WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonnuclear energy sources

  1. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  2. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  3. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2006-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. On proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of biofuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. (author)

  4. Non-nuclear energies; Les energies autres que le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex and Sauvons le Climat (http://www.sauvonsleclimat.org), Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  5. ACCIDENTS AND UNSCHEDULED EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidents and unscheduled events associated with non-nuclear energy resources and technology are identified for each step in the energy cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic causes of accidents or unscheduled events are considered. Data concerning these accidents are summarized. ...

  6. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal

  7. PUBLIC HEARING TRANSCRIPT: FEDERAL NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the proceedings of three days of public hearings on the Federal Non-nuclear Energy Research and Development Program. The document is presented in three sections: (1) Future Energy Patterns and Levels of Coal Use, (2) Solar Energy and Conservation, and (3) O...

  8. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  9. Proposed plan for education and training in nonnuclear and nuclear energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, R.I.; Griffith, D.E.

    1977-02-01

    This report presents the results of a systems approach by an ERDA/ASEE Task Force to a charge from the 94th Congress to the Energy Research and Development Administration to develop a plan for a comprehensive program for education and training in nonnuclear energy technologies. The PLAN as presented is the recommendation of the Task Force and is not to be construed as the ERDA Plan. The interpretation of the charge leads to the following definitive statements. The PLAN should consist of a program and organizational and administrative means within ERDA to develop and manage the program. The program should: (1) include general educational subprograms, vocational skill subprograms to degree and post degree programs; (2) include nuclear as well as nonnuclear education and training; (3) encourage, assist, and utilize all institutions from labor unions to universities to assure educated and trained manpower to meet the nation's energy needs; (4) be catalytic in nature and rely not only on funding as a catalytic agent but also on information and leadership; (5) give equal opportunity to all seeking or needing education and training to become a part of the energy labor market in all regions of the nation; (6) be supplementary to what can be accomplished by the private sector; (7) promote interaction between ERDA and other Federal government agencies and state and local governments; (8) be responsive as well as anticipatory; (9) be applicable from energy resource exploration to energy and use; and (10) provide for input and feedback from the private sector

  10. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 1. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. Bd. 1. Deutsch-Englisch/Englisch-Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the English language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  11. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 2. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Dictionnaire technique de l'economie energetique. Sources d'energie nucleaire et autre que nucleaire. Bd. 2. Allemand-Francais/Francais-Allemand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the French language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  12. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  13. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  14. Sustainablility of nuclear and non-nuclear energy supply options in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of the current discussion on promoting the economical competitiveness of sustainable energy systems, especially renewable and non-CO 2 -intensive ones, interest in nuclear energy has re-awakened in Europe (''nuclear renaissance''). This paper starts with presenting the concept of energy sustainability and its main elements. Next, an overview of the main results of sustainability assessments for different energy supply options (nuclear, fossil, renewables) covering full energy chains is given. Nuclear energy's typical strong and weak points are identified from a sustainability point of view. On the basis of these results, it is argued that more emphasis on nuclear energy's (very good) total cost performance, i.e. incl. externalities, rather than on its (very good) contribution to combating climate change would stronger benefit its ''renaissance''. Finally, the development of an overall EU-wide framework is proposed in order to assess the sustainability performance of alternative energy supply options, incl. nuclear, across their lifecycle and thus support decision making on developing sustainable energy mixes. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of influence on environment exerted by nuclear and non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1981-10-01

    Mankind must consume some form of energy, therefore, it is meaningless to discuss the danger or safety of atomic energy only, and the discussion should be made in comparison with the safety when other energy resources are used. The upper limit of the use of fossil fuel is not determined by its amount of deposits, but the danger of changing the climate by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide is a serious problem. This book is originated from the text for the one-day seminar on the comparison of the influence on environment exerted by atomic energy and other energy resources, held by the Atomic Energy Information Center on August 29, 1980, of which the contents were made more circumstantial by adding many new data and discussions. Almost all influences produced by the use of energy are treated in it. It is the result of discussions with many experts in the world. The logics of introducing atomic energy, radioactivity, ordinary chemical contamination, chemical carcinogen, large accidents, acid rain, the change of climate due to carbon dioxide and other causes, the effect of greenhouse effect on human society, and the actual state of greenhouse effect and the countermeasures are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  16. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 3. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Diccionario tecnico de terminos de la industria de energia. Recursos energeticos nucleares y no nucleares. Bd. 3. Aleman-Espanol/Espanol-Aleman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K H

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the Spanish language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  17. Strategy for a non-nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.; Freedman, D.; Scott, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for nuclear power may not be as great as the electric power industry has led the nation to believe, according to the authors. They argue that 64 of the 72 nuclear plants operating in the United States could be shut down immediately if the existing non-nuclear capacity of the electric power industry were fully utilized; and the remaining 8 plants could be phased out within a few years. They cite already-available alternative power sources that could guarantee the additional energy needed for a non-nuclear future. They state that the transition to a nuclear-free electric system could be implemented with little or no increased expense to consumers or taxpayers; that, in fact, elimination of all nuclear plants might actually be cheaper, given the rapid rise in nuclear construction costs as more and more new flaws are discovered or old ones acknowledged. The authors feel that environmental risks of nuclear power plant operation could be eliminated in exchange for a small, temporary increase in air pollution from coal- and oil-fired plants. The increase in sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution could be offset within several years by an accelerated program to install flue-gas scrubbing equipment. Suggestions for meeting a projected shortfall in future capacity are given. The authors also touch lightly on institutional barriers that would have to be overcome before phasing out nuclear power. 4 figures, 4 tables

  18. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1972-01-01

    A study carried out around 1970 on the world energy future is described. One method is based on world energy evaluations extrapolated to 1985 and 2000. The other one is prospective and tries to account for changes in life style and technology and relations with the developing countries [fr

  19. 'Non-nuclear energy, environment and sustainable development' a revised work program for non-nuclear energy (2000 - 2002) of the European Union - does it contribute to the needs of the accession states to the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfruener, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the mid-term of the Energy Programme (1998-2002) all the objectives and targets of the Programme have been revised. The Commission felt a lack of focus in the objectives and proposed a targeted approach in the technical areas which contribute to and fulfill the Kyoto Agreements to reduce the greenhouse gases (1997) and the strategic and political objectives set by the Commission and the Member States of the EU in the White Book (1997) to promote the renewable energies. The new programme structure with a budget of 5557 Mil Euro until 2002 sets a new pace: approximately 80% of the budget will be allocated to 12 targeted actions and about 40% will be devoted to generic Research and Development in areas of strategic importance. The budget of the 12 targeted actions will split in 50% for Demonstration and 50% in Research and technological Development. The Commission expects with this approach more visible tangible results and a contribution to the needs of citizens, consumers, industries and the energy market players (author)

  20. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  1. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  2. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  3. Renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, K.

    1996-01-01

    The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author)

  4. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  5. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  6. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  7. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  9. Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation's Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country's nuclear weapons. The Complex also produces and/or recycles the nuclear materials used in building weapons and stores nuclear materials for future use. DOE also dismantles the weapons retired from the stockpile. In addition, DOE conducts surveillance and maintenance activities to ensure the reliability and safety of the stockpiled weapons throughout their operational life

  10. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  11. Nonnuclear hydrometallurgical applications of TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritcey, G.M.; Pouskouleli, G.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the nonnuclear solvent extraction applications of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) has been assembled from information in the analytical, chemical, and metallurgical literature. There are actually few operating plants, or, in fact, process flowsheets designed for the use of TBP in the extraction of nonnuclear metals and other materials. Perhaps one of the main reasons for this is that TBP operates through a solvating mechanism of extraction, and, therefore, extraction is highly dependent upon, the ionic strength of the anion. Many developments in process metallurgy utilizing solvent extraction involve extraction from a sulfate medium. Very few plants have gone on-stream employing chloride or nitrate systems, even though TBP is an excellent extractant from aqueous chloride or nitrate media. It is very likely that in the future we shall see many hydrometallurgical processes developed and plants designed in which the aqueous medium is chloride. With this in mind, we have included analytical and chemical techniques as possible guides to future design trends. The chapter includes most of the elements in the Periodic Table and covers all the various groups in the table. The chemistry of metals within the same group is, of course, quite similar, and this is evident in the comparison of extraction properties. For the convenience of the reader we have put the various metals into groups found within the Periodic Table, or in other appropriate groups that show chemical relationships. The literature surveyed in this chapter covers the period 1966 to 1984

  12. Survey on non-nuclear radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden

  13. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  14. Nuclear Knowledge and Competence: Fundamental Prerequisites for the Safe Utilization of Radiation Sources in a Small Non-Nuclear Country — Experience of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Dlabac, A.

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate knowledge, competence and expertise represents a major concern when addressing nuclear and radiation safety issues in small countries — if inadequate, safety will eventually be jeopardized. Montenegro is such a small, developing and “nonnuclear” country—the use of radiation sources being modest and limited to a few ordinary applications (primarily in health care). Even though, there is (or will be in the foreseeable future) a significant need in nuclear knowledge, competence and expertise — directly or indirectly related to nuclear/radiation safety and security issues. It goes about the following, the list being not exhaustive: (i) medical applications (diagnostics, radiotherapy, palliation, sterilization of equipment, consumables, blood products, etc.), (ii) radiation protection, including various dosimetry services and QC/QA of radiation sources; (iii) environmental protection (radioecology, analytical and monitoring services, etc.), (iv) low and medium activity radioactive waste management (including a newly licenced storage), (v) industrial, geological, hydrological, agricultural, biochemical and archaeological applications (non-destructive testing, various gauges, radioisotope labeling, harmful insects sterilization, etc.), (vi) scientific and educational uses, (vii) cultural heritage preservation and investigation, (viii) legislative and regulatory aspects, including complying to international safety/security norms and joining international conventions in the field, (ix) preparedness and response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations, (x) combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, (xi) nuclear forensics, (xii) security systems based on X-ray and other nuclear methods, (xiii) introduction of some future topics (e.g., nuclear power for electricity generation and sea water desalination), (xiv) public information and communication with media, etc.

  15. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  16. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  17. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  18. Ukraine's non-nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batiouk, V.

    1992-01-01

    It seems that only yesterday the dilemma confronting our world was not that of war or peace but rather of life or death for mankind, the reason being mainly the prospect of mass annihilation which became increasingly vivid with each and every new explosive nuclear device added to the already existing enormous stockpiles of warheads of mass annihilation. Against this gloomy background of a despairingly reckless arms race, the long-awaited signs began to appear. First the United States and the Soviet Union found it possible to initiate the process by cutting into their immeasurable nuclear arsenals, then Ukraine declared its intention to become non-nuclear by the end of 1994. All the newly independent States, of the former Soviet Union, except Russia, also agreed to renounce possession of nuclear arms. The declarations were put into effect and the most recent specific action was the removal by 6 may 1992 of all short-range nuclear weapons from Ukrainian territory to Russian soil with a view to their ultimate dismantlement. The signature on 23 May 1992 in Lisbon by four ex-Soviet States (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) and the United States of a Protocol to the 1991 Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Weapons (START), significantly lowered the risk of nuclear war. By this accord Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine agreed to destroy or turn over to Russia all strategic nuclear warheads and to accede ''in the shortest possible time to the 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty''. In early May, Ukraine proposed to remove all nuclear weapons from the Black Sea and make it a zone of peace

  19. Akumulátory energie pro blízkou budoucnost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Jaromír

    -, č. 5 (2006), s. 14-15 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * power sources * energy accumulation Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use http://www.tretipol.cz/

  20. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Proceedings of the NEA Workshop on the Management of Non-Nuclear Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Dilday, Daniel; Siemann, Michael; Ciambrella, Massimo; Lazo, Edward; Sartori, Enrico; ); Dionisi, Mario; Long, Juliet; Nicholson, David; Chambers, Douglas; Garcia Alves, Joao Henrique; McMahon, Ciara; Bruno, Gerard; Fan, Zhiwen; ); Ripani, Marco; Nielsen, Mette; Solente, Nicolas; Templeton, John; Paratore, Angelo; Feinhals, Joerg; Pandolfi, Dana; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Picentino, Bruno; Simms, Helen; Beer, Hans-Frieder; Deryabin, Sergey; Ulrici, Luisa; Bergamaschi, Carlo; Nottestad, Stacy; Anagnostakis, Marios

    2017-05-01

    All NEA member countries, whether or not they have nuclear power plants, are faced with appropriately managing non-nuclear radioactive waste produced through industrial, research and medical activities. Sources of such waste can include national laboratory and university research activities, used and lost industrial gauges and radiography sources, hospital nuclear medicine activities and in some circumstances, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) activities. Although many of these wastes are not long-lived, the shear variety of sources makes it difficult to generically assess their physical (e.g. volume, chemical form, mixed waste) or radiological (e.g. activity, half-life, concentration) characteristics. Additionally, the source-specific nature of these wastes poses questions and challenges to their regulatory and practical management at a national level. This had generated interest from both the radiological protection and radioactive waste management communities, and prompted the Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) to organise, in collaboration with the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), a workshop tackling some of the key issues of this challenging topic. The key objectives of the NEA Workshop on the Management of Non-Nuclear Radioactive Waste were to address the particularities of managing non-nuclear waste in all its sources and forms and to share and exchange national experiences. Presentations and discussions addressed both technical aspects and national frameworks. Technical aspects included: - the range of non-nuclear waste sources, activities, volumes and other relevant characteristics; - waste storage and repository capacities and life cycles; - safety considerations for mixed wastes management; - human resources and knowledge management; - legal, regulatory and financial assurance, and liability issues. Taking into account the entire non-nuclear waste life-cycle, the workshop covered planning and

  2. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  3. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  4. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  5. Mean energy polarized neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.A.; Zaika, N.I.; Kolotyj, V.V.; Prokopenko, V.S.; Semenov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Physical bases and realization scheme of a pulsed source of polarized neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV are described. The source comprises polarized deuteron source, transport line, low-energy ion and axial injector to the accelerator, U-240 isochronous cyclotron, targets for polarized neutron production, accelerated deuteron transport line and flight bases. The pulsed source of fast neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV can provide for highly polarized neutron beams with the intensity by 2-3 orders higher than in the most perfect source of this range which allows one to perform various experiments with high efficiency and energy resolution. 9 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Reliability of sprinkler systems. Exploration and analysis of data from nuclear and non-nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roenty, V.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Hassinen, J.P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprinkler systems are an important part of fire safety of nuclear installations. As a part of effort to make fire-PSA of our utilities more quantitative a literature survey from open sources worldwide of available reliability data on sprinkler systems was carried out. Since the result of the survey was rather poor quantitatively, it was decided to mine available original Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear data, since nuclear power plants present a rather small device population. Sprinklers are becoming a key element for the fire safety in modern, open non-nuclear buildings. Therefore, the study included both nuclear power plants and non-nuclear buildings protected by sprinkler installations. Data needed for estimating of reliability of sprinkler systems were collected from available sources in Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear installations. Population sizes on sprinkler system installations and components therein as well as covered floor areas were counted individually from Finnish nuclear power plants. From non-nuclear installations corresponding data were estimated by counting relevant things from drawings of 102 buildings, and plotting from that sample needed probability distributions. The total populations of sprinkler systems and components were compiled based on available direct data and these distributions. From nuclear power plants electronic maintenance reports were obtained, observed failures and other reliability relevant data were selected, classified according to failure severity, and stored on spreadsheets for further analysis. A short summary of failures was made, which was hampered by a small sample size. From non-nuclear buildings inspection statistics from years 1985.1997 were surveyed, and observed failures were classified and stored on spreadsheets. Finally, a reliability model is proposed based on earlier formal work, and failure frequencies obtained by preliminary data analysis of this work. For a model utilising available information in the non-nuclear

  7. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  8. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  9. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  10. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  11. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear power, useful energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of an article published in a newspaper named 'Liberation Champagne' from October 7, 2003. It makes a brief analysis of the future world energy needs, of the need to fight against the global warming and to find a substitution to fossil fuels on the way to depletion. The mankind has to face a contradictory problem: increasing the energy production and saving the fossil fuels. The only solution is to accelerate the development of nuclear energy and of renewable energy sources. This is also the only way to fulfill the Kyoto protocol commitments. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  14. Geothermal energy, a new energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murr, K

    1960-05-01

    A survey is made of the historical development of geothermal energy, and the geological situations appropriate for its exploitation are described. When prospecting for steam sources, several vertical drillings of about 200 m depth and 60-120 mm diameter are usually sufficient to give adequate knowledge of subsurface conditions. In Iceland, geothermal energy is used primarily for domestic space-heating and climate control in greenhouses, but due to the ready availability of hydroelectricity, geothermal energy is not widely applied for the generation of electricity. In Katanga (Congo), a tin mine is supplied by 220-275 kW power plant which is driven by a nearby hot-water source. Other major developments at the time (1960) included Larderello in Italy and Wairakei in New Zealand. Preliminary results from exploratory boreholes in El Salvador are discussed.

  15. Energy policy and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

  16. Radioprotection - an example for non-nuclear industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.

    1977-01-01

    Basing himself on the experience acquired for 14 years with the atomic energy commision in the sphere of radiotoxicological surveyance of the personnel, the author observes that very strict controles are ensured in the nuclear industry. Simultaneously the results of measures that has been taken in respect to diversification for the past six years in many non-nuclear industries spread over the whole of French Territory are described. The different harmful effects that has been involved in controlling: mineral toxics (lead, mercury); organic toxics (vinyl chloride, benzenic solvents, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene); physical harmful effects (noise), are studied. The results obtained, both from the biological and toxicological point of view, on the man at work and on the conditions of his exposure to non radioactive harmful effects, are analyzed. The author compares the knowledge acquired in the two fields: nuclear field in which the biological effects of radiation, the metabolism of radioelements, the standards of exposure and radiotoxicological surveyance are now well known and codified; non-nuclear field in which many unknown elements continue, the standards of exposure not being agreed at International Level and even inexistant at national level. The example of vinyl chloride, whose considerable toxicity has recently been displayed, is analyzed. The author can thus conclude that the technology and design of the A.E.C. installations ensure excellent prevention. Radioprotection is an example of what should be attained in all work environments for all other effects harmful to man at work [fr

  17. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyadi Rachmad; Muhammad Fathoni; Topo Suprihadi, PY.; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Eri Hiswara; Alatas, Zubaidah; Dahlan, Kgs.; Muhammad Isnaini

    2003-03-01

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  18. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems at the central plant and then evaluate potential renewable energy sources and systems. Central Plant Begin by evaluating energy efficiency at the central plant through: Fuel Sources Heat Pumps and Combined

  19. Nuclear energy versus other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear and other sources of energy as they relate to the production of electricity. It first examines the current role of electricity in the world and its means of production and how future economic growth, associated with growing populations striving for better living conditions, will lead to increased demands for new electricity generation. The second part of the paper deals with the health and environmental impacts of the major options for generating electricity likely to be used to meet this need, and how a comparative assessment of these impacts is important to understand the full implications of electricity generation planning decisions. 6 refs, 12 figs

  20. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  1. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  2. Reactor physics for non-nuclear engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    A one-term undergraduate course in reactor physics is described. The instructional format is strongly influenced by its intended audience of non-nuclear engineering students. In contrast to legacy treatments of the subject, the course focuses on the physics of nuclear power reactors with no attempt to include instruction in numerical methods. The multi-physics of power reactors is emphasized highlighting the close interactions between neutronic and thermal phenomena in design and analysis. Consequently, the material's sequencing also differs from traditional treatments, for example treating kinetics before the neutron diffusion is introduced. (author)

  3. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  4. Potential of natural energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J D; Glanville, R; Gliddon, B J; Harrison, P L; Hotchkiss, R C; Hughes, E M; Swift-Hook, D T; Wright, J K

    1976-01-01

    Apart from fossil fuels and nuclear energy, five main alternative sources of power for electricity generation are: the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and the heat inside the earth. Each has been examined for its relevance to the energy situation in Britain and in particular to the CEGB's requirements as an electrical utility. None emerges from the analysis as directly competitive with nuclear power, provided that nuclear fulfills present expectations. As an insurance against unforeseen delays in the nuclear program, however, one or two of the options may well be worth closer consideration, particularly wave power, for which Britain is favorably placed. The best immediate prospect for using solar energy falls outside the province of the CEGB, in the area of domestic water heating. Wind power, despite the windiness of the British Isles, suffers in practice from a low load factor, which would greatly inflate the capital cost. Geothermal power in Britain, geologically one of the most stable parts of the world, appears to be available only at depths too great to be presently attractive for electricity generation. Finally, tidal power, although technically available in limited amounts, again suffers from high capital costs. (auth)

  5. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  6. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricotti M. E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  7. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  8. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  9. Conventional and unconventional energy sources for mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1981-01-01

    Plenty of industrial nations of the world is founded on the fact that only 1% of their energy requirement is met by muscle power, both of human and animal origin, while 99% comes mostly from fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels are not an eternal source and hence to conserve it, other sources must also be used. Availability of energy sources such as coal, biogas, solar energy, wind, tidal energy is examined and their draw-backs are pointed out. Another energy source i.e. nuclear energy can however substantially contribute to the energy scene. Fission reactors can contribute nearly 25% of the world energy requirements within two decades. Breeder reactors, if successfully developed, can meet the energy requirements of the world for few thousands of years. Fusion reactors, if successful for commercial exploitation, will form almost an inexhaustible source of energy. An added advantage is that they produce much less radioactive waste than that produced by fission reactors. (author)

  10. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  11. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  12. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  13. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  14. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  15. Matching energy sources to demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diagrams show the current pattern of energy usage in Scotland; primary energy inputs; the various classes of user; the disposition of input energy in terms of useful and waste energy; an energy flow diagram showing the proportions of primary fuels taken by the various user groups and the proportions of useful energy derived by each. Within the S.S.E.B. area, installed capacity and maximum demand are shown for the present and projected future to the year 2000. A possible energy flow diagram for Scotland in 1996 is shown. The more efficient use of energy is discussed, with particular reference to the use of electricity. The primary energy inputs considered are oil, coal, nuclear, hydro and gas. (U.K.)

  16. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  17. Maintaining non-nuclear weapon status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, H.

    1991-01-01

    Among the some 170 sovereign states in the world, five are legally recognized as nuclear weapon states (NWS) under the terms of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Six countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa) are counted as threshold states: they possess sizeable unsafeguarded nuclear facilities or have passed the brink of a nuclear test or of clandestine weapon production. Six other countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Taiwan, and North and South Korea) have been suspected periodically of either considering the nuclear weapon option or of working secretly on the development of weapons. Thus, about 150 non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain which neither possess nuclear weapons nor strive to acquire them. These states are distributed throughout the globe and encompass highly industrialized as well as underdeveloped countries, liberal democracies, socialist states, sheikdoms and dictatorships. Some NNWS face acute military threats; other are far removed from the quarrels of the world, as in the case of some remote fortunate islands. Furthermore, NNWS may be members of nuclear-umbrella alliances or may have opted for a policy of neutrality or non-alignment

  18. Pilot training of non-nuclear professionals within CORONA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, K.; Manolova, M.; Belousov, S.

    2013-01-01

    The pilot training results shown that the used approach is appropriate and could be disseminate among the interested parties. • The interest from the side of the different professionals is an important indicator about the necessity to care such courses for non-nuclear professionals.The effectiveness of the training program for non-nuclear specialists will be assessed using the replies of the Course evaluation form as well as the feedback from employers, trainers and observers

  19. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  20. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  1. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  2. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  3. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  4. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  5. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  7. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  8. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  9. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Young, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  10. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  11. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  12. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  13. Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

  14. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  15. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  16. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  17. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  18. Alternative energy sources in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The hereby presented report was elaborated for the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic by the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in Prague from July to October 1999. The report is constituted so as to provide a complete introductory overview of the situation in the Czech Republic relating to alternative energy sources. For the purposes of this report, the term alternative energy sources is conceived as renewable energy sources and combined generation of heat and electricity. Renewable energy sources comprise sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and energy generated from biomass or waste. The report features a glimpse at the history of alternative energy sources' utilisation in the Czech Republic, a description of the current state and an extrapolation of existing trends into expectable medium- and long-run developments. The report also includes an insight into the relevant legal framework and a general scan of market opportunities. The objective of the report is to prepare a solid starting platform for Dutch companies which specialise in renewable energy sources and/or cogeneration and which may be interested in extending their scope of activities to the Czech Republic

  19. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  20. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  1. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  2. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  3. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  4. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  5. Biomass as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, M.; Naveau, H.; Declerck, C.; Vanacker, L.; Mahy, D.; Schepens, G.

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the possible production and utilization of biomass as an energy source in Belgium. Four conversion methods are considered - methanation, fermentation, incineration and gasification - from a technological and economic viewpoint.

  6. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renewable energy, solar energy, photosynthesis, electrolysis, photocatalysis, photovoltaic cell. Abstract. Using Sun's energy effectively to drive important, industriallyrelevant chemical reactions is currently an area of researchthat is attracting a large attention. This route circumventsour reliance on non-renewable sources of ...

  7. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  8. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result...... of a long and fruitful cooperation between public and private institutions within energy system research and analysis. The purpose of the article is to explain the modelling approach, to highlight strengths and challenges of the chosen approach, to create awareness about the possible applications...... of Balmorel as well as to inspire to new model developments and encourage new users to join the community. Some of the key strengths of the model are the flexible handling of the time and space dimensions and the combination of operation and investment optimisation. Its open source character enables diverse...

  9. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  10. A comparative table of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Comparative table of various energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions.

  12. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  13. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico

    2015-01-01

    recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...... organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family...

  14. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  15. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  16. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  17. The IAEA project on nuclear and non-nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive and chemotoxic agents are common in electricity generation waste. Data and assessments illustrate that nuclear and non-nuclear fuel chains result in waste posing potential long-term hazards. Efforts are focussed on filling data gaps and approaches for comparing impacts of radioactive and chemotoxic agents

  18. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  19. Energy Spread Sources in TESLA and TTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Tessier, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The beam energy spread in the TESLA linac must be small enough to limit the emittance dilution due to the dispersive effects. This report summarizes the major sources of energy spread both for the TESLA linac and the TTF linac, where these estimations will be carefully checked with beam experiments. The first part recalls the intra-bunch energy spread while the second part looks into the bunch-to-bunch energy spread induced by rf field fluctuations within the bunch train and from pulse-to-pulse. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  1. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  2. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  3. The nuclear energy: an essential source of the energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the energy consumption facing the environmental quality, the author presents the energy sources, used and possible. He shows the necessity to reduce the dependency towards the fossil fuels. He discusses the possibility of the CO 2 storage, the electric power use to decrease the CO 2 emissions. He then analyses the cogeneration alternative, the hybrid vehicles and the advantages of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  4. Indian energy sources in 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A. C.

    Indian energy sources for electrical power generation are surveyed with a view to the development of the available hydroelectric resources. The capital-intensive nature of hydroelectric projects and their long gestation periods have impeded the rapid exploitation of the hydroelectric resources in the country, which are expected to provide 37% of the 16,200 MW capacity anticipated by 2001. Alternative sources of power such as solar and wind energy, biogas conversion and the use of industrial waste heat to produce electricity are discussed with case studies presented.

  5. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  6. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  7. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  8. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  9. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-01-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  10. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  11. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  12. Nuclear weapons complex. Weaknesses in DOE's nonnuclear consolidation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James E. Jr.; Fenzel, William F.; Schulze, John R.; Gaffigan, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Nuclear weapons contain a wide variety of nonnuclear components - items that are not made from nuclear materials. These components comprise the majority of parts in nuclear weapons, including the ones needed to guide weapons to their targets, initiate the nuclear explosion, increase the weapons' explosive yield, and ensure the weapons' safety and security. DOE has three facilities, the Kansas City Plant in Missouri, the Mound Plant in Ohio, and the Pinellas Plant in Florida, that are dedicated primarily to nonnuclear activities and have unique manufacturing responsibilities. Some additional nonnuclear manufacturing activities are performed at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, and the Pantex Plant in Texas. Descriptions of each plant and the activities they conduct are contained in appendix I of this report. In 1991, DOE began planning to reconfigure the nuclear weapons complex into one that is smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operate. More specifically, DOE issued a reconfiguration study in January 1991 that set forth a detailed framework for making the complex smaller and more efficient. The study will lead to a complex-wide Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) on how best to reconfigure the complex. This statement is planned to be completed in late 1993. As part of the effort to analyze the reconfiguration, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs directed the Albuquerque Operations Office in April 1991 to develop a nonnuclear consolidation plan to serve as input to the PEIS. There are a number of weaknesses in DOE's NCP. First, because the NCP's scope was limited to examining single-site consolidation alternatives, the decision to select Kansas City as the preferred option was made without analyzing other nonnuclear options. These options included down sizing and modernizing all facilities in place or maximizing consolidation by eliminating all nonnuclear sites and relocating their functions to a

  13. Energy price comparison of new, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun; Sunardi

    2014-01-01

    Low cost transportation for people and goods is essential to the economic well-being of the nation. Until now, if the oil prices rise, the cost of transportation will automatically follow and most of the people suffering due to soaring prices of food and other items. Almost 100 percent of Indonesian transportation energy demand is supported by oil. Supply disruption - or even the threat of disruption - in the Middle East or elsewhere may lead to a shift in consumer prices and the cost of the industry in significant numbers. While costs in the energy sector, especially electricity in developed countries that also contribute significantly to support the transport sector, is much more stable and predictable. Energy requirements are so high in the transport sector tends to force people to seek the source and means of energy in other forms such as electricity or hydrogen that can match or exceed the performance of fuel oil. This paper aims to analyze the economics of energy price comparison to see the extent of the economic opportunities some kind of energy to play a significant role in the transport sector and the subsequent impact on the energy system. From the results obtained by the analysis that will be increasingly necessary role of nuclear energy and other specific energy as a source of electrical energy considering its economical aspects are relatively better. (author)

  14. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  15. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  16. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  17. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  18. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  20. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  1. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  2. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  3. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-01

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  4. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  5. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  6. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  7. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period

  8. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  9. Non-nuclear, low-carbon, or both? The case of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Heng Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan has renewed debates on the safety of nuclear power, possibly hurting the role of nuclear power in efforts to limit CO 2 emissions. I develop a dynamic economy-wide model of Taiwan with a detailed set of technology options in the power sector to examine the implications of adopting different carbon and nuclear power policies on CO 2 emissions and the economy. Without a carbon mitigation policy, limiting nuclear power has a small economic cost for Taiwan, but CO 2 emissions may increase by around 4.5% by 2050 when nuclear is replaced by fossil-based generation. With a low-carbon target of a 50% reduction from year 2000 levels by 2050, the costs of cutting CO 2 emissions are greatly reduced if both carbon sequestration and nuclear expansion were viable. This study finds that converting Taiwan's industrial structure into a less energy-intensive one is crucial to carry out the non-nuclear and low-carbon environment. - Highlights: • This study provides an analysis for Taiwan under a low-carbon policy with or without the nuclear option. • A new approach that improves the modeling of non-dispatchable generation is presented. • Emission reduction costs are greatly reduced if both carbon sequestration and nuclear expansion were viable. • A less energy-intensive industrial structure is crucial in pursuing a non-nuclear and low carbon environment

  10. Fusion reactor cost reductions by employing non-nuclear grade components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Sonn, D.L.; Wise, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    The Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor fits the requirements of low radioactive inventories and inherent safety and is therefore a candidate for non-nuclear construction throughout. This reactor consists of a rotating blanket of ceramic granules that absorb the energy from D-T target explosions occurring along the rotational axis. Laser energy is beamed in axially from both ends. Two cost estimates were made for an 815 MWe Cascade power plant. One was based on an ''all conventional'' plant, which is constructed and costed using well-established, conventional fossil power plant methods. The second was a ''nuclear plus conventional'' design, constructed and costed using a combination of fossil and fission reactor plant methods and standards that would be typical of advanced fission reactors. The total capital requirements for the ''all conventional'' construction plant were estimated in 1985 dollars at $1490 M, including indirect costs. Similarly, the ''nuclear plus conventional'' construction plant was estimated at $1940 M. The savings of $450 M (23%) represents strictly the difference between Cascade ICF power plants designed and constructed to nuclear safety-related requirements versus all non-nuclear. This example clearly shows that, if fusion plants can take advantage of low activation materials and inherent safety features to eliminate the need for nuclear-related expenses, then such plants may have economic advantages over nuclear-grade systems. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  12. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  13. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  14. Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980. Annual report 1977 on efficient uses of energy fossil sources of primary energy new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives within the policy of the Federal Government Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980 can be summarized as follows: guaranteeing the continuity of energy supply in the medium to long term in the Federal Republic at economically favourable costs considering the requirements necessary for the protection of the environment and population. The financial support is effected under the general headings of Development of Energy Resources, Energy Conservation and Efficient Use of Energy. An additional aspect of the support policy is the development of technologies which are of importance for other countries, specifically for the developing countries. Support of a project is effected through a research and development grant from the Federal Government and this can range from less than 50% to 100%. For this the Government receives an irrevocable, free of charge and non-exclusive right to make use of research and development results. In special cases full repayment is agreed subject to commercial success. Based on agreements signed by the Federal Minister of Research and Technology and the Federal Minister of Economic Affairs on the one hand and the Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) on the other, the Project Management for Energy Research (PLE) in KFA Juelich is acting on behalf of these Ministries. The Project Management's activities in non-nuclear energy research in general (for the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) and development and innovation in coal mining and preparation (for the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs) have the following general objectives: to improve the efficiency of Government support; to ensure that projects are efficiently handled; and to reduce the workload of the Ministries. The individual projects are listed and described briefly.

  15. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  16. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  17. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  18. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  19. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  20. Alternative and renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-09-01

    The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for 'food' and 'technological' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called 'energy crop strategy'. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories. Other ways must be found to provide the latter, and it is suggested that nuclear energy should make an increasing contribution even in the developing countries. (Auth.)

  1. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  2. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S, E-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  4. White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Avella, R.; Braccio, G.; Caserta, G.; Chiado' Rana, M.; Ciciolla, C.; Conte, G.; De Lillo, A.; Gerardi, V.; Giuliani, G.; Pignatelli, V.; Pirazzi, L.; Ricci, A.; Sarno, A.; Sonnino, A.; Viggiano, D.; Pazzi, V.; Silvestrini, G.; Morselli, F.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries [it

  5. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  6. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  7. Challenges in Strengthening Regulatory Infrastructure in a Non-Nuclear Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The State Regulatory Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (SRARNS) is established as the effectively independent regulatory body for radiation and nuclear safety based on the Law on Radiation and Nuclear Safety in Bosnia and Herzegovina promulgated in November 2007. After its complete reorganization in the last few years, the regulatory system is compatible with relevant IAEA Safety Standards and Guides for safety and security of radioactive sources. The paper gives an overview of the new regulatory framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with special focus on challenges faced by Bosnia and Herzegovina, which are actually typical challenges for regulator in small non-nuclear country in strengthening regulatory infrastructure in regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste. (author)

  8. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  10. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  11. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  12. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  13. Renewable energy sources: the case of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J

    1979-04-01

    Industrial nations have based their economic and social development on the use of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas). This trend is being followed by many developing countries, which have neither the natural resources nor the manpower to adopt this path. As a result, one finds in many of these countries islands of prosperity (based on consumption patterns copied from industrial nations surrounded by a sea of poverty. The problems resulting from this dual social structure are obvious in many parts of the world. It is argued here that renewable energy sources are a natural basis for the development of the poorer countries and that intelligent use of hydropower, biomass, and direct solar energy can shortut many of the problems faced today by industrial nations. The case of Brazil is analyzed as one of the countries in which these solutions are being tried. 5 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  14. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  15. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S; Rinkinen, J [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  16. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  17. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  18. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Linda [V-Squared, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate information between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results of this

  19. Survey lecture on renewable energy sources. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliss, M

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with utilizable regenerative energy sources: geothermal energy, tidal energy, solar energy, running water energy, and wind energy. Tests for the development of these sources have been carried out, but only one of them has a considerable share in meeting the energy demand--that gained from running water. The others are only of regional importance (geothermal energy, tidal energy) or have lost the importance they once had (wind energy, biochemical energy in the form of wood). The latest discussions about the restrictions on fossil and nuclear energy sources and the environmental effects of the technologies necessary for their utilization have increased the interest in the ''inexhaustible'' energy sources. This is why the author outlines the possible importance of renewable energy sources.

  20. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  1. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-20

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications. (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote monitoring

  2. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    -related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas......Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  3. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  4. Hazard classification criteria for non-nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.; Walker, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' Integrated Risk Management Department has developed a process for establishing the appropriate hazard classification of a new facility or operation, and thus the level of rigor required for the associated authorization basis safety documentation. This process is referred to as the Preliminary Hazard Screen. DOE Order 5481.1B contains the following hazard classification for non-nuclear facilities: high--having the potential for onsite or offsite impacts to large numbers of persons or for major impacts to the environment; moderate--having the potential for considerable onsite impacts but only minor offsite impacts to people or the environment; low--having the potential for only minor onsite and negligible offsite impacts to people or the environment. It is apparent that the application of such generic criteria is more than likely to be fraught with subjective judgment. One way to remove the subjectivity is to define health and safety classification thresholds for specific hazards that are based on the magnitude of the hazard, rather than on a qualitative assessment of possible accident consequences. This paper presents the results of such an approach to establishing a readily usable set of non-nuclear facility hazard classifications

  5. Campaign for non-nuclear zones launched by action groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, E.

    1982-01-01

    It is the purpose of this campaign for establishing ''non-nuclear zones in regions and communities'' to make the general public realize the vital importance of this issue. The discussion about issues of national safety policy is to be initiated on all political levels, thus making this subject a matter for discussion in the public. It seems likely that many town parliaments will first try to get out of the business by claiming not to be competent to discuss problems of national policy. But it is hoped by the originators of this campaign that a so-to-say symbolic decision of communities - against the stationing of new Pershing II missiles on the premises of the community because this community devies nuclear weapons altogether; for the establishment of a non-nuclear zone in the region this community belongs to because the community supports efforts to clear all European countries from nuclear weapons - will enhance the chance of concrete measures to follow, measures which will at least make the stationing of nuclear weapons more difficult. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. The Potential of NORM in Non-Nuclear Industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunto Wiharto; Syarbaini

    2003-01-01

    Industry with an activity of processing natural resources from crust of earth as raw materials could cause natural radioactivity in crust of earth to be accumulated in waste, by product and or main product of that industry. Natural radioactive elements which are mobilized and then accumulated in end industry process are known as NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). NORM have a potential radiological impact such as external and internal radiation exposure. Therefore, the existence of NORM in these non-nuclear industries should be studied in order to handle properly the radiological impact of those material to the industrial workers, member of the public and the surrounding environment. This paper describes the non nuclear industrial sectors in Indonesia that have potential NORM sources and radiation safety aspects in connecting with NORM. (author)

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  8. An online low energy gaseous ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shuoxue; Guo Liping; Peng Guoliang; Zhang Jiaolong; Yang Zheng; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Ju Xin; Liu Shi

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of helium and/or hydrogen in nuclear materials may cause performance deterioration of the materials. In order to provide a unique tool to investigate the He-and/or H-caused problems, such as interaction of helium with hydrogen and defects, formation of gas bubbles and its evolution, and the related effects, we designed a low energy (≤ 20 keV) cold cathode Penning ion source, which will be interfaced to a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM), for monitoring continuously the evolution of micro-structure during the He + or H + ion implantation. Studies on discharge voltage-current characteristics of the ion source, and extraction and focusing of the ion beam were performed. The ion source works stably with 15-60 mA of the discharge current.Under the gas pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Pa and 1.5 x 10 -2 Pa, the discharge voltage are about 380 V and 320 V, respectively. The extracted ion current under lower gas pressure is greater than that under higher gas pressure, and it increases with the discharge current and extraction voltage. The ion lens consisting of three equal-diameter metal cylinder focus the ion beam effectively, so that the beam density at the 150 cm away from the lens exit increases by a over one order of magnitude. For ion beams of around 10 keV, the measured beam density is about 200 nA · cm -2 , which is applicable for ion implantation and in situ TEM observation for many kinds of nuclear materials. (authors)

  9. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  10. Impact of the Application of Exemption Regulation to the Non-nuclear Industry in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eri-Hiswara

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) as a nuclear regulatory authority in Indonesia has published the exemption regulation that establishes the value of activity, activity concentration, and dose rate for practices that their operations do not require a licence. From an assessment it was found that the value of activity concentration and dose rate have been exceeded by technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) present in the raw material and product/waste of some mining and mineral industries known so far as non-nuclear industry. The result has the impact that those industries should be categorized as nuclear industry, with the implication that they need to have licence from regulatory authority, and their activities need to be inspected regularly from the radiation safety point of view by the authority. (author)

  11. Reply by the Federal Government to a question concerning new primary energy sources raised in the Bundestag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthoefer, H [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (F.R. Germany)

    1976-06-01

    A question raised in the Bundestag concerning new primary energy sources was answered by the Federal Minister for Science and Technology in his letter dated June 2, 1976; the letter called attention to the Federal Government's energy program of September 1973 which, instead of promoting research almost exclusively on the nuclear sector as used to be the case, aims at a purposeful and comprehensive promotion by the state of non-nuclear energy research as well in the FRG. Solar energy seems to have the best chance in the FRG of being utilized in an industrial way, applying low-temperature collectors to recover heat for heating and hot water preparation; 28 million DM have been invested so far. Despite the fact that the technical potential of wind power in the FRG would cover almost 75% of the present electricity demand, only plants with a small kW range are being developed at the moment as the question of energy storage is still open; 0.3 million DM have been granted so far. The utilization of geothermal power can only be of interest for the FRG on the basis of the hot-dry-rock method; drilling work is carried out in the Eifel district investigating geothermal gradients: 1.25 million DM have been granted so far. In 1976 the projects mentioned above have been allotted research funds amounting to 20 million DM. Energy from running/tidal waters is utilized in the FRG to 90% so far, but this only accounts for 6.7% of the gross electricity generation. Therefore, its importance for the energy supply of the FRG will decrease when the energy demand increases.

  12. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  13. Incineration of European non-nuclear radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, B. P.; Ferguson, D.; Stephenson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Incineration of dry low level radioactive waste from nuclear stations is a well established process achieving high volume reduction factors to minimise disposal costs and to stabilise residues for disposal. Incineration has also been applied successfully in many European Union member countries to wastes arising from use of radionuclides in medicine, nonnuclear research and industry. However, some nations have preferred to accumulate wastes over many years in decay stores to reduce the radioactive burden at point of processing. After decay and sorting the waste, they then require a safe, industrial scale and affordable processing solution for the large volumes accumulated. This paper reports the regulatory, logistical and technical issues encountered in a programme delivered for Eckert and Ziegler Nuclitec to incinerate safely 100 te of waste collected originally from German research, hospital and industrial centres, applying for the first time a 'burn and return' process model for European waste in the US. The EnergySolutions incinerators at Bear Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA routinely incinerate waste arising from the non-nuclear user community. To address the requirement from Germany, EnergySolutions had to run a dedicated campaign to reduce cross-contamination with non-German radionuclides to the practical minimum. The waste itself had to be sampled in a carefully controlled programme to ensure the exacting standards of Bear Creek's license and US emissions laws were maintained. Innovation was required in packaging of the waste to minimise transportation costs, including sea freight. The incineration was inspected on behalf of the German regulator (the BfS) to ensure suitability for return to Germany and disposal. This first 'burn and return' programme has safely completed the incineration phase in February and the arising ash will be returned to Germany presently. The paper reports the main findings and lessons learned on this first

  14. Critical Analysis of Non-Nuclear Electron-Density Maxima and the Maximum Entropy Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.Y.; Briels, Willem J.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of non-nuclear maxima in charge densities is questioned. It is shown that the non-nuclear maxima reported for silicon are artifacts of the maximum entropy method that was used to analyze the x-ray diffraction data. This method can be improved by the use of

  15. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  16. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  17. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  18. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  19. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined

  20. Experiment prediction for Loft Nonnuclear Experiment L1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Berta, V.T.; Holmstrom, H.L.O.

    1977-04-01

    A computer analysis, using the WHAM and RELAP4 computer codes, was performed to predict the LOFT system thermal-hydraulic response for Experiment L1-4 of the nonnuclear (isothermal) test series. Experiment L1-4 will simulate a 200 percent double-ended offset shear in the cold leg of a four-loop large pressurized water reactor. A core simulator will be used to provide a reactor vessel pressure drop representative of the LOFT nuclear core. Experiment L1-4 will be initiated with a nominal isothermal primary coolant temperature of 282.2 0 C, a pressurizer pressure of 15.51 MPa, and a primary coolant flow of 270.9 kg/s. In general, the predictions of saturated blowdown for Experiment Ll-4 are consistent with the expected system behavior, and predicted trends agree with results from Semiscale Test S-01-4A, which simulated the Ll-4 experiment conditions

  1. Renewable energy sources for tenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manazza, G.

    1992-01-01

    Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources

  2. The church and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1978-03-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: foreword (explaining that report is a synopsis of the Hearing on Nuclear Energy arranged by the World Council of Churches, held in Sigtune, Sweden, June 24 to 29, 1975); humanity's energy needs); alternative sources of energy (nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, non-nuclear processes; some generalisations (concerning the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy to various sections of the world); what risks are acceptable (radiation hazards, reactor safety, radioactive wastes, misuse of Pu, safeguarding); nuclear weapons; nuclear energy - a challenge to the Churches; social and ethical issues; certain conclusions; postscript -the American move. (U.K.)

  3. Foster alternate sources of energy or perish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    With proper planning, load identification and community sharing, the energy requirements of the non-commercial sector can be left to the renewable energy resources. Of course, the day is not far off when the world energy demand shall fully count on the renewable energy resources of the world. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  4. Energy sources taxes. 1989-1992 Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    Owing to the development of nuclear power industry and energy conservation, the french energy independence has well progressed since 1973. But french imports are still higher than 50 percent of energy consumption in the country and important uncertainties exist such the cost of energy supply or the risks of supply disruption. This paper describes energy fiscal policy and taxes in France and its development possibilities

  5. Source composition of cosmic rays at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliusson, E.; Cesarsky, C.J.; Meneguzzi, M.; Casse, M.

    1975-01-01

    The source composition of the cosmic ray is usually calculated at an energy of a few GeV per nucleon. Recent measurements have however indicated that the source composition may be energy dependent. In order to give a quantitative answer to this question the source composition at 50GeV/nucleon has been calculated using an exponential distribution of path lengths and in the slab approximation. The results obtained at high energy agree very well with the source composition obtained at lower energies, except the abundance of carbon which is significantly lower than the generally accepted value of low energies [fr

  6. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  7. A National system for the Management of Non-nuclear Radioactive Waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish government in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to suggest a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive waste with special consideration to the principle of polluter pays and the responsibility of the producers. The committee delivered its recommendations to the government at the end of last year. Funding for future costs for nuclear waste management and final storage is collected in a state governed funding system. For non-nuclear waste, however, there are no means today to secure the funding. If a company goes bankrupt and leaves radioactive waste behind it might be up to the taxpayers to pay for its safe management. This is due to the fact that the cost for the waste is paid at the time one wants to dispose of it and it is usually the last owner of a product etc. that has to pay. Sometimes the price comes as a surprise and the owner might not have the money available. Thus the waste might be kept longer than otherwise and might even end up as orphan waste. To solve this dilemma the committee recommends a funding system in parallel with the system for the nuclear waste. The cost for the waste should be paid up front before the waste has been created. E.g. when a customer buys a product the cost for the future waste management would be included in the price and he will not have to pay for this the day he disposes the product by returning it to the producer or leaves it to a waste-collecting organisation. It should be the responsibility of the producer (manufacturer, importer or re-seller) to guarantee the funding for the waste management. In summary the non-nuclear radioactive waste is divided into three main groups: waste from products, waste from practices and other waste. Waste from products includes household products as well as products used in research, industry and hospitals etc. For this category it is easy to identify a producer who imports or

  8. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  9. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  10. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  11. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  12. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  13. Energy. From natural sources to production challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Human beings have always needed energy to feed themselves and move about. Energy can be found in various forms. Today's technologies are capable of tapping all possible resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, wind, sun) to produce large quantities of energy. Now, at the start of the 21. century, energy remains essential for mankind. It represents a major political, economic, scientific and environmental challenge. Of the many properties found in material objects, energy is not only one of the most important but also one of the most abstract, since it is not actually tangible. (authors)

  14. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it

  15. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  16. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  17. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  18. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  19. Survey on non-nuclear radioactive waste; Kartlaeggning av radioaktivt avfall fraan icke kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden.

  20. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  1. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, S.; Garjoaba, M.; Antonescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  2. Multi-Source Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increasing interest in the development of wireless sensor networks. But the unsatisfactory or limited available energy source is one of the major bottlenecks which are limiting the wireless sensor technology from mass deployment. Ambient energy harvesting is the most promising solution towards autonomous sensor nodes by providing low cost, permanent, and maintenance-free energy source to wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we first invested available energy s...

  3. Sustainable biotechnology: sources of renewable energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Om V; Harvey, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anuj K. Chandel, Om V. Singh, and L.Venkateswar Rao 63 Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James J. Valdes and Jerry B. Warner...

  4. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  5. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  6. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  7. Integration of new distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Bakken, Bjoern H.; Hetland, Jens

    2001-01-01

    In years with average runoff, Norway will be a net importer of electric power. The use of electric energy is not declining and so the gap between supply and demand is increasing. A large-scale increase of the production of new hydroelectric power is unlikely for political reasons. Gas power by today's technology is controversial and basing the national energy supply on import is undesirable. It is possible to concentrate on decentralized electricity production in small units. On the supply side, increased taxation can be used to reduce consumption; but this may hit unfairly. Direct regulation to limit consumption is undesirable in a free market. One solution on the consumer side may be a more flexible energy use by way of new technology, incorporating thermal energy. Research and development in a united energy sector is needed to realize the potential of small combined heating and power units connected to the existing system. Some efforts have already been made

  8. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  9. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  10. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert, Claassen

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be sold to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike: 1) political enabling framework, 2) regulatory framework, 3) responsible owner, 4) responsible operator, 5) finance, 6) contact management, 7) fuel supply and waste management framework, 8) training and education, and 9) industrial infrastructure. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. (author)

  11. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, Gert

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modulator Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be solid to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. These considerations are included in the paper. (author)

  12. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  13. Non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhishikar, Subhash

    1993-01-01

    The article describes flat plate solar collector, concentration solar collector, applications of solar energy, biomass gasification process, and biomass fueled Stirling engine. Cost aspect is also considered. (M.G.B). 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Review of non-nuclear density gauges as possible replacements for ITD's nuclear density gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the possibility of replacing nuclear density gauges (NDGs) with non-nuclear density gauges (NNDGs) to : measure density of hot mix asphalt (HMA) and unbound pavement layers in the field. The research team evaluated the : effectiv...

  15. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  16. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems [it

  17. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco C.

    2001-01-01

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  19. 27-Level DC–AC inverter with single energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reports a novel 27-level DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source. ► The efficiency of the inverter is very high. The output waveform is almost sinusoidal. ► The cost is low as the number of power switches required is only 12. - Abstract: A novel design of multilevel DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source is presented in this paper. The proposed approach enables multilevel output to be realised by a few cascaded H-bridges and a single energy source. As an illustration, a 27-level inverter has been implemented based on three cascaded H-bridges with a single energy source and two capacitors. Using the proposed novel switching strategy, 27 levels can be realized and the two virtual energy sources can be well regulated. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed inverter.

  20. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  1. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathaiah, R.; Sharma, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  2. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  3. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  4. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  5. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The nuclear energy in the frame of the energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogas, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the different technological alternatives for addressing the energy challenges of our society (security of supply, competitiveness and sustain ability), emphasizing the need for nuclear energy to achieving those goals. Recently, the view of society about nuclear power has shifted from a position of outright hostility towards an acceptance still not totally defined. That is so, that people of environmentalism as the founders of Green peace James Love lock, Patrick Moore or the writer Gwyneth Cravens have said that nuclear energy is the option to produce energy that less increases CO 2 emissions, and that without it targets for reduction may not meet. (Author) 4 refs

  7. German Federal spendings on nuclear energy in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The portfolio of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) covers under the competence of the Federal Government all activities in the field of nuclear science and engineering for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, reactor safety research, and research on non-nuclear energy sources and technology. The draft budget for 1989 shows a total expenditure of DM 7.65 billions in the section 30, portfolio of the BMFT. This is about 1.2% more than in the draft budget of 1988. Broken down into programmes, DM 1.853 billions are earmarked for energy research and technology (1988: DM 1.854 billions), of these DM 398.5 millions for the promotion of non-nuclear energy research and technology. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, M.; Benjamin, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  9. Energy research and energy technologies. Fossil energy sources. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    After an introduction into the research programme and an overview of the sponsored projects, the main part of the book gives a description of the projects in the research area fossile energy sources. Several indexes provide access to this comprehensive compilation: a project number index, an index of interconnected projects, and an index of companies. The organization plan of ''BEO'', the project group biology, energy, ecology, is appended. (UA) [de

  10. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  11. CFD simulation of energy sources in EAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Büyükkaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of energy production and heat transfer by carbon combustion and electrical arc is performed using Fluent computational fluid dynamic (CFD software in this manuscript. The heat energy generated by carbon burning and electric arc radiation during combustion of the scrap in the EAO has been examined in detail. For this reason, modeling studies have utilized the combustion reactions of carbon particles and electromagnetically emitted radiation. Firstly, particle surface and gas reactions are investigated in terms of injected carbon burning. The result of the chemical reaction at the burner outlet is about 3000 K of the core temperature during combustion. It has been determined that the temperature which acts on the slag is 2200 K. The radiation temperature was found to be highest in the area under the electrodes and fell to 1850 K in the area where the melt was poured. Under steady operating conditions, it was seen that electric energy was absorbed by about 5.5% of the electrodes. As a result of this study, CFD software can be used to model combustion and radiation and energy generation and heat transfer for an electric arc furnace at the design study.

  12. Methane hydrates. An overlooked energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, R.; Castellazzi, L.; Bassano, C.

    2001-01-01

    A virtually unthought-of world energy reserve, at least twice as large as known fossil-fuel reserves, opens new opportunities and deserves investments in research on methods for discovering and exploiting deposits, and in the development of relevant technologies [it

  13. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  14. The potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Besides hydropower and biomass, solar energy and biomass are candidates for renewable sources of energy. The demand for biomass, solar energy and ambient heat has been rising in all spheres: from 6.8% in 1983 to about 10% in 1990. The development of the market for solar and heat pump systems is continuing its positive tendency. It is expected, that solar as well as heat pump technologies could provide substantial contribution to the energy supply in Austria. The technical usable potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria is analysed. (author)

  15. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  16. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  17. Tapping the zero-point energy as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output

  18. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  20. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  1. Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km 2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed. [it

  2. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  3. Dynamic droop scheme considering effect of intermittent renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic droop control scheme for islanded microgrids dominated by intermittent renewable energy sources, which is able to perform desirable power sharing in the presence of renewable energy source fluctuation. First, allowable maximum power points of wind generator and PV...... flexibility and effectiveness in the presence of the renewable energy sources fluctuation....... controller of each DG unit is activated through local logic variable inferred by wind speed and solar insolation information. Simulation results are given for validating the droop control scheme. The proposed dynamic droop scheme preserves the advantage of conventional droop control method, and provides...

  4. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    strategies. The framework also lays a foundation for the code optimization by automatic tools. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that achieves this for a high-level language such as Java. In a case study, the experimental evaluation shows that our approach is able to save from 6.4% to 50...... process. The source code is the interface between the developer and hardware resources. In this paper, we propose an energy optimization framework guided by a source code energy model that allows developers to be aware of energy usage induced by the code and to apply very targeted source-level refactoring...

  5. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  6. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  7. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  8. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  9. Mesquite: a possible source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) as fuel was studied by means of rough cost analysis. Four possible means of energy conversion were considered: namely, production of commercial electricity, conversion to methane and methanol, and as a boiler fuel for industry. By the harvesting method proposed, which consisted of root plowing all the mesquite within the immediate vicinity of the plant and hauling the trees whole to the plant for shredding, only the use as industrial boiler fuel appeared economically competitive with other fuels, and here, the competitiveness is dependent upon an unknown parameter - the cost of hauling to the plant.

  10. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  11. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadjivassiliadis, J.

    1996-01-01

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  13. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  14. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  15. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaigham, N.A.; Nayyar, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner

  16. Innovative Basis of Research of Energy-Efficient Potential and Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov Seymur Latif oglu; Hasanov Elnur Latif oglu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, countries of the world have been trying to attract new energy sources (wind, sun, biogas, waves, drainage, non-conventional energy sources such as hydroelectric power of small rivers) in their fuel-energy balance. Azerbaijan has renewable natural resources, favorable for its energy-efficient potential, according to the amount of sunny and windy days. In this article was given total information about renewable energy potential of Azerbaijan Republic. In this article we use inf...

  17. Risk analysis of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores two points raised by Miller Spangler in a January 1981 issue: public perception of risks involving nuclear power plants relative to those of conventional plants and criteria for evaluating the way risk analyses are made. On the first point, he concludes that translating public attitudes into the experts' language of probability and risk could provide better information and understanding of both the attitudes and the risks. Viewing risk analysis methodologies as filters which help to test historical change, he suggests that the lack of information favors a lay jury approach for energy decisions. Spangler responds that Congress is an example of lay decision making, but that a lay jury, given public disinterest and polarization, would probably not improve social justice on the nuclear issue. 5 references, 4 figures

  18. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  19. Access to primary energy sources - the basis of national energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.

    2017-11-01

    National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.

  20. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  1. Energy policy and economy of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohoczky, F.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The potential and expected economic impact of various forms of renewable energy are discussed briefly some figures are presented of the expected output of various forms of renewable. Economic and environmental benefits are stressed. (R.P.)

  2. Overview of renewable energy sources development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Lepy, S.; Roudergues, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Generation from Renewable Energy Sources is booming. As for any conventional generation technology, RES specific technical features can be accommodated by the electric system with no tremendous difficulty, provided the grid can be aptly adapted and developed. (authors)

  3. Renewable energy sources, finance and sustainability outlook and latest evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesani, P.

    2008-01-01

    Environment-related reasons, pressure by public opinion, and above all the strong belief that green technologies will be highly profitable pave the way to higher investments of private finance on renewable energy sources [it

  4. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  5. Comparative studies of energy sources in gynecologic laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kenneth S K; Lyons, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Energy sources incorporating "vessel sealing" capabilities are being increasingly used in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery although conventional monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery remain popular. The preference for one device over another is based on a combination of factors, including the surgeon's subjective experience, availability, and cost. Although comparative clinical studies and meta-analyses of laparoscopic energy sources have reported small but statistically significant differences in volumes of blood loss, the clinical significance of such small volumes is questionable. The overall usefulness of the various energy sources available will depend on a number of factors including vessel burst pressure and seal time, lateral thermal spread, and smoke production. Animal studies and laboratory-based trials are useful in providing a controlled environment to investigate such parameters. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of one energy source over another. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. All rights reserved.

  6. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  7. ENEA programm in the field of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G; Ambrosini, G

    1989-09-01

    In consideration of Italy's strong dependence on imported energy and in view of the targets established by the Italian National Energy Plan, renewable sources, especially solar, are expected to play a strategic role in Italy, due to Italy's favourable geographical position. The Italian Energy Plan has allocated a central task to ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources), that has to take care of research and development activities, pursue demonstration programs, promote Italian industry for the development of technologies in the energy sector and finally to qualify the Italian industry. ENEA has also the task to provide advice and support to the Public Administration in initiatives in the field of new types of energy and energy saving.

  8. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  9. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  10. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  11. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  12. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  13. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  14. A multivariate-utility approach for selection of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Husseiny, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A deterministic approach is devised to compare the safety features of various energy sources. The approach is based on multiattribute utility theory. The method is used in evaluating the safety aspects of alternative energy sources used for the production of electrical energy. Four alternative energy sources are chosen which could be considered for the production of electricity to meet the national energy demand. These are nuclear, coal, solar, and geothermal energy. For simplicity, a total electrical system is considered in each case. A computer code is developed to evaluate the overall utility function for each alternative from the utility patterns corresponding to 23 energy attributes, mostly related to safety. The model can accommodate other attributes assuming that these are independent. The technique is kept flexible so that virtually any decision problem with various attributes can be attacked and optimal decisions can be reached. The selected data resulted in preference of geothermal and nuclear energy over other sources, and the method is found viable in making decisions on energy uses based on quantified and subjective attributes. (author)

  15. Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Sources for Energy Loss Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal allocation of renewable distributed generation (RDG, i.e., solar and the wind in a distribution system becomes challenging due to intermittent generation and uncertainty of loads. This paper proposes an optimal allocation methodology for single and hybrid RDGs for energy loss minimization. The deterministic generation-load model integrated with optimal power flow provides optimal solutions for single and hybrid RDG. Considering the complexity of the proposed nonlinear, constrained optimization problem, it is solved by a robust and high performance meta-heuristic, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS algorithm. Results obtained from SOS algorithm offer optimal solutions than Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm (FFA. Economic analysis is carried out to quantify the economic benefits of energy loss minimization over the life span of RDGs.

  16. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  17. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  18. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  19. Energy research and energy technologies. Renewable energy sources -rational use of energy. Report of the year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At first introductory explanations of the main focus of the programme and an overview of the supported projects are given. The main part contains the project descriptions of the main focuses of support: Renewable energy sources and rational use of energy are described. Several registers have been prepared in order to access the extensive material: Register of project numbers; register of joint projects; register of companies. Finally the organisational plan of the project carrier Biology, Energy, Ecology (BC BEE) is explained. (UA) [de

  20. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Kim, Wonjoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  1. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  2. Study theorizes use of geothermal sources for energy in refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Beintema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal sources for direct heating can theoretically serve as an alternative source of high-temperature heat in processing plants. Cutting CO2 emissions from a refinery requires reducing the amount of fuel burned. Heat obtained from geothermal energy is more efficiently used for directly powering

  3. Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

  4. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  5. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  6. Pion linac as an energy-tagged ν source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goldman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum and flux of neutrinos from a linear pion accelerator are calculated analytically under the assumption of a uniform accelerating gradient. The energy of a neutrino from this source reacting in a detector can be determined from timing and event position information.

  7. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  8. Study and Analysis of an Intelligent Microgrid Energy Management Solution with Distributed Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Ganesan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient energy management. This study enables precise management of power flows by forecasting of renewable energy generation, estimating the availability of energy at storage batteries, and invoking the appropriate mode of operation, based on the load demand to achieve efficient and economic operation. The predefined mode of operation is derived out of an expert rule set and schedules the load and distributed energy sources along with utility grid.

  9. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  10. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  11. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  12. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  13. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  14. Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the 'virtues of oil'. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables

  15. Potential for unconventional energy sources for the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, L H; Wright, J K; Syrett, J J

    1977-01-01

    The unconventional sources considered are solar energy, wind power, wave and tidal power, and geothermal heat. Their potential contribution to energy supply in the UK is being assessed as part of a wider exercise aimed at formulating a national energy R and D strategy sufficiently robust to be valid for a wide range of possible future conditions. For each of the sources considered, the present state of knowledge of the magnitude of the potential resource base is outlined and the inherent characteristics of each are discussed in terms of environmental impact and of estimated cost relative to conventional technology. With respect to the latter, attention is drawn to the inherent variability of most of the sources, which imposes upon them a cost penalty for back-up plant and/or large scale storage is firm power is to be assured. The progress that has been made in drawing up, for each of the sources, a national R and D program compatible with the assessment of development potential is outlined, and a tentative estimate is made of the maximum credible contribution the sources could make to energy supply in the UK by the end of the century. The concluding paragraphs deal with the prospects for the next century and indicate that the long-term uncertainties on energy supply justify a determined effort to convert the most promising of the unconventional sources into the well-researched technological options that may be needed.

  16. Renewable energy sources in the Colombian energy policy, analysis and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this work; five basic elements for the formulation of a policy on renewable energy sources for Colombia, are discussed. A balance of the institutions of the energy sector related to the formulation, elaboration and execution of plans, programs and projects on renewable energy sources is carried out. The technology costs that take advantage of such sources are compared and the 967 Law issued in 2001 and its regulatory decree are analyzed. This law promotes the efficient and rational use of energy and also promotes the alternative energies

  17. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  18. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  19. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  20. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Optical Core Networks with Dual Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new energy efficient routing algorithms in optical core networks, with the application of solar energy sources and bundled links. A comprehensive solar energy model is described in the proposed network scenarios. Network performance in energy savings, connection blocking...... probability, resource utilization and bundled link usage are evaluated with dynamic network simulations. Results show that algorithms proposed aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may raise the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile....

  1. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  2. Energy and exergy prices of various energy sources along with their CO2 equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Various types of energy sources are used in the residential and industrial sectors. Choosing the type of sources is important. When an energy source is selected, its CO 2 equivalent and energy and exergy prices must be known for a sustainable future and for establishing energy policies. These prices are based on their energy values. Exergy analysis has been recently applied to a wide range of energy-related systems. Thus, obtaining the exergy values has become more meaningful for long-term planning. In this study, energy and exergy prices of various energy sources along with CO 2 equivalents are calculated and compared for residential and industrial applications in Turkey. Energy sources considered include coal, diesel oil, electricity, fuel oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, heat pumps and geothermal, and their prices were obtained over a period of 18 months, from January 2008 to June 2009. For the residential and industrial sectors, minimum energy and exergy prices were found for ground source heat pumps, while maximum energy and exergy prices belong to LPG for both sectors.

  3. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... in both energy and reserve markets. In this context, the main contribution of this thesis is the design and development of optimal offering strategies for the joint participation of renewables in the energy and reserve markets. Two distinct control policies for the splitting of available wind power...

  4. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  5. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  6. Study on the Application of PSA Method on Non-Nuclear Industry Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Sofrany E; Anhar R Antariksawan; Sony T, D.T.; Puradwi IW; Sugiyanto; Giarno

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study related to utilization of probabilistic method in non-nuclear industry facilities has been conducted The study has been performed by examining literature studies and results of research paper related to the topic. The objective of this study is to know how far the method, which is a standard in the nuclear industry, is applied in the non-nuclear fields. The PSA application in the non-nuclear process industry is mainly performed as risk management. The concept of risk management enables a systematic and realistic framework to be established for accident prevention as a whole process of hazard identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation, control measures establishment, its implementation. The most important part of this study is indeed the hazard identification and risk estimation in order to assess the consequences and to estimate event probability. The risk assessment methodology, which is also used in the probabilistic assessment of nuclear and non-nuclear industry, is performed both quantitatively and qualitatively approached by several technique analysis. Based on literature and research paper study, there are 3 main technique analysis, which can be applied in the risk management of non-nuclear industry, which are fault tree analysis (FTA), event tree analysis (ETA), and Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS). The potential hazard arise in the non-nuclear process industry are flammability hazard; toxicity hazard; reactivity hazard; and elevated pressure hazard The fault tree analysis has been practically applied in the petroleum industry, chemical industry, and also other industry for improvement of safety installation by modification in the installation design or operation procedures. The event tree analysis has been applied only limited in the chemical process industry or other process industry. On the other application, HAZOPS technique can be combined with the event tree analysis with approach of accident scenario identification

  7. Energy efficiency of the CTX magnetized coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Platts, D.A.; McKenna, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the CTX coaxial plasma source in creating spheromaks is determined experimentally to be in agreement with the theoretical prediction of lambda/sub sp//lambda/sub g/, where del x B = lambda/sub sp/ B in the spheromak, and lambda/sub g/ identical with μ 0 I/sub g//phi/sub g/ with I/sub g/ the source current and phi/sub g/ the magnetic flux through either source electrode. This is shown to be equivalent to magnetic helicity conservation. The spheromak impurity radiation was measured using an absolutely calibrated single chord bolometer system. The theoretical efficiency is within the experimental uncertainty of the ratio of spheromak radiated energy to source input energy in a group of ''dirty'' discharges. But the radiation measurement uncertainty is too large to determine whether a substantial part of the excess source energy not used in the production of spheromak magnetic energy is radiated from the spheromak volume

  8. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  9. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  10. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Becker, Julia K.; Caramete, Laurentiu; Curutiu, Alex; Engel, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Meli, Athina; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Stanev, Todor; Tascau, Oana; Zier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  11. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  12. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  13. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  14. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  16. Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.

    2010-01-01

    The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

  17. Weber's dictionary. Pocket edition. Vol. 2. Renewable energy sources. Webers Taschenlexikon. Bd. 2. Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of our major energy sources natural gas, petroleum and coal are limited. Their combustion essentially contributes to air pollution widh all its health hazards and environmental impacts. Apart from the fact that power plants supplying energy with the help of nuclear fission are disputed, uranium reserves are limited, too. The developmental state of nuclear fusion, an the other hand, still defies concrete statements as the future availability of fusion-based energy. Considering above facts it is evident that renewable energy sources will be gaining in importance. The book above all intends to give a consistent survey on the forms and capacities of renewable energy sources, existing technologies and technologies currently being developed, historical aspects, the social and environmental compatibility of renewable energy sources, economic aspects, and future prospects. The dictionary contains 197 independent alphabetically arranged and basically coherent chapters which are to provide the basis for profound reflections on the subject.

  18. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  19. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems

  20. Renewable energy sources, subsidised indefinitely?; Erneuerbare Energien. Ein ewiger Subventionstatbestand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlhaeuser, Kurt; Roth, Hans [Stadtwerke Muenchen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The German Renewables Act, EEG, specified a guaranteed reimbursement rate for electric power from renewable energy sources. Normally, the reimbursement rate is far higher than the market value of the power generated and thus makes the plant economically interesting for its owner. It remains to be seen if the renewable energy sources with the biggest potential, i.e. wind power and solar power, will have to be subsidized indefinitely, or whether they can find their place in the electricity market also without the EEG and other funding mechanisms.

  1. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  3. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  4. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  6. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  7. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  8. Photon energy tunability of advanced photon source undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1987-08-01

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or ''tuned'' by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5 to 20 keV are discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and intensity parameters are presented for two typical classes of devices

  9. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, Anne de; Chorin, Jacky

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  10. A Control Architecture to Coordinate Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage Systems in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated operation of microgrids requires that energy management system takes into account both the available power in renewable energy sources (RES) and storage capacity of energy storage systems (ESS). In this paper, a coordinated architecture of islanded AC microgrids with smooth switching...

  11. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  12. Heat balance calculation and feasibility analysis for initial startup of Fuqing nuclear turbine unit with non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liu; Xiao Bo; Song Yumeng

    2014-01-01

    Non-nuclear steam run up compared with nuclear steam run up, can verify the design, manufacture, installation quality of the unit, at the same time shorten the follow-up duration of the entire group ready to start debugging time. In this paper, starting from the first law of thermodynamics, Analyzed Heat balance Calculation and Feasibility analysis for Initial startup of Fuqing nuclear Turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam, By the above calculation, to the system requirements and device status on the basis of technical specifications, confirmed the feasibility of Non-nuclear steam running up in theory. After the implementation of the Non-nuclear turn of Fuqing unit, confirmed the results fit with the actual process. In summary, the Initial startup of Fuqing turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam is feasible. (authors)

  13. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  14. Environmental characterization and radiological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the red sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoney, M. H. El; Khater, Ashraf E. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Red Sea is a deep semi-enclosed and narrow basin connected to the Indian Ocean by a narrow sill in the south and to the Suez Canal in the north. Oil industries in the Gulf of Suez, phosphate ore mining activities in Safaja- Quseir region and intensified navigation activities are non-nuclear land base pollution sources that could have a serious radiological impacts on the marine environment and the coastal ecosystems of the Red Sea. It is a need and an essential to draw up the radiological base-line data, which is not exist yet and to investigate the radio-ecological impact of non- nuclear industries to protect the coastal environment of the Red Sea. Natural and man- made radionuclides have been measured in shore sediment samples collected from the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. The specific activities of 226 Ra ( 238 U)series, 232 Th series, 40 K, 137 Cs and 210 Pb (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometry based on hyper pure germanium detectors. The specific activities of 210 Po ( 210 Pb) and uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 235 U and 234 U), (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface barrier (PIPS) detectors after radiochemical separation. The absorbed radiation dose rates in air (nGy/h) due to natural radionuclides in shore sediment and radium equivalent activity (Bq/kg) were calculated. The specific activity ratios of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra, 210 Pb/ 226 Ra, 226 Ra/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U were calculated for evaluation of geo-chemical behaviour of these radionuclides. These results were represented and discussed. The results gave an indication of the possible radiological impacts of oil industries in the northern region and phosphate mining activities in the Safaja-Quseir region

  15. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  16. Primary energy sources and greenhouse effect; Sources d'energie primaires et effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B. [Commission Nationale d' Evaluation des Recherches sur la Gestion des Dechets Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the diminution of fossil energy and climate change, the two most difficult demands to satisfy are providing electricity to megalopolises and fuels for transportation. Renewable energies have to be promoted but will not be able to replace fossil fuels in their current uses before several decades. According to the previsions for this century, carefulness is necessary to preserve the future of humanity and the environment. (author)

  17. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  18. International meeting 'Selected topics on nuclear methods for non-nuclear applications'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The volume includes the presentations given on the International Meeting 'Selected Topics on Nuclear Methods for Non-nuclear Applications'. The meeting was organized by the Project CECOA. The Project 'CEnter for COoerative Activities' (CECOA) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is part of the Program 'Creating of Infrastructure' of Bulgarian Ministry of Science and Education. The CECOA-project unifies the groups of INRNE doing research in the field of nuclear methods. Four Laboratories of INRNE are members of CECOA-project: Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Low Radioactivity Measurements, High-Resolution Gamma-Spectroscopy, Neutron Methods in Condensed Matter, Neutron Optics and Structure Analysis. Taking into account the leading role of education on nuclear physics the Project includes program devoted to the training on nuclear physics. The presented volume contains 23 contributed papers. The contributions are separated in 6 sections. The section 'Nano technology' includes 5 papers. The activity in this field within the Project reveals the collaboration with other Institutes of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences as well as large international contacts. The section 'Radioecology and Radioactive Waste' is two fold. Part of the contributions of the section manifests the connection of the CECOA with small enterprises. The contacts are on the level of common projects concerning the investigations, remediation and release of radioactively contaminated terrain, soils, water, buildings and materials around the former uranium processing industry. Another part of the section is devoted to the application of nuclear methods to the treatment of radioactive waste produced by nuclear power stations. The section 'Neutron Physics' reveals the activity within the Project connected with the study of new materials using polarized neutrons and neutron diffraction methods. The section 'Nuclear Physics' is an introduction to some

  19. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  20. Analyses of High-Energy Sources with ESA Gaia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudcová, Věra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1248, - (2010), s. 583-584 ISSN 1551-7616. [X-ray astronomy 2009. Bologna, 07.09.2009-11.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : high-energy sources * gamma-ray bursts * low-dispersion spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. State of art and perspectives of using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskij, B.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    State of art of renewable energy sources for the beginning of the nineties and perspectives up to 2020 are considered by the forecast of the European Commission. The program of the World Sun Summit up to 1996-2005 is presented

  2. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized

  3. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied

  4. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...

  5. Broiler breeders utilise body lipid as an energy source | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, where 80 g was allocated daily in Phase 2 this was clearly insufficient to sustain performance, but in this case egg production was considerably higher in birds that had been given larger amounts of food in Phase 1, and which could therefore draw on body lipid reserves as a source of energy. Rate of lay increased ...

  6. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings | Olver | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings.

  7. Energy sources of yoghurt bacteria and enhancement of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy sources of yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were examined with a focus on probable impact of sucrose on their galactose uptake. Yoghurt bacteria were isolated from samples of yoghurt which were purchased from different outlets and kept under refrigeration ...

  8. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  9. Gamma ray energy spectrum of a buried radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, N B

    1957-07-01

    Because of current attempts to utilize airborne gamma-ray scintillation spectrometers as a means of detecting and identifying buried radioactive mineral deposits, it has become important to study the effects of multiple scattering on the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a source buried in a semi-infinite medium. A series of ten experiments was made. First a scintillation detector was located in air at a fixed distance above a 250 microcurie cobalt-60 source suspended in a large tank. The level of water was raised from 25 cm below the source to 50 cm above, and the gamma-ray energy spectrum was observed. It was found that the high energy portion of the cobalt-60 spectrum remained identifiable even when the source was submerged more than five half-lengths. Further, the ratio of the counting rate of the total incident gamma radiation to the counting rate of the primary 1.33 MeV radiation was found to be very nearly linearly proportional to the depth of water cover. This leads to an empirical method for determining the depth of burial of a cobalt-60 point source. (author)

  10. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  11. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  12. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr [Dept. of Information and Telecommunication Engineering Incheon National University Incheon 22012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  13. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  14. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  15. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)

  16. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  17. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi; Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  18. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  19. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halladjian, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  20. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  1. CHESS-the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, B.W.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1980-01-01

    The Wilson Laboratory at Cornell University has done pioneering work on development of high energy synchrotrons. In the last decade, the 12 GeV synchrotron has been the most energetic electron synchrotron in the world. In 1975 plans were formulated to build a 4-8 GeV storage ring in the same tunnel as the synchrotron and to use the latter as the injector for the storage ring. This small radius (the normal bend magnets have R = 87 m), coupled with the relatively high electron energy of the storage ring, makes these magnets potent sources of synchrotron radiation. In June of 1978 the National Science Foundation funded a project to create CHESS, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. (orig./FKS)

  2. Employment effects through enhanced use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelbroenner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonn-based association Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., (forum for energies of the future), carried out a study investigating whether and to what extent enhanced use of renewable energy sources may contribute to improving in the future the employment situation in Germany. Taking as a basis the current conditions determining expenses and profits in the energy sector and the related employment situation, the study elaborates several scenarios and analyses their conceivable effects. The objective of the study presented in this issue was to assess the gross and net employment effects possibly to be achieved by programmes fostering power generation from renewable sources, and the financial input required in form of investments by industry and governmental grants. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  4. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  5. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  6. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  7. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength

  8. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  9. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  10. The effect of energy distribution of external source on source multiplication in fast assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, R.A.; Vakilian, M.

    1976-02-01

    The essence of this study is the effect of energy distribution of a source on the detection rate as a function of K effective in fast assemblies. This effectiveness, as a function of K was studied in a fission chamber, using the ABN cross-section set and Mach 1 code. It was found that with a source which has a fission spectrum, the reciprocal count rate versus mass relationship is linear down to K effective 0.59. For a thermal source, the linearity was never achieved. (author)

  11. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Csikósová

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

  12. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  14. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  15. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO 2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  16. Guidelines for the calibration of low energy photon sources at beta-ray brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of improved methods of implanting brachytherapy sources in a precise manner for treating prostate cancer and other disease processes, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of low energy photon sources, such as 125 I and 103 Pd brachytherapy seeds. Low energy photon sources have the advantage of easier shielding and also lowering the dose to normal tissue. However, the dose distributions around these sources are affected by the details in construction of the source and its encapsulation more than other sources used for brachytherapy treatments, such as 192 Ir. With increasing number of new low energy photon sources on the market, care should be taken with regard to its traceability to primary standards. It cannot be assumed that a calibration factor for an ionization chamber that is valid for one type of low energy photon source, automatically is valid for another source even if both would use the same isotope. Moreover, the method used to calculate the dose must also take into account the structure of the source and the encapsulation. The dose calculation algorithm that is valid for one type of low energy source may not be valid for another source even if in both cases the same radionuclide is used. Simple ''point source'' approximations, i.e. where the source is modeled as a point, should be avoided, as such methods do not account for any details in the source construction. In this document, the dose calculation formalism adopted for low energy photon sources is that recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) as outlined by Task Group-43 (TG-43). This method accounts for the source and capsule geometry. The AAPM recommends brachytherapy photon sources to be specified in terms of 'Air Kerma Strength' that is also used in the formalism mentioned above. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the specification be done in terms of Reference Air

  17. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  18. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  19. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  20. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  1. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  2. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  3. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation's kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil

  4. Methanol as an energy source and/or energy carrier in membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.; Drioli, E.

    2007-01-01

    Methanol is commonly considered a hydrogen source and/or hydrogen carrier. In fact, methanol can be produced by partial oxidation of biomass and in this case it is considered a source for hydrogen and therefore for energy. It can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen; in this case, it

  5. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiit, Valdur

    2000-01-01

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  6. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyi, Lwin [Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region`s vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  7. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  8. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  9. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, J; Sidek, L M; Desa, M N M; Julien, P Y

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  10. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Nuno; Cabral, Pedro; Azevedo, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The integration of large amounts of renewable energy is an important challenge for the future management of electric systems, since it affects the operation of the electric power system and the design of the transmission and distribution network infrastructure. This is specially due to the connection requirements of the renewable energy technologies, to the extension and adjustment of the grid infrastructure and to the identification of new solutions for operational reserve, in order to maintain the overall system flexibility and security. In this paper, the impact of high penetration of intermittent energy sources, expected in long term in the Portuguese Power System, is analysed and the operational reserve requirements to accomplish a reliable and reasonable electrical energy supply are identified. It was concluded that pumped storage power plants, special power plants with regulating capabilities, will have an important task to provide the operational reserve requirements of the Portuguese Power System. This technology assumes a fundamental role not only to ensure the adequate levels of security of supply but also to allow the maximum exploitation of the installed capacity in renewable energy sources. (authors)

  11. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  12. Practical Investigation for Road Lighting using Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Hybrid renewable energy systems are recently used to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions. This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics. The computerized model is designed step by step by the aid of Simulink-Matlab and the simulation was successfully run to show the performance of each module.

  13. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  14. How to classify the hydro power renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchevski, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this report various classifications of hydropower renewable energy sources (HRES) used in several countries like: USA, China, Russia, EU and Bulgaria are given and discussed. The existence of numerous differences and peculiarities in the various national classifications all over the world require the creation of a common unification. In particular the peculiarity and heterogeneity of HRES in Bulgaria demands a creation of specific regulations about. There is a necessity in a creation of a new law of RES and preparation of united EU energy policy

  15. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  16. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  17. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  18. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  19. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...

  20. A Novel Coordinated Control of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage System in Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yonghao; Li, Mingshen; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    A novel coordinated control for energy storage system (ESS) and renewable energy source (RES) units is proposed in islanded AC microgrids without a phase-locked loop system. We use a proportional-resonant control technique for the ESS, which fixes the voltage and frequency of the microgrid...

  1. Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2011-10-01

    Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

  2. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Kawser Jamil; Farid Nasir Ani

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  3. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, P.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  4. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  5. The future of coal as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the future of such coal as an energy source which the author believes, is inextricably related to its economic and environmental acceptability. Technologies have been - and are being - developed that will help assure that coal retains its traditional share of the United States energy market. In addition, there are some 900 million tons per year of coal equivalent oil and gas currently being consumed (22.5 quads of 12.500 BTU/lb coal) in the United States that may be considered for potential coal conversion. Lastly, one can see trends emerging that may justify reconsideration of coal as a source of hydrocarbon to substitute for petrochemical industry feedstocks in addition to its customary role as a BTU supplier. The balance of this report will provide a background on environmental and legislative initiatives and discuss some of these technologies and new directions for coal research in the 1990s and beyond

  6. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, L. [La Ferla Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  7. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  8. Prioritizing low-carbon energy sources to enhance China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four dimensions and ten metrics are used for energy security assessment. • Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered for energy security. • AHP has been used to quantify qualitative metrics. • TOPSIS method has been used for prioritize the low-carbon energy sources. • Sensitivity analysis and integrated ranking have been carried out. - Abstract: This paper explores how low-carbon systems compare to each other in terms of their net effect on Chinese energy security, and how they ought to be ranked and strategized into an optimal and integrated resource plan. The paper utilizes Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to first determine the relative performances of hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power with respect to the energy security dimensions of availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered. It relies on AHP to calculate the relative weights of the qualitative metrics attached to these dimensions of energy security for each of our five low carbon energy sources. Then, energy security performance is determined by aggregating multiple, weighted metrics into a generic index based on the method of TOPSIS and then tweaked with a sensitivity analysis. Finally, an integrated method has been developed to rank the low-carbon energy systems from most to least important, with major implications for Chinese decision-makers and stakeholders. We conclude that hydroelectricity and wind power are the two low-carbon energy sources with the most potential to enhance China’s energy security. By contrast, nuclear and solar power have the least potential

  9. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-10

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant.

  10. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Using Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation, concomitant with other operations, is an option for treatment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, considering energy sources and return to sinus rhythm. A comprehensive survey was performed in the literature on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation considering energy sources, sample size, study type, outcome (early and late), and return to sinus rhythm. Analyzing studies with immediate results (n=5), the percentage of return to sinus rhythm ranged from 73% to 96%, while those with long-term results (n=20) (from 12 months on) ranged from 62% to 97.7%. In both of them, there was subsequent clinical improvement of patients who underwent ablation, regardless of the energy source used. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation is essential for the treatment of this arrhythmia. With current technology, it may be minimally invasive, making it mandatory to perform a procedure in an attempt to revert to sinus rhythm in patients requiring heart surgery.

  11. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  12. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  13. Development of high current low energy H+ ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, A.T.; Crow, J.T.; Goebel, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this work is the development of an ion source suitable for double charge exchange of D + ions to D - ions in cesium or other vapor. Since the fraction of the D + which changes to D - may be as high as 0.35 in the energy below one keV, the process appears very favorable. What is desired is a source of several hundred cm 2 area, with a D + current density greater than, say 0.2A/cm 2 . Small angular spread is essential with up to about 0.1 radian being acceptable. A simple approach to this problem appears to be through fine mesh extraction electrodes. In this system a single grid facing the ion source plasma constitutes the entire extraction electrode system. If the potential difference between the grid and the source plasma is large compared to the ion energy at the plasma boundary, then the distance s 0 is just the Child-Langmuir distance corresponding to the ion current density J and the potential difference V 0 between the plasma and the grid

  14. Energy sources for the next 35-50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, E.

    1999-01-01

    The next 35-50 years will be a period of great change around the world with respect to energy resources. Problems such as global warming, the loss of forests, the growth of the population and the availability of energy in various forms will become more urgent and will have to be faced. There is a vocal group which raises doubts regarding the overall effects of adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in large quantities in terms of global warming and are therefore not taking seriously the commitments made at the 1992 Rio Summit on the Environment and Development. These attitudes need to be challenged. Forests continue to be destroyed in certain areas to provide farmland and fuel for 1.25 billion people. The need for a strong reforestation programme is evident. The world population now at 5.3 billion, continues to grow and is predicted to reach 8.3 billion by 2030. Where will the additional 3 billion people find living space, fuelwood and food? There is also the need for much more energy, but the emphasis needs to be on sources which are renewable so that global warming is not enhanced. There is steady progress being made in the development of photovoltaic sources, their costs closely approaching traditional generating methods. A rapid acceleration in the application of these devices in the next decade is to be expected. Wind power is playing a larger role and hydropower continues to provide a significant portion of society's needs for energy along with nuclear power. The relative amounts of the total energy 'pie' which will be required will depend on the availability of power from each of these sources and the political pressures brought to bear as a result of environmental, sociological and resource availability factors

  15. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  16. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  17. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs [de

  18. Colloquium on the risks of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Four subjects, each taking up one session, were dealt with in this Colloquium. The first is the definition of the health risk concept which is only obvious on the surface. It was shown how within the medical world itself, apparently the most competent to discover and evaluate these risks, this definition is still approximate both in theory and in practice. The second theme dealt with concerns the way in which risks are viewed by the general public. By a psychological and sociological approach it is possible to form an idea of how differently opinion reacts to risks of similar gravity and probability. The apprehension of risks and the opposition to nuclear energy were analysed in detail in this session. The third subject, more analytical and probably one of the most topical is concerned with the inventory of risks due to each industrial energy sector. This session was in two parts, the first devoted to problems specific to each source of energy including nuclear, the second to common problems (pollution of air, fresh water and sea water, and long-term effects (nuclear wastes for example). The fourth and last session dealt with a fundamental problem, methods of studying these risks. The conclusions of different enquiries are always very similar: the energy source hierarchy, in order of diminishing risks, is as follows: coal, liquid hydrocarbons, nuclear and gaseous hydrocarbons [fr

  19. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  20. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants [it

  1. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakipova S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  2. Salzburg conference for a non-nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weish, P.

    1977-01-01

    This document is an invitation to a conference in Salzburg, Austria, that was held in the year 1977 and was about the controversial theme of nuclear-energy and their civil and military use. It was a meeting of non-governmental experts and activists. An agenda of the conference is attached. (kancsar)

  3. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Strachan, Neil; Heaps, Charles; Huntington, Hillard; Kypreos, Socrates; Hughes, Alison; Silveira, Semida; DeCarolis, Joe; Bazillian, Morgan; Roehrl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: → OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. → This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. → OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. → This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. → A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  4. Energy conversion of source separated packaging; Energiutvinning ur kaellsorterade foerpackningsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blidholm, O; Wiklund, S E [AaF-Energikonsult (Sweden); Bauer, A C [Energikonsult A. Bauer (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The basic idea of this project is to study the possibilities to use source separated combustible material for energy conversion in conventional solid fuel boilers (i.e. not municipal waste incineration plants). The project has been carried out in three phases. During phase 1 and 2 a number of fuel analyses of different fractions were carried out. During phase 3 two combustion tests were carried out; (1) a boiler with grate equipped with cyclone, electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser, and (2) a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser. During the tests source separated paper and plastic packagings were co-fired with biomass fuels. The mixing rate of packagings was approximately 15%. This study reports the results of phase 3 and the conclusions of the whole project. The technical terms of using packaging as fuel are good. The technique is available for shredding both paper and plastic packaging. The material can be co-fired with biomass. The economical terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion can be very advantageous, but can also form obstacles. The result is to a high degree guided by such facts as how the fuel is collected, transported, reduced in size and handled at the combustion plant. The results of the combustion tests show that the environmental terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion are good. The emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere are very low. The emissions are well below the emission standards for waste incineration plants. 35 figs, 13 tabs, 8 appendices

  5. Initial concepts on energetics and mass releases during nonnuclear explosive events in fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, M.A.; Mishima, J.

    1986-09-01

    Non-nuclear explosions are one of the initiating events (accidents) considered in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission study of formal methods for estimating the airborne release of radionuclides from fuel cycle facilities. Methods currently available to estimate the energetics and mass airborne release from the four types of non-nuclear explosive events (fast and slow physical explosions and fast and slow chemical explosions) are reviewed. The likelihood that fast physical explosions will occur in fuel cycle facilities appears to be remote and this type of explosion is not considered. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow physical and fast chemical explosions are available. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow chemical explosions are less well defined

  6. Nuclear and non-nuclear risk. An exercise in comparability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present report is the result of a study contract given out by the CEC in order to collect useful information and opinions in the area of risk assessment and related concepts such as risk acceptability, risk perception and acceptance. The main objectives of the study are to examine the underlying factors which determine the existing levels of non-nuclear risks, and the extent to which societies are likely to seek means of reducing them, and to suggest means of working towards the derivation of acceptable nuclear risks which will be compatible with practice in relation to non-nuclear risks. The Case Studies which comprise Volume 2 of this Report are based on UK experience

  7. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  8. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  9. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  10. Inventory of energy sources: none can be overlooked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Radin feels that energy in the form of electricity is the key to the broad concern about availability and price of energy. He summarizes four areas of concern confronting the U.S. in the power field--the amount of electricity needed, the sources, its cost, and who will pay for it. He believes that the basic aim ''should be to supply that amount of electricity needed to maintain and enhance the standard of living for all citizens,'' and further observes that, to do this, ''price increases are inequitable.'' Mr. Radin believes that, with the abundance of coal in the U.S., a switch back to coal must be made. The importance of the breeder in the future is reviewed. It is pointed out that if 10 percent of the 70 million homes in the U.S. were converted to solar energy for heating and cooling by 1990, only slightly more than one percent of our national energy demand would be met. MHD, fuel cells, or fusion will employ fuels in a more efficient manner, but scientific, engineering, and economic barriers must be hurdled before these devices can be effectively utilized. The safety of nuclear power is briefly discussed, then Great Britain's experience with nuclear power is reviewed. It is observed that whatever decisions are made concerning future production of energy, the costs of these choices will be paid by consumers

  11. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  12. Cost-benefit comparison of nuclear and nonnuclear health and safety protective measures and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.P.; Mauro, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares the costs and benefits of health and safety measures and regulations in the nuclear and nonnuclear fields. A cost-benefit methodology for nuclear safety concerns is presented and applied to existing nuclear plant engineered safety features. Comparisons in terms of investment costs to achieve reductions in mortality rates are then made between nuclear plant safety features and the protective measures and regulations associated with nonnuclear risks, particularly with coal-fired power plants. These comparisons reveal a marked inconsistency in the cost effectiveness of health and safety policy, in which nuclear regulatory policy requires much greater investments to reduce the risk of public mortality than is required in nonnuclear areas where reductions in mortality rates could be achieved at much lower cost. A specific example of regulatory disparity regarding gaseous effluent limits for nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants is presented. It is concluded that a consistent health and safety regulatory policy based on uniform risk and cost-benefit criteria should be adopted and that future proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory requirements should be critically evaluated from a cost-benefit viewpoint

  13. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90* to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy

  14. Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannsbart, W.; Reichert, J.

    1992-01-01

    While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough

  15. Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: •Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. •A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. •The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. •The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. •Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

  16. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwanza, P.N.; Pashkov, Y.V.

    1995-01-01

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  17. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  18. Renewable energy sources. Transformation of the Energy Market; Foernybara Energikaellor. Hela elmarknaden i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    This report describes and analyzes renewable energy seen as emerging markets, focusing on wind, solar and wave power. The conclusions are that: Wind and solar energy has reached critical mass. They are already large markets, and has a high growth rate. There are growth areas that may become among the world's largest industries in the future. This summary report and the underlying studies of wind, solar and wave power show that there is a large potential market for renewable energy sources. Wind power is already a market worth around 36.5 billion Euro. Solar energy is growing strongly and solar cells in 2008 had a market worth around 24 billion Euro. Wave power is at present a very small market and the in the actual development stage the potential of wave power is uncertain. But if the wave would become commercially viable, it could represent a significant part of the world's energy capacity, with associated large investments. In the foreseeable future, all areas have a continuing need for public support to be commercially viable. Despite the already extensive market renewable energy sources represent a relatively small share of energy and electricity in the world. For large-scale electricity generation, there is still a need for public support. Renewable energy means new business opportunities that fundamentally can change structure and competition in the electricity market. A potential of this magnitude involves major business opportunities for involved companies, but also challenges. There are several factors affecting this development, Such as new technology, deregulation, support systems and consumer preferences. The growth of renewable energy sources is not only a question of technical development and relative prices of a homogeneous product, but a question of which actors and business models that will be viable in a rapidly changing market. Swedish industry is well placed to benefit from the growing markets. Many Swedish companies have significant

  19. Polyolephine waste recycling as source of power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisovski Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolephine waste (polyetilene, polypropilene is the main source of environmental pollution. Depolymerization of waste in reactor under atmospheric pressure yields hydrocarbon mixture C1-C34. In turn, combustion of C1-C7 fraction provides reactor temperature regime. The plant is automated and energetically highly efficient. Small electric power is required for operating the plant. The waste originating from depolymerazation does not pollute the environment. Fraction C7-C34 not only serves for commercial purposes but also as a power energy provider within the waste deploymerization plant.

  20. Using the renewable energy sources in the market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    Raper studies the peculiarities of financing of projects for the renewable energy sources (RES) in cooperation with the Kyoto protocol as to the regulating principles of purchase (sale) of quotas for greenhouse gas release. The records of the results obtained in the West European countries and USA as to payment of green electricity generated on the basis of RES application is analyzed. Preliminary estimation of cost ratio of quotas for releases of greenhouse gases for conventional power plants and RES based ones is presented [ru

  1. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  2. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E 0 ≥5x10 17 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  3. Status of the low energy neutron source at Indiana University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.; Cameron, J.M.; Derenchuk, V.P.; Lavelle, C.M.; Leuschner, M.B.; Lone, M.A.; Meyer, H.O.; Rinckel, T.; Snow, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has recently approved funding for LENS (the low energy neutron source) at Indiana University and construction of this facility has begun. LENS represents a new paradigm for economically introducing neutron scattering into a university or industrial setting. In this design, neutrons are produced in a long-pulse (1 ms) mode through (p,n) reactions on a water-cooled Be target and the target is tightly coupled to a cryogenic moderator with a water reflector. This design gives a facility suitable for materials research, the development of new neutron instrumentation, and the education of new neutron scientists

  4. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  5. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells

  6. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Helbra Tenrini, Rita; Suryo Nugroho, Sidiq

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  7. Computational methods for high-energy source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.W.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.

    1983-01-01

    The computational methods for high-energy radiation transport related to shielding of the SNQ-spallation source are outlined. The basic approach is to couple radiation-transport computer codes which use Monte Carlo methods and discrete ordinates methods. A code system is suggested that incorporates state-of-the-art radiation-transport techniques. The stepwise verification of that system is briefly summarized. The complexity of the resulting code system suggests a more straightforward code specially tailored for thick shield calculations. A short guide line to future development of such a Monte Carlo code is given

  8. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  9. Energy segment. Infrastructure becomes an energy source; Energietuebbing. Infrastruktur wird zur Energiequelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterling, Ralf [Rehau AG und Co., Erlangen (Germany). Traffic Route Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Tunnel constructions consist of large concrete masses in good contact with the surrounding earth. The concrete shell can be thermally activated by the introduction of absorber pipes in order to obtain thermal energy from the tunnel and surrounding earth. In this way the earth can be used as a valuable energy source and the tunnel cooled economically. The energy obtained can either be sold to offset it against the costs or it can be used to heat neighbouring public buildings. The pipes are installed over the full length of the tunnel or predominantly in station areas in the case of rail tunnels, where the subject of overheating is particularly critical for the user. Energy can also be obtained from sewage or cable tunnels as in the case of metro tunnels. With limited capital costs energy tubbings offer additional advantages for tunnel operators as well as the energy supply to users above ground. (orig.)

  10. Energy segment. Infrastructure becomes an energy source; Energietuebbing. Infrastruktur wird zur Energiequelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterling, Ralf [REHAU AG und Co., Erlangen (Germany). Abt. Traffic Route Engineering

    2012-05-15

    Tunnel constructions consist of large concrete masses in good contact with the surrounding earth. The concrete shell can be thermally activated by the introduction of absorber pipes in order to obtain thermal energy from the tunnel and surrounding earth. In this way the earth can be used as a valuable energy source and the tunnel cooled economically. The energy obtained can either be sold to offset it against the costs or it can be used to heat neighbouring public buildings. The pipes are installed over the full length of the tunnel or predominantly in station areas in the case of rail tunnels, where the subject of overheating is particularly critical for the user. Energy can also be obtained from sewage or cable tunnels as in the case of metro tunnels. With limited capital costs energy tubbings offer additional advantages for tunnel operators as well as the energy supply to users above ground. (orig.)

  11. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  12. Cogenerational sources of energies and their allocating problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badida Miroslav

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production in industrial communities consume a main part of primary raw materials and it is one of the sources of ecologicall impact. Electric power plants and warm produce plants are mostly important investment – consuming establishments with a long time of return, what stress along with the economical, predictional, logistical and environmental decision making aspect of their allocating. Already input of the mentioned aspects along with the price movement after the energy depression motivate a formation of new conception of combinated so-called items, which are able to use the energetic potential of fuels with a higher concurrent efficiency and, on the other hand, can reduce ecologic impacts of fossil combustion.

  13. Conceptual Architecture of Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamphanchai, Warodom; Saha, Avijit; Rathinavel, Kruthika; Kuzlu, Murat; Pipattanasomporn, Manisa; Rahman, Saifur; Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme N.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a conceptual architecture of a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform. The proposed BEMOSS platform is expected to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized buildings, reduce energy consumption and help implement demand response (DR). It aims to offer: scalability, robustness, plug and play, open protocol, interoperability, cost-effectiveness, as well as local and remote monitoring. In this paper, four essential layers of BEMOSS software architecture -- namely User Interface, Application and Data Management, Operating System and Framework, and Connectivity layers -- are presented. A laboratory test bed to demonstrate the functionality of BEMOSS located at the Advanced Research Institute of Virginia Tech is also briefly described.

  14. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  15. Encapsulated nuclear heat source reactors for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Susplugas, A.; Hong, S.G.; Monti, L.; Sumini, M.; Okawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A spectrum of Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactors have been conceptually designed over the last few years; they span a power range from 10 MWe to -200 MWe and consider a number of coolants and fuel types. Common features of all these designs include very long life cores - exceeding 20 effective full power years; nearly zero burnup reactivity swing; natural circulation; superb safety; autonomous load following capability; simplicity of operation and maintenance. ENHS reactors could be of particular interest for providing electricity, thermal energy and, possibly, desalinated water to communities that are not connected to a central electricity grid such as to many pacific islands and to remote communities in the mainland of different countries. ENHS reactors provide energy security by virtue of a couple of features: (1) Once an ENHS reactor is commissioned, the community has assured clean energy supply for at least 20 years without needing fuel supply. (2) The energy value of the fuel loaded (in the factory) in the ENHS module is preserved; what is needed for generating energy for additional 20+ years is to remove the fission products, add depleted uranium for makeup fuel, refabricate fuel rods and load into a new module. This fuel recycling is envisioned done by either the supplier country or by a regional or international fuel cycle centre. As the ENHS module is replaced at its entirety at the end of the core life - that is brought about by radiation damage, the ENHS plant life is likely to last for over 100 years. The above features also offer exceptional stability in the price of energy generated by the ENHS reactor. The reference ENHS design will be described followed by a brief description of the design options developed and a summary of their performance characteristics

  16. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  17. Biomass of Microalgae as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głowacka Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae represent a potential source of energy via anaerobic digestion. The aim of the study was to obtain the possible potential of green microalgae, which could replace the commonly used corn silage for the production of biogas in the future. The intensive construction of new biogas plants stations across Europe and the lack of arable land suitable for the cultivation of biomass for energy purposes are the fundamental reasons behind looking for the alternative raw materials for energy production as a substitute for commonly used input materials. When comparing green microalgae with conventional crops the high productivity potential (high oil content as well as the possibility of their production during the whole year can be noticed. It is necessary to find the effective way to produce biomass from green microalgae, proper for energy conversion, while ensuring the economic and environmental aspects. The interim research results mentioned in this article indicate that microalgae present appropriate alternative material for the process of anaerobic digestion.

  18. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  19. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  20. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I.; Al-Muhtaseb, Mu'taz A.

    2010-01-01

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO x and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

  1. Pulsars as the sources of high energy cosmic ray positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Blasi, Pasquale; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2009-01-01

    Recent results from the PAMELA satellite indicate the presence of a large flux of positrons (relative to electrons) in the cosmic ray spectrum between approximately 10 and 100 GeV. As annihilating dark matter particles in many models are predicted to contribute to the cosmic ray positron spectrum in this energy range, a great deal of interest has resulted from this observation. Here, we consider pulsars (rapidly spinning, magnetized neutron stars) as an alternative source of this signal. After calculating the contribution to the cosmic ray positron and electron spectra from pulsars, we find that the spectrum observed by PAMELA could plausibly originate from such sources. In particular, a significant contribution is expected from the sum of all mature pulsars throughout the Milky Way, as well as from the most nearby mature pulsars (such as Geminga and B0656+14). The signal from nearby pulsars is expected to generate a small but significant dipole anisotropy in the cosmic ray electron spectrum, potentially providing a method by which the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope would be capable of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter origins of the observed high energy positrons

  2. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  3. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, K D; Filios, P G; Gullickson, R L; Hebert, M P; Rowley, J E; Schneider, R F; Summa, W J [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Vitkovski, I M [Logicon RDA, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs.

  4. MARKAL Application for Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Economic Activities of the Republic of Moldova and Feasible use of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Robu, Sergiu; Bikova, Elena; Siakkis, Philip; Giannakidis, George

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of analyses of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources implementation in the Republic of Moldova using MARKAL model. Detailed analyses of four scenarios are presented for: Reference Scenario; Energy Efficiency Scenario; Renewable Energy Sources Scenario; Energy Efficiency&Renewable Energy Scenario. Energy savings and costs are identified for implementation of renewable energy sources and Energy efficiency measures.

  5. Effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of sup 192 Ir and sup 137 Cs seed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomason, C [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics; Mackie, T R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology; Lindstrom, M J [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Biostatistics Center

    1991-04-01

    The effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of {sup 192}Ir and {sup 137}Cs seed sources, both with stainless steel and with platinum encapsulation, was determined from results of Monte Carlo simulation. The fractional scatter dose around these sources has also been determined from Monte Carlo simulation. The platinum-encapsulated {sup 192}Ir source exhibited greater attenuation of the primary spectrum, as expected, and, consistent with this greater attenuation, exhibited more scattered radiation. Significantly less scatter was seen with the {sup 137}Cs source than with either {sup 192}Ir source, as is consistent with the higher-energy photons from {sup 137}Cs. (author).

  6. Representation of variable renewable energy sources in TIMER, an aggregated energy system simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen Sytze (H S.).; van Vuuren, Detlef (D P.).

    2017-01-01

    The power system is expected to play an important role in climate change mitigation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as wind and solar power, are currently showing rapid growth rates in power systems worldwide, and could also be important in future mitigation strategies. It is

  7. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke, M. C.; Larranaga, N.; Grioni, S.; van den Berg, S. W.; Ferrari, P.; Salvini, S.; Benetou, V.; Linseisen, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Rinaldi, S.; Jenab, M.; Halkjaer, J.; Jakobsen, M. U.; Niravong, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kaaks, R.; Bergmann, M.; Moutsiou, E.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Hjartaker, A.; Parr, C. L.; Tormo, M. J.; Sanchez, M. J.; Manjer, J.; Hellstrom, V.; Mulligan, A.; Spencer, E. A.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Slimani, N.

    Objectives: To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a

  8. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, Bala; Kumar, Ritunesh; Deshmukh, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO 2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  9. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO 2 . However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental characterization and radio-ecological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mamoney, M.H.; Khater, Ashraf E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Sea is a deep semi-enclosed and narrow basin connected to the Indian Ocean by a narrow sill in the south and to the Suez Canal in the north. Oil industries in the Gulf of Suez, phosphate ore mining activities in Safaga-Quseir region and intensified navigation activities are non-nuclear pollution sources that could have serious radiological impacts on the marine environment and the coastal ecosystems of the Red Sea. It is essential to establish the radiological base-line data, which does not exist yet, and to investigate the present radio-ecological impact of the non-nuclear industries to preserve and protect the coastal environment of the Red Sea. Some natural and man-made radionuclides have been measured in shore sediment samples collected from the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. The specific activities of 226 Ra and 210 Pb ( 238 U) series, 232 Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure germanium detectors. The specific activities of 210 Po ( 210 Pb) and uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 235 U and 234 U) (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using alpha spectrometers based on surface barrier (PIPS) detectors after radiochemical separation. The absorbed radiation dose rates in air (nGy/h) due to natural radionuclides in shore sediment and radium equivalent activity index (Bq/kg) were calculated. The specific activity ratios of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra, 210 Pb/ 226 Ra, 226 Ra/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U were calculated for evaluation of the geo-chemical behaviour of these radionuclides. The average specific activity of 226 Ra ( 238 U) series, 232 Th series, 40 K and 210 Pb were 24.7, 31.4, 427.5 and 25.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137 Cs in the sediment samples was less than the lower limit of detection. The Red Sea coast is an arid region with very low rainfall and the sediment is mainly composed of sand. The specific activity of 238 U, 235 U and 234 U were 25.3, 2.9 and 25.0 Bq/kg. The average specific

  11. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  12. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  13. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  14. A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Divya S.; Jibin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below

  15. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  16. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  17. The fundamentals of the Russian Federation National Policy in the non-nuclear fuel cycle radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latypov, E.M.; Rikunov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive manufacture and use of sources of ionizing radiation result inevitably in the generation of a considerable amount of radioactive waste. The crucial objective within the context of the general problem of radioactive waste management involves the safe isolation of radioactive waste from the environment for the entire period of the existence of their potential hazardous impacts upon it. The complex nature of the problem requires substantial efforts to be placed for the establishment of an integrated radioactive waste management system providing a national control in medicine, industry and science. To this end, the fundamentals of the national policy for the safe management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear fuel cycle activities are being developed in the Russian Federation. The essential components of the national policy are: development of a scientifically sound concept of radioactive waste management; adoption of legislative documents such as standards and acts, relevant to this area; implementation and enforcement of state regulations and supervision of the relevant activities; development of a national programme on radioactive waste management; provision and maintaining of a national radioactive waste inventory; radiation monitoring

  18. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  19. New and renewable energy sources and the ecological problem. Developments from the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Jaime A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses the renewable energy sources developments in Argentina. Every one of sources are described in details, including environmental aspects. The problems with energy demand, mainly in rural areas, are also presented. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Secondary Electrons as an Energy Source for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Kamil B; Neveu, Marc; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Mickol, Rebecca L; Chou, Luoth; Webster, Kevin D; Tilley, Matt; Zacchei, Federica; Escudero, Cristina; Flores Martinez, Claudio L; Labrado, Amanda; Fernández, Enrique J G

    2018-01-01

    Life on Earth is found in a wide range of environments as long as the basic requirements of a liquid solvent, a nutrient source, and free energy are met. Previous hypotheses have speculated how extraterrestrial microbial life may function, among them that particle radiation might power living cells indirectly through radiolytic products. On Earth, so-called electrophilic organisms can harness electron flow from an extracellular cathode to build biomolecules. Here, we describe two hypothetical mechanisms, termed "direct electrophy" and "indirect electrophy" or "fluorosynthesis," by which organisms could harness extracellular free electrons to synthesize organic matter, thus expanding the ensemble of potential habitats in which extraterrestrial organisms might be found in the Solar System and beyond. The first mechanism involves the direct flow of secondary electrons from particle radiation to a microbial cell to power the organism. The second involves the indirect utilization of impinging secondary electrons and a fluorescing molecule, either biotic or abiotic in origin, to drive photosynthesis. Both mechanisms involve the attenuation of an incoming particle's energy to create low-energy secondary electrons. The validity of the hypotheses is assessed through simple calculations showing the biomass density attainable from the energy supplied. Also discussed are potential survival strategies that could be used by organisms living in possible habitats with a plentiful supply of secondary electrons, such as near the surface of an icy moon. While we acknowledge that the only definitive test for the hypothesis is to collect specimens, we also describe experiments or terrestrial observations that could support or nullify the hypotheses. Key Words: Radiation-Electrophiles-Subsurface life. Astrobiology 18, 73-85.