility of the approach as a synthetic computing platform that drives the dynamic reconstitution of a split enzyme for targeted prodrug activation based on the sensing of cancer-specific miRNAs.

  12. Heterodyne interferometric technique for displacement control at the nanometric scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc; Haddad, Darine; Alayli, Yasser; Juncar, Patrick

    2003-11-01

    We propose a method of displacement control that addresses the measurement requirements of the nanotechnology community and provide a traceability to the definition of the mèter at the nanometric scale. The method is based on the use of both a heterodyne Michelson's interferometer and a homemade high frequency electronic circuit. The system so established allows us to control the displacement of a translation stage with a known step of 4.945 nm. Intrinsic relative uncertainty on the step value is 1.6×10-9. Controls of the period of repetition of these steps with a high-stability quartz oscillator permits to impose an uniform speed to the translation stage with the same accuracy. This property will be used for the watt balance project of the Bureau National de Métrologie of France.

  13. Environmental Displacements: The Case of Small Island States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. Martins Mattar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The human displacement caused by adverse weather conditions is, and has been for a long time, a natural strategy to adapt to environmental changes. However, the frequency of natural disasters and the negative impact of climate change have increased significantly affecting a growing number of people. Internal and external tensions caused by large-scale displacements, conflicts generated by resource scarcity, increased spread of diseases and geopolitical reordering are among the consequences linked to this phenomenon. The case of the small island nations that will be submerged by the sea level rise is an extreme example that raises fascinating questions. This article aims at analyzing the links of climate change on the dynamics of migration and exploring legal and political implications and possible solutions, in particular, for the populations from small island nations.

  14. Displacement Convexity for First-Order Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Seneci, Tommaso

    2018-05-01

    In this thesis, we consider the planning problem for first-order mean-field games (MFG). These games degenerate into optimal transport when there is no coupling between players. Our aim is to extend the concept of displacement convexity from optimal transport to MFGs. This extension gives new estimates for solutions of MFGs. First, we introduce the Monge-Kantorovich problem and examine related results on rearrangement maps. Next, we present the concept of displacement convexity. Then, we derive first-order MFGs, which are given by a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation coupled with a transport equation. Finally, we identify a large class of functions, that depend on solutions of MFGs, which are convex in time. Among these, we find several norms. This convexity gives bounds for the density of solutions of the planning problem.

  15. Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.

  16. Beam focusing by aperture displacement in multiampere ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.D.; Kim, J.; Matsuda, S.

    1975-05-01

    Results are given of an experimental study of beam focusing by aperture displacement (Δx) in duoPIGatron ion sources. Measurements with a single aperture, accel-decel electrode geometry show that the beam deflection angle is linear with Δx/z for the round aperture and with Δx/z* 2 for the slit aperture where z and z* are respectively the extraction gap distance and the effective gap distance. Applying the result of the single aperture study to the multiaperture, duoPIGatron sources, it was possible to increase the neutral beam injection power to the ORMAK plasma by approximately 40 percent. Also presented are discussion and comparison of other work on the effect of aperture displacement on beam deflection. (U.S.)

  17. Fission-neutron displacement cross sections in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Saburo; Aruga, Takeo; Nakata, Kiyotomo

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity damage rates for 22 metals were measured after fission-spectrum neutron irradiation at low temperature and the experimental damage rates were compared with the theoretical calculation. The relation between the theoretical displacement cross section and the atomic weight of metals can be written by two curves; one is for fcc and hcp metals, and another is for bcc metals. On the other hand, the experimental displacement cross section versus atomic weight is shown approximately by a curve for both fcc and bcc metals, and the cross section for hcp metals deviates from the curve. The defect production efficiency is 0.3-0.4 for fcc metals and 0.6-0.8 for bcc metals. (orig.)

  18. Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Xu Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of displacement natural ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yingchun

    2005-01-01

    Natural ventilation is widely recognised as contributing towards low-energy building design. The requirement to reduce energy usage in new buildings has rejuvenated interest in natural ventilation. This thesis deals with computer modelling of natural displacement ventilation driven either by buoyancy or buoyancy combined with wind forces. Two benchmarks have been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to evaluate the accuracy with which CFD is able to mo...

  20. Outcomes of nonoperatively treated displaced scapular body fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulias, Apostolos; Molinero, Kenneth G; Krenk, Daniel E; Muffly, Matthew T; Altman, Daniel T; Altman, Gregory T

    2011-05-01

    Displaced scapular body fractures most commonly are treated conservatively. However there is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding the outcomes owing to retrospective design of studies, different classification systems, and diverse outcome tools. The functional outcome after nonoperative management of displaced scapular body fractures was assessed by change in the DASH (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score; (2) the radiographic outcome was assessed by the change of the glenopolar angle (GPA); and (3) associated scapular and extrascapular injuries that may affect outcome were identified. Forty-nine consecutive patients were treated with early passive and active ROM exercises for a displaced scapular body fracture. We followed 32 of these patients (65.3%) for a minimum of 6 months (mean, 15 months; range, 6-33 months). Mean age of the patients was 46.9 years (range, 21-84 years) and the mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 21.5 (range, 5-50). Subjective functional results (DASH score) and radiographic assessment (fracture union, glenopolar angle) were measured. All fractures healed uneventfully. The mean change of glenopolar angle was 9° (range, 0°-20°). The mean change of the DASH score was 10.2, which is a change with minimal clinical importance. There was a correlation between the change in this score with the ISS and presence of rib fractures. Satisfactory outcomes are reported with nonoperative treatment of displaced scapular body fractures. We have shown that the severity of ISS and the presence of rib fractures adversely affect the clinical outcome.

  1. Displaced tibial shaft fractures treated with ASIF compression internal fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Larsen, T K; Petersen, O C

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one tibial shaft fractures treated by ASIF compression osteosynthesis were seen at follow-up at a median time of 46 weeks after injury. Twenty-four were open fractures and the patients received prophylactic antibiotics. The median stay in hospital was 15 days for open fractures and 6 days f...... for closed fractures. There were complications in 26 cases, with deep infection in 9 cases. At present we cannot advocate the use of ASIF compression osteosynthesis for displaced tibial fractures....

  2. Arterial displacement by the tumor demonstrated by magnetic resonance CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro.

    1985-01-01

    MR-CT permits visualization of blood vessels non-invasively. Major blood vessels in scan slices are demonstrated as structures with low or no signal intensity. In this report, two cases with brain tumor and spinal tumor are presented in which arterial displacement by the tumor was visualized by MR-CT. MR-CT is considered to be an effective method in detecting blood vessel abnormalities. (author)

  3. Contaminant Distribution Around Persons in Rooms Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    An optimal design of the ventilation system needs a proper prediction of the velocity, temperature and contaminant distribution in the room. Traditionally this is done either by the use of simplified models or by a somewhat more comprehensive CFD-simulation. Common to both methods is usually...... the lack of consideration for the persons present in the room. This paper deals with some of the effects of persons present in a displacement ventilated room, especially the effect on the contaminant distribution....

  4. Mechanism of chimera formation during the Multiple Displacement Amplification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Timothy B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA is a method used for amplifying limiting DNA sources. The high molecular weight amplified DNA is ideal for DNA library construction. While this has enabled genomic sequencing from one or a few cells of unculturable microorganisms, the process is complicated by the tendency of MDA to generate chimeric DNA rearrangements in the amplified DNA. Determining the source of the DNA rearrangements would be an important step towards reducing or eliminating them. Results Here, we characterize the major types of chimeras formed by carrying out an MDA whole genome amplification from a single E. coli cell and sequencing by the 454 Life Sciences method. Analysis of 475 chimeras revealed the predominant reaction mechanisms that create the DNA rearrangements. The highly branched DNA synthesized in MDA can assume many alternative secondary structures. DNA strands extended on an initial template can be displaced becoming available to prime on a second template creating the chimeras. Evidence supports a model in which branch migration can displace 3'-ends freeing them to prime on the new templates. More than 85% of the resulting DNA rearrangements were inverted sequences with intervening deletions that the model predicts. Intramolecular rearrangements were favored, with displaced 3'-ends reannealing to single stranded 5'-strands contained within the same branched DNA molecule. In over 70% of the chimeric junctions, the 3' termini had initiated priming at complimentary sequences of 2–21 nucleotides (nts in the new templates. Conclusion Formation of chimeras is an important limitation to the MDA method, particularly for whole genome sequencing. Identification of the mechanism for chimera formation provides new insight into the MDA reaction and suggests methods to reduce chimeras. The 454 sequencing approach used here will provide a rapid method to assess the utility of reaction modifications.

  5. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  6. Stochastic displacement group and its application in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsraj, Kh.; Tsehrehn, D.; Sehrdamba, L.

    1978-01-01

    Within the stochastic displacement the equation of the brownian motion and the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are obtained. It is noted that the existance of a new equation describing four states with certain energy is possible. The notion of stochastic groups and its representations with illustrations in concrete examples and applications are given. The diffusion equation is obtained on the basis of the notion of stochastic rotation

  7. Wave function collapse implies divergence of average displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-01-01

    We show that propagating a truncated discontinuous wave function by Schr\\"odinger's equation, as asserted by the collapse axiom, gives rise to non-existence of the average displacement of the particle on the line. It also implies that there is no Zeno effect. On the other hand, if the truncation is done so that the reduced wave function is continuous, the average coordinate is finite and there is a Zeno effect. Therefore the collapse axiom of measurement needs to be revised.

  8. Improved anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J

    2009-01-01

    As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.

  9. TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR DISPLACED FRACTURE OF THE CALCANEAL TUBEROSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva G. Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to compare the outcome following conservative or surgical treatment for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 men and 4 women aged 20 to 44 years chose to undergo conservative (9 feet or surgical (10 feet treatment by a single surgeon for closed displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. The injury mechanism was a fall from a height of <1.5 m; the mean time from injury to treatment was 3 (range 1-7 days. Conservative treatment comprised immobilisation in a plaster cast. Surgical treatment involved fixation with a half thread cannulated screw for large fragments (in 6 feet or a mini-plate for comminuted fragments (in 4 feet. At the final follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and hind foot score was evaluated. RESULTS The conservative and surgery groups were comparable in terms of age, gender and fracture displacement. The mean follow-up duration was 20 (range, 14-24 months. All patients had bone union; none had implant loosening or breakage. One patient with surgical treatment developed skin numbness at the medial aspect of the heel that resolved following neurotrophic drug treatment for 3 months. The surgery group achieved earlier full weight bearing (5.8 vs. 7.5 weeks, p<0.001 and return to work (5.9 vs. 8.2 weeks, p=0.048, but comparable AOFAS score (89.0 vs. 88.2, p=0.4. CONCLUSION Surgery for displaced fracture of the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity enabled earlier full weight bearing and return to work, but comparable AOFAS score.

  10. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, Katarina; Haraldsson, Henrik; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Engvall, Jan; Ingels, Neil B Jr; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts

  11. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  12. Optimization of Moving Coil Actuators for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized for actu......This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized...... for actuating annular seat valves in a digital displacement machine. The optimization objectives are to the minimize the actuator power, the valve flow losses and the height of the actuator. Evaluation of the objective function involves static finite element simulation and simulation of an entire operation...... designs requires approximately 20 W on average and may be realized in 20 mm × Ø 22.5 mm (height × diameter) for a 20 kW pressure chamber. The optimization is carried out using the multi-objective Generalized Differential Evolu-tion optimization algorithm GDE3 which successfully handles constrained multi-objective...

  13. Engineering measures and risk assessment against fault displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Okamoto, Koji; Dodo, Takashi; Kamiya, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    A special committee on 'assessment on fault activities and engineering risk' was established at the Japan Atomic Energy Society. With a participation of the Japan Society of Maintenology, a study group on nuclear safety regulations was established at the Japan Society of Maintenology, and this theme has been examined. Among the technics for evaluating the effects of fault displacement on nuclear facilities, the concept of application of the safety margin evaluation method is shown. By applying this method, it is possible to evaluate nuclear safety against fault displacement, and it is also possible to obtain risk information such as the conditions of facilities and safety functions (retention or loss) as well as the safety margin against core damage, including the event exceeding prediction. Thus, it is possible to verify the effectiveness of accident management and to make decisions for further countermeasures to reduce risk through using the obtained risk information. The countermeasures prepared for large scale damage can also be effectively utilized. It is necessary not only the fault displacement targeted in this paper, but also the results of risk assessment obtained by safety margin assessment etc. are reflected on the improvement of accident management at the site, education and training, and assumption of various events and desk training, and are linked to safety improvement. Efforts for encouraging these actions are also required. (A.O.)

  14. A Symptomatic Displaced Os Odontoideum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Nikouei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Os odontoideum (OO is a form of odontoid anomaly presented by a separate ossicle with a smooth, sclerotic border not fused with C2 body. The current paper reports a boy with irreducible displaced os odontoideum with severe neurologic deficit after a minor trauma. Case Presentation A 16-year-old boy admitted in the center due to neck pain and torticollis with neurologic deficit. He had a history of multiple minor traumas. Advanced imaging assessment demonstrated displaced os odontoideum with minimal space available for cord (SAC and myelomalacia. After unsuccessful closed reduction a 2-stage operation was planned: first, the anterior transoral release and odontoid resection with subsequent halo-traction and second, the posterior atlanto-axial instrumented fusion with bilateral C1 hook and C2 pedicular screws. Conclusions Congenital anomalies of the odontoid are associated with C1-C2 instability that can be subluxated or dislocated with minor trauma and cause permanent neurologic deficit or even death. When acute cervical spine trauma is imaged, os odontoideum should be distinguished from an acute dens fracture with a multimodality imaging approach including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and radiography. Here is the report of a rare case with irreducible displaced os odontiodeum treated him with anterior release, odontoid resection and posterior C1-C2 instrumented fusion.

  15. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Graves, N.J.

    1976-12-01

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included

  16. Active Control Does Not Eliminate Motion-Induced Illusory Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available When the sine-wave grating of a Gabor patch drifts to the left or right, the perceived position of the entire object is shifted in the direction of local motion. In the current work we explored whether active control of the physical position of the patch overcomes such motion induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 1 we created a simple computer game and asked participants to continuously guide a Gabor patch along a randomly curving path using a joystick. When the grating inside the Gabor patch was stationary, participants could perform this task without error. When the grating drifted to either left or right, we observed systematic errors consistent with previous reports of motion-induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 2 we created an iPad application where the built-in accelerometer tilt control was used to steer the patch through as series of “gates”. Again, we observed systematic guidance errors that depended on the direction and speed of local motion. In conclusion, we found no evidence that participants could adapt or compensate for illusory displacement given active control of the target.

  17. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  18. A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-12-01

    The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

  19. General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, A., E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com, E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

  20. STRAIGHTENING THE DENSITY-DISPLACEMENT RELATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of a logarithmic density variable in estimating the Lagrangian displacement field motivated by the success of a logarithmic transformation in restoring information to the matter power spectrum. The logarithmic relation is an extension of the linear relation, motivated by the continuity equation, in which the density field is assumed to be proportional to the divergence of the displacement field; we compare the linear and logarithmic relations by measuring both of these fields directly in a cosmological N-body simulation. The relative success of the logarithmic and linear relations depends on the scale at which the density field is smoothed. Thus we explore several ways of measuring the density field, including Cloud-In-Cell smoothing, adaptive smoothing, and the (scale-independent) Delaunay tessellation, and we use both a Fourier-space and a geometrical tessellation approach to measuring the divergence. We find that the relation between the divergence of the displacement field and the density is significantly tighter and straighter with a logarithmic density variable, especially at low redshifts and for very small (∼2 h –1 Mpc) smoothing scales. We find that the grid-based methods are more reliable than the tessellation-based method of calculating both the density and the divergence fields, though in both cases the logarithmic relation works better in the appropriate regime, which corresponds to nonlinear scales for the grid-based methods and low densities for the tessellation-based method.

  1. EDSPA, 1-D Mechanical Displacement for Elastic, Thermoelastic, Viscoelastic Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlich, M.; Elsen, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EDSPA solves the one dimensional mechanical displacement equation in radial (sphere) axisymmetric cylindrical (infinite cylinder, slab) coordinates. The constitutive laws for the material to be considered can comprise the - elastic and/or - thermoelastic and/or - viscoplastic behaviour. The boundary conditions allow to prescribe displacement and/or stress values. The delivered version of EDSPA is especially suitable for the calculation of borehole problems in rock salt (heater boreholes or free converging boreholes or caverns) where convergence rates and/or contact pressures are of interest. 2 - Method of solution: The coarse-mesh method is used to transform the displacement differential equation (quasi-stationary case: second order ordinary differential equation as a two point boundary value problem) into a system of algebraic equations. This three-diagonal system is solved with the Thomas algorithm (direct solver). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Because of EDSPA's simple one-dimensional formulation there are no restrictions for storage allocation and argument ranges

  2. Micro-stress dominant displacive reconstructive transition in lithium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiwei; Yan, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Fang [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu (China); Lei, Li, E-mail: lei@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu (China); Li, Xiaodong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is supposed that diffusive reconstructive transitions usually take place under hydrostatic pressure or low stresses, and displacive reconstructive phase transitions easily occur at nonhydrostatic pressure. Here, by in-situ high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction and single-crystal Raman scattering studies on lithium aluminate at room temperature, we show that the reconstructive transition mechanism is dependent on the internal microscopic stresses rather than the macroscopic stresses. In this case, even hydrostatic pressure can favor the displacive transition if the compressibility of crystal is anisotropic. During hydrostatic compression, γ-LiAlO{sub 2} transforms to δ-LiAlO{sub 2} at about 4 GPa, which is much lower than that in previous nonhydrostatic experiments (above 9 GPa). In the region where both phases coexist, there are enormous microscopic stresses stemming from the lattice mismatch, suggesting that this transition is displacive. Furthermore, the atomic picture is drawn with the help of the shear Raman modes.

  3. Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, M T

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the psychological processes that are affected by geographic displacement. The literature from the fields of geography, psychology, anthropology, and psychiatry was reviewed to develop a "psychology of place" and to determine the manner in which place-related psychological processes are affected by upheaval in the environment. The psychology of place is an emerging area of research that explores the connection between individuals and their intimate environments. The psychology of place posits that individuals require a "good enough" environment in which to live. They are linked to that environment through three key psychological processes: attachment, familiarity, and identity. Place attachment, which parallels, but is distinct from, attachment to person, is a mutual caretaking bond between a person and a beloved place. Familiarity refers to the processes by which people develop detailed cognitive knowledge of their environs. Place identity is concerned with the extraction of a sense of self based on the places in which one passes one's life. Each of these psychological processes-attachment, familiarity, and place identity-is threatened by displacement, and the problems of nostalgia, disorientation, and alienation may ensue. As a result of war, decolonization, epidemics, natural disasters, and other disruptive events, millions of people are currently displaced from their homes. Protecting and restoring their mental health pose urgent problems for the mental health community.

  4. Pendeteksian Outlier pada Regresi Nonlinier dengan Metode statistik Likelihood Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Tabi'atul Hasanah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outlier is an observation that much different (extreme from the other observational data, or data can be interpreted that do not follow the general pattern of the model. Sometimes outliers provide information that can not be provided by other data. That's why outliers should not just be eliminated. Outliers can also be an influential observation. There are many methods that can be used to detect of outliers. In previous studies done on outlier detection of linear regression. Next will be developed detection of outliers in nonlinear regression. Nonlinear regression here is devoted to multiplicative nonlinear regression. To detect is use of statistical method likelihood displacement. Statistical methods abbreviated likelihood displacement (LD is a method to detect outliers by removing the suspected outlier data. To estimate the parameters are used to the maximum likelihood method, so we get the estimate of the maximum. By using LD method is obtained i.e likelihood displacement is thought to contain outliers. Further accuracy of LD method in detecting the outliers are shown by comparing the MSE of LD with the MSE from the regression in general. Statistic test used is Λ. Initial hypothesis was rejected when proved so is an outlier.

  5. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  6. Distortion of magnetic field lines caused by radial displacements of ITER toroidal field coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoskov, V.M., E-mail: sytch@niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gribov, Y.V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lamzin, E.A.; Sytchevsky, S.E. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    An assessment of distortions of ideal (circle) field lines caused by random radial displacements of the TF coils by |∆R| ≤ 5 mm has been performed from the statistical analysis assuming a uniform probability density function for displacements.

  7. An experimental study for the phase shift between piston and displacer in the Stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Son, H. K.; Yu, B. K. [Wooyoung Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The small cryocooler is being widely applied to the areas of infrared detector, superconductor filter, satellite communication, and cryopump. The cryocooler working on the Stirling cycle are characterized by small size, lightweight, low power consumption and high reliability. For these reasons, FPFD (Free Piston Free Displacer) Stirling cryocooler is widely used not only tactical infrared imaging camera but also medical diagnostic apparatus. In this study, Stirling cryocooler actuated by the dual linear motor is designed and manufactured. And, displacement of the piston is measured by LVDTs (Linear Variable Differential Transformers), displacement of the displacer is measured by laser optic method, and phase shift between piston and displacer is discussed. Finally, when the phase shift between displacements of the piston and displacer is 45 .deg., operating frequency is optimum and is decided by resonant frequency of the expander, mass and cross section area of the displacer and constant by friction and flow resistance.

  8. An experimental study for the phase shift between piston and displacer in the Stirling cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Son, H. K.; Yu, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    The small cryocooler is being widely applied to the areas of infrared detector, superconductor filter, satellite communication, and cryopump. The cryocooler working on the Stirling cycle are characterized by small size, lightweight, low power consumption and high reliability. For these reasons, FPFD (Free Piston Free Displacer) Stirling cryocooler is widely used not only tactical infrared imaging camera but also medical diagnostic apparatus. In this study, Stirling cryocooler actuated by the dual linear motor is designed and manufactured. And, displacement of the piston is measured by LVDTs (Linear Variable Differential Transformers), displacement of the displacer is measured by laser optic method, and phase shift between piston and displacer is discussed. Finally, when the phase shift between displacements of the piston and displacer is 45 .deg., operating frequency is optimum and is decided by resonant frequency of the expander, mass and cross section area of the displacer and constant by friction and flow resistance

  9. Poetry as women’s resistance to the consequences of Bedouin displacement in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Seeley

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant displacement that Jordanian Bedouin familieshave undergone in recent generations, Bedouin women are able tomitigate some of the consequences of that displacement through theopportunities and influence they have gained as Nabati poets.

  10. Poetry as women’s resistance to the consequences of Bedouin displacement in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Seeley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant displacement that Jordanian Bedouin familieshave undergone in recent generations, Bedouin women are able tomitigate some of the consequences of that displacement through theopportunities and influence they have gained as Nabati poets.

  11. Postoperative Displacement of Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes Related to Lead-Anchoring Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contarino, M. Fiorella; Bot, Maarten; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A.; Denys, Damiaan; Bour, Lo J.; Schuurman, P. Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Displacement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes may occur after surgery, especially due to large subdural air collections, but other factors might contribute. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors potentially contributing to postoperative electrode displacement, in particular,

  12. A nucleic acid strand displacement system for the multiplexed detection of tuberculosis-specific mRNA using quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliddon, H. D.; Howes, P. D.; Kaforou, M.; Levin, M.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar range using only a standard laboratory plate reader. We demonstrate the utility of our QD-based system for the detection of two genes selected from a microarray-derived tuberculosis-specific gene expression signature. Levels of up- and downregulated gene transcripts comprising this signature can be combined to give a disease risk score, making the signature more amenable for use as a diagnostic marker. Our QD-based approach to detect these transcripts could pave the way for novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis.The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar

  13. New displacement sensor for a hybrid magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Shiraishi, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a newly developed displacement sensor. The displacement sensor is used for a hybrid magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. The principle of the displacement sensor is based on a differential transformer. The sensor is found to be useful in liquid nitrogen at 77 K (-196 C). Moreover, the sensor is applied to a hybrid magnetic bearing. The displacement sensor is found to be useful and promising

  14. Short Term Gain, Long Term Pain:Informal Job Search Methods and Post-Displacement Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of informal job search methods on the labour market outcomes of displaced workers. Informal job search methods could alleviate short-term labour market difficulties of displaced workers by providing information on job opportunities, allowing them to signal their productivity and may mitigate wage losses through better post-displacement job matching. However if displacement results from reductions in demand for specific sectors/skills, the use of informal job searc...

  15. Caught in the middle with multiple displacement amplification: the myth of pooling for avoiding multiple displacement amplification bias in a metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Rachel; McCarren, Coleen; Vorrasane, Vansay; Nasko, Dan; Crowgey, Erin; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric

    2014-01-30

    Shotgun metagenomics has become an important tool for investigating the ecology of microorganisms. Underlying these investigations is the assumption that metagenome sequence data accurately estimates the census of microbial populations. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of microbial community DNA is often used in cases where it is difficult to obtain enough DNA for sequencing; however, MDA can result in amplification biases that may impact subsequent estimates of population census from metagenome data. Some have posited that pooling replicate MDA reactions negates these biases and restores the accuracy of population analyses. This assumption has not been empirically tested. Using mock viral communities, we examined the influence of pooling on population-scale analyses. In pooled and single reaction MDA treatments, sequence coverage of viral populations was highly variable and coverage patterns across viral genomes were nearly identical, indicating that initial priming biases were reproducible and that pooling did not alleviate biases. In contrast, control unamplified sequence libraries showed relatively even coverage across phage genomes. MDA should be avoided for metagenomic investigations that require quantitative estimates of microbial taxa and gene functional groups. While MDA is an indispensable technique in applications such as single-cell genomics, amplification biases cannot be overcome by combining replicate MDA reactions. Alternative library preparation techniques should be utilized for quantitative microbial ecology studies utilizing metagenomic sequencing approaches.

  16. 40 CFR 1054.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... internal diameter of 6.00 cm and a 6.25 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would be: (1) × (6.00/2... power and displacement? 1054.140 Section 1054.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... engine power and displacement? This section describes how to quantify your engine's maximum engine power...

  17. Optimum design of seat region in valves suitable for digital displacement machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency in variable displacement fluid power pumps and motors. In the present work, an annular seat valve suitable for use in digital displacement units is considered, and the valve geometry...

  18. The chain effects of property-led redevelopment in Shenzhen : Price-shadowing and indirect displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Shuangshuang; Geertman, Stan; Lin, Yanliu; van Oort, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Many Chinese cities are undergoing large-scale property-led redevelopment, which can result in both direct and indirect residential displacement. Although a number of studies on direct displacement have been carried out, insights into the mechanisms underlying indirect displacement are lacking. The

  19. Too Calloused to Care: An Experimental Examination of Factors Influencing Youths' Displaced Aggression against Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Telch, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    People often displace their aggression against innocent targets. Notwithstanding the merits of previous research on displaced aggression, critical gaps remain. First, it is unclear whether and how situational and dispositional factors interact to influence displaced aggression. Moreover, it is unclear whether engaging in direct aggression…

  20. Long-lived staus and displaced leptons at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jared A.; Shelton, Jessie [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    As the majority of LHC searches are focused on prompt signatures, specific long-lived particles have the potential to be overlooked by the otherwise systematic new physics programs at ATLAS and CMS. While in many cases long-lived superparticles are now stringently constrained by existing exotic searches, we point out that the highly motivated model of gauge mediation with staus as the next-to-lightest superparticle (NLSP) is relatively far less tested. We recast LHC searches for heavy stable charged particles, disappearing tracks, and opposite-flavor leptons with large impact parameters to assess current constraints on a variety of spectra that contain an NLSP stau, and find that portions of the parameter space motivated by naturalness are still experimentally unexplored. We additionally note a gap in the current experimental search program: same-flavor leptons with large impact parameters evade the suite of existing searches for long-lived objects. This gap is especially noteworthy as vetoes on displaced leptons in prompt new physics searches could be systematically discarding such events. We discuss several motivated models that can exhibit same-flavor displaced leptons: gauge mediation with co-NLSP sleptons, extended gauge mediation, R-parity violation, and lepton-flavored dark matter that freezes in during a matter-dominated era of the early universe. To address this gap, we propose a straightforward extension of the CMS search for leptons with large impact parameters, and project sensitivity to these scenarios at 13 TeV. Throughout this analysis, we highlight several methods whereby LHC searches for exotic long-lived objects could potentially improve their sensitivity to the displaced leptons originating from gauge mediation and beyond.

  1. Combination of coseismic displacement fields: a geodetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Devoti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the mathematical framework for the rigorous combination of coseismic offsets observed by a global positioning system (GPS network and investigates the results obtained on the occasion of the recent Emilia earthquakes (Italy. This seismic sequence that affected northern Italy from May 20, 2012, allowed two offset fields to be computed, one with reference to the mainshock (M 5.9, followed by two other M 5.1 events on the same day, and a second with reference to the replicas that occurred on May 29, 2012 (M 5.8, M 5.3 and M 5.2; ISIDe data archive, http://iside.rm.ingv.it. The final displacement field is basically the result of a comparison and validation process with repeated feedback between the different analysis groups at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology that was established to obtain prompt coseismic displacement solutions, as precise as possible, and in the first days after an event. This is important for early seismic-source evaluation as it represents the most complete and validated dataset at the very early stage of a seismic crisis, and it is also extremely useful in reducing random and systematic errors in the estimated parameters. This study is the result of a cooperative effort that involved different research groups at INGV, with the sharing of all of the collected GPS data. The intention was to compare these results and thus reducing sources of error associated with individual processing strategies, to allow the final combination of the different displacement fields into a single consensus solution. The process assessed the robustness of each single GPS result, thus minimizing erroneous interpretations of individual solutions. […

  2. Polydyne displacement interferometer using frequency-modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arablu, Masoud; Smith, Stuart T.

    2018-05-01

    A radio-frequency Frequency-Modulated (FM) signal is used to diffract a He-Ne laser beam through an Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM). Due to the modulation of the FM signal, the measured spectra of the diffracted beams comprise a series of phase-synchronized harmonics that have exact integer frequency separation. The first diffraction side-beam emerging from the AOM is selected by a slit to be used in a polydyne displacement interferometer in a Michelson interferometer topology. The displacement measurement is derived from the phase measurement of selected modulation harmonic pairs. Individual harmonic frequency amplitudes are measured using discrete Fourier transform applied to the signal from a single photodetector. Phase signals are derived from the changes in the amplitudes of different harmonic pairs (typically odd-even pairs) with the phase being extracted using a standard quadrature method. In this study, two different modulation frequencies of 5 and 10 kHz are used at different modulation depths. The measured displacements by different harmonic pairs are compared with a commercial heterodyne interferometer being used as a reference for these studies. Measurements obtained from five different harmonic pairs when the moving mirror of the interferometer is scanned over ranges up to 10 μm all show differences of less than 50 nm from the reference interferometer measurements. A drift test was also used to evaluate the differences between the polydyne interferometer and reference measurements that had different optical path lengths of approximately 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. The drift test results indicate that about half of the differences can be attributed to temperature, pressure, and humidity variations. Other influences include Abbe and thermal expansion effects. Rough magnitude estimates using simple models for these two effects can account for remaining observed deviations.

  3. Psychological After-effects of War in Displaced Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological after-effects of violence due to the armed conflict have left traumatic memories or indelible stigma in victimized women. Females are overrepresented since they compose more than half of the victims in the Colombian warfare. (Sierra, Calle, and Vélez, 2015. Thus, we considered the following research question: What psychological after-effects of war prevail in displaced women? In this research project, we defined psychological after-effects of war as signs, symptoms and psychological disorders based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Moreover, we defined forced migration as the movement of people, families and groups away from their homes to other places. This movement is coerced by a powerful actor or group to expel, harass and uproot a person, group or community.   We adopted a social psychological perspective to study the after-effects of war in displaced women. This is a narrative review in which we included manuscripts from academic journals, institutional reports and books. The inclusion criteria were the following: manuscripts published and indexed from 2005 to 2015, and generalizability of the results.  We selected the following academic data-bases: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Redalyc, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. We selected 7 out of 50 papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results showed that displaced women suffer from mood, impulse control and behavioral disorders. These disorders prevail due to the after-effects of war. Whereas fear, helplessness, anger and uprooting are equally conducive to the emotional stability that they experience. We conclude that war directly and indirectly affects the mental health of women forced to emigrate, causing mental disorders and psychological alterations.

  4. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  5. Anomaly-Related Pathologic Atlantoaxial Displacement in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Olga M; Ryabykh, Sergey O; Burcev, Alexander V; Gubin, Alexander V

    2018-06-01

    To analyze clinical and radiologic features of pathologic atlantoaxial displacement (PAAD) in pediatric patients and to compose a treatment algorithm for anomaly-related PAAD. Criteria of different types of PAAD and treatment algorithms have been widely reported in the literature but are difficult to apply to patients with odontoid abnormalities, C2-C3 block, spina bifida C1, and children. We evaluated results of treatment of 29 pediatric patients with PAAD caused by congenital anomalies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), treated in Ilizarov Center in 2009-2017, including 20 patients with atlantoaxial displacement (AAD) and 9 patients with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. There were 14 males (48.3%) and 15 females (51.7%). We singled out 3 groups of patients: nonsyndromic (6 patients, 20.7%), Klippel-Feil syndrome (13 patients, 44.8%), and syndromic (10 patients, 34.5%). Odontoid abnormalities and C1 dysplasia were widely represented in the syndromic group. Local symptoms predominated in the nonsyndromic and KFS groups. In the syndromic group, all patients had AAD and myelopathy. A pronounced decrease of space available for chord C1 and increase of anterior atlantodental interval were noted compared with other groups. We present a unified treatment algorithm of pediatric anomaly-related PAAD. Syndromic AAD are often accompanied by anterior and central dislocation and myelopathy and atlantooccipital dissociation. These patients require early aggressive surgical treatment. Nonsyndromic and Klippel-Feil syndrome AAD, atlantoaxial subluxation, and atlantoaxial fixation often manifest by local symptoms and need to eliminate CVJ instability. Existing classifications of symptomatic atlantoaxial displacement are not always suitable for patients with CVJ abnormalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  7. Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation: An Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of floor heating combined with displacement ventilation (DV) on thermal indoor environments and indoor air quality (IAQ) was studied by means of CFD. The numerical model was validated with experimental data. A typical office room was simulated, and one of the occupants was considered...... to simulate different kinds of contaminant sources, under the same boundary conditions. It was found that DV does not guarantee a better IAQ than full mixing when contaminant sources are not linked to heat sources, even when floor heating is used. Contaminants produced by powerful heat sources require high...

  8. Primary defect production by high energy displacement cascades in molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, Aaron P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Xu, Donghua, E-mail: xudh@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Juslin, Niklas; Capps, Nathan A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6003, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of primary damage in molybdenum produced by high energy displacement cascades on the femto- to pico-second and Angstrom to nanometer scales. Clustering directly occurred for both interstitials and vacancies in the 1–50 keV cascade energy range explored. Point defect survival efficiency and partitioning probabilities into different sized clusters were quantified. The results will provide an important reference for kinetic models to describe the microstructural evolution in Mo under ion or neutron irradiations over much longer time and length scales.

  9. Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

    1999-08-29

    A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials.

  10. Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials

  11. Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymysłowski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

  12. Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymysłowski, Michał; Kurałowicz, Zygmunt

    2016-06-01

    Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

  13. Filtering algorithm for radial displacement measurements of a dented pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojjati, M.H.; Lukasiewicz, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental measurements are always affected by some noise and errors caused by inherent inaccuracies and deficiencies of the experimental techniques and measuring devices used. In some fields, such as strain calculations in a dented pipe, the results are very sensitive to the errors. This paper presents a filtering algorithm to remove noise and errors from experimental measurements of radial displacements of a dented pipe. The proposed filter eliminates the errors without harming the measured data. The filtered data can then be used to estimate membrane and bending strains. The method is very effective and easy to use and provides a helpful practical measure for inspection purposes

  14. Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.

  15. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... minimization as well as that of direct strength maximization; we choose the objective of obtaining uniform energy density and show by examples that the obtained solutions are close to fulfilling also strength maximization, with the price of increased compliance. Optimal design examples are presented...

  16. 20007: Quantum particle displacement by a moving localized potential trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.

    2009-04-01

    We describe the dynamics of a bound state of an attractive δ-well under displacement of the potential. Exact analytical results are presented for the suddenly moved potential. Since this is a quantum system, only a fraction of the initially confined wave function remains confined to the moving potential. However, it is shown that besides the probability to remain confined to the moving barrier and the probability to remain in the initial position, there is also a certain probability for the particle to move at double speed. A quasi-classical interpretation for this effect is suggested. The temporal and spectral dynamics of each one of the scenarios is investigated.

  17. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairinger FD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabian D Mairinger,1 Robert FH Walter,2 Claudia Vollbrecht,3 Thomas Hager,1 Karl Worm,1 Saskia Ting,1 Jeremias Wohlschläger,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Kurt W Schmid1 1Institute of Pathology, 2Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, 3Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 4Pulmonary Department, Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Background and methods: Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results: A total of 250 µg DNA (concentration 5 µg/µL was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion: We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. Keywords: isothermal multiple displacement amplification, isothermal, whole

  18. Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Delbiso, Tefera D; Robinson, Courtland W

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food

  19. The experimental plan of displacement- and frequency-noise free laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokeyama, K; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Nishizawa, A; Chen, Y; Pai, A; Somiya, K; Ward, R; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    We present the partial demonstration of displacement- and laser-noise free interferometer (DFI) and the next experimental plan to examine the complete configuration. A part of the full implementation of DFI has been demonstrated to confirm the cancellation of beamsplitter displacements. The displacements were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude. The aim of the next experiment is to operate the system and to confirm the cancellation of all displacement noises, while the gravitational wave (GW) signals survive. The optical displacements will be simulated by electro-optic modulators (EOM). To simulate the GW contribution to laser lights, we will use multiple EOMs

  20. Birth of a healthy infant following preimplantation PKHD1 haplotyping for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease using multiple displacement amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Marleen M.; Roesler, Mark R.; Avner, Ellis D.; Strawn, Estil Y.; Bick, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop a reliable preimplantation genetic diagnosis protocol for couples who both carry a mutant PKHD1 gene wishing to conceive children unaffected with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Methods Development of a unique protocol for preimplantation genetic testing using whole genome amplification of single blastomeres by multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and haplotype analysis with novel short tandem repeat (STR) markers from the PKHD1 gene and flanking sequences, and a case report of successful utilization of the protocol followed by successful IVF resulting in the birth of an infant unaffected with ARPKD. Results We have developed 20 polymorphic STR markers suitable for linkage analysis of ARPKD. These linked STR markers have enabled unambiguous identification of the PKHD1 haplotypes of embryos produced by at-risk couples. Conclusions We have developed a reliable protocol for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of ARPKD using single-cell MDA products for PKHD1 haplotyping. PMID:20490649

  1. Measurement system for special surface mapping using miniature displacement sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowade Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to design a special system for measurements of elements with repetitive geometry or assemblies with repeating components, set in a linear patterns. The main focus was based on developing a computer program for signal analysis from variable number of miniature displacement sensors. It was set that the response for displacement of measuring tip from each sensor was a 0-5 V voltage signal with possibility of using different type of sensors. Requirements were determined based on projected measurement method. A special design of sensor was made for testing the computer program. If the characteristics of the sensor is known, it is possible to compute the type A evaluation of uncertainty. The results are presented in XY chart on computer screen. The program allows the user to choose any number of the sensors and determine the distance between them. Also, the possibility of calibration of sensors’ set was provided. The test were conducted on a prototype handle for sensors, made on a 3D printer.

  2. Flow measurements using noise signals of axially displaced thermocouples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozma, R.; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the flow rate of the coolant in the cooling channels of nuclear reactors is an important aspect of core monitoring. It is usually impossible to measure the flow by flowmeters in the individual channels due to the lack of space and safety reasons. An alternative method is based on the analysis of noise signals of the available in-core detectors. In such a noise method, a transit time which characterises the propagation of thermohydraulic fluctuations (density or temperature fluctuations) in the coolant is determined from the correlation between the noise signals of axially displaced detectors. In this paper, the results of flow measurements using axially displaced thermocouples in the channel wall will be presented. The experiments have been performed in a simulated MRT-type fuel assembly located in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft. It was found that the velocities obtained via temperature noise correlation methods are significantly larger than the area-averaged velocity in the single-phase coolant flow. Model calculations show that the observed phenomenon can be explained by effects due to the radial velocity distribution in the channel. (author).

  3. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail: stephanie.jumel@edf.fr; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@edf.fr

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-01-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Bistability and displacement fluctuations in a quantum nanomechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avriller, R.; Murr, B.; Pistolesi, F.

    2018-04-01

    Remarkable features have been predicted for the mechanical fluctuations at the bistability transition of a classical oscillator coupled capacitively to a quantum dot [Micchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 206802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.206802]. These results have been obtained in the regime ℏ ω0≪kBT ≪ℏ Γ , where ω0, T , and Γ are the mechanical resonating frequency, the temperature, and the tunneling rate, respectively. A similar behavior could be expected in the quantum regime of ℏ Γ ≪kBT ≪ℏ ω0 . We thus calculate the energy- and displacement-fluctuation spectra and study their behavior as a function of the electromechanical coupling constant when the system enters the Frank-Condon regime. We find that in analogy with the classical case, the energy-fluctuation spectrum and the displacement spectrum widths show a maximum for values of the coupling constant at which a mechanical bistability is established.

  7. Electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernchuklin, P.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Jadidian, B.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites with various piezoelectric volume percentage obtained by cosintering piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 and electrostrictive 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/.3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 under unipolar and bipolar electric field excitation up to 10 kV/cm experimentally. It is shown that the effective d33 of the composites is limited by the electrostrictive layer, which acts as a capacitor in series to the piezoelectric layer, causing incomplete poling. We show that by controlling the volume content of the piezoelectric layer and constraining it with an electrostrictor, substantial strain amplification (15 μm for bipolar excitation) can be achieved while inducing asymmetry to the displacement with respect to the polarity of the applied field, which we discuss in the context of symmetry superposition.

  8. Imaging Correlations in Heterodyne Spectra for Quantum Displacement Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, A.; Lang, J. E.; Chowdhury, A.; Vezio, P.; Marino, F.; Morana, B.; Serra, E.; Marin, F.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    The extraordinary sensitivity of the output field of an optical cavity to small quantum-scale displacements has led to breakthroughs such as the first detection of gravitational waves and of the motions of quantum ground-state cooled mechanical oscillators. While heterodyne detection of the output optical field of an optomechanical system exhibits asymmetries which provide a key signature that the mechanical oscillator has attained the quantum regime, important quantum correlations are lost. In turn, homodyning can detect quantum squeezing in an optical quadrature but loses the important sideband asymmetries. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new technique, subjecting the autocorrelators of the output current to filter functions, which restores the lost heterodyne correlations (whether classical or quantum), drastically augmenting the useful information accessible. The filtering even adjusts for moderate errors in the locking phase of the local oscillator. Hence we demonstrate the single-shot measurement of hundreds of different field quadratures allowing the rapid imaging of detailed features from a simple heterodyne trace. We also obtain a spectrum of hybrid homodyne-heterodyne character, with motional sidebands of combined amplitudes comparable to homodyne. Although investigated here in a thermal regime, the method's robustness and generality represents a promising new approach to sensing of quantum-scale displacements.

  9. Silencing Deafness: Displacing Disability in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Cleall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the way in which the language of displacement and silence were used in nineteenth-century discussions of deafness and connects this tendency to the marginalised place deaf experience occupies historically. Throughout the nineteenth century, a period which saw the consolidation of ‘the deaf and dumb’ as a social category, the word ‘forgetting’ crept into numerous discussions of deafness by both deaf and hearing commentators. Some, such as the educationalist Alexander Graeme Bell, were overt in their desire to forget deafness, demanding disability was ‘bred out’ and deaf culture condemned to the forgotten past. Others used the term ambivalently and sometimes metaphorically discussing the deaf as ‘forgotten’ by society, and ‘children of silence’. Some even pleaded that people who were deaf were not forgotten. But, though varied, the use of the imagery of forgetting and silence to evoke deafness is recurrent, and may, therefore, be seen to reveal something about how deaf experience can be approached as a displacement where deafness was spatially and imaginatively marginalised. I argue that one of the consequences of the conceptual framing of deafness through the language of forgetting was actively to silence deafness and to neutralise the idea that disability should be marginal and could be forgotten.

  10. Multi performance option in direct displacement based design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Ima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compare to traditional method, direct displacement based design (DDBD offers the more rational design choice due to its compatibility with performance based design which is controlled by the targeted displacement in design. The objectives of this study are: 1 to explore the performance of DDBD for design Level-1, -2 and -3; 2 to determine the most appropriate design level based on material efficiency and damage risk; and 3 to verify the chosen design in order to check its performance under small-, moderate- and severe earthquake. As case study, it uses regular concrete frame structures consists of fourand eight-story with typical plan, located in low- and high-risk seismicity area. The study shows that design Level-2 (repairable damage is the most appropriate choice. Nonlinear time history analysis is run for each case study in order to verify their performance based on parameter: story drift, damage indices, and plastic mechanism. It can be concluded that DDBD performed very well in predicting seismic demand of the observed structures. Design Level-2 can be chosen as the most appropriate design level. Structures are in safe plastic mechanism under all level of seismicity although some plastic hinges formed at some unexpected locations.

  11. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Giffney

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumatic actuators in applications where position sensing or closed loop control is required, a soft pneumatic bending actuator with an integrated carbon nanotube position sensor has been developed. The integrated carbon nanotube position sensor presented in this work is flexible and well suited to measuring the large displacements frequently encountered in soft robotics. The sensor is produced by a simple soft lithography process during the fabrication of the soft pneumatic actuator, with a greater than 30% resistance change between the relaxed state and the maximum displacement position. It is anticipated that integrated resistive position sensors using a similar design will be useful in a wide range of soft robotic systems.

  12. Application of laser speckle displacement analysis to clinical dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberpatch, G. K. D.; Hood, J. A. A.

    1997-03-01

    Success of dental restorations is dependent on the integrity of the tooth/restoration interface. Distortion of teeth due to operative procedures has previously been measured using LVDT's and strain-gauges and has provided useful but limited information. This paper reports on the verification of a system for laser speckle photography and its use to quantitative distortions in teeth from matrix band application and the use of bonded composite resin restorations. Tightening of matrix bands around teeth results in an inward deformation of the cusps, increasing incrementally as the band is tightened. Deflections of 50 micrometer/cusp were recorded. A delayed recovery was noted consistent with the viscoelastic behavior of dentine. For bonded restorations recovery will place the adhesion interface in a state of tension when the band is released and may cause premature failure. Premolar teeth restored with bonded resin restorations exhibited inward displacement of cusps of 12 - 15 micrometer. Deformation was not within the buccal-lingual axis as suggested by prior studies. Molar teeth bonded with composite resin restoration exhibit complex and variable cusp displacement in both magnitude (0 - 30 micrometer) and direction. Complete and partial debonding could be detected. Interproximal cusp bending could be quantitated and lifting of the restoration from the cavity floor was detectable. Deformations evidenced indicate the tooth/restoration interface is in a stressed state and this may subsequently lead to failure. The technique has the potential to aid in development of restoration techniques that minimize residual stress.

  13. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  14. Management of displaced comminuted patellar fracture with titanium cable cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Yueping, Ouyang; Wen, Yuan

    2010-08-01

    Management of a displaced comminuted patellar fracture is challenging. Tension band wiring and lag screw fixation are not suitable for such a fracture pattern. Stainless steel wiring with various configurations has been the mainstay of treatment. However, issues of loss of fixation and breakage of wire have not been resolved yet. Partial or total patellectomy is the last resort with a detrimental effect on quadriceps power. Braided titanium cable is stronger in tensile strength and better in fatigue resistance than the stainless steel monofilament wire, and the tension of fixation could be controlled by a graded instrument in its application. We used titanium cable to treat 21 consecutive patients with displaced comminuted patellar fracture. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 24 months (12 to 32 months). The mean score at the final follow-up was 27 points (25 to 30) using the Böstman method. There was no complication except breakage of one cable at the sixth week after the operation and the fracture had united despite the breakage. This technique is simple and effective for these difficult fractures and avoided prolonged immobilisation of the knee. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-01-01

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced

  16. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2017-10-18

    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  18. A differential Michelson interferometer with orthogonal single frequency laser for nanometer displacement measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A novel differential Michelson laser interferometer is proposed to eliminate the influence of environmental fluctuations for nanometer displacement measurement. This differential interferometer consists of two homodyne interferometers in which two orthogonal single frequency beams share common reference arm and partial measurement arm. By modulating the displacement of the common reference arm with a piezoelectric transducer, the common-mode displacement drift resulting from the environmental disturbances can be well suppressed and the measured displacement as differential-mode displacement signal is achieved. In addition, a phase difference compensation method is proposed for accurately determining the phase difference between interference signals by correcting the time interval according to the average speed in one cycle of interference signal. The nanometer displacement measurement experiments were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed interferometer and show that precision displacement measurement with standard deviation less than 1 nm has been achieved. (paper)

  19. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  20. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  1. The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Christopher D; Farnsworth, Christine L; McNeil, Natalie P; Bomar, James D; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of childhood medial epicondyle humerus fractures continues to be associated with significant debate. Several studies demonstrate that standard radiographic views are unable to accurately portray the true displacement. Without reliable ways to assess the amount of displacement, how can we debate treatment and outcomes? This study introduces a novel imaging technique for the evaluation of medial epicondyle fractures. An osteotomy of a cadaveric humerus was performed to simulate a medial epicondyle fracture. Plain radiographs were obtained with the fracture fragment displaced anteriorly in 2-mm increments between 0 and 18 mm. Anteroposterior (AP), internal oblique (IR), lateral (LAT), and distal humerus axial (AXIAL) views were performed. Axial images were obtained by positioning the central ray above the shoulder at 15 to 20 degrees from the long axis of the humerus, centered on the distal humerus. Displacement (mm) was measured by 7 orthopaedic surgeons on digital radiographs. At 10 mm displacement, AP views underestimated displacement by 5.5±0.6 mm and IR views underestimated by 3.8±2.1 mm. On LAT views, readers were not able to visualize fragments with displacement. Displacement ≥10 mm from LAT views was overestimated by 1 reader by up to 4.6 mm and underestimated by others by up to 18.0 mm. AXIAL images more closely estimated the true amount of displacement, with a mean 1.5±1.1 mm error in measurement for displacement and a mean 0.8±0.7 mm error for displacements of ≥10 mm. AXIAL measurements correlated strongly with the actual displacement (r=0.998, Pdisplacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures. The newly described AXIAL projection more accurately and reliably demonstrated the true displacement while reducing the need for advanced imaging such as computed tomography. This simple view can be easily obtained at a clinic visit, enhancing the surgeon's ability to determine the true displacement.

  2. Improved multiple displacement amplification (iMDA) and ultraclean reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, S Timothy; Picuri, John M; Crowder, Chris D; Minich, Jeremiah J; Hofstadler, Steven A; Eshoo, Mark W

    2014-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing sample preparation requires nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA; however, many relevant samples are comprised of only a few cells. Genomic analysis of these samples requires a whole genome amplification method that is unbiased and free of exogenous DNA contamination. To address these challenges we have developed protocols for the production of DNA-free consumables including reagents and have improved upon multiple displacement amplification (iMDA). A specialized ethylene oxide treatment was developed that renders free DNA and DNA present within Gram positive bacterial cells undetectable by qPCR. To reduce DNA contamination in amplification reagents, a combination of ion exchange chromatography, filtration, and lot testing protocols were developed. Our multiple displacement amplification protocol employs a second strand-displacing DNA polymerase, improved buffers, improved reaction conditions and DNA free reagents. The iMDA protocol, when used in combination with DNA-free laboratory consumables and reagents, significantly improved efficiency and accuracy of amplification and sequencing of specimens with moderate to low levels of DNA. The sensitivity and specificity of sequencing of amplified DNA prepared using iMDA was compared to that of DNA obtained with two commercial whole genome amplification kits using 10 fg (~1-2 bacterial cells worth) of bacterial genomic DNA as a template. Analysis showed >99% of the iMDA reads mapped to the template organism whereas only 0.02% of the reads from the commercial kits mapped to the template. To assess the ability of iMDA to achieve balanced genomic coverage, a non-stochastic amount of bacterial genomic DNA (1 pg) was amplified and sequenced, and data obtained were compared to sequencing data obtained directly from genomic DNA. The iMDA DNA and genomic DNA sequencing had comparable coverage 99.98% of the reference genome at ≥1X coverage and 99.9% at ≥5X coverage while maintaining both balance

  3. Irradiation damage 'displacement zone'; Dommages sous irradiation zone de deplacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    It is well known that a charged particle (ion, primary atom, etc...) moving in a solid slows down and can cause a cascade of displacements of the atoms in the solid. A study is made here of the extent to which the cascade is made up, or not, of independent collisions, as a function of the energy of the initial charged particle. When the distance between the collisions is small, these latter are no longer independent; the cascade, which then has to be considered as a whole, perturbs and locates, in the irradiated solid , a zone which has been named a 'displacement zone'. It is shown that the proportion of displacement zones increases with increasing atom size (high atomic number Z), with decreasing atomic distance D in the substance considered and with decreasing energy of the ion undergoing the slowing down process (although always remaining above a few hundred eV). The proportions obtained are higher than those corresponding to the calculations of J. A. Brinkman [3]. An interatomic potential required for this work has also been determined. (author) [French] On sait qu'une particule chargee (ions, atomes primaires, etc...) en mouvement dans un solide se ralentit, avec eventuellement deplacement en cascade d'atomes du solide. On etudie ici dans quelle proportion, en fonction de l'energie de la particule chargee initiale, la cascade est constituee, ou non, de 'chocs independants'. Lorsque la distance entre chocs est petite, ceux-ci ne sont plus independants; la cascade, qui doit alors etre consideree dans son ensemble, perturbe et definit dans le solide irradie, une zone qu'on a appele zone de deplacements. On montre que la proportion de zones de deplacements est d'autant plus grande que les atomes sont gros (nombre atomique Z grand), que la distance interatomique D est petite dans le corps considere, et que l'energie de l'ion en ralentissement est petite (tout en restant superieure a quelques centaines d'eV). Les proportions obtenues sont superieures a celles qui

  4. Research on horizontal displacement monitoring method of deep foundation pit based on laser projecting sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Xie, Shulin; Zhang, Lixiao; Zhou, Guangyi; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    A certain level of horizontal displacement will occur during excavation or subsequent construction of deep foundation pit. If the support is improper and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is too large, it will cause collapse and even affect the buildings around the foundation pit, which will endanger people's life and property. Therefore, the horizontal displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit becomes more and more important. At present, the electronic total station is often used to monitor the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, but this monitoring method is expensive, prone to accidental errors, and can not be used for real-time monitoring. Therefore, a method of monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep foundation pit by using laser projection sensing technique is proposed in this paper. The horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is replaced by the displacement of the laser spot emitted by the laser, and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit can be obtained by identifying the displacement of the laser spot projected on the screen. A series of experiments show that the accuracy of this monitoring method meets the engineering requirements and greatly reduces the cost, which provides a new technology for the displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit.

  5. A CMOS-MEMS clamped–clamped beam displacement amplifier for resonant switch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ren; Lu, Shih-Chuan; Tsai, Chun-Pu; Li, Wei-Chang

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a micromechanical clamped–clamped beam (CC-beam) displacement amplifier based on a CMOS-MEMS fabrication process platform. In particular, a 2.0 MHz resonant displacement amplifier composed of two identical CC-beams coupled by a mechanical beam at locations where the two beams have mismatched velocities exhibits a larger displacement, up to 9.96×, on one beam than that of the other. The displacement amplification prevents unwanted input impacting—the structure switches only to the output but not the input—required by resonant switch-based mechanical circuits (Kim et al 2009 22nd IEEE Int. Conf. on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems; Lin et al 2009 15th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, & Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS’09) Li et al 2013 17th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, & Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS’13)). Compared to a single CC-beam displacement amplifier, theory predicts that the displacement amplifying CC-beam array yields a larger overall output displacement for displacement gain beyond 1.13 thanks to the preserved input driving force. A complete analytical model predicts the resultant stiffness and displacement gain of the coupled CC-beam displacement amplifier that match well with finite element analysis (FEA) prediction and measured results.

  6. Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...... (GAIM). This is a process, where a mould is filled partly with a polymer melt followed by the injection of inert gas into the core of the polymer melt. The numerical analysis of the fluid flow concerning the experimental observations data in these publications is all based on Newtonian or general...... equation of Boger fluids is the Oldroyd-B model. This model has, with success, been able to describe the complex flow behaviours of Boger fluid. Though, refinements in the flow analysis can be obtained using more complex constitutive models. To keep the flow analysis as simple as possible the Oldroyd...

  7. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Neck, D.; Waroquier, M.; Heyde, K.

    1997-01-01

    Coulomb Displacement Energies (CDE) are accurately known for a wide range of nuclear masses. Assuming isospin independence in the nuclear Hamiltonian, the CDE can in first instance be interpreted as the Coulomb interaction energy between the density of the excess neutrons and the proton charge density in the parent nucleus. However, when using reasonable mean-field models for the proton and neutron density one underestimates the CDE by about 8% on average. This discrepancy is known as the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, and various explanations have been put forward in the past. In this work the role of nucleon-nucleon correlations are re-examined. Calculations for the pair density functions in various nuclei are presented. Preliminary results suggest that the modifications to the mean-field pair density functions cause an enhancement of the CDE in the order of 4%, which is rather A-independent. (author)

  8. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal

    2014-01-01

    perception of the environment. The subjects could control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized air flow (air velocity). The use of DPV improved perceived air quality and thermal comfort compared to displacement ventilation alone. At 26 °C and 29 °C the percentage dissatisfied with air......, increased eye dryness sensation was reported by 30% of subjects. The personalized air flow selected by nearly 80% of the subjects at 26 °C was between 10 and 20 l/s corresponding to the target air velocity of 1.2–1.7 m/s. At 29 °C almost 90% of subjects chose a personalized air flow between 15 and 20 l/s (1...

  9. Accurate calibration of test mass displacement in the LIGO interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, E [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Savage, R L Jr; Garofoli, J; Kawabe, K; Landry, M [LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Gonzalez, G; Kissel, J; Sung, M [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Hirose, E [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Kalmus, P [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); O' Reilly, B; Stuver, A [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754 (United States); Siemens, X, E-mail: egoetz@umich.ed, E-mail: savage_r@ligo-wa.caltech.ed [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    We describe three fundamentally different methods we have applied to calibrate the test mass displacement actuators to search for systematic errors in the calibration of the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors. The actuation frequencies tested range from 90 Hz to 1 kHz and the actuation amplitudes range from 10{sup -6} m to 10{sup -18} m. For each of the four test mass actuators measured, the weighted mean coefficient over all frequencies for each technique deviates from the average actuation coefficient for all three techniques by less than 4%. This result indicates that systematic errors in the calibration of the responses of the LIGO detectors to differential length variations are within the stated uncertainties.

  10. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  11. Alignment of displaced or impacted teeth with the traction chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Franz Martin; Sander, Christian; Sander, Franz Günter

    2006-07-01

    To align those teeth in the dental arch that cannot erupt or are displaced, they must be surgically exposed. After the traction device is attached, the tooth is again covered with the mucoperiosteal flap to protect the tissues involved. For this reason, the loss of this traction device must be absolutely avoided in order to prevent another surgical intervention. Here at the University of Ulm, we have developed and tested an optimized traction chain for that purpose. The chain is attached to the tooth with a laser-roughened pad applying the acid-etching technique. The chain links serve as fixation elements for traction devices such as elastic ligatures or piggyback archwires. At the same time, one can determine the distance covered by the tooth by the number of the erupting chain links. We demonstrate the clinical application of this traction device in two cases.

  12. ERDBEBEN, Structure Displacements and Forces Under Earthquake Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, F.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ERDBEBEN calculates the displacements and forces of a structure, excited by an earthquake. 2 - Method of solution: The mathematical method is the 'response spectrum modal analysis'. Before calculation, the user of ERDBEBEN has to idealize the structure with finite elements and to calculate its eigenfrequencies with the program NASTRAN (level 15). The superposition of the Eigen-forms will be done by the 'root mean square method'. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The length of the arrays can be variable (parameter card). Only the number of the different types of finite elements cannot be more than 5. The program calculates the element forces only for beam and spring elements

  13. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  14. Evaluation and prediction of the performance of positive displacement motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudor, R.; Ginzburg, L. [Canadian Fracmaster Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Xu, H. [Japan National Oil Corp (Japan); Li, J.; Robello, G.; Grigor, C.

    1998-12-31

    Test results of positive displacement motors (PDMs) collected by using various PDMs from a number of different suppliers have been analyzed. Various correlations have been developed and motor performance pumped with incompressible drilling fluid was evaluated based on test data provided by suppliers in the form of pressure drop versus torque output. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that when a motor is operated at less than full load, the correlation between mechanical power and hydraulic power across the PDM power section can be described with a simple linear equation (different for each PDM type). Assuming the availability of patented geometric information for each PDM type, the performance of PDMs can be described by both the geometric parameters of the motor and the rheological properties of the circulation fluid. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  15. [Inferring landmark displacements from changes in cephalometric angles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Baumrind, S

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of using changes in angular measurements to reflect the actually profile changes. The sample consists of 48 growing malocclusion patients, contained 24 Class I and 24 Class II subjects, treated by an experienced orthodontist using Edgewise technique. Landmark and superimpositional data were extracted from the previously prepared numerical database. Three pairs of angular and linear measures were computed by the Craniofacial Software Package. Although the associations between all three angular measures and their corresponding linear measures are statistically significant at the 0.001 level, the disagreement between these three pairs of measures are 10.4%, 22.9% and 37.5% respectively in this sample. The direction of displacement of anterior facial landmarks during growth and treatment cannot reliably be inferred merely from changes in cephalometric Angles.

  16. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Patrick Ray; Reid, Robert Stowers; Poston, David Irvin; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to power an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for Titan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  17. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  18. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. WOMEN AND CHILDRENS, THE MAIN VICTIMS OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to shows the particular manner as in Colombia, women and children areparticularly vulnerable by armed groups that attack their dignity and privacy affect their family, ideological and sexual. The preparation of the article involved an extensive literature review. In Colombia and adolescent girls constitute 53% of the displaced population, of which at least 17% were mobilized as a result of harassment, assault and sexual violence. The vital risk factors and vulnerability are directly proportional to the armed conflict, therefore the war dissociates the family unit, and alters the elements of group cohesion. Often children carry their emotional state through aggressive or playful - in conflicting attitudes, and recharges in women full weight of family reconstitution, which hinders its adaptation process.

  20. Disruption, vertical displacement event and halo current characterization for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.; Fujisawa, N.; Ortolani, S.; Putvinski, S.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics, in ITER, of plasma disruptions, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and the conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current in a disruption are presented. In addition to the well known potential of disruptions to produce rapid thermal energy and plasma current quenches and theoretical predictions that show the likelihood of ∼ 50% runaway conversion, an assessment of VDE and halo current characteristics in vertically elongated tokamaks shows that disruptions in ITER will result in VDEs with peak in-vessel halo currents of up to 50% of the predisruption plasma current and with toroidal peaking factors (peak/average current density) of up to 4:1. However, the assessment also shows an inverse correlation between the halo current magnitude and the toroidal peaking factor; hence, ITER VDEs can be expected to have a product of normalized halo current magnitude times toroidal peaking factor of ≤ 75%. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Accurate calibration of test mass displacement in the LIGO interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, E; Savage, R L Jr; Garofoli, J; Kawabe, K; Landry, M; Gonzalez, G; Kissel, J; Sung, M; Hirose, E; Kalmus, P; O'Reilly, B; Stuver, A; Siemens, X

    2010-01-01

    We describe three fundamentally different methods we have applied to calibrate the test mass displacement actuators to search for systematic errors in the calibration of the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors. The actuation frequencies tested range from 90 Hz to 1 kHz and the actuation amplitudes range from 10 -6 m to 10 -18 m. For each of the four test mass actuators measured, the weighted mean coefficient over all frequencies for each technique deviates from the average actuation coefficient for all three techniques by less than 4%. This result indicates that systematic errors in the calibration of the responses of the LIGO detectors to differential length variations are within the stated uncertainties.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of displacement cascades in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Tietze, H.

    1995-01-01

    We use Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations to investigate defect production induced by energetic displacement cascades up to 10 keV in pure metals (Cu, Ni) and in ordered intermetallic alloys NiAl, Ni 3 Al. Various model potentials were employed to describe the many-body nature of the interactions: the RGL (Rosato-Guillope-Legrand) model was used in pure Cu and Ni simulations; the modified version of the Vitek, Ackland and Cserti potentials (due to Gao, Bacon and Ackland) in Ni 3 Al and the EAM potentials of Foiles and Daw modified by Rubini and Ballone in NiAl, Ni 3 Al were used in alloy simulations. Atomic mixing and disordering were studied into details owing to imaging techniques and determined at different phases of the cascades. Some mixing mechanisms were identified. Our results were compared with existing data and those obtained by similar Molecular Dynamics Simulations available in the literature. (orig.)

  3. Development of an optical fiber sensor for angular displacement measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ju-Hyeon; Oh, Han-Byeol; Kim, A-Hee; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Park, Jong-Rak; Lee, Young-Jae; Park, Hee-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the joint angle measurement of a patient after an accident or a surgical operation is significant for monitoring and evaluating the recovering process. This paper proposed an optical fiber sensor for the measurement of angular displacement. The effect of beveled fiber angle on the detected light signal was investigated to find an appropriate mathematical model. Beveled fiber tips redirected the light over a range of angles away from the fiber axis. Inverse polynomial models were applied to directly obtain and display the joint angle change in real time with the Lab-VIEW program. The actual joint angle correlated well with the calculated LabVIEW output angle over the test range. The proposed optical sensor is simple, cost effective, small in size, and can evaluate the joint angle in real time. This method is expected to be useful in the field of rehabilitation and sport science.

  4. QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author)

  5. Elastic-wave generation in the evolution of displacement peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, V.P.; Boldin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigated the character of elastic shock wave generation and damping in irradiated materials along with the possibility of their long-range influence on the structure of the irradiated materials. Dispersion at the elastoplastic stage of atomic displacement peak development was taken into account. The three-dimensional nonlinear wave was described by an equation in the approximation of weak nonlinearity and weak spatial dispersion. Numerical modeling of the propagation of a plane shock wave in a crystal lattice was conducted. The distribution of the density and mass velocity of the material at the instant of complete damping of the plastic shock-wave component was determined. The appearance of solitary waves (solitons) at large amplitudes, localized in space, which propagate without distortion to arbitrary distances and retain their amplitude and form in interacting with one another, was investigated. Some physical consequences of the influence of solitary waves on the irradiated materials were considered

  6. Dynamic Displacement Disorder of Cubic BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Kulda, J.; Leoni, S.; Hlinka, J.

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity of BaTiO3 has been recorded in a synchrotron experiment and simultaneously computed using molecular dynamics simulations of a shell model. Together, these have allowed the details of the disorder in paraelectric BaTiO3 to be clarified. The narrow sheets of diffuse scattering, related to the famous anisotropic longitudinal correlations of Ti ions, are shown to be caused by the overdamped anharmonic soft phonon branch. This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of narrow sheets of diffuse scattering agrees with a displacive picture of the cubic phase of this textbook ferroelectric material. The presented methodology allows one to go beyond the harmonic approximation in the analysis of phonons and phonon-related scattering.

  7. Women's rights in the context of forced displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lorena Sánchez Lucumí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this document will explain the significance of displacement and the impact of this on women, since, although it affects more people, this by their vulnerability takes an important role in the war-movement context . Similarly, analyzing the situation through jurisprudence, which consists mainly of sentences guardianship and the remainder in court records, will be mentioned Human Rights that are violated by the active agents of the conflict, and measures will be explained affirmative action has been taken based on this circumstance. Among the important ideas is the fact of social exclusion experienced to get to a place where to put it somehow "belong" and in the second instance, the armed conflict in Colombia is one of the main reasons why they are forced to leave their homes for the purpose of being for themselves and for their children.

  8. Optimization of chemical displacement deposition of copper on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarenka, Hanna; Redko, Sergey; Nenzi, Paolo; Balucani, Marco; Bondarenko, Vitaly

    2012-11-01

    Copper (II) sulfate was used as a source of copper to achieve uniform distribution of Cu particles deposited on porous silicon. Layers of the porous silicon were formed by electrochemical anodization of Si wafers in a mixture of HF, C3H7OH and deionized water. The well-known chemical displacement technique was modified to grow the copper particles of specific sizes. SEM and XRD analysis revealed that the outer surface of the porous silicon was covered with copper particles of the crystal orientation inherited from the planes of porous silicon skeleton. The copper crystals were found to have the cubic face centering elementary cell. In addition, the traces of Cu2O cubic primitive crystalline phases were identified. The dimensions of Cu particles were determined by the Feret's analysis of the SEM images. The sizes of the particles varied widely from a few to hundreds of nanometers. A phenomenological model of copper deposition was proposed.

  9. Laser measurement of the LumiCal detector displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Daniluk, W.; Gil, M.; Karbowiak, M.; Moszczynski, A.; Oliwa, K.; Pawlik, B.; Wierba, W.; Zawiejski, L.; Slominski, W.; Suszycki, L.

    2006-12-01

    The silicon-tungsten calorimeter LumiCal, located in very forward region of the future detector at the International Linear Collider, is proposed for precisely luminosity measurement. One of the requirements to fulfil this task is available information on the actual position of the calorimeter relative to the beam interaction area which should be known with accuracy of a few micrometers. In this paper we discuss the possible solutions for the positioning of the LumiCal electron detector by optical method. The results of the displacement measurement using a laser beam and a CCD camera are described. The measurements were performed on a proof-of-principle basis and achieved the accuracy of about ± 1 μm in x, y and ± μm in z direction. (author)

  10. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2013-07-10

    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. T. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, N.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physics Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  12. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  13. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  14. Reliability of Structural Systems with regard to Permanent Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1991-01-01

    approach - a differential equation approach - a superposition approach - the simple method These three approaches are described in Sørensen & Thoft-Christensen [5], Sørensen et al. [6] and Sørensen & Thoft-Christensen [7]. It is assumed that the structural system can be modelled by a multi-linear elastic......In this paper the problem of estimating the accumulated permanent displacements of an offshore platform during one storm is considered. For dynamically sensitive structural systems subjected to wave loads this problem is generally very difficult. However, for dynamic insensitive systems some...... methods/experience related to permanent deformations are described in Grinda et al. [1] and Papadrakakis & Loukakis [2]. For general dynamic systems modelled by one-degree-of-freedom (and two-degrees-of freedom) systems a number of methods exist, see e.g. Nielsen et al. [3] and Toro & Cornell [4]. However...

  15. Viscous fingering effects in solvent displacement of heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthiell, D. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Kissel, G.; Jackson, C.; Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Fisher, D. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Vapour Extraction (VAPEX) is a solvent-based process that is analogous to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for the recovery of heavy oil. A cyclic solvent process is preferred for thin reservoirs, particularly primary-depleted reservoirs. In a cyclic steam stimulation process, a solvent is injected into the reservoir for a period of time before oil is produced from the well. Viscous fingering is a phenomena that characterizes several solvent-based processes for the recovery of heavy oil. A combined experimental and simulation study was conducted to characterize viscous fingering under heavy oil recovery conditions (high ratio of oil to solvent viscosity). Four experiments were conducted in heavy oil-saturated sand packs. Three involved injection of a miscible, liquid solvent at the bottom of the sand pack. The heavy oil in these experiments was displaced upwardly. The fourth experiment involved top-down injection of a gaseous solvent. The miscible liquid displacement was dominated by one solvent finger which broke through to a producing well at the other end of the sand pack. Breakthrough times were similar to that at lower viscosity. The fourth experiment showed fingering along with features of a gravity-driven VAPEX process. Key features of the experiment and realistic fingering patterns were numerically simulated using a commercial reservoir simulator. It was emphasized that accurate modelling of dispersion is necessary in matching the observed phenomena. The simulations should include the capillary effects because of their significance for gaseous fingering and the VAPEX processes. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  16. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  17. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  18. THE PLACE OF RETRACTION CORDS AMONG THE TISSUE DISPLACEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Yankov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gingival displacement is performed to create sufficient space between the finishing line and the gingival tissue, to allow the injection of the adequate bulk of the impression material into the expanded crevice. Control of moisture in the sulcus is also necessary. The variety of methods for tissue management can be broadly classified into surgical and non-surgical. Objective: To analyse the properties of tissue displacement methods, described in the literature for the last 4 years and display the prefered choices of the practitioners. Material and method: A time range from the last 4 years was set. Using the keywords “retraction cord” and “survey,” we found 64 from 115 articles in total, relevant to our topic. Patents, citations and books weren’t included in this review. Results from the overview of the properties of the different tissue management methods indicate that retraction cords take a significant place among them and can be recognised as a classical and well known method. Conclusions: The studies from the articles show adequate sulcal width right after retraction with most methods, sufficient haemostasis can also be obtained. Every each method, however, is accompanied by several drawbacks. Concidering all the quallities of the different tissue dispalcent methods, there is no specific evidence to promote the use of a single technique over any other. The selection of the method for gingival retraction primarily depends on each clinical case. However, the retraction cord technique remains to be the prefered method for gingival management due to its many advantages.

  19. Characterization of damaged composite laminates by an optical measurement of the displacement field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukil, M S; Ayadi, Z; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of the elastic properties of composite laminates with intralaminar cracks is caused by reduced stress in the damaged layer which is mainly due to two parameters: the crack opening displacement (COD) and the crack sliding displacement (CSD). In this paper these parameters are measured experimentally providing laminate stiffness reduction models with valuable information for validation of used assumptions and for defining limits of their application. In particular, the displacement field on the edges of a [0/ +70 4 / −70 4 ] s glass fiber/epoxy laminate specimens with multiple intralaminar cracks is studied and the COD and CSD dependence on the applied mechanical load is measured. The specimen full-field displacement measurement is carried out using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry). By studying the displacement discontinuities, the crack face displacements were measured. A comparison between the COD and the CSD (for the same crack) is performed.

  20. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  1. Medial joint space widening of the ankle in displaced Tillaux and Triplane fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourineni, Prasad; Gupta, Asheesh

    2011-10-01

    Tillaux and Triplane fractures occur in children predominantly from external rotation mechanism. We hypothesized that in displaced fractures, the talus would shift laterally along with the distal fibula and the distal tibial epiphyseal fragment increasing the medial joint space. Consecutive cases evaluated retrospectively. Level I and Level II centers. Twenty-two skeletally immature patients with 14 displaced Triplane fractures and eight displaced Tillaux fractures were evaluated for medial joint space widening. Measurement of fracture displacement and medial joint space widening before and after intervention. Thirteen Triplane and six Tillaux fractures (86%) showed medial space widening of 1 to 9 mm and equal to the amount of fracture displacement. Reduction of the fracture reduced the medial space to normal. There were no known complications. Medial space widening of the ankle may be a sign of ankle fracture displacement. Anatomic reduction of the fracture reduces the medial space and may improve the results in Tillaux and Triplane fractures.

  2. Analysis of Valve Requirements for High-Efficiency Digital Displacement Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power motors have been shown to enable high-efficiency operation in a wide operation range, including the part load range where conventional fluid power motors suffers from poor efficiencies. The use of these digital displacement motors set new requirements for the valve...... transition time and flow-pressure coefficient are normalized, leading to a presentation of the general efficiency map of the digital displacement motor. Finally the performance of existing commercial valves with respect to digital motors is commented....

  3. Blaming the Environment: Ethnic Violence and the Political Economy of Displacement in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kagwanja, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Within the context of historical and political economy, this paper examines the link between environmental stress and the contemporary problems of ethnic violence and forced migrations, specifically internal displacement in Kenya. It examines the various theoretical links to political and ethnic persecution which cause displacement and environmental stress. Examining the historical antecedents of the phenomenon of displacement in Kenya, the paper argues that environmental stress per se cannot...

  4. Interactions of cephalexin with bovine serum albumin: displacement reaction and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hamishehkar

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes of spectroscopic methods revealed that the conformation of BSA changed during drug-BSA interaction. The results of FRET propose that CPL quenches the fluorescence of BSA by static quenching and FRET. The displacement study showed that phenylbutazon and ketoprofen displaced CPL, indicating that its binding site on albumin is site I and Gentamicin cannot be displaced from the binding site of CPL. All results of molecular docking method agreed with the results of experimental data.

  5. Double Displacement: an Improved Bioorthogonal Reaction Strategy for Templated Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinbaum, Daniel J.; Miller, Gregory P.; Kool, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectu...

  6. Gentrification, displacement and the arts: Untangling the relationship between arts industries and place change

    OpenAIRE

    Grodach, C.; Foster, N.; Murdoch, J.

    2016-01-01

    The arts have long played a role in debates around gentrification and displacement, yet their roles and impacts as change agents are not clear-cut. According to the standard account, artists facilitate gentrification and ultimately engender the displacement of lower income households, but more recent research complicates the accepted narrative. This article seeks to untangle the relationship between the arts, gentrification and displacement through a statistical study of neighbourhood-level a...

  7. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible displacement in the cavity with different channel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Zang, Chenqiang; Yang, Mo; Xu, Hongtao

    In this work, the immiscible displacement in a cavity with different channel configurations is studied using an improved pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model. This model overcomes the drawback of the dependence of the fluid properties on the grid size, which exists in the original pseudo-potential LBE model. The approach is first validated by the Laplace law. Then, it is employed to study the immiscible displacement process. The influences of different factors, such as the surface wettability, the distance between the gas cavity and liquid cavity and the surface roughness of the channel are investigated. Numerical results show that the displacement efficiency increases and the displacement time decreases with the increase of the surface contact angle. On the other hand, the displacement efficiency increases with increasing distance between the gas cavity and the liquid cavity at first and finally reaches a constant value. As for the surface roughness, two structures (a semicircular cavity and a semicircular bulge) are studied. The comprehensive results show that although the displacement processes for both the structures depend on the surface wettability, they present quite different behaviors. Specially, for the roughness structure constituted by the semicircular cavity, the displacement efficiency decreases and displacement time increases evidently with the size of the semicircular cavity for the small contact angle. The trend slows down as the increase of the contact angle. Once the contact angle exceeds a certain value, the size of the semicircular cavity almost has no influence on the displacement process. While for the roughness structure of a semicircular bulge, the displacement efficiency increases with the size of bulge first and then it decreases for the small contact angle. The displacement efficiency increases first and finally reaches a constant for the large contact angle. The results also show that the displacement time has an

  8. Canister displacement in KBS-3V. A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2006-02-01

    The vertical displacement of the canister in the KBS-3V concept has been studied in a number of consolidation and creep calculations using the FE-program ABAQUS. The creep model used for the calculations is based on Singh-Mitchell's creep theory, which has been adapted to and verified for the buffer material MX-80 in earlier tests. A porous elastic model with Drucker-Prager plasticity has been used for the consolidation calculations. For simplicity the buffer has been assumed to be water saturated from start. In one set of calculations only the consolidation and creep in the buffer without considering the interaction with the backfill was studied. In the other set of calculations the interaction with the backfill was included for a backfill consisting of an in situ compacted mixture of 30% bentonite and 70% crushed rock. The motivation to also study the behaviour of the buffer alone was that the final choice of backfill material and backfilling technique is not made yet so that set of calculations simulates a backfill that has identical properties with the buffer. The two cases represent two extreme cases, one with a backfill that has a low stiffness and the lowest allowable swelling pressure and one that has the highest possible swelling pressure and stiffness. The base cases in the calculations correspond to the final average density at saturation of 2,000 kg/m 3 with the expected swelling pressure of 7 MPa in a buffer. In order to study the sensitivity of the system to loss in bentonite mass and swelling pressure seven additional calculations were done with reduced swelling pressure down to 80 kPa corresponding to a density at water saturation of about 1,500 kg/m 3 . The calculations included two stages, where the first stage models the swelling and consolidation that takes place in order for the buffer to reach force equilibrium. This stage takes place during the saturation phase and the subsequent consolidation/swelling phase. The second stage models the

  9. Canister displacement in KBS-3V. A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [FEMTech AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The vertical displacement of the canister in the KBS-3V concept has been studied in a number of consolidation and creep calculations using the FE-program ABAQUS. The creep model used for the calculations is based on Singh-Mitchell's creep theory, which has been adapted to and verified for the buffer material MX-80 in earlier tests. A porous elastic model with Drucker-Prager plasticity has been used for the consolidation calculations. For simplicity the buffer has been assumed to be water saturated from start. In one set of calculations only the consolidation and creep in the buffer without considering the interaction with the backfill was studied. In the other set of calculations the interaction with the backfill was included for a backfill consisting of an in situ compacted mixture of 30% bentonite and 70% crushed rock. The motivation to also study the behaviour of the buffer alone was that the final choice of backfill material and backfilling technique is not made yet so that set of calculations simulates a backfill that has identical properties with the buffer. The two cases represent two extreme cases, one with a backfill that has a low stiffness and the lowest allowable swelling pressure and one that has the highest possible swelling pressure and stiffness. The base cases in the calculations correspond to the final average density at saturation of 2,000 kg/m{sup 3} with the expected swelling pressure of 7 MPa in a buffer. In order to study the sensitivity of the system to loss in bentonite mass and swelling pressure seven additional calculations were done with reduced swelling pressure down to 80 kPa corresponding to a density at water saturation of about 1,500 kg/m{sup 3}. The calculations included two stages, where the first stage models the swelling and consolidation that takes place in order for the buffer to reach force equilibrium. This stage takes place during the saturation phase and the subsequent consolidation/swelling phase. The second stage

  10. Something from (almost) nothing: the impact of multiple displacement amplification on microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binga, Erik K; Lasken, Roger S; Neufeld, Josh D

    2008-03-01

    Microbial ecology is a field that applies molecular techniques to analyze genes and communities associated with a plethora of unique environments on this planet. In the past, low biomass and the predominance of a few abundant community members have impeded the application of techniques such as PCR, microarray analysis and metagenomics to complex microbial populations. In the absence of suitable cultivation methods, it was not possible to obtain DNA samples from individual microorganisms. Recently, a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) has been used to circumvent these limitations by amplifying DNA from microbial communities in low-biomass environments, individual cells from uncultivated microbial species and active organisms obtained through stable isotope probing incubations. This review describes the development and applications of MDA, discusses its strengths and limitations and highlights the impact of MDA on the field of microbial ecology. Whole genome amplification via MDA has increased access to the genomic DNA of uncultivated microorganisms and low-biomass environments and represents a 'power tool' in the molecular toolbox of microbial ecologists.

  11. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert Fh; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. A total of 250 μg DNA (concentration 5 μg/μL) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA.

  12. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy by multiple displacement amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zi; Zeng, Hai-tao; Xu, Yan-wen; Zhuang, Guang-lun; Deng, Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Can-quan

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the use of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for female carriers with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). MDA was used to amplify a whole genome of single cells. Following the setup on single cells, the test was applied in two clinical cases of PGD. One mutant exon, six short tandem repeats (STR) markers within the dystrophin gene, and amelogenin were incorporated into singleplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on MDA products of single blastomeres. Center for reproductive medicine in First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, China. Two female carriers with a duplication of exons 3-11 and a deletion of exons 47-50, respectively. The MDA of single cells and fluorescent PCR assays for PGD. The ability to analyze single blastomeres for DMD using MDA. The protocol setup previously allowed for the accurate diagnosis of each embryo. Two clinical cases resulted in a healthy girl, which was the first successful clinical application of MDA in PGD for DMD. We suggest that this protocol is reliable to increase the accuracy of the PGD for DMD.

  13. Rigid body displacement fields of an in-plane-deformable curved beam based on conventional strain definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Joo; Min, Oak Key; Kim, Yong Woo

    1998-01-01

    To improve the convergence and the accuracy of a finite element, the finite element has to describe not only displacement and stress distributions in a static analysis but also rigid body displacements. In this paper, we consider the in-plane-deformable curved beam element to understand the descriptive capability of rigid body displacements of a finite element. We derive the rigid body displacement fields of a single finite element under various essential boundary conditions when the nodal displacements are caused by the rigid body displacement. We also examine the rigid body displacement fields of a quadratic curved beam element by employing the reduced minimization theory

  14. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  15. Foreign experience in determining the status of refugees and internally displaced persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Popok

    2017-06-01

    The authors conclude that European countries actively integrate the provisions of the international law governing the legal status of refugees and internally displaced persons into their domestic law.

  16. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  17. Arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures using a suspensory fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Loriaut

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory system provided a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome at a followup of 2 years.

  18. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  19. Women's sexual and reproductive health in post-socialist Georgia: does internal displacement matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doliashvili, Khatuna; Buckley, Cynthia J

    2008-03-01

    Persons displaced by armed conflicts, natural disasters or other events are at increased risk for health problems. The Republic of Georgia has a substantial population of internally displaced women who may face elevated risks of STIs and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The 1999 Georgia Reproductive Health Survey was used to examine the prevalence of self-reported STI and PID diagnoses among displaced and nondisplaced sexually experienced women. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine whether displacement is associated with STI and PID risk, and whether the behavioral and socioeconomic factors associated with these diagnoses differ between internally displaced women and the general population. In models that controlled for behavioral factors only, displacement was associated with elevated odds of PID diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.3), but the relationship was only marginally significant when socioeconomic factors were added (1.3). Displacement was not associated with STI diagnosis. The factors associated with STI and PID diagnoses among displaced women generally differed from those in the general population, but access to medical care and previous STI diagnosis were associated with PID diagnosis in both groups. Among nondisplaced women, residing in the capital city was associated with increased odds of STI diagnosis (2.2) but reduced odds of PID diagnosis (0.8). These findings highlight the importance of displacement status in determining a woman's reproductive health risks, and underscore the complex relationships between behavioral and socioeconomic variables and the elevation of STI and PID risk.

  20. Threading the Needle: Intrapelvic Displacement of a Femoral Neck Fracture through the Obturator Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite timely and appropriate management, displaced femoral neck fractures are often devastating injuries for the young patient. The risk of negative sequelae is further amplified with increasing displacement and vertical fracture patterns. Open anatomic reduction with rigid internal fixation is essential to maximize the healing potential in displaced fractures of the femoral neck. Successful primary osteosynthesis of significantly displaced femoral neck fractures in the young patient has been reported in the literature. We present a unique case of open reduction and internal fixation of a high-energy femoral neck fracture with extrusion of the head through the obturator foramen into the pelvis without associated acetabular or pelvic injury.