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Sample records for nonneoplastic brain lesions

  1. Clonal chromosome abnormalites found in three non-neoplastic proliferative brain lesions

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    Rainho Cláudia Aparecida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome analysis was made of brain lesions from three patients which, according to classical histopathological criteria, did not contain tumor cells. In addition to normal cells, we identified abnormal karyotypes with clonal numerical and structural chromosome alterations in at least two independently originated primary cultures from each lesion. Our data suggest that chromosomal aberrations can exist in vivo in non-neoplastic lesions. Other abnormalities may be due to genetic instability manifested only in vitro (culture artifacts or may already have been present in brain tissue, reflecting previous chromosome damage (as a result of exposure to chemical treatment or enviromental clastogens.

  2. The National Toxicology Program Web-based nonneoplastic lesion atlas: a global toxicology and pathology resource.

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    Cesta, Mark F; Malarkey, David E; Herbert, Ronald A; Brix, Amy; Hamlin, Melvin H; Singletary, Emily; Sills, Robert C; Bucher, John R; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists and pathologists worldwide will benefit from a new, website-based, and completely searchable Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas just released by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). The atlas is a much-needed resource with thousands of high-quality, zoomable images and diagnostic guidelines for each rodent lesion. Liver, gallbladder, nervous system, bone marrow, lower urinary tract and skin lesion images, and diagnostic strategies are available now. More organ and biological systems will be added with a total of 22 chapters planned for the completed project. The atlas will be used by the NTP and its many pathology partners to standardize lesion diagnosis, terminology, and the way lesions are recorded. The goal is to improve our understanding of nonneoplastic lesions and the consistency and accuracy of their diagnosis between pathologists and laboratories. The atlas is also a useful training tool for pathology residents and can be used to bolster any organization's own lesion databases. Researchers have free access to this online resource at www.ntp.niehs.nih.gov/nonneoplastic.

  3. Early-enhancing non-neoplastic lesions on gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the liver

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    Kanematsu, M. E-mail: masa-gif@umin.ac.jp; Kondo, H.; Semelka, R.C.; Matsuo, M.; Goshima, S.; Hoshi, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itai, Y

    2003-10-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency, cause, and significance of early-enhancing, non-neoplastic (EN) lesions on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver performed for the detection of malignant hepatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to September 2000, we reviewed the images of 125 patients, suspected of having hepatic tumours, in whom (1) gadolinium-enhanced triphasic dynamic gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) imaging in addition to unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted MRI was performed, (2) conventional angiography and combination computed tomography (CT) hepatic arteriography and CT during arterial portography were performed within 2 weeks of the MRI, and (3) definitive surgery within 2 weeks of the MRI or follow-up study by means of intravenously contrast-enhanced CT or MRI in 10 months or more was performed. Angiographic studies were correlated to determine the underlying causes of the EN lesions. RESULTS: We found 78 EN lesions in 36 patients (29%), ranging in size from 4 and 50 mm (mean, 12.2 mm). From the MR reports, our radiologists had prospectively diagnosed EN lesions as probable malignant tumours in eight (10%), possible malignant tumours in 36 (46%), and probable non-neoplastic lesion in 34 (44%). EN lesions were found in 27 of 81 (33%) cirrhotic patients and in nine of 44 (20%) non-cirrhotic patients. Fifty-one EN lesions (65%) were located along the liver edge. The shape was circular in 42 (54%), oval in 14 (18%), irregular in 12 (15%), wedge-shaped in seven (9%), and fan-shaped in three (4%). Twenty EN lesions (26%) appeared slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The causes were non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting in 48 (62%), cystic venous drainage in four (5%), rib compression in four (5%), aberrant right gastric venous drainage in two (3%), and unknown in 20 (26%). CONCLUSION: Over half the number of EN lesions were caused by non-neoplastic arterio-portal shunting, occasionally showing slight hyperintensity on

  4. Chromosomal alterations in pure nonneoplastic breast lesions: implications for breast cancer progression.

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    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Weyandt, Jamie D; Fantacone-Campbell, Jamie L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D

    2010-06-01

    Columnar cell lesions (CCL) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) frequently coexist and share molecular changes with in situ and invasive components, suggesting that CCL and ADH may be precursors to breast cancer. These conclusions are largely based on studies examining CCL and/or ADH from patients diagnosed with more advanced disease. We assessed allelic imbalance (AI) in pure CCL or ADH specimens to characterize molecular changes in nonneoplastic breast lesions. DNA samples were obtained from laser-microdissected pure CCL (n = 42) or ADH (n = 31). AI was assessed at 26 chromosomal regions commonly altered in breast cancer. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact and Student's t-tests using a cutoff of P .05. The average AI frequency was 6.2% in CCL and 6.1% in ADH; approximately 33% of nonneoplastic lesions had no detectable genetic changes. Levels of AI in CCL and ADH were significantly (P .0001) lower than observed in either low- or high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. Genetic changes characteristic of in situ and invasive disease, especially on chromosomes 16q and 17p, were infrequent in pure nonneoplastic lesions. Pure CCL and ADH lesions demonstrate lower levels of genetic alterations than DCIS, invasive carcinomas or CCL/ADH lesions from cancerous breasts; alterations of chromosomes 16q and 17p were not detected. Pure CCL and ADH lesions are not genetically advanced, and molecular profiles do not support these lesions as obligatory precursors to more advanced disease. Molecular differences between pure and synchronous lesions support re-evaluation of current models of disease initiation, progression, and risk.

  5. Magnifying colonoscopy as a non-biopsy technique for differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions

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    Shigeharu Kato; Kuang I Fu; Yasushi Sano; Takahiro Fujii; Yutaka Saito; Takahisa Matsuda; Ikuro Koba; Shigeaki Yoshida; Takahiro Fujimori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether mucosal crypt patterns observed with magnifying colonoscopy are feasible to distinguish non-neoplastic polyps from neoplastic polyps.METHODS: From June 1999 through March 2000, 180consecutive patients with 210 lesions diagnosed with a magnifying colonoscope (CF-200Z, Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were enrolled. Magnification and chromoendoscopy with 0.2% indigo-carmine dye was applied to each lesion for mucosal crypt observation.Lesions showing types Ⅰ and Ⅱ crypt patterns were considered non-neoplastic and examined histologically by biopsy, whereas lesions showing types Ⅲ to Ⅴ crypt patterns were removed endoscopically or surgically.The correlation of endoscopic diagnosis and histologic diagnosis was then investigated.RESULTS: At endoscopy, 24 lesions showed a type Ⅰ or Ⅱ pit pattern, and 186 lesions showed type Ⅲ to Ⅴ pit patterns. With histologic examination, 26 lesions were diagnosed as non-neoplastic polyps, and 184lesions were diagnosed as neoplastic polyps. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 99.1% (208/210). The sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% (24/26) and 99.8%(184/186), respectively.CONCLUSION: Magnifying colonoscopy could be used as a non-biopsy technique for differentiating neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps.

  6. STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND CORRELATIVE STUDY OF NEOPLASTIC AND NON-NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF OESOPHAGUS

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    Kavitha Duraisamy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oesophageal lesions once thought to be rare is nowadays being one of the common disorder affecting the people throughout the world. The clinical, endoscopic findings and histopathologic changes of oesophageal mucosa induced by Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD has been mainly focused and analysed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients presented with symptoms and signs of oesophageal lesions during January 2000 to September 2005 were included in this study. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed. Endoscopic changes were noted in the oesophagus and stomach. In oesophagectomy specimens, four longitudinal sections were taken, one including a portion of non-neoplastic mucosa proximal to tumour and another distal to the tumour. Sections taken from biopsy and resected specimens that were fixed in 10% buffered formalin were cut. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for evaluation of histopathologic features, Alcian blue (AB, Periodic Acid-Schiff stain (PAS to demonstrate metaplasia. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS This study covered a total of 323 cases, in which 277 were endoscopic biopsies and 46 were oesophagectomy specimens. In 277 endoscopic biopsies, 193 were males (69.68 and 84 were females (30.33%. There was increased incidence of oesophageal lesions observed. In the age group of 51-60, most of the patients in our study had complained of dysphagia (90.25% followed by loss of weight (70.04% and anorexia (54.87%. Among the 277 cases, 9 cases were Barrett’s (3.24%, 18 cases were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (6.498%, 176 cases were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas (63.18%, 42 cases were squamous intraepithelial lesion (15.16%, 14 cases were interpreted as normal stratified squamous epithelium (5.05%, 14 cases were interpreted as only necrotic material/no tissue (5.05%. One case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, which is of poor prognosis was seen. One case of adenosquamous carcinoma characterised by mixed

  7. Pathological study of non-neoplastic skin lesions by punch biopsy

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    Vijay Sreedhar Veldurthy

    2015-08-01

    Results: Total number of cases analysed were 92. The age group of 21-30 years constituted 31.5% of the total cases. There was a male predominance. Hyperpigmented patch/plaque was the most common clinical lesion (36.9%. Lichenoid lesions was the most common histopathological diagnosis reported (26% followed by Hansen's disease(23.9%. Lichen planus was the most common histopathological subtype of lichenoid lesions (58.3%. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1985-1988

  8. Radio-induced brain lesions

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    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  9. Development in treatment of vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions%外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展

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    闫星妹; 任红莲; 何淑莹

    2009-01-01

    外阴上皮内非瘤样病变是一组慢性疾病,根据1987年国际外阴疾病研究协会与国际妇科病理学家协会共同制定的新外阴皮肤疾病分类法,外阴上皮内非瘤样病变分为外阴鳞状上皮增生、外阴硬化性苔癣及其他皮肤病.因其病因不明确,临床上许多治疗方法虽能暂时控制其症状,但复发率较高.故临床医师正努力探索各种方法以提高患者的治愈率,降低复发率.该文就外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展作以综述.%Vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesion is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucosa in vulva. According to new classification of vular dermopathy formulated by International Vulvar Disease Research Association and International Gynecologist-pathologist Association in 1987, vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions are classified into vulvar squamous cell hyperplasia and vulvar lichen sclerosus and other vulvar dermoses. Because etiology of the disease is unclear till now, there is no optimal therapy for it. Although many therapies can control symptoms of the disease temporarily, the recurrence rate is hight in clinic.In this paper, we summarized development in therapies of vular intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions.

  10. Tumor-Like Lesions of the Brain in MRI and CT-scan

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    Gholamreza Bakhshandehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a variety of non-neoplastic pathologies that may present with a mass effect and/or abnormal enhancement, thus simulating neoplasia. "nMaterials and Methods: We collected 77 cases of various tumor mimics from teaching files of three institutions. All patients presented with intra- and/or extra–axial lesions and imaging findings that could, potentially, mimic brain neoplasia. "nResults: Assessment of central nervous system pathology may be very challenging. The usual description of mass effect and abnormal enhancement, typical of brain neoplasia, can also be shared by a variety of non-neoplastic etiologies. Radiologists should be familiar with these tumor mimics, and shold be included as differential diagnoses. We categorized and these non-neoplastic lesions, which could potentially mimic extra-and/or intra- axial brain tumors, into the following groups: "n1 Normal variant (giant (tumefactive perivascular spaces "n2 Infection (tuberculosis, cysticercosis, and fungal lesions "n3 Syndromes (NF1, Rosai-Dorfman Syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos, Krabbe Disease (adult type. "n4 Vascular lesions (vascular malformations, aneurysms and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis "n5 Autoimmune and inflammatory processes (MS, ADEM, encephalitis, sarcoidosis and PML "n6 Idiopathic (idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis "n7 Congenital brain lesions (cortical dysgenesis and heterotopias "n8 Miscellaneous (postictal brain lesions "nConclusion: In this paper, we present a large collection of non-neoplastic tumor mimics. Awareness, understanding, and recognition of these mimics may permit the radiologist to play a significant role in the prevention of unwanted surgical interventions or extensive diagnostic evaluation procedures.  

  11. Non-neoplastic lesions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and other marine mammals from the St Lawrence Estuary.

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    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1995-04-01

    In a 3-year (1988-1990) pathological study, 24 carcasses of beluga whales from the St Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada, showed numerous severe lesions, many of which had never been reported in cetaceans. The most common lesions were found in the digestive tract (21 animals) and consisted mainly of periodontitis and of erosions and ulcers in the oesophagus and the first two gastric compartments. Pneumonia, usually of parasitic origin, was also a common finding (12 animals). The adrenal glands often contained nodules (five animals) or cysts (seven animals), and mastitis was observed in five females. Overall, the incidence of degenerative, infectious, hyperplastic or necrotic lesions, in addition to numerous neoplasms described in another paper, was considerably higher than that found in marine mammals elsewhere or in other species of marine mammal from the same waters.

  12. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

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    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  13. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

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    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  14. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

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    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  15. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

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    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  16. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

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    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  17. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

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    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  18. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

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    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  19. Structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Can; Dolapcioglu; Hatice; Dolapcioglu

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system(CNS) complications or manifes-tations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic me-chanisms. This review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mecha-nisms. A direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and asymptomatic structural brain changes has not been demonstrated, but several possible explanations, including vasculitis, thromboembolism and malnutrition, have been proposed. IBD is associated with a tendency for thromboembolisms; therefore, cerebro-vascular thromboembolism represents the most frequent and grave CNS complication. Vasculitis, demyelinating conditions and CNS infections are among the other CNS manifestations of the disease. Biological agents also represent a risk factor, particularly for demyelination. Identification of the nature and potential mechanisms of brain lesions detectable on imaging studies would shed further light on the disease process and could improve patient care through early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Quantification of brain lesions using interactive automated software.

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    Makale, Milan; Solomon, Jeffrey; Patronas, Nicholas J; Danek, Adrian; Butman, John A; Grafman, Jordan

    2002-02-01

    We developed an interactive program, Analysis of Brain Lesions (ABLe) so that researchers studying the effects of brain lesions on cognition could have a user-friendly tool that could quantitatively characterize such lesions. The program was prepared in Tcl/Tk and will run on any UNIX or PC LINUX platform with the MEDx medical imaging software package. The ABLe is almost completely automated and determines the brain lesion size as well as which cytoarchitectonic brain regions (Brodmann areas) are contained within the boundaries of the lesion. Lesion data from multiple subjects can be grouped together and the degree of lesion overlap displayed. All images are analyzed and displayed within standard Talairach coordinate space, and the precision of the match between the ABLe Brodmann area graphics and the subject/patient brain is easily confirmed. The program is the first easy-to-use software that contains these specific features and is available for interested researchers with a background in lesion analysis.

  1. Sequence Variants and Haplotype Analysis of Cat ERBB2 Gene: A Survey on Spontaneous Cat Mammary Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions

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    Santos, Sara; Bastos, Estela; Baptista, Cláudia S.; Sá, Daniela; Caloustian, Christophe; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Gärtner, Fátima; Gut, Ivo G.; Chaves, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The human ERBB2 proto-oncogene is widely considered a key gene involved in human breast cancer onset and progression. Among spontaneous tumors, mammary tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer death in cats and second most frequent in humans. In fact, naturally occurring tumors in domestic animals, more particularly cat mammary tumors, have been proposed as a good model for human breast cancer, but critical genetic and molecular information is still scarce. The aims of this study include the analysis of the cat ERBB2 gene partial sequences (between exon 17 and 20) in order to characterize a normal and a mammary lesion heterogeneous populations. Cat genomic DNA was extracted from normal frozen samples (n = 16) and from frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mammary lesion samples (n = 41). We amplified and sequenced two cat ERBB2 DNA fragments comprising exons 17 to 20. It was possible to identify five sequence variants and six haplotypes in the total population. Two sequence variants and two haplotypes show to be specific for cat mammary tumor samples. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that four of the sequence variants can produce alternative transcripts or activate cryptic splicing sites. Also, a possible association was identified between clinicopathological traits and the variant haplotypes. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine ERBB2 genetic variations in cat mammary genome and its possible association with the onset and progression of cat mammary tumors. The demonstration of a possible association between primary tumor size (one of the two most important prognostic factors) and the number of masses with the cat ERBB2 variant haplotypes reveal the importance of the analysis of this gene in veterinary medicine. PMID:22489125

  2. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

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    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with atypical cystic brain lesions

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    Costa, Ricardo; Costa, Rubens B; Bacchi, Carlos; Sarinho, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in up to 10–30% of patients with cancer. Metastatic lesions are usually diagnosed as multiple mass lesions at the junction of the grey and white matter with associated perilesional vasogenic oedema. Cysticercosis is an endemic disease in underdeveloped countries of Africa, Central and South America and is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. The classical radiological finding of neurocysticercosis is cystic lesions showing the scolex in the brain parenchyma. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with cystic brain lesions mimicking neurocysticercosis. PMID:24717598

  4. Finding the imposter: brain connectivity of lesions causing delusional misidentifications.

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    Darby, R Ryan; Laganiere, Simon; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Prasad, Sashank; Fox, Michael D

    2017-02-01

    SEE MCKAY AND FURL DOI101093/AWW323 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Focal brain injury can sometimes lead to bizarre symptoms, such as the delusion that a family member has been replaced by an imposter (Capgras syndrome). How a single brain lesion could cause such a complex disorder is unclear, leading many to speculate that concurrent delirium, psychiatric disease, dementia, or a second lesion is required. Here we instead propose that Capgras and other delusional misidentification syndromes arise from single lesions at unique locations within the human brain connectome. This hypothesis is motivated by evidence that symptoms emerge from sites functionally connected to a lesion location, not just the lesion location itself. First, 17 cases of lesion-induced delusional misidentifications were identified and lesion locations were mapped to a common brain atlas. Second, lesion network mapping was used to identify brain regions functionally connected to the lesion locations. Third, regions involved in familiarity perception and belief evaluation, two processes thought to be abnormal in delusional misidentifications, were identified using meta-analyses of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. We found that all 17 lesion locations were functionally connected to the left retrosplenial cortex, the region most activated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of familiarity. Similarly, 16 of 17 lesion locations were functionally connected to the right frontal cortex, the region most activated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of expectation violation, a component of belief evaluation. This connectivity pattern was highly specific for delusional misidentifications compared to four other lesion-induced neurological syndromes (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2011-01-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The br......Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs......). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in...

  6. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  7. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs......-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions...... and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized...

  8. Laterality of brain and ocular lesions in Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Michelle T.; Winn, Bryan J.; Porco, Travis; Strominger, Zoe; Barkovich, A. James; Hoyt, Creig S.; Wakahiro, Mari; Sherr, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a large case series of children with Aicardi syndrome. A new severity scoring system is established to assess sidedness of ocular and brain lesions. Thirty-five children were recruited from Aicardi syndrome family conferences. All children received dilated ophthalmologic exams, and brain MRI’s were reviewed. Ocular and brain MRI Aicardi lesion severity scores were devised. A linear mixed model was used to compare each side for the ocular and brain MRI severity scores of Aicardi associated disease. Twenty-six children met inclusion criteria for the study. All subjects were female, ages 3 months to 19 years. Rates per child of optic nerve coloboma, severe lacunae, and microphthalmos in one or both eyes (among those with complete fundus exams available) were 10/24 (42%), 8/22 (36%), and 7/26 (27%), respectively. Ocular and brain MRI asymmetry was found in 18% (4/22) and 58% (15/26) of subjects, respectively, with more right sided brain lesions than left (V=52, P=0.028). A significant correlation between sidedness of brain disease and microphthalmos was seen (T = 2.54, P = 0.02). This study substantiates the range and severity of Aicardi syndrome associated ophthalmologic and brain MRI lesions from prior smaller case series. PMID:21824560

  9. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  10. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C

    2014-01-01

    Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...... present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used...

  11. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    SHETTY, Guruprasada; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; RAI, Boodyar Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Shetty G, Avabratha K.S, Rai B.S. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3): 61-64.AbstractThe most common radiological abnormality seen in young Indian patients with epilepsy is single small enhancing (ring/disc) computed tomographic (CT) lesions. The two most common differential diagnosis of this lesion in clinical practice include neurocysticercosis (NCC) and tuberculomas. They have similar clinical and neuroi...

  12. Simulation of Spread and Control of Lesions in Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, T R Krishna

    2007-01-01

    A simulation model for the spread and control of lesions in the brain is constructed using a planar network (graph) representation for the Central Nervous System (CNS). The model is inspired by the lesion structures observed in the case of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic disease of the CNS. The initial lesion site is at the center of a unit square and spreads outwards based on the success rate in damaging edges (axons) of the network. The damaged edges send out alarm signals which, at appropriate intensity levels, generate programmed cell death. Depending on the extent and timing of the programmed cell death, the lesion may get controlled or aggravated akin to the control of wild fires by burning of peripheral vegetation. The parameter phase space of the model shows smooth transition from uncontrolled situation to controlled situation. The simulations show that the model is capable of generating a wide variety of lesion growth and arrest scenarios.

  13. Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus include esophagitis, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal injury, foreign body, fistulous formation between the esophagus and the surrounding structures and mucocele. Since these disorders have variable symptoms and radiologic findings, it needs to differentiated from other disorders other than esophageal diseases. Being knowledgeable of CT findings suggest that these disorders can help diagnose non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus.

  14. Multiple sclerosis brain lesion measurements in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Jain S., Smeets D., Sima D., Van Hecke W., Loeckx D., Van Huffel S., Maes F., ''Multiple sclerosis brain lesion measurements in clinical practice'', European journal of neurology, vol. 21 suppl. s1, pp. 345, 2014 (Joint congress of European neurology, May 31 - June 3, 2014, Istanbul, Turkey).

  15. Visuospatial attention deficit in patients with local brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue; Huang, Dong-Feng; Rao, De-Zhong; Pei, Zhong; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Jin-Sheng

    2010-03-31

    The disability of visuospatial attention can lead to poor volitional movement and functional recovery in patients with brain lesions. However, the accurate clinical method to assess visuospatial attention is limited. The frontoparietal network including the posterior parietal cortex and the frontal eye fields has been shown to involve in visuospatial attention. The Attention Network Test provided measures for three different components of visuospatial attention: alerting, orienting and executive control. This study was to probe the deficit and relationship of visuospatial attention using Attention Network Test paradigm in patients with frontoparietal network lesions. During this task, patients responded significantly slower on each cue condition and target type than controls, and showed deficits in the alerting and orienting networks. The efficiency of resolving conflict was decreased in patients with frontal lesions whereas this was increased in patients with parietal lesions. These findings suggest that the frontoparietal network is involved in the alerting and orienting attentional function and the executive function is possibly selectively associated with the frontal lobe. The Attention Network Test paradigm produces sensitive, valid and reliable subject estimates of visuospatial attention function in patients with brain lesions, and may be useful for clinical rehabilitation strategy selection for patients with the frontoparietal network lesions.

  16. Automated delineation of stroke lesions using brain CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline R. Gillebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomographic (CT images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissue following infarct and hemorrhage in stroke. Manual lesion delineation is currently the standard approach, but is both time-consuming and operator-dependent. To address these issues, we present a method that can automatically delineate infarct and hemorrhage in stroke CT images. The key elements of this method are the accurate normalization of CT images from stroke patients into template space and the subsequent voxelwise comparison with a group of control CT images for defining areas with hypo- or hyper-intense signals. Our validation, using simulated and actual lesions, shows that our approach is effective in reconstructing lesions resulting from both infarct and hemorrhage and yields lesion maps spatially consistent with those produced manually by expert operators. A limitation is that, relative to manual delineation, there is reduced sensitivity of the automated method in regions close to the ventricles and the brain contours. However, the automated method presents a number of benefits in terms of offering significant time savings and the elimination of the inter-operator differences inherent to manual tracing approaches. These factors are relevant for the creation of large-scale lesion databases for neuropsychological research. The automated delineation of stroke lesions from CT scans may also enable longitudinal studies to quantify changes in damaged tissue in an objective and reproducible manner.

  17. Delusional misidentifications and duplications: right brain lesions, left brain delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2009-01-01

    When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.

  18. Stochastic model of Tsc1 lesions in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Prabhakar

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 that affects many organs with hamartomas and tumors. TSC-associated brain lesions include subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and tubers. Neurologic manifestations in TSC comprise a high frequency of mental retardation and developmental disorders including autism, as well as epilepsy. Here, we describe a new mouse model of TSC brain lesions in which complete loss of Tsc1 is achieved in multiple brain cell types in a stochastic pattern. Injection of an adeno-associated virus vector encoding Cre recombinase into the cerebral ventricles of mice homozygous for a Tsc1 conditional allele on the day of birth led to reduced survival, and pathologic findings of enlarged neurons, cortical heterotopias, subependymal nodules, and hydrocephalus. The severity of clinical and pathologic findings as well as survival was shown to be dependent upon the dose and serotype of Cre virus injected. Although several other models of TSC brain disease exist, this model is unique in that the pathology reflects a variety of TSC-associated lesions involving different numbers and types of cells. This model provides a valuable and unique addition for therapeutic assessment.

  19. Brain lesions in preterms: origin, consequences and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krageloh-Mann, I; Toft, P; Lunding, J

    1999-01-01

    in terms of neurology and neuropsychology. Abnormal MRI was found in 19 children. Low oxygen delivery to the brain was found in 63% of them, in contrast to 12.5% in those with normal MRI, indicating neonatal hypoxia-ischemia as an important factor. The MRI abnormalities were mainly periventricular lesions......, with the exception that symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were related to mild MRI abnormalities. This could mean that with respect to cognitive functions, mild or unilateral periventricular MRI lesions could be compensated. However, as among preterms without mental retardation (n = 19), IQ...

  20. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasada SHETTY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Shetty G, Avabratha K.S, Rai B.S. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 61-64.AbstractThe most common radiological abnormality seen in young Indian patients with epilepsy is single small enhancing (ring/disc computed tomographic (CT lesions. The two most common differential diagnosis of this lesion in clinical practice include neurocysticercosis (NCC and tuberculomas. They have similar clinical and neuroimaging features. Few researchers believe that in poor and developing countries (where both tuberculosis and NCC are common that it is difficult to differentiate between tuberculomas and a single cysticercal granulomas.We report a case of a 6-year-old female patient who presented with complex partial seizures. The patient’s neuroimaging showed a single ring-enhancing lesion in the brain that was not differentiated between NCC and Tuberculoma.Finally, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS was suggestive of tuberculoma that was successfully treated with antituberculosis therapy.This report highlights diagnostic difficulties with conventional investigations in single ring enhancing lesions in the brain and role of MRS in a diagnosis. MRS is helpful in differentiating these two conditions. ReferencesSeth R, Kalra V, Sharma U, Jagannathan N. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ring enhancing lesions. Indian pediatrics. 2010;47(9:803-4. Epub 2010/11/05.Rudresh K MKM, Karthik, Sebastin J. Clinical and Aetiological Profile of Ring-enhancing Lesions on CT Brain. Journal of Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. 2008;9(2:100-2.RK G. Single enhancing computerized tomography– detected lesion in immunocompetent patients. Neurosurg Focus 2002;12(6:1-9.Singhi P RM. Focal seizure with single small ring enhancing lesion Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. 1999;6(3:196-201.Sethi PP, Wadia RS, Kiyawat DP, Ichaporia NR, Kothari SS, Sangle SA, et al. Ring or disc enhancing

  1. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  2. Neuroglobin-overexpression reduces traumatic brain lesion size in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that over-expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic brain injuries. In this study we tested the neuroprotective effects of Ngb over-expression against traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. Results Both Ngb over-expression transgenic (Ngb-Tg and wild-type (WT control mice were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impact (CCI device. TBI significantly increased Ngb expression in the brains of both WT and Ngb-Tg mice, but Ngb-Tg mice had significantly higher Ngb protein levels at the pre-injury baseline and post-TBI. Production of oxidative tissue damage biomarker 3NT in the brain was significantly reduced in Ngb-Tg mice compared to WT controls at 6 hours after TBI. The traumatic brain lesion volume was significantly reduced in Ngb Tg mice compared to WT mice at 3 weeks after TBI; however, there were no significant differences in the recovery of sensorimotor and spatial memory functional deficits between Ngb-Tg and WT control mice for up to 3 weeks after TBI. Conclusion Ngb over-expression reduced traumatic lesion volume, which might partially be achieved by decreasing oxidative stress.

  3. Brain Lesions in Children with Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzagic-Catibusic, Feriha; Avdagic, Edin; Zubcevic, Smail; Uzicanin, Sajra

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (US CP) is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. The aim of the study was to analyze neuroimaging findings in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. The study was hospital based, which has included 106 patients with US CP (boys 72/girls 34, term 82/preterm 24). Neuroimaging findings were classified into 5 groups: Brain maldevelopment, predominant white matter injury, predominant gray matter injury, non specific findings and normal neuroimaging findings. Predominant white matter lesions where the most frequent (48/106,45.28%; term 35/preterm 13), without statistically significant difference between term and preterm born children (x2=0.4357; p=0.490517). Predominant gray matter lesions had 32/106 children, 30.19%; (term 25/preterm 7, without statistically significant difference between term and preterm born children (x2=0.902; p=0.9862). Brain malformations had 10/106 children, 9.43%, and all of them were term born. Other finding had 2/106 children, 1.89%, both of them were term born. Normal neuroimaging findings were present in14/106 patients (13.21%). Neuroimaging may help to understand morphological background of motor impairment in children with US CP. Periventricular white matter lesions were the most frequent, then gray matter lesions.

  4. Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2008-10-31

    The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis.

  5. [X-ray computed tomography in non-neoplastic pathology of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, G; Di Guglielmo, L; Dore, R; Alerci, M; Santarelli, P; Pricca, P; Failoni, S; Di Giulio, G

    1984-10-01

    The authors describe the CT findings in 57 patients suffering from various non-neoplastic disease of the larynx: chronic laryngitis, pseudotumor, paralysis, post-traumatic lesions, laryngocele, cyst. CT is usefull in evaluating site and extension of the disease, as well as its relations with the surrounding tissues. The densitometric evaluation and the functional tests are important in differential diagnosis with malignant neoplasms.

  6. Total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn, Niels; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to describe patients who had total gastrectomy for non-neoplastic diseases within a well-defined geographical area. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of patients who had gastrectomy for a non-neoplastic disease at the Department of Surgery, Odense...... University Hospital from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2014. Results: A total of 268 gastrectomies were performed with the 10-year period. Of these, ten (4%) were done for non-neoplastic diseases. Two were men and eight women with a median age of 51 years (range 31 to 96 years). Six had emergency surgery...... and four were planned procedures. Four patients had no complications following surgery, whereas severe complications where seen in 6 patients, where anastomotic leakage occurred in 3 patients. Median length of postoperative stay was 21 days (range 6 to 98 days), and the 30-days and 90-days mortality was 1...

  7. Brain lesions and their implications in criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    For over 200 years, Western courts have considered pleas of "not guilty by reason of insanity" (NGRI) for defendants in possession of a mental defect rendering them unable to understand the wrongfulness of their act. Until recently, determining the mental state of a defendant has fallen largely upon the shoulders of court psychologists and experts in psychiatry for qualitative assessments related to NGRI pleas and mitigation at sentencing. However, advances in neuroscience--particularly neurological scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), computed tomography scanning (CT), and positron emission tomography scanning (PET)--may provide additional, pertinent biological evidence as to whether an organically based mental defect exists. With increasing frequency, criminal defense attorneys are integrating neuroimaging data into hearings related to determinations of guilt and sentencing mitigation. This is of concern, since not all brain lesions and abnormalities indicate a compromised mental state that is relevant to knowing whether the act was wrong at the time of commission, and juries may be swayed by neuroscientific evidence that is not relevant to the determination of the legal question before them. This review discusses historical and modern cases involving the intersection of brain lesions and criminality, neuroscientific perspectives of how particular types of lesions may contribute to a legally relevant mental defect, and how such evidence might best be integrated into a criminal trial.

  8. [Trismus, trigeminal motor dyssynergy with brain stem lesions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelasic, F; Freitag, V

    1975-08-01

    Paradox activity of masticatory muscles was observed clinically and electromyographically in 4 patients with brain steem lesions who had trismus. There was no activity in the elevators of the jaw on the side affected during voluntary biting, as if the muscles were paralyzed. There was strong activity of the elevators on the side of the trismus on opening the mouth, inactivity on the unaffected side, or inverse activity appeared on both sides. In view of the trigeminal anesthesia on the side of paradox activation, and the absence of pyramidal signs, a stretch reflex mechanism and abolition of inhibition can not be the only basis for these phenomena; so, a disturbance of bilateral synergism, in the sense of an internuclear lesion, is postulated. In one case of motor and sensory paralysis after the extirpation of a meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle, intensive paradox activity was observed, without trismus.

  9. Brain involvement by leprosy presenting as a frontal cystic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Yun, Sook Jung; Won, Young Ho; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Min-Cheol; Jung, Shin

    2014-07-01

    Leprosy has a predilection for peripheral nerves and is not considered to involve the CNS. The idea that the CNS is exempt from Mycobacterium leprae bacilli has been suspected from a clinical perspective or CSF study in leprosy patients. However, there has been no direct evidence for CNS involvement by leprosy in a living patient. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first report providing histopathological and molecular evidence for CNS involvement by leprosy in a living patient. Brain MRI revealed a 2-cm cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe of the patient. The medical history revealed that the patient had been receiving multidrug therapy for borderline lepromatous leprosy. Neuronavigation-guided craniotomy and lesion removal were performed due to a presumptive diagnosis of low-grade glioma. The brain specimen demonstrated variably thickened blood vessels and densely scattered foamy macrophages in the perivascular spaces and parenchymal stroma. Fite acid-fast stain displayed red granular inclusions that were suggestive for fragmented M. leprae. M. leprae-specific nested polymerase chain reaction amplification showed positive bands, and DNA sequencing also demonstrated homology with the M. leprae genome. This case supports the notion that M. leprae can involve the cerebral cortex regardless of cranial nerve engagement.

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies.

  11. In vivo assessment of experimental neonatal excitotoxic brain lesion with USPIO-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alison, Marianne; Azoulay, Robin; Chalard, Francois [INSERM U676,Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 et IFR25, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Service d' Imagerie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Gressens, Pierre [INSERM U676,Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 et IFR25, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Service de Neurologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); PremUP, Paris (France); Sebag, Guy [INSERM U676,Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 et IFR25, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, AP-HP, Service d' Imagerie Pediatrique, Paris (France); PremUP, Paris (France)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced with ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) for assessing excitotoxic brain lesions in an experimental model of neonatal periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions. Brain lesions were induced by intracerebral injection of ibotenate in 14 newborn rats. Pre- and post-USPIO T2-weighted MRI was performed in seven of them (group A) and in five control newborns (group C). In seven newborns with induced cerebral lesions, USPIO-enhanced MRI was not performed (group B). We compared the signal intensity of the lesion to the contralateral unaffected brain (lesion-to-brain contrast, LBC) and the lesion signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) before and after USPIO injection. MR imaging was correlated with histology. USPIO injection significantly (P < 0.05) decreased LBC and SNR of brain lesion but induced no changes in normal controls. The densities of macrophages and iron-laden cells were higher on the lesion side than on the contralateral side (P < 0.05). Neither lesion size nor the surrounding macrophage infiltrate was significantly different between groups A and B. Post-USPIO T2-weighted MRI demonstrated negative enhancement of neonatal excitotoxic brain lesion. USPIO injection does not appear to exacerbate brain lesions. (orig.)

  12. Lesion Activity on Brain MRI in a Chinese Population with Unilateral Optic Neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuntao; Chang, Qinglin; Tian, Guohong; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that brain white matter lesions are strong predictors of the conversion of unilateral optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian populations. Consequently brain MRI criteria have been developed to improve the prediction of the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). In Asian populations, optic neuritis may be the first sign of classical or optic-spinal MS. These signs add to the uncertainty regarding brain MRI changes with respect to the course of unilateral optic neuritis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between brain lesion activity and conversion to CDMS in Chinese patients with unilateral optic neuritis. A small prospective cohort study of 40 consecutive Chinese patients who presented with unilateral optic neuritis was conducted. Brain lesion activity was recorded as the incidence of Gd-enhanced lesions and new T2 lesions. Brain lesions on MRI that were characteristic of MS were defined according to the 2010 revisions of the McDonald criteria. The primary endpoint was the development of CDMS. We found that nineteen patients (48%) had brain lesions that were characteristic of MS on the initial scan. One of these patients (3%) had Gd-enhanced brain lesions. A significantly lower percentage of the patients (10%, poptic neuritis; however, these patients exhibit low lesion activity. The predictive value of brain lesion activity for CDMS requires investigation in additional patients.

  13. Aspectos ultra-sonográficos das alterações não-neoplásicas do testículo Sonographic findings in non-neoplastic testicular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Vital

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Processos patológicos dos testículos são muito comuns, incluindo-se lesões tumorais e não-tumorais neste contexto. A ultra-sonografia com transdutor de alta freqüência tornou-se a modalidade de imagem de escolha para a avaliação desses órgãos. Este método ajuda a melhor caracterizar lesões intratesticulares e em muitas situações sugere um diagnóstico mais específico, principalmente nos casos em que há manifestações clínicas similares, tais como dor, inchaço e aumento volumétrico locais. O mapeamento com Doppler colorido é importantíssimo para demonstrar padrões anormais de perfusão testicular e auxilia no diagnóstico de condições clínicas agudas. Neste ensaio iconográfico os autores sumarizam os mais comuns achados clínicos, patológicos e as principais características diagnósticas de lesões testiculares, tais como microlitíase, cisto simples, espermatocele, varicocele, ectasia tubular da rete testis, orquite, hematomas e condições mais raras. A familiaridade com as características ecográficas e clínicas destas alterações é essencial para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico correto e início da terapêutica mais eficaz, quando necessária.Pathological processes of the testis are very frequently found, and include non-tumoral and tumoral lesions. Ultra-sonography performed with a high-frequency transducer has become the imaging modality of choice for examination of these organs. This method is of help to improve intratesticular lesions characterization, and in many instances the findings suggest a more specific diagnosis, especially in the presence of similar clinical manifestations such as pain, swelling and local increase in volume. Color Doppler is an invaluable tool for demonstrating anomalous patterns of testicular perfusion and aids in the diagnosis of acute clinical conditions. In the present iconographic essay, the authors summarize the most frequent clinical, pathological findings as well as the

  14. Functional MRI of the brain: localisation of eloquent cortex in focal brain lesion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarkowski, S.; Sunaert, S.; Oostende, S. van; Hecke, P. van; Wilms, G.; Demaerel, P.; Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Nuttin, B.; Plets, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of functional MRI (fMRI) in a clinical environment on a large patient group, and to evaluate the pretherapeutic value of localisation of eloquent cortex. Forty patients with focal brain lesions of different origin were studied using fMRI. Functional information was obtained using motor, somatosensory, auditory and phonological stimuli depending on the localisation of the lesions. To obtain information about the spatial accuracy of fMRI, the results were compared with postoperative electrocortical stimulation. Two patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were scanned using a motor protocol and were implanted with an extradural plate electrode. Imaging was successful in 40 of 42 patients (including the 2 with trigeminal neuralgia). These patients were analysed for strength of activation, the relation of the lesion to activation sites and the presence of mass effect. The correlation between these data and surgical findings provided significant additional clinical information. Functional MRI can be accurately performed in patients with focal brain lesions using a dedicated approach. Functional MRI offers important clinical information as a contribution to a decrease in posttherapeutic morbidity. The accuracy of the technique can be confirmed by other modalities, including invasive cortical electrostimulation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  15. Isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toru; Okumura, Akihisa; Tsuji, Takeshi; Emi, Misugi; Natsume, Jun

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old infant who developed an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu as a unique lesion of traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Although one of the most common sites of TAI is the corpus callosum, there have been no reports describing the lesion seen in our patient. Brain computed tomography findings were normal on the day of the traffic accident. After 3 months, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu that had the appearance of a cystic cavity. This lesion decreased in size 16 months later. The neuroimaging findings of this patient suggest that an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu could appear as a unique form of TAI in infants after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it is nevertheless important to attend to such lesions in children with TBI.

  16. Cohort Study of Multiple Brain Lesions in Sport Divers: Role of a Patent Foramen Ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Michael; Ries, Stefan; Pohimann, Stefan; Kerby, Tina; Forstring, Michael; Daffertshofer, Michael; Hennerici,Michael; Sartor, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the role of a patent foramen ovale in the pathogenesis of multiple brain lesions acquired by sport divers in the absence of reported decompression symptoms. Design: Prospective double blind cohort study. . Setting Diving clubs around Heidelberg and departments of neuroradiology and neurology. Subjects: 87 sport divers with a minimum of 160 scuba dives (dives with self contained underwater breathing apparatus). Main outcome measures: Presence of multiple brain lesions visualised by cranial magnetic resonance imaging and presence and size of patent foramen ovale as documented by echocontrast transcranial Doppler ultrasonograhy. Results: 25 subjects were found to have a right-to-left shunt, 13 with a patent foramen ovale of high haemodynamic relevance. A total of 41 brain lesions were detected in 11 divers. There were seven brain lesions in seven divers without a right-to-left shunt and 34 lesions in four divers with a right-to-left shunt Multiple brain lesions occurred exclusively in three divers with a large patent foramen ovale (P=0.004). Conclusions: Multiple brain lesions in sport divers were associated with presence of a large patent foramen ovale. This association suggests paradoxical gas embolism as the pathological mechanism. A patent foramen ovale of high haemodynamic relevance seems to be an important risk factor for developing multiple brain lesions in sport divers.

  17. Relationship between brain lesion characteristics and communication in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Fiori, Simona; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2016-11-01

    MRI shows promise as a prognostic tool for clinical findings such as gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy(CP), however the relationship with communication skills requires exploration. To examine the relationship between the type and severity of brain lesion on MRI and communication skills in children with CP. 131 children with CP (73 males(56%)), mean corrected age(SD) 28(5) months, Gross Motor Functional Classification System distribution: I=57(44%), II=14(11%), III=19(14%), IV=17(13%), V=24(18%). Children were assessed on the Communication and Symbolic Behavioral Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Structural MRI was analysed with reference to type and semi-quantitative assessment of the severity of brain lesion. Children were classified for motor type, distribution and GMFCS. The relationships between type/severity of brain lesion and communication ability were analysed using multivariable tobit regression. Children with periventricular white matter lesions had better speech than children with cortical/deep grey matter lesions (β=-2.6, 95%CI=-5.0, -0.2, p=0.04). Brain lesion severity on the semi-quantitative scale was related to overall communication skills (β=-0.9, 95%CI=-1.4, -0.5, p1 SD below children with periventricular white matter lesions. Children with more severe brain lesions on MRI had poorer overall communication skills. Children with CP born at term had poorer communication than those born prematurely and were more likely to have cortical and deep grey matter lesions. Gross motor function better accounted for overall communication skills than the type of brain lesion or brain lesion severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Aquaporin-4 deficiency attenuates acute lesions but aggravates delayed lesions and microgliosis after cryoinjury to mouse brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhen Shi; Chun-Zhen Zhao; Bing Zhao; Xiao-Liang Zheng; San-Hua Fang; Yun-Bi Lu; Wei-Ping Zhang; Zhong Chen; Er-Qing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aquaporin-4 (AQP4) regulates acute lesions,delayed lesions,and the associated microglial activation after cryoinjury to the brain.Methods Brain cryoinjury was applied to AQP4 knockout (KO)and wild-type mice.At 24 h and on days 7 and 14 after cryoinjury,lesion volume,neuronal loss,and densities of microglia and astrocytes were determined,and their changes were compared between AQP4 KO and wild-type mice.Results Lesion volume and neuronal loss in AQP4 KO mice were milder at 24 h following cryoinjury,but worsened on days 7 and 14,compared to those in wild-type mice.Besides,microglial density increased more,and astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation were attenuated on days 7 and 14 in AQP4 KO mice.Conclusion AQP4 deficiency ameliorates acute lesions,but worsens delayed lesions,perhaps due to the microgliosis in the late phase.

  19. Cognitive abilities and language comprehension in preschool children with perinatal brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisa, Jasmina Ivsac; Simlesa, Sanja; Ljubesić, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal brain lesion is a risk factor for development, making parents of such children particularly worried about consequences it may have on the child's cognitive and language development. Although literature findings on the outcome of perinatal brain lesion are inconsistent, most of the studies have found a positive general outcome, but also subtle deficits that affect the child's academic success. Since language comprehension and cognitive abilities influence learning abilities at school, we wanted to know how six-year olds who were selected based on pathological ultrasonographical findings (ischemic or hemorrhagic brain lesion) would perform on subtests of Wechsler battery (WISC) and language comprehension measures (Reynell Developmental Language Scale and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), compared with controls. The second issue we investigated was whether in children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion cognitive abilities predicted the level of language comprehension in the same way as in children without perinatal brain lesion. The relation between cognitive and linguistic abilities is still a controversial one, and a different relation would mean that these two groups of children have different structure of abilities probably due to perinatal brain lesion. Forty children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion and forty age-matched children without perinatal risk factors were examined. Our results showed that the groups differed more in linguistic than in cognitive variables. Also, the two groups showed different relation patterns between cognitive abilities and language comprehension. Cognitive abilities were statistically significantly associated with language comprehension in children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion, while this association was not statistically significant within the control group. Since a number of participants with perinatal brain lesion had language difficulties, it is presumed that they rely on cognitive abilities in order to

  20. Segmentation of brain structures in presence of a space-occupying lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Claudio; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-02-15

    Brain deformations induced by space-occupying lesions may result in unpredictable position and shape of functionally important brain structures. The aim of this study is to propose a method for segmentation of brain structures by deformation of a segmented brain atlas in presence of a space-occupying lesion. Our approach is based on an a priori model of lesion growth (MLG) that assumes radial expansion from a seeding point and involves three steps: first, an affine registration bringing the atlas and the patient into global correspondence; then, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas providing a template for the lesion; finally, the deformation of the seeded atlas, combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model of lesion growth. The method was applied on two meningiomas inducing a pure displacement of the underlying brain structures, and segmentation accuracy of ventricles and basal ganglia was assessed. Results show that the segmented structures were consistent with the patient's anatomy and that the deformation accuracy of surrounding brain structures was highly dependent on the accurate placement of the tumor seeding point. Further improvements of the method will optimize the segmentation accuracy. Visualization of brain structures provides useful information for therapeutic consideration of space-occupying lesions, including surgical, radiosurgical, and radiotherapeutic planning, in order to increase treatment efficiency and prevent neurological damage.

  1. Glypican 3 expression in human nonneoplastic, preneoplastic, and neoplastic tissues: a tissue microarray analysis of 4,387 tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhoer, Daniel; Tornillo, Luigi; Stadlmann, Sylvia; Roncalli, Massimo; Diamantis, Eva Karamitopoulou; Terracciano, Luigi M

    2008-06-01

    Several studies have shown that glypican 3 (GPC3) could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and for differentiating HCC from nonneoplastic and preneoplastic liver disease. To systematically investigate the epidemiology of GPC3 expression in the liver and in other organs and tissues, we used tissue microarray technology comprising 4,387 tissue samples from 139 tumor categories and 36 nonneoplastic and preneoplastic tissue types. The immunohistochemical expression of GPC3 was assessed semiquantitatively using a 10% cutoff score and was detected in 9.2% of nonneoplastic liver samples (11/119), 16% of preneoplastic nodular liver lesions (6/38), and 63.6% of HCCs (140/220), underlining the role of GPC3 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, several other tumors revealed consistent expression of GPC3, including squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (27/50 [54%]), testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (32/62 [52%]), and liposarcoma (15/29 [52%]).

  2. Evolving brain lesions in the follow-up CT scans 12 h after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Sohail Umerani; Asad Abbas; Saqib Kamran Bakhshi; Ujala Muhammad Qasim; Salman Sharif

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the frequency of evolution in CT appearance from an initial scan to a subsequent scan within 12 h and the prognostic significance of such deterioration. Methods: All patients who presented to Department of Neurosurgery, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College with traumatic brain injury and received their CT scan within the first 4 h of injury were included in the study. Indications for repeat CT scan were: any deterioration in neurological status after the initial scan, potentially deterio-rating lesion on initial scan with or without worsening neurology, worsening neurological status after the initial CT scan findings, or no neurological improvement after initial management in patients with normal CT scan with significant head injury. This compiled with the data of 107 patients. Results: There were 67 males and 40 females. The cause of trauma of the 70%patients was road traffic accident. In 11 patients, the lesion evolved towards resorption while 32 patients had no significant changes in the subsequent CT scan. Sixty four patients showed an increase in the size of the lesion and 65.6%of them were required surgical intervention subsequently. Conclusions: In case where the initial CT scan performed within 4 h of significant head injury was not correlated with the patient's neurology, it should be repeated within 12 h.

  3. Opposed Left and Right Brain Hemisphere Contributions to Sexual Drive: A Multiple Lesion Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain topographical studies of normal men have have shown that sexual excitation is asymmetric in the brain hemispheres. Group studies of patients with unilateral epileptic foci and other studies of patients with unilateral brain lesions have come to the same conclusion. The present study reviewed previously published single case reports of patients with frank hypo or hypersexuality subsequent to a unilateral brain lesion. Hyposexual patients tended to have left hemisphere lesions (primarily of the temporal lobe, and hypersexual patients tended to have right hemisphere lesions (primarily of the temporal lobe (p < 0.05. We interpret this double dissociation as part of a more general phenomenon of psychic tone similarly dissociated with regard to hemispheric control, including mood, psychomotor baseline, speech rate, and even immunity. The behavioral significance of this psychic tone is to modulate approach versus avoidance behavior.

  4. Location of brain lesions predicts conversion of clinically isolated syndromes to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgio, Antonio; Battaglini, Marco; Rocca, Maria Assunta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a large population of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) the relevance of brain lesion location and frequency in predicting 1-year conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, clinical and MRI data at onset...... and clinical follow-up at 1 year were collected for 1,165 patients with CIS. On T2-weighted MRI, we generated lesion probability maps of white matter (WM) lesion location and frequency. Voxelwise analyses were performed with a nonparametric permutation-based approach (p ... in 26% of patients. The converting group, despite a greater baseline lesion load compared with the nonconverting group (7 ± 8.1 cm(3) vs 4.6 ± 6.7 cm(3), p distribution (18% vs 25% of brain voxels occupied by lesions). High lesion frequency was found...

  5. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha, M.; P. Tamije Selvy

    2012-01-01

    Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs) are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM) and Grey Matter (GM). The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means cluste...

  6. Cohort study of multiple brain lesions in sport divers: role of a patent foramen ovale.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of a patient foramen ovale in the pathogenesis of multiple brain lesions acquired by sport divers in the absence of reported decompression symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective double blind cohort study. SETTING: Diving clubs around Heidelberg and departments of neuroradiology and neurology. SUBJECTS: 87 sport divers with a minimum of 160 scuba dives (dives with self contained underwater breathing apparatus). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of multiple brain lesions...

  7. Topographic congruence of calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis and other structural brain lesions with epileptiform activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Erin K; Nagpal, Meera; Leon, Amanda; Mehta, Bijal; McMurtray, Aaron Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis (NCC) lesions are commonly detected in many individuals with refractory epilepsy. However, the relationship between these lesions and epilepsy is not fully determined. We sought to determine if calcified parenchymal NCC demonstrated topographic congruence with epileptiform activity in refractory epilepsy patients. Additional patients with other structural brain lesions were included for comparison. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of all patients treated at a community-based neurology clinic for refractory epilepsy during a 3-month period and with structural brain lesions detected by neuroimaging studies. Results: A total of 105 patients were included in the study, including 63 with calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and 42 with other structural brain lesions. No significant relationship was detected between hemispheric localization of calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and epileptiform activity. For those with other structural brain lesions, the hemispheric localization was significantly related to the side of epileptiform activity (Chi-square = 11.13, P = 0.025). In addition, logistic regression models showed that those with right-sided non-NCC lesions were more likely to have right-sided epileptiform activity (odds ratio = 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.16–16.31, P = 0.029), and those with left-sided non-NCC lesions were more likely to have left-sided epileptiform activity (odds ratio = 7.60, 95% CI = 1.89–30.49, P = 0.004). Conclusion: The lack of correlation between the side of calcified parenchymal NCC lesions and the side of the epileptiform activity suggests that these lesions may be incidental findings in many patients. PMID:26998434

  8. Stereotaxic surgery for excitotoxic lesion of specific brain areas in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Jensen, Kelly; Goosens, Ki A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2012-07-19

    Many behavioral functions in mammals, including rodents and humans, are mediated principally by discrete brain regions. A common method for discerning the function of various brain regions for behavior or other experimental outcomes is to implement a localized ablation of function. In humans, patient populations with localized brain lesions are often studied for deficits, in hopes of revealing the underlying function of the damaged area. In rodents, one can experimentally induce lesions of specific brain regions. Lesion can be accomplished in several ways. Electrolytic lesions can cause localized damage but will damage a variety of cell types as well as traversing fibers from other brain regions that happen to be near the lesion site. Inducible genetic techniques using cell-type specific promoters may also enable site-specific targeting. These techniques are complex and not always practical depending on the target brain area. Excitotoxic lesion using stereotaxic surgery, by contrast, is one of the most reliable and practical methods of lesioning excitatory neurons without damaging local glial cells or traversing fibers. Here, we present a protocol for stereotaxic infusion of the excitotoxin, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), into the basolateral amygdala complex. Using anatomical indications, we apply stereotaxic coordinates to determine the location of our target brain region and lower an injection needle in place just above the target. We then infuse our excitotoxin into the brain, resulting in excitotoxic death of nearby neurons. While our experimental subject of choice is a rat, the same methods can be applied to other mammals, with the appropriate adjustments in equipment and coordinates. This method can be used on a variety of brain regions, including the basolateral amygdala, other amygdala nuclei, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex. It can also be used to infuse biological compounds such as viral vectors. The basic stereotaxic technique could

  9. Brain lesion-pattern analysis in patients with olfactory dysfunctions following head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Lötsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cerebral lesions in patients with neurosensory alterations provides a unique window into brain function. Using a fuzzy logic based combination of morphological information about 27 olfactory-eloquent brain regions acquired with four different brain imaging techniques, patterns of brain damage were analyzed in 127 patients who displayed anosmia, i.e., complete loss of the sense of smell (n = 81, or other and mechanistically still incompletely understood olfactory dysfunctions including parosmia, i.e., distorted perceptions of olfactory stimuli (n = 50, or phantosmia, i.e., olfactory hallucinations (n = 22. A higher prevalence of parosmia, and as a tendency also phantosmia, was observed in subjects with medium overall brain damage. Further analysis showed a lower frequency of lesions in the right temporal lobe in patients with parosmia than in patients without parosmia. This negative direction of the differences was unique for parosmia. In anosmia, and also in phantosmia, lesions were more frequent in patients displaying the respective symptoms than in those without these dysfunctions. In anosmic patients, lesions in the right olfactory bulb region were much more frequent than in patients with preserved sense of smell, whereas a higher frequency of carriers of lesions in the left frontal lobe was observed for phantosmia. We conclude that anosmia, and phantosmia, are the result of lost function in relevant brain areas whereas parosmia is more complex, requiring damaged and intact brain regions at the same time.

  10. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  11. Brain lesions and IQ: recovery versus decline depends on age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Julie; Braun, Claude M J; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Daigneault, Sylvie; Rouleau, Isabelle; Bégin, Jean

    2008-06-01

    A growing literature suggests that early lesions are associated with poorer IQ outcome. Those studies covered a restricted age range in pediatric populations only and did not control for important moderator variables. The present investigation studied IQ change in brain-lesioned children and adults (age 0 to 84 years). Altogether, 725 cases with a documented unilateral focal lesion were gathered from hospital charts and from published cases in the literature, including 240 with repeated IQ testing. Multiple regression analyses isolated the contribution of age at lesion onset to IQ change. Important mediator variables included were lesion side, site, volume, etiology, and so on. An early lesion was significantly associated with poorer postlesion IQ in time and with decline of IQ in time. Later onset lesions were associated with better postlesion IQ and recovery in time. The so-called Kennard principle is refuted, with regard to IQ.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. Investigation of brain and spinal cord lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed in a total of 45 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), comprising 27 with brain symptoms and 18 without it. The results were compared with X-ray computed tomography (CT). Some of the 45 MS patients were also examined by neurophysiological studies for comparison. MRI showed demyelinating plaques of the brain in a total of 31 patients - 20 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic patients. For symptomatic patients, MRI was capable of detecting brain lesions in 6 of 7 acute stage patients and 14 of 20 non-acute stage patients. It was also capable of detecting brain lesions in 21 of 30 clinically definite MR patients and 10 of 15 clinically probable MS patients. Concurrently available X-ray CT revealed brain lesions in 9 symptomatic patients and one asymptomatic patient. Visual evoked potentials examined in 31 patients showed abnormality in one of 9 patients without symptoms of optic neuritis and all of the other 22 patients with symptoms. In 19 evaluable patients, auditory brainstem responses were abnormal in one of 9 patients without brainstem symptoms and 3 of 10 patients with symptoms. MRI of the brain was far superior to X-ray CT, visual evoked potentials and auditory brainstem responses in detecting clinically unsuspected lesions. We proposed new diagnostic criteria including MRI findings of the brain in the Japanese MS diagnostic criteria. MRI of the spinal cord was performed in 12 MS patients with spinal cord symptoms by sagittal and coronal images. It demonstrated demyelinating lesions within the cervical and superior thoracic cord in 8 MS acute stage patients. Spinal cord lesions were longitudinally continuous as long as many spinal segments, with swelling in 6 patients and atrophy in 2 patients. MRI of spinal cord was useful in deciding superior and inferior limits of cord lesions and in visualizing cord swelling or atrophy.

  13. CXCR3-dependent microglial recruitment is essential for dendrite loss after brain lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappert, A; Bechmann, [No Value; Pivneva, T; Mahlo, J; Biber, K; Nolte, C; Kovac, AD; Gerard, C; Boddeke, HWGM; Nitsch, R; Kettenmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the CNS and are considered its major immunocompetent elements. They are activated by any type of brain pathology and can migrate to the lesion site. The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed in neurons in response to brain injury and is a signaling candida

  14. Atlas-based segmentation of pathological MR brain images using a model of lesion growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Pollo, Claudio; Bardera, Anton; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2004-10-01

    We propose a method for brain atlas deformation in the presence of large space-occupying tumors, based on an a priori model of lesion growth that assumes radial expansion of the lesion from its starting point. Our approach involves three steps. First, an affine registration brings the atlas and the patient into global correspondence. Then, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas provides a template for the lesion. The last step is the deformation of the seeded atlas, combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model of lesion growth. Results show that a good registration is performed and that the method can be applied to automatic segmentation of structures and substructures in brains with gross deformation, with important medical applications in neurosurgery, radiosurgery, and radiotherapy.

  15. Simultaneous Whole-Brain Segmentation and White Matter Lesion Detection Using Contrast-Adaptive Probabilistic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new generative model for simultaneous brain parcellation and white matter lesion segmentation from multi-contrast magnetic resonance images. The method combines an existing whole-brain segmentation technique with a novel spatial lesion model based on a convolutional...... restricted Boltzmann machine. Unlike current state-of-the-art lesion detection techniques based on discriminative modeling, the proposed method is not tuned to one specific scanner or imaging protocol, and simultaneously segments dozens of neuroanatomical structures. Experiments on a public benchmark dataset...... in multiple sclerosis indicate that the method’s lesion segmentation accuracy compares well to that of the current state-of-the-art in the field, while additionally providing robust whole-brain segmentations....

  16. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M

    1990-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  17. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  18. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations. PMID:26740917

  19. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  20. Automatic segmentation and volumetry of multiple sclerosis brain lesions from MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and extent of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are important criteria for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Clinical trials have shown that quantitative values, such as lesion volumes, are meaningful in MS prognosis. Manual lesion delineation for the segmentation of lesions is, however, time-consuming and suffers from observer variability. In this paper, we propose MSmetrix, an accurate and reliable automatic method for lesion segmentation based on MRI, independent of scanner or acquisition protocol and without requiring any training data. In MSmetrix, 3D T1-weighted and FLAIR MR images are used in a probabilistic model to detect white matter (WM lesions as an outlier to normal brain while segmenting the brain tissue into grey matter, WM and cerebrospinal fluid. The actual lesion segmentation is performed based on prior knowledge about the location (within WM and the appearance (hyperintense on FLAIR of lesions. The accuracy of MSmetrix is evaluated by comparing its output with expert reference segmentations of 20 MRI datasets of MS patients. Spatial overlap (Dice between the MSmetrix and the expert lesion segmentation is 0.67 ± 0.11. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC equals 0.8 indicating a good volumetric agreement between the MSmetrix and expert labelling. The reproducibility of MSmetrix' lesion volumes is evaluated based on 10 MS patients, scanned twice with a short interval on three different scanners. The agreement between the first and the second scan on each scanner is evaluated through the spatial overlap and absolute lesion volume difference between them. The spatial overlap was 0.69 ± 0.14 and absolute total lesion volume difference between the two scans was 0.54 ± 0.58 ml. Finally, the accuracy and reproducibility of MSmetrix compare favourably with other publicly available MS lesion segmentation algorithms, applied on the same data using default

  1. A position paper on standardizing the nonneoplastic kidney biopsy report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chang (Anthony); I.W. Gibson (Ian); A.H. Cohen (Arthur); J.J. Weening (Jan); J.C. Jennette (Charles); A.B. Fogo (Agnes)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe biopsy report for nonneoplastic kidney diseases represents a complex integration of clinical data with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic findings. Practice guidelines for the handling and processing of the renal biopsy have previously been created. However, specific

  2. GLP-1 improves neuropathology after murine cold lesion brain trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DellaValle, Brian; Hempel, Casper; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2014-01-01

    in vivo and quantified directly ex vivo. Hematological analysis was performed over time. Necrotic and apoptotic tone and neuroinflammation was assessed over time. CREB activation and CREB-regulated cytoprotective proteins were assessed over time. RESULTS: Lira treatment reduced lesion size by ∼50% through...

  3. Clinical correlations of brain lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellinga, M M; Geurts, J J G; Rostrup, E

    2009-01-01

    status scale (EDSS) and MS functional composite (MSFC) subdomain scores and demographic characteristics of 325 MS patients. To identify statistically significant locations, a cluster-forming threshold of 3.1 was used. RESULTS: In clusters in the periventricular region, lesion probability correlated...

  4. Brain metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer in patients treated with radioiodine for bone and lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2000-04-01

    Brain metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often is detected during treatment of other remote lesions. We examined the prevalence, risk factors and treatment outcome of this disease encountered during nuclear medicine practice. Of the 167 patients with metastasis to lung or bone treated 1-14 times with radioactive iodine (RAI), 9 (5.4%) also had lesions in the brain. Five were males and 4 females, aged 49-84, out of the original population of 49 males and 118 females aged 10-84 (mean 54.7) years. Three of them underwent removal of their brain tumors, 5 received conventional external beam irradiation, and 2 had stereotactic radiosurgery with supervoltage X-ray. None of the brain lesions showed significant uptake of RAI despite demonstrable accumulation in most extracerebral lesions. Seven patients died 4-23 (mean 9.4) months after the discovery of cerebral metastasis, brain damage being the primary or at least a contributing cause. The 8th and 9th patients remained relatively well for more than 42 and 3 months, respectively, without any evidence of intracranial recurrence. Our results confirmed that the brain is a major site of secondary metastasis from DTC. No statistically significant demographic risk factor was detected. Any suspicious neurological symptoms in the course of RAI treatment warrant cerebral computed tomography. As for therapy, from out initial experience, radiosurgery seemed promising as an effective and less invasive alternative to surgical removal. (author)

  5. Rare thyroid non-neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Rare diseases are usually defined as entities affecting less than 1 person per 2,000. About 7,000 different rare entities are distinguished and, among them, rare diseases of the thyroid gland. Although not frequent, they can be found in the everyday practice of endocrinologists and should be considered in differential diagnosis. Rare non-neoplastic thyroid diseases will be discussed. Congenital hypothyroidism's frequency is relatively high and its early treatment is of vital importance for neonatal psychomotor development; CH is caused primarily by thyroid dysgenesis (85%) or dyshormonogenesis (10-15%), although secondary defects - hypothalamic and pituitary - can also be found; up to 40% of cases diagnosed on neonatal screening are transient. Inherited abnormalities of thyroid hormone binding proteins (TBG, TBP and albumin) include alterations in their concentration or affinity for iodothyronines, this leads to laboratory test abnormalities, although usually with normal free hormones and clinical euthyroidism. Thyroid hormone resistance is most commonly found in THRB gene mutations and more rarely in THRA mutations; in some cases both genes are unchanged (non-TR RTH). Recently the term 'reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones' was introduced, which encompass not only iodothyronine receptor defects but also their defective transmembrane transport or metabolism. Rare causes of hyperthyroidism are: activating mutations in TSHR or GNAS genes, pituitary adenomas, differentiated thyroid cancer or gestational trophoblastic disease; congenital hyperthyroidism cases are also seen, although less frequently than CH. Like other organs and tissues, the thyroid can be affected by different inflammatory and infectious processes, including tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. In most of the rare thyroid diseases genetic factors play a key role, many of them can be classified as monogenic disorders. Although there are still some limitations, progress has been made in our understanding of

  6. CHEMO- AND TARGET THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER WITH METASTATIC BRAIN LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Naskhletashvili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies performed have shown high efficiency of drug therapy for treatment of patients with breast cancer (BC with brain metastases. The best results regarding survival rate have been achieved for treatment of BC patients with brain metastases and HER2 hyperexpression. At present, studies are performed regarding examination of new anticancer drugs and their use in combination with radiotherapy for treatment of BC patients with brain metastases. It is necessary to perform studies of efficiency of various schemes of drug therapy depending on biological properties of the primary tumor. The issue of sequence of application of drug therapy and radiotherapy for metastatic brain lesions also remains actual.

  7. Application of radiosurgical techniques to produce a primate model of brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eKunimatsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral analysis of subjects with discrete brain lesions provides important information about the mechanisms of various brain functions. However, it is generally difficult to experimentally produce discrete lesions in deep brain structures. Here we show that a radiosurgical technique, which is used as an alternative treatment for brain tumors and vascular malformations, is applicable to create non-invasive lesions in experimental animals for the research in systems neuroscience. We delivered highly focused radiation (130–150 Gy at ISO center to the frontal eye field of macaque monkeys using a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC. The effects of irradiation were assessed by analyzing oculomotor performance along with magnetic resonance (MR images before and up to 8 months following irradiation. In parallel with tissue edema indicated by MR images, deficits in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements were observed during several days following irradiation. Although initial signs of oculomotor deficits disappeared within a month, damage to the tissue and impaired eye movements gradually developed during the course of the subsequent 6 months. Postmortem histological examinations showed necrosis and hemorrhages within a large area of the white matter and, to a lesser extent, in the adjacent gray matter, which was centered at the irradiated target. These results indicated that the LINAC system was useful for making brain lesions in experimental animals, while the suitable radiation parameters to generate more focused lesions need to be further explored. We propose the use of a radiosurgical technique for establishing animal models of brain lesions, and discuss the possible uses of this technique for functional neurosurgical treatments in humans.

  8. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  9. Type 2 diabetes is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. The Funagata study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Tamotsu; Daimon, Makoto; Eguchi, Hideyuki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Kawanami, Toru; Kurita, Keiji; Tominaga, Makoto; Kato, Takeo [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether type 2 diabetes (DM) is a risk factor for asymptomatic (silent) ischemic brain lesion, which is controversial at present. The subjects (n=187), who showed normal results on both neurological and neuropsychological examinations, underwent a 75-g OGTT and were examined by brain MRI on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images. Their brain MRIs were evaluated quantitatively with the ischemia rating scale defined here. The subjects were grouped based on their glucose tolerance: normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=48), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=62), and DM (n=65). The subjects with DM were further divided based on their duration of illness: 20 with short duration (short DM: 1.3{+-}0.8 years) and 45 with long duration (long DM; 8.9{+-}5.4 years). Ages were matched among the groups. The percentages of individuals with asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion were 81% in NGT, 74% in IGT, 65% in short DM, and 78% in long DM. No significant difference was observed among the groups in terms of the percentage. Namely, even in individuals with a long history of DM without clinical stroke, the prevalence of asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion was not different from that of the other groups. Multiple regression and multiple logistic regression analyses showed that age and hypertension were significant independent risk factors for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion, whereas hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and glucose intolerance, including IGT, short DM and long DM, were not. DM is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. (author)

  10. Macrostructural and Microstructural Brain Lesions Relate to Gait Pathology in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Leunissen, Inge; De Cock, Paul; Sunaert, Stefan; Feys, Hilde; Duysens, Jacques; Desloovere, Kaat; Ortibus, Els

    2016-10-01

    Background Even though lower-limb motor disorders are core features of spastic cerebral palsy (sCP), the relationship with brain lesions remains unclear. Unraveling the relation between gait pathology, lower-limb function, and brain lesions in sCP is complex for several reasons; wide heterogeneity in brain lesions, ongoing brain maturation, and gait depends on a number of primary motor functions/deficits (eg, muscle strength, spasticity). Objective To use a comprehensive approach combining conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with sCP above 3 years old to relate quantitative parameters of brain lesions in multiple brain areas to gait performance. Methods A total of 50 children with sCP (25 bilateral, 25 unilateral involvement) were enrolled. The investigated neuroradiological parameters included the following: (1) volumetric measures of the corpus callosum (CC) and lateral ventricles (LVs), and (2) DTI parameters of the corticospinal tract (CST). Gait pathology and primary motor deficits, including muscle strength and spasticity, were evaluated by 3D gait analysis and clinical examination. Results In bilateral sCP (n = 25), volume of the LV and the subparts of the CC connecting frontal, (pre)motor, and sensory areas were most related to lower-limb functioning and gait pathology. DTI measures of the CST revealed additional relations with the primary motor deficits (n = 13). In contrast, in unilateral sCP, volumetric (n = 25) and diffusion measures (n = 14) were only correlated to lower-limb strength. Conclusions These results indicate that the combined influence of multiple brain lesions and their impact on the primary motor deficits might explain a large part of the gait pathology in sCP.

  11. Gadolinium enhancement patterns of tumefactive demyelinating lesions: correlations with brain biopsy findings and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Yuko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-10-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) can mimic brain tumors on radiological images. TDLs are often referred to as tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TMS), but the heterogeneous nature and monophasic course of TDLs do not fulfill clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for multiple sclerosis. Redefining TDLs, TMS and other inflammatory brain lesions is essential for the accurate clinical diagnosis of extensive demyelinating brain lesions. We retrospectively analyzed MRI from nine TDL cases that underwent brain biopsy. Patterns of gadolinium enhancement on MRI were categorized as homogenous, inhomogeneous, patchy and diffuse, open ring or irregular rim, and were compared with pathological hallmarks including demyelination, central necrosis, macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis and perivascular lymphocytic cuffing. All cases had coexistence of demyelinating features and axonal loss. Open-ring and irregular rim patterns of gadolinium enhancement were associated with macrophage infiltrations and angiogenesis at the inflammatory border. An inhomogeneous pattern of gadolinium enhancement was associated with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing. Central necrosis was seen in cases of severe multiple sclerosis and hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy. These results suggest that the radiological features of TDLs may be related to different pathological processes, and indicate that MRI may be useful in understanding their pathophysiology. Further investigation is needed to determine the precise disease entity of these inflammatory demyelinating brain lesions.

  12. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  13. Learned self-regulation of the lesioned brain with epidural electrocorticography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different techniques for neurofeedback of voluntary brain activations are currently being explored for clinical application in brain-related disorders. One of the most frequently used approaches is the self-regulation of oscillatory signals recorded with electroencephalography (EEG. Many patients are, however, not in a position to use such tools. This could be due to the specific anatomical and physiological properties of the patient's brain after the lesion, as well as to methodological issues related to the technique chosen for recording brain signals.Methods: A patient with extended ischemic lesions of the cortex was unable to gain volitional control of sensorimotor oscillations when using a standard EEG-based approach. We provided him with a neurofeedback set-up with which his brain activity could be recorded from the epidural space by electrocorticography (ECoG.Results: Ipsilesional epidural recordings of field potentials facilitated learned self-regulation of brain oscillations in an online closed-loop paradigm and allowed swift and reliable neurofeedback training for a period of four weeks on a daily basis.Conclusion: Epidural implants may decode and train brain activity even when the cortical physiology is distorted following severe brain injury. Such practice would allow for reinforcement learning of preserved neural networks and may well provide restorative tools for those patients who are worst afflicted.

  14. Degenerative and vascular lesions of the brain have synergistic effects in dementia of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekry, Dina; Duyckaerts, Charles; Moulias, Robert; Belmin, Joël; Geoffre, Caroline; Herrmann, François; Hauw, Jean-Jacques

    2002-05-01

    The relative importance of vascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions, their interaction in the development of cognitive impairment and the very existence of mixed dementia induced by the potentiation of both mechanisms remain controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the patients with infarcts and lacunes have fewer plaques and tangles than those without vascular lesions, for similar severity of clinical dementia. We performed a prospective clinicopathological study in elderly patients of a long-stay care unit. The severity of clinical dementia was assessed by psychometry performed according to standardized methods less than 6 months before death. A volumetric study of cerebral vascular lesions was performed at post-mortem study of the brain. The density of neuritic plaques (SP), Amyloid beta focal deposits (A beta FD), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the temporal and frontal isocortex was quantified. According to DSM III criteria, 28 of the 33 patients for whom autopsies were performed had dementia. Twenty-four of the included patients had degenerative or vascular lesions, or both. The volume of infarcts and lacunes was significantly correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. The density of SP, A beta FD and NFT in the temporal and frontal isocortex was significantly lower when vascular lesions were present. For similar clinical severity of dementia, there were fewer AD lesions in patients with vascular lesions than in those without vascular lesions.

  15. FLAIR lesion segmentation: Application in patients with brain tumors and acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: ornaaize@gmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jonas-Kimchi, Tali, E-mail: talijk@tlvmc.gov.il [Radiology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Myers, Vicki, E-mail: vicki_myers@hotmail.com [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hallevi, Hen, E-mail: hen.hallevi@gmail.com [Neurology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [The Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    Background: Lesion size in fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is an important clinical parameter for patient assessment and follow-up. Although manual delineation of lesion areas considered as ground truth, it is time-consuming, highly user-dependent and difficult to perform in areas of indistinct borders. In this study, an automatic methodology for FLAIR lesion segmentation is proposed, and its application in patients with brain tumors undergoing therapy; and in patients following stroke is demonstrated. Materials and methods: FLAIR lesion segmentation was performed in 57 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets obtained from 44 patients: 28 patients with primary brain tumors; 5 patients with recurrent-progressive glioblastoma (rGB) who were scanned longitudinally during anti-angiogenic therapy (18 MRI scans); and 11 patients following ischemic stroke. Results: FLAIR lesion segmentation was obtained in all patients. When compared to manual delineation, a high visual similarity was observed, with an absolute relative volume difference of 16.80% and 20.96% and a volumetric overlap error of 24.87% and 27.50% obtained for two raters: accepted values for automatic methods. Quantitative measurements of the segmented lesion volumes were in line with qualitative radiological assessment in four patients who received anti-anogiogenic drugs. In stroke patients the proposed methodology enabled identification of the ischemic lesion and differentiation from other FLAIR hyperintense areas, such as pre-existing disease. Conclusion: This study proposed a replicable methodology for FLAIR lesion detection and quantification and for discrimination between lesion of interest and pre-existing disease. Results from this study show the wide clinical applications of this methodology in research and clinical practice.

  16. Post-mortem MRI-guided sampling of multiple sclerosis brain lesions: increased yield of active demyelinating and (p)reactive lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, C J; Bergers, E; Kamphorst, W; Ravid, R; Polman, C H; Barkhof, F; van der Valk, P

    2001-08-01

    Macroscopic sampling of multiple sclerosis lesions in the brain tends to find chronic lesions. For a better understanding of the dynamics of the multiple sclerosis disease process, research into new and developing lesions is of great interest. As MRI in vivo effectively demonstrates lesions in multiple sclerosis patients, we have applied it to unfixed post-mortem brain slices to identify abnormalities, in order to obtain a higher yield of active lesions. The Netherlands Brain Bank organized the rapid autopsy of 29 multiple sclerosis patients. The brain was cut in 1 cm coronal slices. One or two slices were subjected to T(1)- and T(2)-weighted MRI, and then cut at the plane of the MRI scan into 5 mm thick opposing sections. Areas of interest were identified based on the MRI findings and excised. One half was fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin-embedded, and the corresponding area in the adjacent half was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. In total, 136 out of 174 brain tissue samples could be matched with the abnormalities seen on T(2)-weighted MRIs. The stage of lesional development was determined (immuno) histochemically. For 54 MRI-detectable samples, it was recorded whether they were macroscopically detectable, i.e. visible and/or palpable. Histopathological analysis revealed that 48% of the hyperintense areas seen on T(2)-weighted images represented active lesions, including lesions localized in the normal appearing white matter, without apparent loss of myelin but nevertheless showing a variable degree of oedema, small clusters of microglial cells with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, CD45 and CD68 antigen expression and a variable number of perivascular lymphocytes around small blood vessels [designated as (p)reactive lesions]. From the macroscopically not-visible/not-palpable MRI-detected abnormalities, 58% were (p)reactive lesions and 21% contained active demyelinating lesions. In contrast, visible and/or palpable brain tissue samples

  17. Early Gesture Predicts Language Delay in Children with Pre- Or Perinatal Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Eve; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Does early gesture use predict later productive and receptive vocabulary in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL)? Eleven children with PL were categorized into 2 groups based on whether their gesture at 18 months was within or below the range of typically developing (TD) children. Children with PL whose gesture was within…

  18. Serum L-arginine and dimethylarginine levels in migraine patients with brain white matter lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdélyi-Bótor, Szilvia; Komáromy, Hedvig; Kamson, David Olayinka;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Migraine is a risk factor for the formation of silent brain white matter lesions (WMLs) that are possibly ischemic in nature. Although dysfunction of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in migraine, its rol...

  19. Pseudo-progression after stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases: lesion analysis using MRI cine-loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenraad, Ruud; Bos, Petra; Verbeek-de Kanter, Antoinette; Lycklama À Nijeholt, Geert; van Santvoort, Jan; Taphoorn, Martin; Struikmans, Henk

    2014-09-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) of brain metastasis can lead to lesion growth caused by radiation toxicity. The pathophysiology of this so-called pseudo-progression is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MRI cine-loops for describing the consecutive events in this radiation induced lesion growth. Ten patients were selected from our department's database that had received SRT of brain metastases and had lesion growth caused by pseudo-progression as well as at least five follow-up MRI scans. Pre- and post SRT MRI scans were co-registered and cine-loops were made using post-gadolinium 3D T1 axial slices. The ten cine loops were discussed in a joint meeting of the authors. The use of cine-loops was superior to evaluation of separate MRI scans for interpretation of events after SRT. There was a typical lesion evolution pattern in all patients with varying time course. Initially regression of the metastases was observed, followed by an enlarging area of new contrast enhancement in the surrounding brain tissue. Analysis of consecutive MRI's using cine-loops may improve understanding of pseudo-progression. It probably represents a radiation effect in brain tissue surrounding the irradiated metastasis and not enlargement of the metastasis itself.

  20. Lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Jin Kim; Nam-Jong Paik

    2014-01-01

    Global aphasia without hemiparesis is a striking stroke syndrome involving language impairment without the typically manifested contralateral hemiparesis, which is usually seen in patients with global aphasia following large left perisylvian lesions. The objective of this study is to elucidate the speciifc areas for lesion localization of global aphasia without hemiparesis by retrospectively studying the brain magnetic resonance images of six patients with global aphasia without hemi-paresis to deifne global aphasia without hemiparesis-related stroke lesions before overlapping the images to visualize the most overlapped area. Talairach coordinates for the most overlapped areas were converted to corresponding anatomical regions. Lesions where the images of more than three patients overlapped were considered significant. The overlapped global aphasia without hemiparesis related stroke lesions of six patients revealed that the signiifcantly involved anatomi-cal lesions were as follows:frontal lobe, sub-gyral, sub-lobar, extra-nuclear, corpus callosum, and inferior frontal gyrus, while caudate, claustrum, middle frontal gyrus, limbic lobe, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, uncus, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal, amygdala, and subcallosal gyrus were seen less signiifcantly involved. This study is the ifrst to demonstrate the heteroge-neous anatomical involvement in global aphasia without hemiparesis by overlapping of the brain magnetic resonance images.

  1. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Santana-Netto, Pedro Vieira; Sgnolf, Aline [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Image Dept.], e-mail: jrl.ferraz@terra.com.br; Rocha-Filho, Jose Alves; Mauad, Fernando [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Radiology Dept.; Sanches, Rafael Angelo [FAMERP Medical School, Sao Jose do Rio Preto SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2009-06-15

    This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency. (author)

  2. Acute ischaemic brain lesions in intracerebral haemorrhage: multicentre cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Simone M; Charidimou, Andreas; Gadapa, Naveen; Dolan, Eamon; Antoun, Nagui; Peeters, Andre; Vandermeeren, Yves; Laloux, Patrice; Baron, Jean-Claude; Jäger, Hans R; Werring, David J

    2011-08-01

    Subclinical acute ischaemic lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging have recently been described in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and may be important to understand pathophysiology and guide treatment. The underlying mechanisms are uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that ischaemic lesions are related to magnetic resonance imaging markers of the severity and type of small-vessel disease (hypertensive arteriopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy) in a multicentre, cross-sectional study. We studied consecutive patients with intracerebral haemorrhage from four specialist stroke centres, and age-matched stroke service referrals without intracerebral haemorrhage. Acute ischaemic lesions were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (imaging. White matter changes and cerebral microbleeds were rated with validated scales. We investigated associations between diffusion-weighted imaging lesions, clinical and radiological characteristics. We included 114 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (39 with clinically probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy) and 47 age-matched controls. The prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions was 9/39 (23%) in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage versus 6/75 (8%) in the remaining patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (P = 0.024); no diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were found in controls. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesions were mainly cortical and were associated with mean white matter change score (odds ratio 1.14 per unit increase, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.28, P = 0.024) and the presence of strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence interval 1.15-12.93, P = 0.029). Acute, subclinical ischaemic brain lesions are frequent but previously underestimated after intracerebral haemorrhage, and are three times more common in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral haemorrhage than in other intracerebral haemorrhage types. Ischaemic brain lesions are

  3. Occurrence of Asymptomatic Acute Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder-Typical Brain Lesions during an Attack of Optic Neuritis or Myelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Joung, AeRan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ho Jin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1). If asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain abnormalities were considered as evidence for DIS, while also assuming that the AQP4-IgG status was unknown, the median time to diagnosis using the 2015 diagnosis criteria for NMOSD was shortened from 28 months to 6 months (p = 0.008). Asymptomatic acute NMOSD-typical brain lesions can be accompanied by an acute attack of ON or myelitis. Identifying these asymptomatic brain lesions may help facilitate earlier diagnosis of NMOSD. PMID:27936193

  4. Occurrence of Asymptomatic Acute Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder-Typical Brain Lesions during an Attack of Optic Neuritis or Myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Joung, AeRan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ho Jin

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1). If asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain abnormalities were considered as evidence for DIS, while also assuming that the AQP4-IgG status was unknown, the median time to diagnosis using the 2015 diagnosis criteria for NMOSD was shortened from 28 months to 6 months (p = 0.008). Asymptomatic acute NMOSD-typical brain lesions can be accompanied by an acute attack of ON or myelitis. Identifying these asymptomatic brain lesions may help facilitate earlier diagnosis of NMOSD.

  5. Computed tomography vs magnetic resonance imaging for identifying acute lesions in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Sandra D W; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Miller, Jeffrey; Youssfi, Mostafa; Brown, S Danielle; Dalton, Heidi J; Adelson, P David

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice to screen for brain injuries. MRI may provide more clinically relevant information. The purpose of this study was to compare lesion detection between CT and MRI after TBI. Retrospective cohort of children (0-21 years) with TBI between 2008 and 2010 at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center with a head CT scan on day of injury and a brain MRI scan within 2 weeks of injury. Agreement between CT and MRI was determined by κ statistic and stratified by injury mechanism. One hundred five children were studied. Of these, 78% had mild TBI. The MRI scan was obtained a median of 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2) after CT. Overall, CT and MRI demonstrated poor agreement (κ=-0.083; P=.18). MRI detected a greater number of intraparenchymal lesions (n=36; 34%) compared with CT (n=16; 15%) (P<.001). Among patients with abusive head trauma, MRI detected intraparenchymal lesions in 16 (43%), compared with only 4 (11%) lesions with CT (P=.03). Of 8 subjects with a normal CT scan, 6 out of 8 had abnormal lesions on MRI. Compared with CT, MRI identified significantly more intraparenchymal lesions in pediatric TBI, particularly in children with abusive head trauma. The prognostic value of identification of intraparenchymal lesions by MRI is unknown but warrants additional inquiry. Risks and benefits from early MRI (including sedation, time, and lack of radiation exposure) compared with CT should be weighed by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Prospective study of p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine and SPECT for the evaluation of newly diagnosed cerebral lesions: specific confirmation of glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Dirk; Schaefer, Andrea; Farmakis, Georgios; Grgic, Aleksandar; Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ketter, Ralf; Moringlane, Jean R.; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Homburg (Germany); Romeike, Bernd F.M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Institute of Neuropathology, Homburg (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-University, Department of Neuropathology, Jena (Germany); Samnick, Samuel [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The differentiation between gliomas, metastases and gliotic or inflammatory lesions by imaging techniques remains a challenge. Gliomas frequently exhibit increased uptake of radiolabelled amino acids and are thus amenable to PET or SPECT imaging. Recently, p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine (IPA) was validated for the visualization of glioma by SPECT and received orphan drug status. Here we investigated its diagnostic performance for differentiating indeterminate brain lesions. This prospective open study included 67 patients with newly diagnosed brain lesions suspicious for glioma (34 without and 33 with contrast enhancement in the MRI scan). Patients received 250 MBq IPA intravenously after overnight fasting. SPECT images at 30 min and 3 h post-injection were iteratively reconstructed and visually interpreted after image fusion with an MRI brain scan (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence or T1-weighted contrast-enhanced image). Findings were correlated with results of stereotactic or open biopsies or serial imaging. Twenty-seven low-grade (2 WHO I, 25 WHO II) and 24 high-grade gliomas (1 WHO III, 23 WHO IV), 3 metastases originating from lung cancer as well as 13 non-neoplastic lesions were proven. All non-neoplastic lesions and all metastases were negative with IPA SPECT. Forty gliomas were true-positive (TP) and 11 false-negative (FN) findings (8 WHO II, 1 WHO III, 2 WHO IV) occurred. There were no false-positive (FP) findings. For the differentiation of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions, sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 100%. In 34 lesions without contrast enhancement in MRI, IPA SPECT resulted in 17 TP, 8 true-negative, 9 FN and no FP findings (sensitivity 65%, specificity 100%). In patients with suspected glioma, IPA SPECT shows a high specificity, but especially in low-grade gliomas FN findings may occur. Due to the high positive predictive value a positive finding allows a suspected glioma to be confirmed. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of trophic responses in lesioned brain: focus on basic fibroblast growth factor mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The actions of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, particularly the basic form (bFGF, have been described in a large number of cells and include mitogenicity, angiogenicity and wound repair. The present review discusses the presence of the bFGF protein and messenger RNA as well as the presence of the FGF receptor messenger RNA in the rodent brain by means of semiquantitative radioactive in situ hybridization in combination with immunohistochemistry. Chemical and mechanical injuries to the brain trigger a reduction in neurotransmitter synthesis and neuronal death which are accompanied by astroglial reaction. The altered synthesis of bFGF following brain lesions or stimulation was analyzed. Lesions of the central nervous system trigger bFGF gene expression by neurons and/or activated astrocytes, depending on the type of lesion and time post-manipulation. The changes in bFGF messenger RNA are frequently accompanied by a subsequent increase of bFGF immunoreactivity in astrocytes in the lesioned pathway. The reactive astrocytes and injured neurons synthesize increased amount of bFGF, which may act as a paracrine/autocrine factor, protecting neurons from death and also stimulating neuronal plasticity and tissue repair

  8. Association between Severe Upper Limb Spasticity and Brain Lesion Location in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Picelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Association between the site of brain injury and poststroke spasticity is poorly understood. The present study investigated whether lesion analysis could document brain regions associated with the development of severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 39 chronic stroke patients. Spasticity was assessed at the affected upper limb with the modified Ashworth scale (shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers. Brain lesions were traced from magnetic resonance imaging performed within the first 7 days after stroke and region of interest images were generated. The association between severe upper limb spasticity (modified Ashworth scale ≥2 and lesion location was determined with the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping method implemented in MRIcro software. Colored maps representing the z statistics were generated and overlaid onto the automated anatomical labeling and the Johns Hopkins University white matter templates provided with MRIcron. Thalamic nuclei were identified with the Talairach Daemon software. Injuries to the insula, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and white matter tracts (internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus were significantly associated with severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. Further advances in our understanding of the neural correlates of spasticity may lead to early targeted rehabilitation when key regions are damaged.

  9. Characterizing amide proton transfer imaging in haemorrhage brain lesions using 3T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ha-Kyu [Philips Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Basic Science Institute, Chungcheongbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyunghwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MRI Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Yansong [Philips Healthcare, MR Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Choi, Yoon Seong; Lee, Seung-Koo; Ahn, Sung Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize amide proton transfer (APT)-weighted signals in acute and subacute haemorrhage brain lesions of various underlying aetiologies. Twenty-three patients with symptomatic haemorrhage brain lesions including tumorous (n = 16) and non-tumorous lesions (n = 7) were evaluated. APT imaging was performed and analyzed with magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR{sub asym}). Regions of interest were defined as the enhancing portion (when present), acute or subacute haemorrhage, and normal-appearing white matter based on anatomical MRI. MTR{sub asym} values were compared among groups and components using a linear mixed model. MTR{sub asym} values were 3.68 % in acute haemorrhage, 1.6 % in subacute haemorrhage, 2.65 % in the enhancing portion, and 0.38 % in normal white matter. According to the linear mixed model, the distribution of MTR{sub asym} values among components was not significantly different between tumour and non-tumour groups. MTR{sub asym} in acute haemorrhage was significantly higher than those in the other regions regardless of underlying pathology. Acute haemorrhages showed high MTR{sub asym} regardless of the underlying pathology, whereas subacute haemorrhages showed lower MTR{sub asym} than acute haemorrhages. These results can aid in the interpretation of APT imaging in haemorrhage brain lesions. (orig.)

  10. Functional MRI preprocessing in lesioned brains: manual versus automated region of interest analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Garrison

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging has significant potential in the study and treatment of neurological disorders and stroke. Region of interest (ROI analysis in such studies allows for testing of strong a priori clinical hypotheses with improved statistical power. A commonly used automated approach to ROI analysis is to spatially normalize each participant’s structural brain image to a template brain image and define ROIs using an atlas. However, in studies of individuals with structural brain lesions such as stroke, the gold standard approach may be to manually hand-draw ROIs on each participant’s non-normalized structural brain image. Automated approaches to ROI analysis are faster and more standardized, yet are susceptible to preprocessing error (e.g., normalization error that can be greater in lesioned brains. The manual approach to ROI analysis has high demand for time and expertise but may provide a more accurate estimate of brain response. In this study, we directly compare commonly used automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis by reanalyzing data from a previously published hypothesis-driven cognitive fMRI study involving individuals with stroke. The ROI evaluated is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. We found a significant difference in task-related effect size and percent activated voxels in this ROI between the automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis. Task interactions, however, were consistent across ROI analysis approaches. These findings support the use of automated approaches to ROI analysis in studies of lesioned brains, provided they employ a task interaction design.

  11. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Rogalsky, Corianne; Sheng, Tong; Liu, Brent; Damasio, Hanna; Winstein, Carolee J; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa S

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has significant potential in the study and treatment of neurological disorders and stroke. Region of interest (ROI) analysis in such studies allows for testing of strong a priori clinical hypotheses with improved statistical power. A commonly used automated approach to ROI analysis is to spatially normalize each participant's structural brain image to a template brain image and define ROIs using an atlas. However, in studies of individuals with structural brain lesions, such as stroke, the gold standard approach may be to manually hand-draw ROIs on each participant's non-normalized structural brain image. Automated approaches to ROI analysis are faster and more standardized, yet are susceptible to preprocessing error (e.g., normalization error) that can be greater in lesioned brains. The manual approach to ROI analysis has high demand for time and expertise, but may provide a more accurate estimate of brain response. In this study, commonly used automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis were directly compared by reanalyzing data from a previously published hypothesis-driven cognitive fMRI study, involving individuals with stroke. The ROI evaluated is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. Significant differences were identified in task-related effect size and percent-activated voxels in this ROI between the automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis. Task interactions, however, were consistent across ROI analysis approaches. These findings support the use of automated approaches to ROI analysis in studies of lesioned brains, provided they employ a task interaction design.

  12. Comparative analysis of MR sequences to detect structural brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Gama, Hugo Pereira; Campos Meirelles, Rogerio Goncalves de; Mendonca do Rego, Jose Iram [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Section of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Silva, Carlos Jorge da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martins Maia, Antonio Carlos [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a neurocutaneous genetically inherited disease with variable penetrance characterized by dysplasias and hamartomas affecting multiple organs. MR is the imaging method of choice to demonstrate structural brain lesions in TS. To compare MR sequences and determine which is most useful for the demonstration of each type of brain lesion in TS patients. We reviewed MR scans of 18 TS patients for the presence of cortical tubers, white matter lesions (radial bands), subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) on the following sequences: (1) T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) images before and after gadolinium (Gd) injection; (2) nonenhanced T1 SE sequence with an additional magnetization transfer contrast medium pulse on resonance (T1 SE/MTC); and (3) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Cortical tubers were found in significantly (P<0.05) larger numbers and more conspicuously in FLAIR and T1 SE/MTC sequences. The T1 SE/MTC sequence was far superior to other methods in detecting white matter lesions (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the T1 SE/MTC and T1 SE (before and after Gd injection) sequences in the detection of subependymal nodules; FLAIR sequence showed less sensitivity than the others in identifying the nodules. T1 SE sequences after Gd injection demonstrated better the limits of the SGCA. We demonstrated the importance of appropriate MRI sequences for diagnosis of the most frequent brain lesions in TS. Our study reinforces the fact that each sequence has a particular application according to the type of TS lesion. Gd injection might be useful in detecting SGCA; however, the parameters of size and location are also important for a presumptive diagnosis of these tumors. (orig.)

  13. Evaluating the effect of multiple sclerosis lesions on automatic brain structure segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra González-Villà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI’12. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC differences and the volume differences between the healthy and the simulated images are calculated for the subcortical structures and the brainstem. We observe that the three strategies are affected when lesions are present. However, the effects of the lesions do not follow the same pattern; the lesions either make the segmentation method underperform or surprisingly augment the segmentation accuracy. The obtained results show that FreeSurfer is the method most affected by the presence of lesions, with DSC differences (generated − healthy ranging from −0.11 ± 0.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87, whereas FIRST tends to be the most robust method when lesions are present (−2.40 ± 5.54 to 0.44 ± 0.94. Lesion location is not important for global strategies such as FreeSurfer or majority voting, where structure segmentation is affected wherever the lesions exist. On the other hand, FIRST is more affected when the lesions are overlaid or close to the structure of analysis. The most affected structure by the presence of lesions is the nucleus accumbens (from −1.12 ± 2.53 to 1.32 ± 4.00 for the left hemisphere and from −2.40 ± 5.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87 for the right hemisphere, whereas the

  14. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

  15. Modular Endoprostheses for Nonneoplastic Conditions: Midterm Complications and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco De Gori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of modular endoprostheses is a viable option to manage both tumor resection and severe bone loss due to nonneoplastic conditions such as fracture sequelae, failed osteoarticular grafts, arthroplasty revisions, and periprosthetic fractures. We sought to investigate both midterm complications and failures occurred in 87 patients who underwent a megaprosthetic reconstruction in a nonneoplastic setting. After a mean follow-up of 58 (1–167 months, overall failure-free survival was 91.5% at 1 year, 80% at 2 years, 71.6% at 5 years, and 69.1% at 5 and 10 years. There was no significant difference in the survival rate according to the diagnosis at the index procedure (p=0.921, nor to the reconstruction site (p=0.402. The use of megaprostheses in a postneoplastic setting did not affect survival rate in comparison with endoprosthetic reconstruction of pure nonneoplastic conditions (p=0.851. Perimegaprosthetic infection was the leading complication, occurring in 10 (11.5% patients and implying a megaprosthetic revision in all but one case. Physicians should consider these results when discussing with patients desired outcomes of endoprosthetic reconstructions of a nonneoplastic disease.

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in non-neoplastic renal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, E; Dijkhuizen, T; Storkel, S; Molenaar, WM; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in short-term cultures of non-neoplastic renal tissue and tumor tissue in 60 patients, 41 male and 19 female, with renal cell cancer (RCC), and in normal renal parenchyma from two cases, one male and one female, at autopsy with non-kidney related disease. Cytogene

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in non-neoplastic renal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, E; Dijkhuizen, T; Storkel, S; Molenaar, WM; deJong, B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in short-term cultures of non-neoplastic renal tissue and tumor tissue in 60 patients, 41 male and 19 female, with renal cell cancer (RCC), and in normal renal parenchyma from two cases, one male and one female, at autopsy with non-kidney related disease. Cytogene

  18. Correlation between urinary incontinence and localization of brain lesion and severity of neurological lesion caused by a stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetra A.

    2012-10-01

    disorders. Urinary incontinence develops more frequently among patients with anterior circulation of the brain and subcortical brain lesion. There is a reliable correlation between severity of neurological lesion and urinary incontinence.

  19. Automated metastatic brain lesion detection: a computer aided diagnostic and clinical research tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Jeremy; Sahgal, Arjun; Karam, Irene; Martel, Anne L.

    2016-03-01

    The accurate localization of brain metastases in magnetic resonance (MR) images is crucial for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to ensure that all neoplastic foci are targeted. Computer automated tumor localization and analysis can improve both of these tasks by eliminating inter and intra-observer variations during the MR image reading process. Lesion localization is accomplished using adaptive thresholding to extract enhancing objects. Each enhancing object is represented as a vector of features which includes information on object size, symmetry, position, shape, and context. These vectors are then used to train a random forest classifier. We trained and tested the image analysis pipeline on 3D axial contrast-enhanced MR images with the intention of localizing the brain metastases. In our cross validation study and at the most effective algorithm operating point, we were able to identify 90% of the lesions at a precision rate of 60%.

  20. A New Method for Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS Lesions on Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Jafari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions in brain MRI has been widely investigated in recent years with the goal of helping MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. In this study we applied gaussian mixture model (GMM to segment MS lesions in MR images. Usually, GMM is optimized using expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. One of the drawbacks of this optimization method is that, it does not convergence to optimal maximum or minimum. Starting from different initial points and saving best result, is a strategy which is used to reach the near optimal. This approach is time consuming and we used another way to initiate the EM algorithm. Also, FAST- Trimmed Likelihood Estimator (FAST-TLE algorithm was applied to determine which voxels should be rejected. The automatically segmentation outputs were scored by two specialists and the results show that our method has capability to segment the MS lesions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC score of 0.82.

  1. Brain lesions in eclampsia: A series of 39 cases admitted in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Brouh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the encephalic lesions in the eclampsia occurrences. Within a period of 18 months, computed tomography (CT of the brain was performed in all patients admitted in intensive care for eclampsia. These CTs were analyzed and intracerebral lesions were identified. Thirty-nine patients were included. We noted 10 cases of ischemic stroke, 9 cases of cerebral edema, and 3 cases of hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The CT scan came back to normal in 20 eclamptic patients. Overall, delays in obstetric and intensive care and time of completion of the CT were long. CT has allowed highlighting in patients with eclampsia varied intracerebral lesions. The early performance of the CT is therefore essential for a better support of patients.

  2. A white matter lesion-filling approach to improve brain tissue volume measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis white matter (WM lesions can affect brain tissue volume measurements of voxel-wise segmentation methods if these lesions are included in the segmentation process. Several authors have presented different techniques to improve brain tissue volume estimations by filling WM lesions before segmentation with intensities similar to those of WM. Here, we propose a new method to refill WM lesions, where contrary to similar approaches, lesion voxel intensities are replaced by random values of a normal distribution generated from the mean WM signal intensity of each two-dimensional slice. We test the performance of our method by estimating the deviation in tissue volume between a set of 30 T1-w 1.5 T and 30 T1-w 3 T images of healthy subjects and the same images where: WM lesions have been previously registered and afterwards replaced their voxel intensities to those between gray matter (GM and WM tissue. Tissue volume is computed independently using FAST and SPM8. When compared with the state-of-the-art methods, on 1.5 T data our method yields the lowest deviation in WM between original and filled images, independently of the segmentation method used. It also performs the lowest differences in GM when FAST is used and equals to the best method when SPM8 is employed. On 3 T data, our method also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods when FAST is used while performs similar to the best method when SPM8 is used. The proposed technique is currently available to researchers as a stand-alone program and as an SPM extension.

  3. Multiple Sclerosis: Identification of Temporal Changes in Brain Lesions with Computer-Assisted Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, M.; Arkuszewski, M.; Nucifora, P.; Nasrallah, I.; Melhem, E.R.; Cirillo, L.; Krejza, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a progressing and evolving course. Serial imaging with MRI is the mainstay in monitoring and managing MS patients. In this work we demonstrate the performance of a locally developed computer-assisted detection (CAD) software used to track temporal changes in brain MS lesions. CAD tracks changes in T2-bright MS lesions between two time points on a 3D high-resolution isotropic FLAIR MR sequence of the brain acquired at 3 Tesla. The program consists of an image-processing pipeline, and displays scrollable difference maps used as an aid to the neuroradiologist for assessing lesional change. To assess the value of the software we have compared diagnostic accuracy and duration of interpretation of the CAD-assisted and routine clinical interpretations in 98 randomly chosen, paired MR examinations from 88 patients (68 women, 20 men, mean age 43.5, age range 21–75) with a diagnosis of definite MS. The ground truth was determined by a three-expert panel. In case-wise analysis, CAD interpretation showed higher sensitivity than a clinical report (87% vs 77%, respectively). Lesion-wise analysis demonstrated improved sensitivity of CAD over a routine clinical interpretation of 40%–48%. Mean software-assisted interpretation time was 2.7 min. Our study demonstrates the potential of including CAD software in the workflow of neuroradiology practice for the detection of MS lesional change. Automated quantification of temporal change in MS lesion load may also be used in clinical research, e.g., in drug trials. PMID:23859235

  4. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C. The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in perinatal brain injury: clinical presentation, lesions and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Ward, Phil; Allsop, Joanna; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Imaging Sciences Department, Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Srinivasan, Latha; Dyet, Leigh; Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imaging Sciences Department, Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Neonatal MR imaging is invaluable in assessing the term born neonate who presents with an encephalopathy. Successful imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and are essential for correct interpretation of the imaging findings, but additional or alternative diagnoses in infants with apparent hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy should always be considered. Perinatally acquired lesions are usually at their most obvious between 1 and 2 weeks of age. Very early imaging (<3 days) may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates, but abnormalities may be subtle at that stage. Diffusion-weighted imaging is clinically useful for the early identification of ischaemic white matter in the neonatal brain but is less reliable in detecting lesions within the basal ganglia and thalami. The pattern of lesions seen on MRI can predict neurodevelopmental outcome. Additional useful information may be obtained by advanced techniques such as MR angiography, venography and perfusion-weighted imaging. Serial imaging with quantification of both structure size and tissue damage provides invaluable insights into perinatal brain injury. (orig.)

  6. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A.; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J.; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen. PMID:27022485

  7. Lesion detection in magnetic resonance brain images by hyperspectral imaging algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bai; Wang, Lin; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hsian Min; Chang, Chein-I.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) images can be considered as multispectral images so that MR imaging can be processed by multispectral imaging techniques such as maximum likelihood classification. Unfortunately, most multispectral imaging techniques are not particularly designed for target detection. On the other hand, hyperspectral imaging is primarily developed to address subpixel detection, mixed pixel classification for which multispectral imaging is generally not effective. This paper takes advantages of hyperspectral imaging techniques to develop target detection algorithms to find lesions in MR brain images. Since MR images are collected by only three image sequences, T1, T2 and PD, if a hyperspectral imaging technique is used to process MR images it suffers from the issue of insufficient dimensionality. To address this issue, two approaches to nonlinear dimensionality expansion are proposed, nonlinear correlation expansion and nonlinear band ratio expansion. Once dimensionality is expanded hyperspectral imaging algorithms are readily applied. The hyperspectral detection algorithm to be investigated for lesion detection in MR brain is the well-known subpixel target detection algorithm, called Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM). In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed CEM in lesion detection, synthetic images provided by BrainWeb are used for experiments.

  8. Neuroaxonal regeneration is more pronounced in early multiple sclerosis than in traumatic brain injury lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Merkler, Doron; König, Fatima B; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The extent of irreversible neuroaxonal damage is the key determinant of permanent disability in traumatic and inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). Structural damage is nevertheless in part compensated by neuroplastic events. However, it is unknown whether the same kinetics and mechanisms of neuroaxonal de- and regeneration take place in inflammatory and traumatic conditions. We analyzed neuroaxonal degeneration and plasticity in early multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroaxonal degeneration identified by the presence of SMI31+ chromatolytic neurons and SMI32+ axonal profiles were characteristic features of leukocortical TBI lesions. Axonal transport disturbances as determined by amyloid precursor protein (APP)+ spheroids were present in both TBI and MS lesions to a similar degree. Neurons expressing growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and synaptophysin (Syn) were found under both pathological conditions. However, axonal swellings immunopositive for GAP43 and Syn clearly prevailed in subcortical MS lesions, suggesting a higher regenerative potential in MS. In this context, GAP43+/APP+ axonal spheroid ratios correlated with macrophage infiltration in TBI and MS lesions, supporting the idea that phagocyte activation might promote neuroplastic events. Furthermore, axonal GAP43+ and Syn+ swellings correlated with prolonged survival after TBI, indicating a sustained regenerative response.

  9. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT): a novel treatment for brain lesions regrowing after radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Reveron, Juan; Tomasiewicz, Hilarie C; Shetty, Anil; Amankulor, Nduka M; Chiang, Veronica L

    2013-07-01

    Since the inception of radiosurgery, the management of brain metastases has become a common problem for neurosurgeons. Although the use of stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiation therapy serves to control the majority of disease burden, patients who survive longer than 6-8 months sometimes face the problem of symptomatic radiographically regrowing lesions with few treatment options. Here we investigate the feasibility of use of MRI-guided stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) as a novel treatment option for these lesions. Six patients who had previously undergone gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases were selected. All patients had an initial favorable response to radiosurgery but subsequently developed regrowth of at least one lesion associated with recurrent edema and progressive neurological symptoms requiring ongoing steroids for symptom control. All lesions were evaluated for craniotomy, but were deemed unresectable due to deep location or patient's comorbidities. Stereotactic biopsies were performed prior to the thermotherapy procedure in all cases. LITT was performed using the Visualase system and follow-up MRI imaging was used to determine treatment response. In all six patients biopsy results were negative for tumor and consistent with adverse radiation effects also known as radiation necrosis. Patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged from the hospital within 48 h of the procedure. In 4/6 cases there was durable improvement of neurological symptoms until death. In all cases steroids were weaned off within 2 months. One patient died from systemic causes related to his cancer a month after the procedure. One patient had regrowth of the lesion 3 months after the procedure and required re-initiation of steroids and standard craniotomy for surgical resection. There were no complications directly related to the thermocoagulation procedure. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy is a feasible

  10. CYSTIC LESIONS OF THE BRAIN - A CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PATHOGENESIS, WITH CONSIDERATION OF HISTOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL FEATURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; HEW, JM; KAMMAN, RL; MOLENAAR, WM; PRUIM, J; BLAAUW, EH

    1993-01-01

    A classification of the existing multitude of cystic lesions of the brain is proposed, which allows an understanding of their genesis and consequent therapeutic implications, as well as their diagnostic characteristics. Essentially, cerebral cystic lesions may be classified into the following catego

  11. Detection of mouse endogenous type B astrocytes migrating towards brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblasts represent the predominant migrating cell type in the adult mouse brain. There are, however, increasing evidences of migration of other neural precursors. This work aims at identifying in vivo endogenous early neural precursors, different from neuroblasts, able to migrate in response to brain injuries. The monoclonal antibody Nilo1, which unequivocally identifies type B astrocytes and embryonic radial glia, was coupled to magnetic glyconanoparticles (mGNPs. Here we show that Nilo1–mGNPs in combination with magnetic resonance imaging in living mice allowed the in vivo identification of endogenous type B astrocytes at their niche, as well as their migration to the lesion site in response to glioblastoma, demyelination, cryolesion or mechanical injuries. In addition, Nilo1+ adult radial glia-like structures were identified at the lesion site a few hours after damage. For all damage models used, type B astrocyte migration was fast and orderly. Identification of Nilo1+ cells surrounding an induced glioblastoma was also possible after intraperitoneal injection of the antibody. This opens up the possibility of an early identification of the initial damage site(s after brain insults, by the migration of type B astrocytes.

  12. A prospective pilot investigation of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and haemorrhagic lesions after mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eJarrett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is among the most common neurological disorders. Haemorrhagic lesions and white matter hyperintensities (WMH are radiological features associated with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury TBI. Brain volume reductions have also been observed during the months following injury. In concussion, no signs of injury are observed on conventional MRI, which may be a true feature of concussion or merely due to the limited sensitivity of imaging techniques used so far. Moreover, it is not known whether volume reductions are due to the resolution of trauma related edema or a true volume loss. Forty five collegiate level ice hockey players (20 female and 15 controls (9 female 40 players underwent 3T MRI for haemorrhages (multi echo susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI, WMH (three dimensional FLAIR and brain volume at the beginning and the end of the hockey season. Concussed athletes underwent additional imaging and neuropsychological testing atthree days, two weeks, and two months after injury. At the end of the hockey season, brain volume was reduced compared to controls by 0.32% (p<0.034 in the whole cohort and by 0.26% (p<0.09 in the concussed athletes. Two weeks and two months after concussion, brain volume was reduced by -0.08% (p=0.027 and -0.23% (p=0.035, respectively. In athletes, the WMH were significantly closer to the interface between grey matter and white matter compared to controls. No significant changes in thenumber of WMH over the duration of the study were found in athletes. No microhaemorrhages were detected as a result of concussion or playing a season of ice hockey. We conclude that mild TBI does not lead to transient increases in brain volume and no new microbleeds or WMH are detectable after concussion. Brain volume reductions appear by two weeks after concussion and persist until at least two months after concussion. Brain volume is reduced between the beginning and the end of the icehockey season.

  13. A Generative Probabilistic Model and Discriminative Extensions for Brain Lesion Segmentation - With Application to Tumor and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Van Leemput, Koen; Lashkari, Danial

    2016-01-01

    jointly from the image data. It delineates lesion areas individually in each channel, allowing for differences in lesion appearance across modalities, an important feature of many brain tumor imaging sequences. We also propose discriminative model extensions to map the output of the generative model...... patient scans, and multimodal brain images of patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke. We find the generative model that has been designed for tumor lesions to generalize well to stroke images, and the extended discriminative-discriminative model to be one of the top ranking methods in the BRATS...

  14. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  15. Free radical scavenger, edaravone, reduces the lesion size of lacunar infarction in human brain ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although free radicals have been reported to play a role in the expansion of ischemic brain lesions, the effect of free radical scavengers is still under debate. In this study, the temporal profile of ischemic stroke lesion sizes was assessed for more than one year to evaluate the effect of edaravone which might reduce ischemic damage. Methods We sequentially enrolled acute ischemic stroke patients, who admitted between April 2003 and March 2004, into the edaravone(-) group (n = 83) and, who admitted between April 2004 and March 2005, into the edaravone(+) group (n = 93). Because, edaravone has been used as the standard treatment after April 2004 in our hospital. To assess the temporal profile of the stroke lesion size, the ratio of the area [T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (T2WI)/iffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI)] were calculated. Observations on T2WI were continued beyond one year, and observational times were classified into subacute (1-2 months after the onset), early chronic (3-6 month), late chronic (7-12 months) and old (≥13 months) stages. Neurological deficits were assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale upon admission and at discharge and by the modified Rankin Scale at 1 year following stroke onset. Results Stroke lesion size was significantly attenuated in the edaravone(+) group compared with the edaravone(-) group in the period of early and late chronic observational stages. However, this reduction in lesion size was significant within a year and only for the small-vessel occlusion stroke patients treated with edaravone. Moreover, patients with small-vessel occlusion strokes that were treated with edaravone showed significant neurological improvement during their hospital stay, although there were no significant differences in outcome one year after the stroke. Conclusion Edaravone treatment reduced the volume of the infarct and improved neurological deficits during the subacute period, especially

  16. Cryptococcus gattii fungemia: report of a case with lung and brain lesions mimicking radiological features of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana Silva; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2007-01-01

    A 64-year-old apparently immunocompetent white man developed lung and brain lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. The radiologic features mimicked those of lung cancer metastatic to the central nervous system. C. gattii was recovered from cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, brain biopsy, and blood. The same fungus was recovered from pulmonary and brain specimens at autopsy. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests were diagnostic in our case and should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of unexplained pulmonary and cerebral lesions. A literature search showed few reports of fungemia by this species of Cryptococcus, contrasting to C. neoformans.

  17. Vitamin D and Brain Imaging in the Elderly: Should we Expect Some Lesions Specifically Related to Hypovitaminosis D?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D,...

  18. Seizure outcomes of lesionectomy in pediatric lesional epilepsy with brain tumor -- single institute experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kyung Il; Shin, Hyung Jin; Hong, Seung-Chyul

    2013-09-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics, surgical strategy, and outcome in pediatric lesional epilepsy patients younger than 5years of age undergoing surgery in a single institute. Retrospective data were collected and analyzed on patients younger than 5years of age who underwent lesionectomy for lesional epilepsy at single institute from January 2001 to August 2010. Fourteen pediatric lesional epilepsy patients were enrolled in this study. Engel classification was used to classify seizure outcome. Median preoperative seizure period was 1month (range, 1-21). Median post-operative follow up period was 35months (range 13-84). Ten patients who underwent gross total resection of tumor showed Engel class Ia seizure outcome without any antiepileptic drug (AED). Subtotal resection was performed in four patients to avoid eloquent area injury. Two of these four patients with subtotal removal became seizure-free (Engel class Ia) without AED, while two were in Engel class Ib with AED medication. There was no significant surgical morbidity or mortality. Lesionectomy in children younger than 5years of age is relatively safe and effective in controlling seizures. Short preoperative seizure periods and total removal of tumor might be associated with good outcome. Therefore, early and complete lesionectomy alone may help allow for seizure freedom and optimal brain development in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent Information on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Lesions in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Karkashadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic brain lesions in children are the main environmental (non-genetic factor in forming severe neurological pathology with subsequent disability. Scientists see the improvement of therapeutic approaches in acute phase of the disease as a main way to reduce the severity of neurologic complications. Due to the achievements in neuroscience in the field of perinatal hypoxicischemic injury mechanisms, three energy phases of pathologic events deployment were identified: primary (up to 6 hours from the lesion, secondary (6 to 24–48 h after the lesion and distal tertiary (during few weeks, months. At the same time, necrosis, apoptosis, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis and neurogenesis make up separate links of destruction process. On the basis of new data on the pathogenesis of the disease, scientists from different countries have already offered modern treatment methods for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury with erythropoietin, allopurinol, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, magnesium sulphate, albumin, -interferon, as well as with the help of controlled hypothermia, xenon, the use of stem cells, etc. This article presents a review of new data on pathogenesis and promising treatment methods for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injuries.

  20. [Lightning strike and lesions outside the brain: Clinical cases and a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, A; Lesourd, A; Cabane, J

    2015-01-01

    Every year, 240,000 people are struck by lightning worldwide, causing injuries leading to significant handicaps. Most of the symptoms involve brain lesions; neuromuscular sequelae and myelopathy are less common. We describe five cases of patients struck by lightning with various clinical presentations. The first patient presented painful paresthesias in both upper limbs that disappeared 18 months later; the injury was a plexopathy. The second patient developed proximal weakness in the upper-left limb due to a myopathy. Two patients presented with various motor weaknesses in the lower limbs due to motor neuron disease and myelopathy. The last patient had a transient tetraplegy, which resolved in 5minutes; the diagnosis was keraunoparalysis. Lightning injuries can have many consequences depending on the different mechanisms involved. The clinical presentation is often due to a very focal lesion without any secondary extension. Motor neuron disease probably results from post-traumatic myelopathy. We discuss the ALS-electrocution association, frequently described in the literature. Various peripheral nerve and spinal cord lesions can be seen in lightning strike victims involving myelopathy, motor neuron, muscle and plexus. Clinical syndromes are often atypical but outcome is often favorable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced artefacts and improved assessment of hyperintense brain lesions with BLADE MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, Thekla von; Fabig-Moritz, Claudia; Mueller-Abt, Peter; Zieger, Michael; Winkler, Peter [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Stuttgart (Germany); Blank, Bernd [Haematology and Immunology, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Stuttgart (Germany); Wohlfarth, Katrin [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Assessment of small brain lesions in children is often compromised by pulsation, flow or movement artefacts. MRI with a rotating blade-like k-space covering (BLADE, PROPELLER) can compensate for these artefacts. We compared T2-weighted FLAIR images that were acquired with different k-space trajectories (conventional Cartesian and BLADE) to evaluate the impact of BLADE technique on the delineation of small or low-contrast brain lesions. The subject group comprised 26 children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1), who had been routinely scanned at 1.5 T for optic pathway gliomas with both techniques and who had the typical hyperintense brain lesions seen in NF 1. Four experienced radiologists retrospectively compared unlabelled 4-mm axial images with respect to the presence of artefacts, visibility of lesions, quality of contour and contrast. Both techniques were comparable in depicting hyperintense lesions as small as 2 mm independent of contrast and edge definition. Pulsation and movement artefacts were significantly less common with BLADE k-space trajectory. In 7 of 26 patients (27%), lesions and artefacts were rated as indistinguishable in conventional FLAIR, but not in BLADE FLAIR images. BLADE imaging significantly improved the depiction of lesions in T2-W FLAIR images due to artefact reduction especially in the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  2. Size-weight illusion and anticipatory grip force scaling following unilateral cortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Georg; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The prediction of object weight from its size is an important prerequisite of skillful object manipulation. Grip and load forces anticipate object size during early phases of lifting an object. A mismatch between predicted and actual weight when two different sized objects have the same weight results in the size-weight illusion (SWI), the small object feeling heavier. This study explores whether lateralized brain lesions in patients with or without apraxia alter the size-weight illusion and impair anticipatory finger force scaling. Twenty patients with left brain damage (LBD, 10 with apraxia, 10 without apraxia), ten patients with right brain damage (RBD), and matched control subjects lifted two different-sized boxes in alternation. All subjects experienced a similar size-weight illusion. The anticipatory force scaling of all groups was in correspondence with the size cue: higher forces and force rates were applied to the big box and lower forces and force rates to the small box during the first lifts. Within few lifts, forces were scaled to actual object weight. Despite the lack of significant differences at group level, 5 out of 20 LBD patients showed abnormal predictive scaling of grip forces. They differed from the LBD patients with normal predictive scaling by a greater incidence of posterior occipito-parietal lesions but not by a greater incidence of apraxia. The findings do not support a more general role for the motor-dominant left hemisphere, or an influence of apraxia per se, in the scaling of finger force according to object properties. However, damage in the vicinity of the parietal-occipital junction may be critical for deriving predictions of weight from size.

  3. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  4. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  5. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Hille; Boele, Henk-Jan; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koutstaal, Bastiaan J; Horlings, Corinne Gc; Koekkoek, Bas K; van der Geest, Jos; Smit, Albertine E; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Terwindt, Gisela M; Bloem, Bas R; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine without aura n = 89; non-migraine controls n = 82; age range 43-72; 72% female) from a population-based study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p = 0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial ability (mean scaled scores p = 0.2); (iii) prism-adaptation task for limb learning (shift scores p = 0.8); (iv) eyeblink-conditioning task for learning-dependent timing (peak-time p = 0.1); and (v) body-sway test for balance capabilities (pitch velocity score under two-legs stance condition p = 0.5). Among migraine patients, those with cerebellar ischaemic lesions performed worse than those without lesions on the assembly scores of the pegboard task ( p hemiplegic migraine patients, FHM1 patients showed substantially more deficits on all primary outcomes

  6. Neural correlates of apathy revealed by lesion mapping in participants with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristine M; Monte, Olga Dal; Raymont, Vanessa; Wassermann, Eric M; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Apathy, common in neurological disorders, is defined as disinterest and loss of motivation, with a reduction in self-initiated activity. Research in diseased populations has shown that apathy is associated with variations in the volume of brain regions such as the anterior cingulate and the frontal lobes. The goal of this study was to determine the neural signatures of apathy in people with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBIs), as to our knowledge, these have not been studied in this sample. We studied 176 male Vietnam War veterans with pTBIs using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and apathy scores from the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), a structured inventory of symptoms completed by a caregiver. Our results revealed that increased apathy symptoms were associated with brain damage in limbic and cortical areas of the left hemisphere including the anterior cingulate, inferior, middle, and superior frontal regions, insula, and supplementary motor area. Our results are consistent with the literature, and extend them to people with focal pTBI. Apathy is a significant symptom since it can reduce participation of the patient in family and other social interactions, and diminish affective decision-making.

  7. Regeneration of dopaminergic neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion in planarian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Inoue, Takeshi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2011-12-01

    Planarians have robust regenerative ability dependent on X-ray-sensitive pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts. Here, we report that planarians can regenerate dopaminergic neurons after selective degeneration of these neurons caused by treatment with a dopaminergic neurotoxin (6-hydroxydopamine; 6-OHDA). This suggests that planarians have a system to sense the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and to recruit stem cells to produce dopaminergic neurons to recover brain morphology and function. We confirmed that X-ray-irradiated planarians do not regenerate brain dopaminergic neurons after 6-OHDA-induced lesioning, suggesting that newly generated dopaminergic neurons are indeed derived from pluripotent stem cells. However, we found that the majority of regenerated dopaminergic neurons were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-negative cells. Therefore, we carefully analyzed when proliferating stem cells became committed to become dopaminergic neurons during regeneration by a combination of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments, immunostaining/in situ hybridization, and 5-fluorouracil treatment. The results strongly suggested that G(2) -phase stem cells become committed to dopaminergic neurons in the mesenchymal space around the brain, after migration from the trunk region following S-phase. These new findings obtained from planarian regeneration provide hints about how to conduct cell-transplantation therapy for future regenerative medicine. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of brain maturation in preterm neonates with punctate white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramenghi, Luca A.; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Mosca, Fabio [University of Milan, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Bianchini, Elena; Triulzi, Fabio [Ospedale Pediatrico ' ' Buzzi' ' -ICP, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Early white matter (WM) injury affects brain maturation in preterm infants as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term postmenstrual age (PMA). The aim of the study was to assess quantitatively brain maturation in preterm infants with and without milder forms of WM damage (punctate WM lesions, PWML) using conventional MRI. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using a previously validated scoring system (total maturation score, TMS) which utilizes four parameters (progressive myelination and cortical infolding, progressive involution of glial cell migration bands and germinal matrix tissue). PWML were defined as foci of increased signal on T1-weighted images and decreased signal on T2-weighted images with no evidence of cystic degeneration. A group of 22 preterm infants with PWML at term PMA (PWML group) were compared with 22 matched controls with a normal MR appearance. The two groups were comparable concerning gestational age, birth weight and PMA. TMS was significantly lower in the PWML group than in the control group (mean TMS 12.44 {+-} 2.31 vs 14.00 {+-} 1.44; P = 0.011). Myelination (mean 2.76 {+-} 0.42 PWML group vs 3.32 {+-} 0.55 control group, P = 0.003) and cortical folding (3.64 {+-} 0.79 vs 4.09 {+-} 0.43, P = 0.027) appeared to be significantly delayed in babies with PWML. Conventional MRI appears able to quantify morphological changes in brain maturation of preterm babies with PWML; delayed myelination and reduced cortical infolding seem to be the most significant aspects. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion weighted MR imaging in non-infarct lesions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaarslan, E. [Department of Radiology, American Hospital, Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ercankaraarslan@yahoo.com; Arslan, A. [Department of Radiology, Kocaeli University Medical School, Kocaeli (Turkey)], E-mail: arzuarslan@netscape.net

    2008-03-15

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a relatively new method in which the images are formed by the contrast produced by the random microscopic motion of water molecules in different tissues. Although DWI has been tried for different organ systems, it has been found its primary use in the central nervous system. The most widely used clinical application is in the detection of hyperacute infarcts and the differentiation of acute or subacute infarction from chronic infarction. Recently DWI has been applied to various other cerebral diseases. In this pictorial paper the authors demonstrated different DWI patterns of non-infarct lesions of the brain which are hyperintense in the diffusion trace image, such as infectious, neoplastic and demyelinating diseases, encephalopathies - including hypoxic-ischemic, hypertensive, eclamptic, toxic, metabolic and mitochondrial encephalopathies - leukodystrophies, vasculitis and vasculopathies, hemorrhage and trauma.

  10. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  11. Critical brain regions for action recognition: lesion symptom mapping in left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, Harry Branch

    2010-11-01

    A number of conflicting claims have been advanced regarding the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe and posterior middle temporal gyrus in action recognition, driven in part by an ongoing debate about the capacities of putative mirror systems that match observed and planned actions. We report data from 43 left hemisphere stroke patients in two action recognition tasks in which they heard and saw an action word ('hammering') and selected from two videoclips the one corresponding to the word. In the spatial recognition task, foils contained errors of body posture or movement amplitude/timing. In the semantic recognition task, foils were semantically related (sawing). Participants also performed a comprehension control task requiring matching of the same verbs to objects (hammer). Using regression analyses controlling for both the comprehension control task and lesion volume, we demonstrated that performance in the semantic gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the posterior temporal lobe, whereas the spatial gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the inferior parietal lobule. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion symptom-mapping analysis suggested that the semantic and spatial gesture recognition tasks were associated with lesioned voxels in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, respectively. The posterior middle temporal gyrus appears to serve as a central node in the association of actions and meanings. The inferior parietal lobule, held to be a homologue of the monkey parietal mirror neuron system, is critical for encoding object-related postures and movements, a relatively circumscribed aspect of gesture recognition. The inferior frontal gyrus, on the other hand, was not predictive of performance in any task, suggesting that previous claims regarding its role in action recognition may require refinement.

  12. Volumes of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions measured by MR imaging and CBF tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, P.; Wirsen, A.; Bajc, M.; Schalen, W.; Sjoeholm, H.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Cronqvist, S.; Ingvar, D.H. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neuroradiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-07-01

    The volumes (ml) of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions were compared measured 'morphologically' with MR imaging (T1 and T2 weighted images) and 'functionally' with a tomographic rCBF technique (SPECT with {sup 133}Xe i.v.). The T1 volumes varied between 11 and 220 ml. The correlation between T1 and T2 volumes was 0.95, the T2 volumes being 33% larger than T1 volumes (p<0.001). The functional SPECT volumes were considerably larger (range 16-324 ml) than the MR volumes. The mean volume difference was 81% between T1 and SPECT images (p<0.001), and 35% between T2 and SPECT images (p<0.001). Correlations between the MR and SPECT volumes were also higher for T2 than T1 volumes. The volume difference is most likely explained by a functional decrease in regions around the lesion in which no morphologic change visible on MR images had taken place. MR and SPECT volume measurements were positively related to persistent lack of energy and personality changes, but only moderately related to duration of impaired consciousness and neuropsychologie outcome. (orig.).

  13. Transient Ischemic Attacks and Presence of an Acute Brain Lesion in Diffusion-Weighted MRI: Study of 50 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Paknejad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finding an acute brain lesion by diffusion-weighted (DW MRI upon an episode of transient ischemic attack (TIA is a predictor of imminent stroke in the near future. Therefore, exploring risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain is important in adopting an approach to TIA management. In the current study, we tried to determine the risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain in patients experiencing TIA episodes.Methods: Fifty patients with TIA were recruited consecutively in Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, over a 6-month period between July 2008 and January 2009. All of the patients underwent a complete neurological examination and laboratory tests. Brain DW-MRIs were performed for all the patients within 72 hours of a TIA episode.Results: DW-MRI revealed an acute lesion in 16% of the participants. There was a significant correlation between presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI and TIA duration, history of diabetes mellitus and presence of unilateral facial palsy (P=0.0003, P=0.02 and P=0.008, respectively. Other variables such as age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, past history of TIA, headache, vertigo, and sensory or visual disturbances had no significant relation with the presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI.Conclusion: Duration of TIA, presence of diabetes mellitus and unilateral facial palsy are risk factors for an acute lesion in DW-MRI, meaning that patients with such risk factors are at risk for stroke in the near future.

  14. La biopsia estereotáctica en el diagnóstico de las lesiones cerebrales focales en sida Stereotactic brain biopsy in the diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cerebrales focales constituyen una complicación frecuente en los pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (sida. Durante el período comprendido entre enero de 1999 y mayo de 2007 se realizaron un total de 83 biopsias en pacientes con sida y lesiones cerebrales. Se incluyeron aquellos pacientes que no hubiesen respondido al algoritmo habitual de enfoque diagnóstico-terapéutico de estas lesiones. Todas las muestras obtenidas fueron sometidas a evaluación intraoperatoria para asegurar la obtención de material patológico y posterior análisis histopatológico y exámenes microbiológicos. De los 41 pacientes con lesiones cerebrales múltiples, 62 tenían localización supratentorial, en 4 eran infratentoriales y 17 mostraron ambas localizaciones. Cincuenta y un lesiones seleccionadas como blanco estereotáctico tuvieron refuerzo periférico del contraste. Se obtuvo material histopatológico en el 100% de los procedimientos. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el de leucoencefalopatía multifocal progresiva (LEMP con 24 casos (29%, seguido del linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central (LPSNC con 19 diagnósticos (23% y de toxoplasmosis en 13 pacientes (15.7%. Se comprobó una relación significativa entre los diagnósticos histopatológicos y la localización de las lesiones y entre los diagnósticos histopatológicos y el comportamiento de las imágenes luego de la administración de la sustancia de contraste. El rédito diagnóstico alcanzó el 90.3% (75 biopsias. La morbiletalidad en esta serie fue de 2.4%. La biopsia cerebral estereotáctica permitió alcanzar el diagnóstico etiológico y adecuar el enfoque terapéutico en la mayoría de los pacientes de esta serie.Focal brain lesions are frequent complications among HIV/AIDS patients. Between January 1999 and May 2007, 83 procedures of stereotactic brain biopsies in HIV/AIDS patients with focal

  15. MRI detection of hypointense brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis: T1 spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Sheena L.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Tummala, Subhash [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hurwitz, Shelley [Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bakshi, Rohit, E-mail: rbakshi@bwh.harvard.edu [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Compared T1SE and T1GE in detecting hypointense brain lesions in MS patients. • T1GE detected a higher cerebral lesion volume and number than T1SE. • T1SE correlated significantly with disability, while T1GE did not. • Hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. - Abstract: Objective: Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Background: Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. Design/methods: In 45 patients with MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2.0; 37 relapsing-remitting (RR); 8 secondary progressive (SP)], cerebral T1SE, T1GE, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Images were re-sampled to axial 5 mm slices before directly comparing lesion detectability using Jim (v.7, Xinapse Systems). Statistical methods included Wilcoxon signed rank tests to compare sequences and Spearman correlations to test associations. Results: Considering the entire cohort, T1GE detected a higher lesion volume (5.90 ± 6.21 vs. 4.17 ± 4.84 ml, p < 0.0001) and higher lesion number (27.82 ± 20.66 vs. 25.20 ± 20.43, p < 0.05) than T1SE. Lesion volume differences persisted when considering RR and SP patients separately (both p < 0.01). A higher lesion number by T1GE was seen only in the RR group (p < 0.05). When comparing correlations between lesion volume and overall neurologic disability (EDSS score), T1SE correlated with EDSS (Spearman r = 0.29, p < 0.05) while T1GE (r = 0.23, p = 0.13) and FLAIR (r = 0.24, p = 0.12) did not. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. Based on these results, we hypothesize that T1GE

  16. Lesion correlates of impairments in actual tool use following unilateral brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Schwaiger, B J; Hermsdörfer, J

    2016-04-01

    To understand how the brain controls actions involving tools, tests have been developed employing different paradigms such as pantomime, imitation and real tool use. The relevant areas have been localized in the premotor cortex, the middle temporal gyrus and the superior and inferior parietal lobe. This study employs Voxel Lesion Symptom Mapping to relate the functional impairment in actual tool use with extent and localization of the structural damage in the left (LBD, N=31) and right (RBD, N=19) hemisphere in chronic stroke patients. A series of 12 tools was presented to participants in a carousel. In addition, a non-tool condition tested the prescribed manipulation of a bar. The execution was scored according to an apraxic error scale based on the dimensions grasp, movement, direction and space. Results in the LBD group show that the ventro-dorsal stream constitutes the core of the defective network responsible for impaired tool use; it is composed of the inferior parietal lobe, the supramarginal and angular gyrus and the dorsal premotor cortex. In addition, involvement of regions in the temporal lobe, the rolandic operculum, the ventral premotor cortex and the middle occipital gyrus provide evidence of the role of the ventral stream in this task. Brain areas related to the use of the bar largely overlapped with this network. For patients with RBD data were less conclusive; however, a trend for the involvement of the temporal lobe in apraxic errors was manifested. Skilled bar manipulation depended on the same temporal area in these patients. Therefore, actual tool use depends on a well described left fronto-parietal-temporal network. RBD affects actual tool use, however the underlying neural processes may be more widely distributed and more heterogeneous. Goal directed manipulation of non-tool objects seems to involve very similar brain areas as tool use, suggesting that both types of manipulation share identical processes and neural representations. Copyright

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumours: clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtscher, I.M.; Holtaas, S. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-05-01

    Parallel to the rapid development of clinical MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has, after starting as an analytical tool used in chemistry and physics, evolved to a noninvasive clinical examination. Most common neuroradiological diagnostic indications for MRS are functional inborn errors, neonatal hypoxia, ischaemia, metabolic diseases, white matter and degenerative diseases, epilepsy, inflammation, infections and intracranial neoplasm. Compared to CT and MRI, well-established morphological diagnostic tools, MRS provides information on the metabolic state of brain tissue. We review the clinical impact of MRS in diagnosis of tumours and their differentiation from non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  18. Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

  19. Accelerated detection of intracranial space-occupying lesions with CUDA based on statistical texture atlas in brain HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Huanqing; Li, Chuanfu; Huang, Yufeng; Wu, Dehuang; Tong, Tong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method that detects intracranial space-occupying lesions in two-dimensional (2D) brain high-resolution CT images. Use of statistical texture atlas technique localizes anatomy variation in the gray level distribution of brain images, and in turn, identifies the regions with lesions. The statistical texture atlas involves 147 HRCT slices of normal individuals and its construction is extremely time-consuming. To improve the performance of atlas construction, we have implemented the pixel-wise texture extraction procedure on Nvidia 8800GTX GPU with Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform. Experimental results indicate that the extracted texture feature is distinctive and robust enough, and is suitable for detecting uniform and mixed density space-occupying lesions. In addition, a significant speedup against straight forward CPU version was achieved with CUDA.

  20. Recommendations to improve imaging and analysis of brain lesion load and atrophy in longitudinal studies of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrenken, H; Jenkinson, M; Horsfield, M A;

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions and brain atrophy are the most extensively studied aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the image acquisition and analysis techniques used can be further improved, especially those for studying within-patient changes of lesion load and atrophy longitudinally. Improved accuracy...... and sensitivity will reduce the numbers of patients required to detect a given treatment effect in a trial, and ultimately, will allow reliable characterization of individual patients for personalized treatment. Based on open issues in the field of MS research, and the current state of the art in magnetic...... resonance image analysis methods for assessing brain lesion load and atrophy, this paper makes recommendations to improve these measures for longitudinal studies of MS. Briefly, they are (1) images should be acquired using 3D pulse sequences, with near-isotropic spatial resolution and multiple image...

  1. Vitamin D and Brain Imaging in the Elderly: Should we Expect Some Lesions Specifically Related to Hypovitaminosis D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cédric; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir, Susan W; Beauchet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D, though did not provide their specific location or report any focal atrophy. Based on the finding of executive dysfunctions (i.e., mental shifting and information updating impairments) in the presence of hypovitaminosis D, we suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, particularly the dorsolateral circuit. Further imaging studies are required to corroborate this assumption and to determine whether hypovitaminosis D results in degenerative and / or vascular lesions.

  2. Frameless Stereotactic Insertion of Viewsite Brain Access System with Microscope-Mounted Tracking Device for Resection of Deep Brain Lesions: Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tim; Chakraborty, Shamik; Lall, Rohan; Fanous, Andrew A; Boockvar, John; Langer, David J

    2017-02-04

    The surgical management of deep brain tumors is often challenging due to the limitations of stereotactic needle biopsies and the morbidity associated with transcortical approaches. We present a novel microscopic navigational technique utilizing the Viewsite Brain Access System (VBAS) (Vycor Medical, Boca Raton, FL, USA) for resection of a deep parietal periventricular high-grade glioma as well as another glioma and a cavernoma with no related morbidity. The approach utilized a navigational tracker mounted on a microscope, which was set to the desired trajectory and depth. It allowed gentle continuous insertion of the VBAS directly to a deep lesion under continuous microscopic visualization, increasing safety by obviating the need to look up from the microscope and thus avoiding loss of trajectory. This technique has broad value for the resection of a variety of deep brain lesions.

  3. Renin-angiotensin system genetic polymorphisms and brain white matter lesions in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Amelia A; Mather, Karen A; Crawford, John D; Wen, Wei; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon; Tan, Xiaoyun; Mack, Holly A; Kwok, John B J; Schofield, Peter R; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-09-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs), seen as hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, are common in the brains of healthy older individuals. They are thought to be related to cerebral small vessel disease and to have a genetic component to their aetiology, and hypertension is thought to be an important risk factor. Genetic polymorphisms in hypertension-related genes may therefore be associated with the formation of WMLs. In this study, a sample of 445 Australians aged 60-65 years was drawn from a larger longitudinal epidemiological study, the Personality and Total Health Through Life Project. The associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding angiotensinogen (AGT, rs699), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, rs4362), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1, rs5182) with WMLs were examined. No individual SNPs showed a significant association with WMLs for the whole sample. When the cohort was stratified by sex, ACE rs4362 and AGT rs699 showed significant associations with WMLs in men only (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), and remained significant after controlling for hypertension. Although the AGTR1 SNP did not show any association with WMLs, the interaction of the AGT rs699 and AGTR1 rs5182 SNPs with WMLs was significant before (P = 0.03) and after adjustment for hypertension (P = 0.045). The results provide evidence for association of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system genes with WMLs, independent of hypertension. Male-only associations with WMLs were found for the AGT rs699 and ACE rs362 polymorphisms. Moreover, for the entire sample an interaction between AGT and AGTR1 rs5182 genotypes on WMLs was observed. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Reversible lesions in the brain parenchyma in Wilson's disease confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging: earlier administration of chelating therapy can reduce the damage to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozić, Duško B; Petrović, Igor; Svetel, Marina; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Ragaji, Aleksandar; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resolution of brain lesions in patients with Wilson's disease during the long-term chelating therapy using magnetic resonance imaging and a possible significance of the time latency between the initial symptoms of the disease and the introduction of this therapy. Initial magnetic resonance examination was performed in 37 patients with proven neurological form of Wilson's disease with cerebellar, parkinsonian and dystonic presentation. Magnetic resonance reexamination was done 5.7 ± 1.3 years later in 14 patients. Patients were divided into: group A, where chelating therapy was initiated < 24 months from the first symptoms and group B, where the therapy started ≥ 24 months after the initial symptoms. Symmetry of the lesions was seen in 100% of patients. There was a significant difference between groups A and B regarding complete resolution of brain stem and putaminal lesions (P = 0.005 and P = 0.024, respectively). If the correct diagnosis and adequate treatment are not established less than 24 months after onset of the symptoms, irreversible lesions in the brain parenchyma could be expected. Signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging might therefore, at least in the early stages, represent reversible myelinolisis or cytotoxic edema associated with copper toxicity.

  5. Two Time Point MS Lesion Segmentation in Brain MRI: An Expectation-Maximization Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Ribbens, Annemie; Sima, Diana M; Cambron, Melissa; De Keyser, Jacques; Wang, Chenyu; Barnett, Michael H; Van Huffel, Sabine; Maes, Frederik; Smeets, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lesion volume is a meaningful measure in multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis. Manual lesion segmentation for computing volume in a single or multiple time points is time consuming and suffers from intra and inter-observer variability. Methods: In this paper, we present MSmetrix-long: a joint expectation-maximization (EM) framework for two time point white matter (WM) lesion segmentation. MSmetrix-long takes as input a 3D T1-weighted and a 3D FLAIR MR image and segments lesions in three steps: (1) cross-sectional lesion segmentation of the two time points; (2) creation of difference image, which is used to model the lesion evolution; (3) a joint EM lesion segmentation framework that uses output of step (1) and step (2) to provide the final lesion segmentation. The accuracy (Dice score) and reproducibility (absolute lesion volume difference) of MSmetrix-long is evaluated using two datasets. Results: On the first dataset, the median Dice score between MSmetrix-long and expert lesion segmentation was 0.63 and the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) was equal to 0.96. On the second dataset, the median absolute volume difference was 0.11 ml. Conclusions: MSmetrix-long is accurate and consistent in segmenting MS lesions. Also, MSmetrix-long compares favorably with the publicly available longitudinal MS lesion segmentation algorithm of Lesion Segmentation Toolbox.

  6. Headache Following Occipital Brain Lesion: A Case of Migraine Triggered by Occipital Spikes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Mariotti, Paolo; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Valentini, Piero; De Rose, Paola; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the case of an 8-year-old boy who developed a genuine migraine after the surgical excision, from the right occipital lobe, of brain abscesses due to selective infestation of the cerebrum by Entamoeba histolytica. After the surgical treatment, the boy presented daily headaches with typical migraine features, including right-side parieto-temporal pain, nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Electroencephalography (EEG) showed epileptiform discharges in the right occipital lobe, although he never presented seizures. Clinical and neurophysiological observations were performed, including video-EEG and polygraphic recordings. EEG showed "interictal" epileptiform discharges in the right occipital lobe. A prolonged video-EEG recording performed before, during, and after an acute attack ruled out ictal or postictal migraine. In this boy, an occipital lesion caused occipital epileptiform EEG discharges without seizures, probably prevented by the treatment. We speculate that occipital spikes, in turn, could have caused a chronic headache with features of migraine without aura. Occipital epileptiform discharges, even in absence of seizures, may trigger a genuine migraine, probably by means of either the trigeminovascular or brainstem system.

  7. A study of cerebral perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography in neonates with brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, J.; Contantinesco, A.; Brunot, B.; Messer, J. (Hospital Universitaire de Strasbourg (France))

    1994-03-01

    In this study the authors used a single photon emission computed tomography technique (SPECT) with radiolabelled [sup 99m]Tc HMPAO to assess cerebral perfusion in newborn infants with documented cerebral lesions and to determine to what extent brain SPECT might be useful in the neonatal period. A total of 15 newborn infants with the following cerebral pathologies were enrolled: severe parietal bilateral periventricular leucomalacia; moderate parietal bilateral PVL; intraventricular haemorrhage grade II with unilateral parietal parenchymal extension; cerebral infarction in the zone of middle cerebral artery; and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Follow-up was available in all infants. Alterations in cerebral perfusion were seen in only 12 of 15 infants and at the location of severe PVL, PE and CI. It was noted that the regions of diminished perfusion extended beyond the apparent extent of cerebral pathology delineated by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Markedly diminished perfusion was seen in one infant with hydrocephalus, which recovered following placement of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Regarding outcome, SPECT data failed to provide additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. It is concluded that the use of SPECT, under these conditions, to assess alteration of cerebral perfusion in the neonatal period will not provide any additional information than that of neuroradiological investigations. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A tumefactive multiple sclerosis lesion in the brain: An uncommon site with atypical magnetic resonance image findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare type of demyelinating disease. Typical magnetic resonance (MR) image findings show incomplete ring enhancement with a mild mass effect. This lesion is otherwise indistinguishable from other mass-like lesions in the brain. Knowledge of the MR imaging findings for tumefactive MS is thus helpful for correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy. In this report we describe the MR image findings for pathology-confirmed tumefactive MS in an uncommon location, alongside a discussion of its aggressive features.

  9. Depletion of brain histamine produces regionally selective protection against thiamine deficiency-induced lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; McRee, Robert Carter; Nalwalk, Julia A; Hough, Lindsay B

    2002-09-01

    Breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the subsequent accumulation of free radicals, lactate, and glutamate appear to be the immediate causes of thiamine deficiency (TD)-induced damage to thalamus. The mechanisms triggering these events are unknown but recent evidence suggests an important role of histamine. We therefore studied the effects of histamine depletion on thalamic lesions in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficient (PTD) rat. Chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v., 7 days) infusion of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), combined with bilateral ibotenate destruction of the histamine-containing neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus and bolus i.c.v. infusion of 48/80, a potent mast cell degranulating agent, was used to deplete brain histamine levels. PTD rats receiving combined FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions developed acute neurological symptoms, including spontaneous seizures, approximately 1 day earlier than PTD rats treated with i.c.v. infusion of vehicle and sham lesions of the TM. When examined 1 week after restoration of thiamine, the PTD vehicle + sham lesion animals contained severe neuronal loss and gliosis in midline, intralaminar, ventral, lateral, and posterior nuclei. PTD animals treated with FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions had little evidence of neuronal loss or microglial proliferation in thalamus except in the gelatinosus and anteroventral nuclei, in which there was complete neuronal loss. These data demonstrate a significant and regionally selective role of histamine in the development of thalamic lesions in a rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy. Furthermore, these data suggest either a dissociation between seizures and thalamic lesions or a significant role of histamine in seizure-related damage to the thalamus.

  10. Assessment of T2- and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, A.; Oster, M.; Cohen, S.; Daffertshofer, M.; Schwartz, A.; Hennerici, M.G. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik, Klinikum Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) have shown little or no correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability, which could be due to the low specificity of T2-weighted MRI. Recent studies have indicated that T1-weighted MRI may be more specific than T2-weighted MRI for severe tissue destruction. We studied 37 patients with a diagnosis of SVE and 11 normal controls with standardised T1- and T2-weighted MRI. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment including a neuropsychological test battery and computerised gait analysis. Both the T2- and T1-weighted total MRI lesion loads different between patients and controls different, particularly T1. The ratio of T2-/T1-weighted lesion load was lower in controls than in patients. There was no overall correlation of T1- or T2-weighted lesion load with clinical disability, but group comparison of patients with severe and mild clinical deficits showed different lesion loads. We suggest that T1- and T2-weighted MRI lesion loads demonstrate relevant structural abnormality in patients with SVE. (orig.) With 1 fig., 25 refs.

  11. Automatic segmentation of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance images of the brain by using an outlier detection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chao; Wang, Jie; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Hui, Chun; Zhu, Yuemin; Zhang, Su

    2014-12-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are commonly observed on the magnetic resonance (MR) images of normal elderly in association with vascular risk factors, such as hypertension or stroke. An accurate WML detection provides significant information for disease tracking, therapy evaluation, and normal aging research. In this article, we present an unsupervised WML segmentation method that uses Gaussian mixture model to describe the intensity distribution of the normal brain tissues and detects the WMLs as outliers to the normal brain tissue model based on extreme value theory. The detection of WMLs is performed by comparing the probability distribution function of a one-sided normal distribution and a Gumbel distribution, which is a specific extreme value distribution. The performance of the automatic segmentation is validated on synthetic and clinical MR images with regard to different imaging sequences and lesion loads. Results indicate that the segmentation method has a favorable accuracy competitive with other state-of-the-art WML segmentation methods.

  12. Non-neoplastic variants of the sternum detected on bone scintigrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Abdelhafez

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Increased sternal uptake is significantly associated with CT structural abnormalities and knowledge of these non-neoplastic variants is essential for correct interpretation of SPECT/CT bone scans especially in patients with known cancers.

  13. Valproic acid decreases brain lesion size and improves neurologic recovery in swine subjected to traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, and polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolian, Vahagn C; Georgoff, Patrick E; Pai, Manjunath P; Dehaney, Isabel S; Chtraklin, Kiril; Eidy, Hassan; Ghandour, Mohamed; Han, Yanyan; Srinivasan, Ashok; Li, Yongqing; Alam, Hasan B

    2017-07-08

    We have previously shown that treatment with valproic acid (VPA) decreases brain lesion size in swine models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and controlled hemorrhage. To translate this treatment into clinical practice, validation of drug efficacy and evaluation of pharmacologic properties in clinically realistic models of injury are necessary. In this study, we evaluate neurologic outcomes and perform pharmacokinetic analysis of a single dose of VPA in swine subjected to TBI, hemorrhagic shock, and visceral hemorrhage. Yorkshire swine (n=5/cohort) were subjected to TBI, hemorrhagic shock, and polytrauma (liver and spleen injury, rib fracture, rectus abdominis crush). Animals remained in hypovolemic shock for two hours before resuscitation with normal saline (NS, volume=3X hemorrhage) or NS+VPA (150 mg/kg). Neurologic severity scores were assessed daily for 30 days and brain lesion size was measured via magnetic resonance imaging on post-injury days (PID) 3 and 10. Serum samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. Shock severity and response to resuscitation were similar in both groups. VPA-treated animals demonstrated significantly less neurological impairment between PID1-5 and smaller brain lesions on PID3 (mean lesion size±SEM, mm: NS=4956±1511 vs. NS+VPA=828±279, p=0.047). No significant difference in lesion size was identified between groups at PID10 and all animals recovered to baseline neurologic function during the 30-day observation period. Animals treated with VPA had faster neurocognitive recovery (days to initiation of testing, mean±SD: NS=6.2±1.6 vs. NS+VPA=3.6±1.5, p=0.002; days to task mastery: NS=7.0±1.0 vs. NS+VPA=4.8±0.5, p=0.03). The mean±SD maximum VPA concentrations, AUC, and half-life were 145±38.2mg/L, 616±150h•mg/L, and 1.70±0.12h. In swine subjected to TBI, hemorrhagic shock, and polytrauma, VPA treatment is safe, decreases brain lesion size, and reduces neurologic injury when compared to resuscitation with NS alone

  14. Influence of isoflurane, fentanyl, thiopental, and alpha-chloralose on formation of brain edema resulting from a focal cryogenic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, R; Berger, S; Schürer, L; Peter, K; Baethmann, A

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of various anesthetics on the formation of brain edema resulting from a focal cryogenic lesion. Thirty rabbits (six per group) were anesthetized with isoflurane (1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC] 2.1 vol%), fentanyl (bolus 5 micrograms/kg; infusion rate 1.0-0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1), thiopental (32.5 mg.kg-1.h-1), or alpha-chloralose (50 mg/kg). Control animals (sham operation, no lesion) received alpha-chloralose (50 mg/kg). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in perifocal brain tissue was measured by H2-clearance. Animals anesthetized with isoflurane required support of arterial pressure by angiotensin II (0.15 micrograms.kg-1.min-1). Six hours after trauma the animals were killed. Formation of brain edema was studied by specific gravity of cortical gray matter, white matter, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus. Brain tissue samples were collected at multiple sites close to and distant from the lesion. Mean arterial pressure, arterial PCO2 and PO2, hematocrit, body temperature, and blood glucose were not different between groups during the posttraumatic course (except for an increased arterial pressure with alpha-chloralose compared to thiopental 4-6 h after trauma). The specific gravity of cortical gray matter was significantly reduced up to a distance of 6 mm from the center of the lesion in animals anesthetized with isoflurane, thiopental, or alpha-chloralose and up to 9 mm in animals given fentanyl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all Pphysical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Parkinson disease-related protein PINK1 with Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha M M; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Jansen, Quentin; Witte, Maarten E; van der Valk, Paul; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Drukarch, Benjamin; de Vries, Helga E; Van Horssen, Jack

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase, have been linked to the occurrence of early onset parkinsonism. Currently, various studies support the notion of a neuroprotective role for PINK1, as it protects cells from stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Because information about the distribution pattern of PINK1 in neurological diseases other than PD is scarce, we here investigated PINK1 expression in well-characterized brain samples derived from MS and AD individuals using immunohistochemistry. In control gray matter PINK1 immunoreactivity was observed in neurons, particularly neurons in layers IV-VI. Astrocytes were the most prominent cell type decorated by anti-PINK1 antibody in the white matter. In addition, PINK1 staining was observed in the cerebrovasculature. In AD, PINK1 was found to colocalize with classic senile plaques and vascular amyloid depositions, as well as reactive astrocytes associated with the characteristic AD lesions. Interestingly, PINK1 was absent from neurofibrillary tangles. In active demyelinating MS lesions we observed a marked astrocytic PINK1 immunostaining, whereas astrocytes in chronic lesions were weakly stained. Taken together, we observed PINK1 immunostaining in both AD and MS lesions, predominantly in reactive astrocytes associated with these lesions, suggesting that the increase in astrocytic PINK1 protein might be an intrinsic protective mechanism to limit cellular injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of white-matter lesions with brain atrophy markers: the three-city Dijon MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godin, O.; Alperovitch, A.; Tzourio, Ch.; Dufouil, C. [Inserm U708 ' Neuroepidemiology' , Paris (France); Godin, O.; Alperovitch, A.; Tzourio, Ch.; Dufouil, C. [UPMC University Paris 6 (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Maillard, P.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B. [CNRS, CI-NAPS UMR6232 (France); Maillard, P.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B. [CEA, DSV/I2BM/CI-NAPS (France); Maillard, P.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B. [Universite de Caen Basse-Normande (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Caen, Caen (France)

    2009-07-01

    Background: Brain atrophy and white-matter lesions (WML) are common features at cerebral MRI of both normal and demented elderly people. In a population-based study of 1, 792 elderly subjects aged 65-80 years, free of dementia, who had a cerebral MRI at entry, we investigated the relationship between WML volume and brain atrophy markers estimated by hippocampal, gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. Methods: An automated algorithm of detection and quantification of WML was developed, and voxel-based morphometry methods were used to estimate GM, CSF and hippocampal volumes. To evaluate the relation between those volumes and WML load, we used analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders and total intracranial volumes. Results: Age was highly correlated with WML load and all brain atrophy markers. Total WML volume was negatively associated with both GM ({beta} = -0.03, p {<=} 0.0001) and hippocampal volumes ({beta} = -0.75, p = 0.0009) and positively with CSF volumes (beta 0.008, p = 0.02) after controlling for sex, age, education level, hypertension and apolipoprotein E genotype. Evidence for a relationship between brain atrophy markers and WML was stronger for periventricular WML. We found that the relationship between WML and hippocampal volumes was independent of other brain tissue volumes. Conclusion: These results suggest that, in the brain of non demented elderly subjects, degenerative processes and vascular changes co-occur and are related independently of vascular risk factors. (authors)

  18. Machine learning algorithm for automatic detection of CT-identifiable hyperdense lesions associated with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavamurthy, Krishna N.; Leary, Owen P.; Merck, Lisa H.; Kimia, Benjamin; Collins, Scott; Wright, David W.; Allen, Jason W.; Brock, Jeffrey F.; Merck, Derek

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. Time to treatment is often related to patient outcome. Access to cerebral imaging data in a timely manner is a vital component of patient care. Current methods of detecting and quantifying intracranial pathology can be time-consuming and require careful review of 2D/3D patient images by a radiologist. Additional time is needed for image protocoling, acquisition, and processing. These steps often occur in series, adding more time to the process and potentially delaying time-dependent management decisions for patients with traumatic brain injury. Our team adapted machine learning and computer vision methods to develop a technique that rapidly and automatically detects CT-identifiable lesions. Specifically, we use scale invariant feature transform (SIFT)1 and deep convolutional neural networks (CNN)2 to identify important image features that can distinguish TBI lesions from background data. Our learning algorithm is a linear support vector machine (SVM)3. Further, we also employ tools from topological data analysis (TDA) for gleaning insights into the correlation patterns between healthy and pathological data. The technique was validated using 409 CT scans of the brain, acquired via the Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury phase III clinical trial (ProTECT_III) which studied patients with moderate to severe TBI4. CT data were annotated by a central radiologist and included patients with positive and negative scans. Additionally, the largest lesion on each positive scan was manually segmented. We reserved 80% of the data for training the SVM and used the remaining 20% for testing. Preliminary results are promising with 92.55% prediction accuracy (sensitivity = 91.15%, specificity = 93.45%), indicating the potential usefulness of this technique in clinical scenarios.

  19. Psychological problems, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with brain lesions: A comparison with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Maestroni, Deborah; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Recla, Monica; Locatelli, Federica; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe psychological problems, self-esteem difficulties and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with acquired brain lesions and to compare them with an age- and gender-matched control group. In an experimental design, the psychological profile of 26 adolescents with brain lesions of traumatic or vascular aetiology, aged 12-18 years, was compared with that of 18 typically-developing subjects. Moreover, within the clinical group, patients with TBI were compared with patients with vascular lesions. The psychological and adaptive profile of the adolescents was assessed by a specific protocol, including CBCL, VABS, RSES, EDI-2 and BES. Adolescents with brain lesions showed more marked psychological problems than their healthy peers; they also presented with a greater impairment of adaptive skills and a lower self-esteem. No significant differences were found between patients with traumatic lesions and patients with vascular lesions. Adolescents with acquired brain lesions were at higher risk to develop psychological and behavioural difficulties. Furthermore, in the clinical sample, some variables such as the long hospitalization and isolation from family and peers were associated to a greater psychological burden than the aetiology of the brain damage.

  20. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the undamaged brain to identify lesion sites that predict language outcome after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alexander P; Sethi, Varun; Prejawa, Susan; Hope, Thomas M H; Devlin, Joseph T; Price, Cathy J

    2017-06-01

    unguided lesion overlap map; and (iii) a region identified from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Finally, consistent with prior findings from functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy participants, we show how damage to our transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions affected performance on phonologically more than semantically demanding tasks. The observation that phonological processing abilities were impaired years after the stroke, suggests that other brain regions were not able to fully compensate for the contribution that the transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions make to language tasks. More generally, our novel transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided lesion-deficit mapping approach shows how non-invasive stimulation of the healthy brain can be used to guide the identification of regions where brain damage is likely to cause persistent behavioural effects. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  1. Substantial and reversible brain gray matter reduction but no acute brain lesions in ultramarathon runners: experience from the TransEurope-FootRace Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possible formation of brain edema or new lesions were explored by repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies. Methods A total of 15 runners signed an informed consent to participate in this study of planned brain scans before, twice during, and about 8 months after the race. Because of dropouts, global gray matter volume analysis could only be performed in ten runners covering three timepoints, and in seven runners who also had a follow-up scan. Scanning was performed on three identical 1.5 T Siemens MAGNETOM Avanto scanners, two of them located at our university. The third MRI scanner with identical sequence parameters was a mobile MRI unit escorting the runners. Volumetric 3D datasets were acquired using a magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE sequence. Additionally, diffusion-weighted (DWI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging was performed. Results Average global gray matter volume as well as body weight significantly decreased by 6% during the race. After 8 months, gray matter volume returned to baseline as well as body weight. No new brain lesions were detected by DWI or FLAIR imaging. Conclusions Physiological brain volume reduction during aging is less than 0.2% per year. Therefore a volume reduction of about 6% during the 2 months of extreme running appears to be substantial. The reconstitution in global volume measures after 8 months shows the process to be reversible. As possible mechanisms we discuss loss of protein, hypercortisolism and hyponatremia to account for both substantiality and reversibility of gray matter volume reductions. Reversible brain volume reduction during an ultramarathon suggests that extreme running might serve as a model to investigate

  2. Gd-DTPA-enhanced lesions in the brain of patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Frederiksen, J L; Henriksen, O

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres of 19 patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (AMON) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Using T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging sequences it was disclosed that 14 of 19 patients had lesions and that enhance......The cerebral hemispheres of 19 patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (AMON) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Using T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging sequences it was disclosed that 14 of 19 patients had lesions...... and that enhancement was seen in seven patients. It is known that patients with AMON and silent lesions in the CNS have a highly increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) later on. If it is accepted that a silent lesion in patients with AMON does represent a multiple sclerosis (MS) plaque......, and that an enhancing silent lesion represents an acute MS lesion, we may hypothesize that the disease process ultimately leading to MS starts long before the first symptom or sign ever appears. It would seem that at least half of the silent lesions in the cerebral hemispheres of patients with AMON had existed before...

  3. Differential effects of selective lesions of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons on serotonin-type 1 receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirion, R.; Richard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-type1 receptor binding sites are discretely distributed in rat brain. High densities of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites are especially located in areas enriched with cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation, such as the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum, striatum, septal nuclei, hippocampus and substantia nigra. The possible association of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites with cholinergic or dopaminergic cell bodies and/or nerve fiber terminals was investigated by selective lesions of the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum-cortical and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection. (3H)5-HT1 receptor binding sites are possibly located on cholinergic cell bodies in the ventral pallidum-cortical pathway since (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia innominata/ventral pallidal area was markedly decreased following kainic acid lesions. Fimbriaectomies markedly decreased (3H)5-HT1 binding in the hippocampus, suggesting the presence of 5-HT1 binding sites on cholinergic nerve fiber terminals in the septohippocampal pathway. Lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection did not modify (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia nigra and the striatum, suggesting that 5-HT1 receptors are not closely associated with dopaminergic cell bodies and nerve terminals in this pathway. These results demonstrate differential association between 5-HT1 receptors and cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in rat brain.

  4. Tumor Extension in High-Grade Gliomas Assessed with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Values and Lesion-to-Brain Ratios of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van; Laett, J.; Englund, E.; Brockstedt, S.; Larsson, E.M. [Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Depts. of Radiology, of Medical Radiation Physics and of Pathology and Cytology

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) can distinguish tumor-infiltrated edema in gliomas from pure edema in meningiomas and metastases. Material and Methods: Thirty patients were studied: 18 WHO grade III or IV gliomas, 7 meningiomas, and 5 metastatic lesions. ADC and FA were determined from ROIs placed in peritumoral areas with T2-signal changes, adjacent normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and corresponding areas in the contralateral healthy brain. Values and lesion-to-brain ratios from gliomas were compared to those from meningiomas and metastases. Results: Values and lesion-to-brain ratios of ADC and FA in peritumoral areas with T2-signal changes did not differ between gliomas, meningiomas, and metastases (P = 0.40, P = 0.40, P = 0.61, P 0.34). Values of ADC and FA and the lesion-to-brain ratio of FA in the adjacent NAWM did not differ between tumor types (P = 0.74, P = 0.25, and P = 0.31). The lesion-to-brain ratio of ADC in the adjacent NAWM was higher in gliomas than in meningiomas and metastases (P = 0.004), but overlapped between tumor types. Conclusion: Values and lesion-to-brain ratios of ADC and FA in areas with T2-signal changes surrounding intracranial tumors and adjacent NAWM were not helpful for distinguishing pure edema from tumor-infiltrated edema when data from gliomas, meningiomas, and metastases were compared.

  5. Co-localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and wild-type huntingtin in normal and quinolinic acid-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Francesca R; Zuccato, Chiara; Tartari, Marzia; Martorana, Alessandro; De March, Zena; Giampà, Carmela; Cattaneo, Elena; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2003-09-01

    Loss of huntingtin-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene transcription has been described in Huntington's disease (HD) [Zuccato et al. (2001) Science, 293, 493-498]. It has been shown that BDNF is synthesized in the pyramidal layer of cerebral cortex and released in the striatum [Altar et al. (1997) Nature, 389, 856-860; Conner et al. (1997) J. Neurosci., 17, 2295-2313]. Here we show the cellular localization of BDNF in huntingtin-containing neurons in normal rat brain; our double-label immunofluorescence study shows that huntingtin and BDNF are co-contained in approximately 99% of pyramidal neurons of motor cortex. In the striatum, huntingtin is expressed in 75% of neurons containing BDNF. In normal striatum we also show that BDNF is contained in cholinergic and in NOS-containing interneurons, which are relatively resistant to HD degeneration. Furthermore, we show a reduction in huntingtin and in BDNF immunoreactivity in cortical neurons after striatal excitotoxic lesion. Our data are confirmed by an ELISA study of BDNF and by a Western blot analysis of huntingtin in cortex of quinolic acid (QUIN)-lesioned hemispheres. In the lesioned striatum we describe that the striatal subpopulation of cholinergic neurons, surviving degeneration, contain BDNF. The finding that BDNF is contained in nearly all neurons that contain huntingtin in the normal cortex, along with the reduced expression of BDNF after QUIN injection of the striatum, shows that huntingtin may be required for BDNF production in cortex.

  6. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic liver lesions induced by dimethylinitrosamine in Japanese Medaka fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small fish models are becoming commonplace in the laboratory, and have been used for decades in chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity testing. However, extrapolation of findings from aquatic models to humans is still a concern in risk assessment. Demonstration of common morpholog...

  7. Abacus in the brain: a longitudinal functional MRI study of a skilled abacus user with the right hemispheric lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eTanaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her mental abacus and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric lesion including the dorsal premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule.Functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were conducted 6 and 13 months after her stroke. In the mental calculation task, her brain activity was shifted from the language-related areas, including Broca’s area and the left dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal lobules, to the visuospatial-related brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule, according to the recovery of her arithmetic abilities. In the digit memory task, activities in the bilateral superior parietal lobule and right visual association cortex were also observed after recovery. The shift of brain activities was consistent with her subjective report that she was able to shift the calculation strategy from linguistic to visuospatial as her mental abacus became stable again. In a behavioral experiment using an interference paradigm, a visual presentation of an abacus picture, but not a human face picture, interfered with the performance of her digit memory, confirming her use of the mental abacus after recovery.This is the first case report on the impairment of the mental abacus by a brain lesion and on recovery-related brain activity. We named this rare case abacus-based acalculia. Together with previous neuroimaging studies, the present result suggests an important role for the dorsal premotor cortex and parietal cortex in the superior arithmetic ability of

  8. Abacus in the brain: a longitudinal functional MRI study of a skilled abacus user with a right hemispheric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Seki, Keiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Harada, Madoka; Sugawara, Sho K; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Katsumi; Honda, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her "mental abacus" and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric lesion including the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were conducted 6 and 13 months after her stroke. In the mental calculation task, her brain activity was shifted from the language-related areas, including Broca's area and the left dorsolateral prefrontal and IPLs, to the visuospatial-related brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule (SPL), according to the recovery of her arithmetic abilities. In the digit memory task, activities in the bilateral SPL, and right visual association cortex were also observed after recovery. The shift of brain activities was consistent with her subjective report that she was able to shift the calculation strategy from linguistic to visuospatial as her mental abacus became stable again. In a behavioral experiment using an interference paradigm, a visual presentation of an abacus picture, but not a human face picture, interfered with the performance of her digit memory, confirming her use of the mental abacus after recovery. This is the first case report on the impairment of the mental abacus by a brain lesion and on recovery-related brain activity. We named this rare case "abacus-based acalculia." Together with previous neuroimaging studies, the present result suggests an important role for the PMd and parietal cortex in the superior arithmetic ability of abacus users.

  9. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with the number of T2 MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comini-Frota, E.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, D.H. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Miranda, E.C. [Ecoar Diagnostic Center, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brum, D.G. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Kaimen-Maciel, D.R. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Donadi, E.A. [Hospital das Clínicas,Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto,Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, A.L. [Unidade de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-11-23

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38), 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5) of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5) and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33), 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640]) compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test) and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02) with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42). We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS.

  10. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophicfactor correlate with the number of T2 MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Comini-Frota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the number of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has revolutionized the study of MS. However, MRI has limitations and the use of other biomarkers such as BDNF may be useful for the clinical assessment and the study of the disease. Serum was obtained from 28 MS patients, 18-50 years old (median 38, 21 women, 0.5-10 years (median 5 of disease duration, EDSS 1-4 (median 1.5 and 28 healthy controls, 19-49 years old (median 33, 19 women. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. T1, T2/FLAIR and gadolinium-enhanced lesions were measured by a trained radiologist. BDNF was reduced in MS patients (median [range] pg/mL; 1160 [352.6-2640] compared to healthy controls (1640 [632.4-4268]; P = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test and was negatively correlated (Spearman correlation test, r = -0.41; P = 0.02 with T2/FLAIR (11-81 lesions, median 42. We found that serum BDNF levels were inversely correlated with the number of T2/FLAIR lesions in patients with MS. BDNF may be a promising biomarker of MS.

  11. A case of generalized auditory agnosia with unilateral subcortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia.

  12. Manganese uptake and distribution in the brain after methyl bromide-induced lesions in the olfactory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Khristy J; Molina, Ramon M; Donaghey, Thomas; Savaliya, Sandeep; Schwob, James E; Brain, Joseph D

    2011-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient with potential neurotoxic effects. Mn deposited in the nose is apparently transported to the brain through anterograde axonal transport, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. However, the role of the olfactory epithelial cells in Mn transport from the nasal cavity to the blood and brain is not well understood. We utilized the methyl bromide (MeBr) lesion model wherein the olfactory epithelium fully regenerates in a time-dependent and cell type-specific manner over the course of 6-8 weeks postinjury. We instilled (54)MnCl(2) intranasally at different recovery periods to study the role of specific olfactory epithelial cell types in Mn transport. (54)MnCl(2) was instilled at 2, 4, 7, 21, and 56 days post-MeBr treatment. (54)Mn concentrations in the blood were measured over the first 4-h period and in the brain and other tissues at 7 days postinstillation. Age-matched control rats were similarly studied at 2 and 56 days. Blood and tissue (54)Mn levels were reduced initially but returned to control values by day 7 post-MeBr exposure, coinciding with the reestablishment of sustentacular cells. Brain (54)Mn levels also decreased but returned to control levels only by 21 days, the period near the completion of neuronal regeneration/bulbar reinnervation. Our data show that Mn transport to the blood and brain temporally correlated with olfactory epithelial regeneration post-MeBr injury. We conclude that (1) sustentacular cells are necessary for Mn transport to the blood and (2) intact axonal projections are required for Mn transport from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb and brain.

  13. DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment reduces lesion volumes and improves neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Zhijia; Ren, Honglei; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Siman; Ren, Li; Chai, Zhi; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Benedek, Gil; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina; Li, Minshu

    2017-03-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in severe neurological impairments without effective treatments. Inflammation appears to be an important contributor to key pathogenic events such as secondary brain injury following TBI and therefore serves as a promising target for novel therapies. We have recently demonstrated the ability of a molecular construct comprised of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRα1 domain linked covalently to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide (DRα1-MOG-35-55 construct) to reduce CNS inflammation and tissue injury in animal models of multiple sclerosis and ischemic stroke. The aim of the current study was to determine if DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment of a fluid percussion injury (FPI) mouse model of TBI could reduce the lesion size and improve disease outcome measures. Neurodeficits, lesion size, and immune responses were determined to evaluate the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment. The results demonstrated that daily injections of DRα1-MOG-35-55 given after FPI significantly reduced numbers of infiltrating CD74(+) and CD86(+) macrophages and increased numbers of CD206(+) microglia in the brain concomitant with smaller lesion sizes and improvement in neurodeficits. Conversely, DRα1-MOG-35-55 treatment of TBI increased numbers of circulating CD11b(+) monocytes and their expression of CD74 but had no detectable effect on cell numbers or marker expression in the spleen. These results demonstrate that DRα1-MOG-35-55 therapy can reduce CNS inflammation and significantly improve histological and clinical outcomes after TBI. Future studies will further examine the potential of DRα1-MOG-35-55 for treatment of TBI.

  14. Benefits of Centralized Scheduling in a Postacute Residential Rehabilitation Program for People With Acquired Brain Lesions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, Alec; Pizzighello, Silvia; Piccoli, Sara; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the use of a designated staff person to coordinate and schedule therapy services in a postacute residential rehabilitation program for people with acquired brain lesions results in (1) a higher-intensity treatment and a reduced length of stay; (2) reduced rehabilitation costs; and (3) increased patient and staff satisfaction. This nonrandomized retrospective study from 2009 through 2012 uses data collected relative to 2 different methods of scheduling: (1) self-planning, in which each single team member makes appointments that are then displayed on a shared board; and (2) managed planning, in which appointments are made by a designated staff person. A residential center for people with postacute acquired brain lesions. Patients (N=20) with acquired brain lesions who had similar clinical and demographic characteristics comprised the managed planning group (n=10) and the self-planning group (n=10). Not applicable. Organizational measures (length of stay in rehabilitation, number of treatment hours, total cost of rehabilitation), clinical outcome scales (Disability Rating Scale, FIM, and Barthel Index), perceived quality of treatment by patients (questionnaire), and perceived satisfaction of team members (Job Descriptive Index). All patients improved on all clinical rating scales at the time of discharge (all effect sizes are large). In the managed planning group, the number of treatment hours increased (Cohen's d=2.15), resulting in reduced length of stay (Cohen's d=.95) and cost of rehabilitation (Cohen's d=1.22). In addition, the quality of treatment perceived by the patients and their families increased, while team member satisfaction did not change. The use of a designated staff person to manage therapy services improves efficiency and efficacy of a patient-centered health care system. The proposed scheduling system results in a remarkable cost saving for the National Health System. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  15. Imaging features of brain tumor-like lesions; Diferentes aspectos de imagem das lesoes pseudotumorais no encefalo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Matheus Fonseca Barbosa; Lisboa, Joao Paulo Ribeiro; Pontes, Bruno de Castro Nogueira; Guedes, Marcelo dos Santos; Silva, Marcia Lopes da [Hospital Alvorada de Moema, SP (Brazil). Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: doc.es@uol.com.br; Mello, Marco Antonio Rocha [Hospitais Alvorada, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the image aspects of the main pathologies of the brain that may simulate tumors. It was made a retrospective evaluation of our institution patients. The following pathologies were diagnosed: multiple sclerosis, neurosarcoidosis, neurocysticercosis, neurotoxoplasmosis, radionecrosis and stroke. Differential diagnosis among these diseases and neoplastic lesions can be difficult, though imaging technology has advanced rapidly and associated to the current knowledge of the main findings of each one of them may become this task less strenuous. (author)

  16. Exercise partly reverses the effect of maternal separation on hippocampal proteins in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimatelis, J J; Hendricks, S; Hsieh, J; Vlok, N M; Bugarith, K; Daniels, W M U; Russell, V A

    2013-01-01

    Animals subjected to maternal separation stress during the early stages of development display behavioural, endocrine and growth factor abnormalities that mirror the clinical findings in anxiety/depression. In addition, maternal separation has been shown to exacerbate the behavioural deficits induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, voluntary exercise reduced the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA in the rat model. The beneficial effects of exercise appeared to be largely due to compensation in the non-lesioned hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary exercise for 3 weeks could reverse the effects of maternal separation in rats challenged with the neurotoxin 6-OHDA infused into the medial forebrain bundle after 1 week of exercise, at postnatal day 60. The rats were killed 2 weeks later, at postnatal day 74. Their brains were dissected and the hippocampus rapidly removed for proteomic analysis by isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) and quantification of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). Maternal separation upregulated hippocampal proteins functionally involved in energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere. Exercise reversed many of these changes by downregulating the levels of hippocampal proteins functionally associated with energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere of rats subjected to maternal separation. Exercise and maternal separation therefore appeared to have opposing effects on the hippocampus in the non-lesioned hemisphere of the rat brain. Exercise seemed partly to reverse the

  17. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat Rolf

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How smokeless tobacco contributes to non-neoplastic oral diseases is unclear. It certainly increases risk of oral mucosal lesions, but reviewers disagree as to other conditions. In some areas, especially South-East Asia, risk is difficult to quantify due to the many products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients, and usage practices involved. This review considers studies from Europe (in practice mainly Scandinavia and from the USA. Methods Experimental and epidemiological studies published in 1963–2007 were identified that related risk of oral lesions to smokeless tobacco use. Data were assessed separately for oral mucosal lesions, periodontal and gingival diseases, dental caries and tooth loss, and oral pain. Results Oral mucosal lesions: Thirty-three epidemiological studies consistently show a strong dose-related effect of current snuff on oral mucosal lesion prevalence. In Scandinavia, users have a near 100% prevalence of a characteristic "snuff-induced lesion", but prevalence of the varied lesions reported in the USA is lower. Associations with chewing tobacco are weaker. The lack of clear association with former use suggests reversibility following cessation, consistent with experimental studies showing rapid lesion regression on quitting. Periodontal and gingival diseases: Two of four studies report a significant association of snuff with attachment loss and four out of eight with gingival recession. Snuff is not clearly related to gingivitis or periodontal diseases. Limited evidence suggests chewing tobacco is unrelated to periodontal or gingival diseases. Tooth loss: Swedish studies show no association with snuff, but one US study reported an association with snuff, and another with chewing tobacco. Dental caries: Evidence from nine studies suggests a possible relationship with use of smokeless tobacco, particularly chewing tobacco, and the risk of dental caries. Oral pain: Limited evidence precludes any

  18. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-07

    To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs' post-surgery application and NO system involvement.

  19. Lost Polarization of Aquaporin4 and Dystroglycan in the Core Lesion after Traumatic Brain Injury Suggests Functional Divergence in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To understand how aquaporin4 (AQP4 and dystroglycan (DG polarized distribution change and their roles in brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods. Brain water content, Evans blue detection, real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence were used. Results. At an early stage of TBI, AQP4 and DG maintained vessel-like pattern in perivascular endfeet; M1, M23, and M1/M23 were increased in the core lesion. At a later stage of TBI, DG expression was lost in perivascular area, accompanied with similar but delayed change of AQP4 expression; expression of M1, M23, and DG and the ratio of M1/M2 were increased. Conclusion. At an early stage, AQP4 and DG maintained the polarized distribution. Upregulated M1 and M23 could retard the cytotoxic edema formation. At a later stage AQP4 and DG polarized expression were lost from perivascular endfeet and induced the worst cytotoxic brain edema. The alteration of DG expression could regulate that of AQP4 expression after TBI.

  20. Usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in evaluation of brain lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Chung, J. K.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, H. W.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Because some brain tumors show iso-or hypometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, there have been problems in detection of primary or recurrent tumor and in differentiation from benign lesion with {sup 18}F-FDG PET. We investigated the usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in characterizing brain lesions in these conditions. In 34 patients with brain lesions (27 for initial diagnosis, 7 for detecting recurrence ) who showed hypo- or isometabolism compared to normal brain tissue on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, we performed {sup 11}C-methionine PET. Five minutes after injection of 550 MBq {sup 11}C-methionine, attenuation corrected brain images were obtained with a dedicated PET scanner. Brain lesions were 18 gliomas, 4 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 tumor necrosis, 1 granuloma). To find the correlation between methione uptake and proliferation activity, Ki 67 proliferation Index in 8 patients or Proliferation index (P1=G2+M+S/total cycle) using DNA flow cytometry in 10 patients were obtained. Of 25 tumorous lesions without definitive hypermetabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, all except two glioma (92%) showed moderate to high uptake in entire or thick peripheral tumor uptake in {sup 11}C-methionine PET. The uptake ratio of tumor to normal brain in {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methionine PET were 0.96 {+-}0.32 and 2.43 {+-} 1.26, respectively. Nine benign lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were also no significantly increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake. {sup 11}C-methionine uptake and proliferation activity were correlated with Ki 67 index or PI (r=0.6). Two glioma shown no increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake had low proliferative activity (Ki 67 < 1%). {sup 11}C-methionin PET could detect brain tumors and differentiate brain lesions with high

  1. [Clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of the brain lesions in lymphosarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setdikov, R A; Kruglova, G V

    1986-01-01

    The study group included 11 patients with brain metastases of disseminated lymphosarcoma. The most common clinical course was progression of the disease which manifested itself in the advancement of general cerebral symptoms as well as focal ones indicative of hemisphere, subcortex or cerebral trunk involvement. High single intravenous doses of cyclophosphamide and rubomycin and radiotherapy or their combination appeared highly effective in cases of brain specific involvement: complete or partial regression of neurologic symptoms was observed in 7 and 3 patients, respectively. Radiation treatment was followed by COP, COAP or CAMP polychemotherapy to curb extracerebral disease progression. Low median survival of patients with brain metastases (5.1 months) was due to extracerebral tumor progression. However, brain metastases were not immediate death-causing factors.

  2. Gd-DTPA-enhanced lesions in the brain of patients with acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Frederiksen, J L; Henriksen, O

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres of 19 patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (AMON) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Using T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging sequences it was disclosed that 14 of 19 patients had lesions...

  3. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  4. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: Preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Salas Riquelme

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions.

  5. Meningoencephalitis and new onset of seizures in an patient with normal brain CT and multiple lesions on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Jose E.; Spichler, Anne; Oliveira, Augusto C.P. de; Lomar, Andre Villela [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in patients with AIDS. The definitive diagnosis requires direct demonstration of the tachyzoite form of Toxoplasma gondii in cerebral tissue. The presumptive diagnosis is based on serology, clinical and radiological features, and on response to anti-Toxoplasma therapy. Typically, patients have a subacute presentation of focal neurological signs, with multiple lesions in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the neurological and CT scan spectrum is broad. We report a case of toxoplasmic encephalitis in a heterosexual man without prior history of HIV infection. He was admitted with four days of headache, confusion, and new onset of seizures. His brain CT disclosed no alterations and MRI revealed multiple lesions. Empirical specific anti-Toxoplasma therapy was initiated and the patient experienced excellent clinical and radiological improvement. His HIV tests were positive and the CD{sub 4}{sup +} cell count was 74 cells/ml (8.5 %). On follow up, three months later, the general state of the patient was good, without neurological sequelae and with a normal MRI. We concluded that toxoplasmic encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis in sexually active individuals, including cases without prior history or suspicion of HIV infection, and no abnormalities on CT scan. (author)

  6. Distinct MRI pattern in lesional and perilesional area after traumatic brain injury in rat--11 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Riikka J; Kharatishvili, Irina; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Gröhn, Heidi; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli H J

    2009-01-01

    To understand the dynamics of progressive brain damage after lateral fluid-percussion induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rat, which is the most widely used animal model of closed head TBI in humans, MRI follow-up of 11 months was performed. The evolution of tissue damage was quantified using MRI contrast parameters T(2), T(1rho), diffusion (D(av)), and tissue atrophy in the focal cortical lesion and adjacent areas: the perifocal and contralateral cortex, and the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus. In the primary cortical lesion area, which undergoes remarkable irreversible pathologic changes, MRI alterations start at 3 h post-injury and continue to progress for up to 6 months. In more mildly affected perifocal and hippocampal regions, the robust alterations in T(2), T(1rho), and D(av) at 3 h to 3 d post-injury normalize within the next 9-23 d, and thereafter, progressively increase for several weeks. The severity of damage in the perifocal and hippocampal areas 23 d post-injury appeared independent of the focal lesion volume. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) performed at 5 and 10 months post-injury detected metabolic alterations in the ipsilateral hippocampus, suggesting ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation. Our data show that TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury triggers long-lasting alterations with region-dependent temporal profiles. Importantly, the temporal pattern in MRI parameters during the first 23 d post-injury can indicate the regions that will develop secondary damage. This information is valuable for targeting and timing interventions in studies aiming at alleviating or reversing the molecular and/or cellular cascades causing the delayed injury.

  7. Total target volume is a better predictor of whole brain dose from gamma stereotactic radiosurgery than the number, shape, or location of the lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Smith, Adam; Van Meter, Emily; McGarry, Ronald; Molloy, Janelle A

    2013-09-01

    To assess the hypothesis that the volume of whole brain that receives a certain dose level is primarily dependent on the treated volume rather than on the number, shape, or location of the lesions. This would help a physician validate the suitability of GammaKnife(®) based stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSR) prior to treatment. Simulation studies were performed to establish the hypothesis for both oblong and spherical shaped lesions of various numbers and sizes. Forty patients who underwent GKSR [mean age of 54 years (range 7-80), mean number of lesions of 2.5 (range 1-6), and mean lesion volume of 4.4 cm(3) (range 0.02-22.2 cm(3))] were also studied retrospectively. Following recommendations of QUANTEC, the volume of brain irradiated by the 12 Gy (VB12) isodose line was measured and a power-law based relation is proposed here for estimating VB12 from the known tumor volume and the prescription dose. In the simulation study on oblong, spherical, and multiple lesions, the volume of brain irradiated by 50%, 10%, and 1% of maximum dose was found to have linear, linear, and exponentially increasing dependence on the volume of the treated region, respectively. In the retrospective study on 40 GKSR patients, a similar relationship was found to predict the brain dose with a Spearman correlation coefficient >0.9. In both the studies, the volume of brain irradiated by a certain dose level does not have a statistically significant relationship (p ≥ 0.05) with the number, shape, or position of the lesions. The measured VB12 agrees with calculation to within 1.7%. The results from the simulation and the retrospective clinical studies indicate that the volume of whole brain that receives a certain percentage of the maximum dose is primarily dependent on the treated volume and less on the number, shape, and location of the lesions.

  8. Nonneoplastic changes in the olfactory epithelium--experimental studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the olfactory mucosa has increased in recent years, since it has been shown to possess a considerable amount of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity and a wide variety of chemicals have been identified as olfactory toxins. Many chemicals induce lesions of a general nature in the olfactory mucosa, i.e., inflammation, degeneration, regeneration, and proliferation, whereas others cause more specific effects. Changes in the olfactory mucosa with reference to chemicals tha...

  9. Image analysis of intracranial high perfusion lesion by whole brain one-stop imaging technique with 320 detector rows CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-zhou DU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  The perfusion and vascular architecture features were investigated and evaluated by use of one-stop imaging technique with 320 rows CT for exploring the clinical value of one-stop imaging technique in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Methods  The perfusion parameters and vascular architecture of intracranial high perfusion lesions of 52 patients were collected in General Hospital of Chengdu Command from Oct. 2010 to Apr. 2013, who were examined by one-stop imaging technique with 320 rows CT, were retrospectively analyzed. The perfusion values of normal contralateral cerebral tissue were used as control to analyze the perfusion and vascular architecture features of injured parts. Results  Of the 52 patients, there were 16 cases of subacute cerebral infarction, 9 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 7 cases of hemangioma, 12 cases of meningioma, and 8 cases of glioma. All the patients showed elevated CBV and/or CBF and different changes in mean transit time (MTT, time to peak (TTP and delay time (Delay. In the cases of subacute cerebral infarction, the parameters of MTT, TTP and Delay increased. In the cases of arteriovenous malformation, all the parameters decreased. In the cases of hemangioma, the MTT decreased, while TTP and Delay increased. In the cases of glioma, the TTP and Delay increased, while the change of MTT varied. Meanwhile, abnormality of vascular structures was found in all the cases by CT angiography. Conclusion  With whole brain perfusion and one-stop vascular imaging with 320 rows CT, the perfusion characteristics of intracranial lesions can be revealed completely, including blood supply and microcirculation changes in the lesions, and it may be of benefit in guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.10

  10. Effects of brain-stem and thalamic lesions on the corneal reflex: an electrophysiological and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Moffie, D

    1979-09-01

    In 9 patients with Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome, one patient with a midbrain lesion involving the right side of the tegmentum, and 2 patients with a thalamic lesion, corneal reflexes were investigated by a new electromyographic technique. The electrophysical results were compared with the results obtained by clinical observation. In the lateral medullary lesions the electrophysiologically obtained reflex responses showed four types of abnormality. Type A consisted of a bilateral delay and type B a bilateral absence of the corneal reflex response to stimulation on the affected side in combination with a normal reflex response on both sides when the cornea on the normal side was stimulated. Type C, which was present in one case, and type D which was seen in 3 cases, consisted of a bilateral absence of the corneal reflex upon stimulation on the affected side; stimulation on the unaffected side produced a normal reflex response on the intact side in combination with, respectively, a delay or absence of the corneal reflex response on the affected side. Comparison of the clinical observations with the electrophysiological findings revealed minor discrepancies in type A and B abnormalities. However, the electrophysiological type C and D abnormalities were not detected by clinical observation. These findings demonstrate that electrophysiological recording of the corneal reflex may reveal clinically undetectable abnormalities. From the electrophysiological findings it is concluded that the corneal reflex is conducted along medullary pathways running both ipsilaterally and contralaterally from the stimulated side before connecting, respectively, with the ipsilateral and contralateral facial nucleus. From the anatomical findings it is suggested that the ascending pathways from the spinal fifth nerve complex to the facial nuclei are located in the lateral reticular formation of the lower brain-stem. The normal corneal reflex responses in the presence of thalamic and

  11. Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate in the evaluation of patients with cerebrovascular lesions. The diagnostic value related to age of the lesion and to the size, type and localisation revealed by CT-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Christensen, J; Skriver, E B

    1983-01-01

    Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate (Tc99-scan) was performed 4 times in 95 consecutive stroke patients: on average 5 days, 18 days, 103 days and 194 days after the stroke. The type (infarct, hematoma), size and localisation of the lesion was evaluated by CT-scan performed 3 times in all: ...

  12. 3T MR-based treatment planning for radiotherapy of brain lesions:

    OpenAIRE

    Fallone, B Gino; Hans-Sonke, Jans; Stanescu, Teodor; Stavrev, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this work is to develop a complete treatment planning procedure for radiation therapy of intracranial lesions based solely on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), i.e. MRI simulation. Methods. The proposed 3T MR-based radiotherapy treatment planning procedure consists of converting the MR images into CT-like images by assigning electron density information (related to CT values) to organ structures. Firstly, the 3D distortion field present in the MR volumes is determined a...

  13. [CLIPPERS syndrome with atypical distribution of lesions in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canneti, Beatrice; Mosqueira, Antonio J; Gilo, Francisco; Carreras, Teresa; Barbosa, Antonio; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Vivancos, José

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome CLIPPERS (chronic lymphocytic in?ammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) es un proceso inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central cuyo rasgo distintivo son las lesiones puntiformes en el troncoencefalo captantes en los estudios de resonancia magnetica. Clinicamente, cursa con disartria, ataxia y diplopia, y suele responder a corticoides. Anatomopatologicamente, aparecen infiltrados de linfocitos T en los espacios perivasculares troncoencefalicos. Caso clinico. Mujer de 40 años con cuadro de instauracion subaguda de diplopia binocular, ataxia y disartria. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral presento lesiones puntiformes hipertintensas en secuencia T2 en el tronco, cerebelo, diencefalo y areas cortico-subcorticales bihemisfericas, que realzaron con contraste. Se realizo un estudio etiologico para descartar un origen infeccioso, neoplasico o inflamatorio subyacente, que resulto negativo. La paciente recibio tratamiento en dos ocasiones con metilprednisolona, con descenso progresivo de la dosis, con buena respuesta. Conclusiones. La diplopia y la ataxia, como en nuestro caso, estan presentes practicamente siempre. Los hallazgos en la RM consisten en lesiones captantes puntiformes localizadas en la protuberancia con extension hacia el cerebelo, ganglios basales y cuerpo calloso, con gradiente de captacion menor conforme se alejan rostralmente hacia la corteza, y caudalmente hacia la medula. En el caso de nuestra paciente, este gradiente no se respeta, encontrandose una densidad similar de las lesiones a nivel supratentorial. El diagnostico diferencial es amplio y justifica un estudio diagnostico extenso, y en casos seleccionados la biopsia cerebral. El curso de la enfermedad es remitente-recurrente, y el pronostico mejora cuanto mas precoz y prolongado es el tiempo de corticoterapia.

  14. Behavioural alterations relevant to developmental brain disorders in mice with neonatally induced ventral hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Arne; Gantois, Ilse; Laeremans, Annelies; Vreysen, Samme; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lut; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal lesioning of the ventral hippocampus (vHc) in rats has served as a useful heuristic animal model to elucidate neurodevelopmental mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ). In the current study we have established that this procedure can be applied to model SCZ symptomatology in mice. Neonatal mice (postnatal day 6) were anaesthetised by hypothermia and electrolytic lesions of the vHc were induced. We observed locomotor hyperactivity at prepubertal and adult age and hypersensitivity to amphetamine. Furthermore, working memory deficits were observed in Y-maze (spontaneous alternation) and T-maze (exploration of a novel arm) test protocols. Decreased anxious behaviour in the elevated plus maze and increased sociability were also observed. These changes were dependent on lesion size. No differences were observed in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, latent inhibition, spatial memory (Morris water maze), problem solving capacities (syringe puzzle) and ability to discriminate between different unfamiliar mice. The presented findings might further help to identify neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. The role of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions: results from a cohort of 100 consecutive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeci Hélio Floriano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions that are detected by conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may be a challenge in routine practice. Brain perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI may be employed as a complementary non-invasive tool, providing relevant data on hemodynamic parameters, such as the degree of angiogenesis of lesions. We aimed to employ dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI to differentiate between infectious and neoplastic brain lesions by investigating brain microcirculation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MRI perfusion studies of one hundred consecutive patients with non-cortical neoplastic (n = 54 and infectious (n = 46 lesions were retrospectively assessed. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. A preload of paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium was administered 30 seconds before acquisition of dynamic images, followed by a standard dose 10 seconds after starting imaging acquisitions. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV values were determined by calculating the regional cerebral blood volume in the solid areas of lesions, normalized to that of the contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine the cutoff point of rCBV values that would allow the differentiation of neoplastic from infectious lesions and to assess the corresponding diagnostic performance of rCBV when using this cutoff value. RESULTS: Neoplastic lesions had higher rCBV values (4.28±2.11 than infectious lesions (0.63±0.49 (p<0.001. When using an rCBV value <1.3 as the parameter to define infectious lesions, the sensitivity of the method was 97.8% and the specificity was 92.6%, with a positive predictive value of 91.8%, a negative predictive value of 98.0%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. CONCLUSION: PWI is a useful complementary tool in distinguishing between infectious and neoplastic brain

  16. Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection of extracellular kynurenine and related metabolites in normal and lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Macherone, Anthony; Graham, David R; Schwarcz, Robert

    2012-02-15

    We describe here a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method for the sensitive and concurrent determination of extracellular tryptophan and the kynurenine pathway metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in rat brain. This metabolic cascade is increasingly linked to the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Methodological refinements, including optimization of MS conditions and the addition of deuterated standards, resulted in assay linearity to the low nanomolar range. Measured in samples obtained by striatal microdialysis in vivo, basal levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN were 415, 89, and 8 nM, respectively, but 3-HK levels were below the limit of detection (<2 nM). Systemic injection of kynurenine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect extracellular tryptophan but produced detectable levels of extracellular 3-HK (peak after 2-3 h: ~50 nM) and raised extracellular QUIN levels (peak after 2h: ~105 nM). The effect of this treatment on QUIN, but not on 3-HK, was potentiated in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-lesioned striatum. Our results indicate that the novel methodology, which allowed the measurement of extracellular kynurenine and 3-HK in the brain in vivo, will facilitate studies of brain kynurenines and of the interplay between peripheral and central kynurenine pathway functions under physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. IL-10 deficiency exacerbates the brain inflammatory response to permanent ischemia without preventing resolution of the lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de Puig, Isabel; Miró, Francesc; Salas-Perdomo, Angélica; Bonfill-Teixidor, Ester; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Márquez-Kisinousky, Leonardo; Planas, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Stroke induces inflammation that can aggravate brain damage. This work examines whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficiency exacerbates inflammation and worsens the outcome of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Expression of IL-10 and IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) increased after ischemia. From day 4, reactive astrocytes showed strong IL-10R immunoreactivity. Interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice kept in conventional housing showed more mortality after pMCAO than the wild type (WT). This effect was associated with the presence of signs of colitis in the IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that ongoing systemic inflammation was a confounding factor. In a pathogen-free environment, IL-10 deficiency slightly increased infarct volume and neurologic deficits. Induction of proinflammatory molecules in the IL-10 KO brain was similar to that in the WT 6 hours after ischemia, but was higher at day 4, while differences decreased at day 7. Deficiency of IL-10 promoted the presence of more mature phagocytic cells in the ischemic tissue, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers and the T-cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4. These findings agree with a role of IL-10 in attenuating local inflammatory reactions, but do not support an essential function of IL-10 in lesion resolution. Upregulation of alternative immunosuppressive molecules after brain ischemia can compensate, at least in part, the absence of IL-10. PMID:24022622

  18. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jan; Kraemer, Matthias; Schormann, Thorsten; Dabringhaus, Andreas; Hirsch, Jochen; Eisele, Philipp; Szabo, Kristina; Weiss, Christel; Amann, Michael; Weier, Katrin; Naegelin, Yvonne; Kappos, Ludwig; Gass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM) investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonace imaging (MRI). Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL) (volume increase > 5% in VGM), chronic enlarging lesions (CEL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%), or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5%) in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL) contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain. PMID:27043553

  19. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonace imaging (MRI. Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL (volume increase > 5% in VGM, chronic enlarging lesions (CEL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%, or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5% in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain.

  20. Mucinous nonneoplastic cyst of the pancreas: A truly novel pathological entity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian K.P. Goh; Yu-Meng Tan; Puay-Hoon Tan; London L.P.J. Ooi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a novel and distinct pancreatic cystic tumor termed "mucinous nonneoplastic" cyst was described in the literature.We report our experience with a 71-year-old female with a cystic tumor in the body of the pancreas demonstrating features suggestive of this diagnosis. We also review the literature regarding this "novel" pathological entity and discuss critically its existence and its differential diagnoses.

  1. Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haycock, Philip C; Burgess, Stephen; Nounu, Aayah

    2017-01-01

    Importance: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study...

  2. Origin and timing of brain lesions in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, F; Rutherford, M; Groenendaal, F; Eken, P; Mercuri, E; Bydder, GM; Meiners, LC; Dubowitz, LMS; de Vries, LS

    2003-01-01

    Background The role of intrapartum asphyxia in neonatal encephalopathy and seizures in term infants is not clear, and antenatal factors are being implicated in the causal pathway for these disorders. However, there is no evidence that brain damage occurs before birth. We aimed to test the hypothesis

  3. How does the interaction of presumed timing, location and extent of the underlying brain lesion relate to upper limb function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleux, Lisa; Klingels, Katrijn; Fiori, Simona; Simon-Martinez, Cristina; Demaerel, Philippe; Locus, Marlies; Fosseprez, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ortibus, Els; Feys, Hilde

    2017-09-01

    Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups. Seventy-three children with unilateral CP (mean age 10 years 2 months) were classified according to lesion timing: malformations (N = 2), periventricular white matter (PWM, N = 42) and cortical and deep grey matter (CDGM, N = 29) lesions. Neuroanatomical damage was scored using a semi-quantitative MRI scale. UL function was assessed at body function and activity level. CDGM lesions were more pronounced compared to PWM lesions (p = 0.0003). Neuroanatomical scores were correlated with a higher degree to UL function in the CDGM group (rs = -0.39 to rs = -0.84) compared to the PWM group (rrb = -0.42 to rs = -0.61). Regression analysis found lesion location and extent to explain 75% and 65% (p < 0.02) respectively, of the variance in AHA performance in the CDGM group, but only 24% and 12% (p < 0.03) in the PWM group. In the CDGM group, lesion location and extent seems to impact more on UL function compared to the PWM group. In children with PWM lesions, other factors like corticospinal tract (re)organization and structural connectivity may play an additional role. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight into Metabolic 1H-MRS Changes in Natalizumab Induced Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Schneider

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a severe complication of immunosuppressive therapies, especially of natalizumab in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. Metabolic changes within PML lesions have not yet been described in natalizumab-associated PML in MS patients.ObjectiveTo study metabolic profiles in natalizumab-associated PML lesions of MS patients by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at different stages during the PML course. To assess changes associated with the occurrence of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS.Methods20 patients received 1H-MRS and imaging at 3 T either in the pre-IRIS, IRIS, early-post-PML, or late post-PML setting. Five of these patients received individual follow-up examinations, including the pre-IRIS or IRIS phase. Clinical worsening was described by changes in the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS 1 year before PML and scoring at the time of 1H-MRS.ResultsIn PML lesions, increased levels of the Lip/Cr ratio, driven by rising of lipid and reduction of Creatine, were found before the occurrence of IRIS (p = 0.014 with a maximum in the PML–IRIS group (p = 0.004. By contrast, marked rises of Cho/Cr in PML lesions were detected exclusively during the IRIS phase (p = 0.003. The Lip/Cr ratio decreased to above-normal levels in early-post-PML (p = 0.007, compared to normal appearing white matter (NAWM and to normal levels in the late-post-PML group. NAA/Cho was reduced compared to NAWM in the pre-IRIS, IRIS, and early-post-PML group. In NAA/Cr, the same effect was seen in the pre-IRIS and early-post-PML group. These cross-sectional results were confirmed by the individual follow-up examinations of four patients. NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr, and the lipid rise relative to NAWM in PML lesions were significantly correlated with the residual clinical worsening (KPS change in post-PML patients (Spearman

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-qiong; KANG Zhuang; HU Xi-quan; HU Bing; ZOU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recent autopsy study showed a high incidence ofcerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD).To assess the impact of cerebrovascular pathology in AD, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study AD patients with and without cerebrovascular lesions. Materials and Methods: Conventional and DTI scans were obtained from 10 patients with probable AD, 10 AD/V patients (probable AD with cerebrovascular lesions) and ten normal controls. Mean diffusivity (D) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of some structures involved with AD pathology were measured. Results: D value was higher in AD patients than in controls in hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus. In AD/V patients, increased D value was found in the same structures and also in the thalamus and basal ganglia compared to controls. There was a significant difference of D value between AD and AD/V patients. FA value reduced in the white matter of left inferior temporal gyrus and in the bilateral middle cingulate gyrus in patients with AD/V compared with controls. The MMSE (mini-mental state examination) score significantly correlated with FA value in the right hippocampus (r=0.639, P<0.019), in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (r=0.587, P<0.035) and in left parahippocampal gyrus (r=0.559, P<0.047). Conclusion: Cerebrovascular pathology had stronger impact on the D value than the AD pathology alone did. Elevated D value in thalamic and basal ganglia may contribute to cognitive decline in AD/V patients.Reduced FA values in AD/V patients may indicate that cerebrovascular pathology induced more severe white matter damage than the AD pathology alone did.

  6. Validity of semi-quantitative scale for brain MRI in unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions: Relationship with hand sensorimotor function and structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Fiori

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sqMRI scale demonstrates first evidence of construct validity against impaired motor and sensory function measures and brain structural connectivity in a cohort of children with UCP due to PWM lesions. More severe lesions correlated with poorer paretic hand sensorimotor function and impaired structural connectivity in the hemisphere contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia. The quantitative structural MRI scoring may be a useful clinical tool for studying brain structure–function relationships but requires further validation in other populations of CP.

  7. De novo cystic brain lesions mimicking neurocysticercosis in ALK-positive lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Kim, Ho Jin; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Youngjoo

    2017-08-01

    Cystic brain metastases (CBM) have been recently reported in a minority of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All previously reported ALK-positive CBM developed during crizotinib treatment and were often asymptomatic and indolent, even without CNS-directed therapy. Thus, crizotinib was suggested as an etiologic agent for the development of CBM. Here, we report a case of de novo CBM in a patient with ALK-positive NSCLC prior to crizotinib treatment; the ALK-positive NSCLC had initially been misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis because of the atypical radiological presentation of brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fate of (D-Ala2-deltorphin-I-like immunoreactive neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Casini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polyclonal antiserum specific to C-terminal tetrapeptide amide of (D-Ala2deltorphin-I, a naturally occurring amphibian skin opioid peptide, has already demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive neurons in rat midbrain. Double immunostaining identified these neurons as a subpopulation of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons that were also tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive and calbindin- D28kD- negative, namely, the neurons predominantly affected in Parkinson disease. We followed the fate of these neurons after a monolateral injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into rat brain. Almost all the immunopositive neurons and their nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical projections on the side ipsilateral to the lesion disappeared. Only a few scattered immunopositive neurons within the substantia nigra, pars compacta, and those of supramammillary nucleus remained unaffected. The consistent overlap of dopamine and this new molecule provides a further key to identifying the mammalian counterpart of these amphibian skin opioid peptides.

  9. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  10. Assessment of dopamine (DA) synthesis rate in selected parts of the rat brain with central noradrenergic lesion after administration of 5-HT3 receptor ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Roczniak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study objective was to determine the effect of central noradrenergic system lesions performed in the early extrafetal life period on dopamine synthesis in the rat brain. The content of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was assessed in the frontal lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem of rats by high-pressure chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC/ED) after administration of 5-HT3 receptor ligands.Material and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats which underwent...

  11. Peri-SRS Administration of Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain: Investigating Efficacy and the Effects of Relative Treatment Timing on Lesion Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mehran B; Amsbaugh, Mark J; Burton, Eric; Chesney, Jason; Woo, Shiao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) administered with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and determine the effects of relative treatment timing on lesion response. A prospective institutional database of all patients with intact brain metastases treated with SRS from 2008 to 2015 was reviewed for patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma. Lesion response was determined using a modified RECIST v1.1 criteria. Patients were grouped according to if they received ICT and the timing of ICT relative to SRS. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of lesion failure (LF) and distant brain failure (DBF). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare median lesion regression after SRS between treatment groups. Fifty-one patients with 167 metastases were evaluated. Eighteen patients (59 lesions) were treated with peri-SRS ICT with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 or antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 therapy. Peri-SRS ICT was a significant favorable predictor for reduced hazard of LF (hazard ratio, 0.131; confidence interval, 0.028-0.610). Concurrent ICT given with SRS (hazard ratio, 0.364; confidence interval, 0.161-0.825) significantly predicted freedom from DBF. When quantitative lesion response was examined, peri-SRS ICT resulted in a significantly greater median percent lesion regression than did SRS alone at 1.5 (-30.7% vs. -14.6%; P = 0.018), 4 (-42.3% vs. -18.8%; P = 0.031), and 5 months after SRS (-52.01 vs. -14.9%; P = 0.002). ICT combined with SRS was associated with greater lesion regression of melanoma brain metastases and decreased LF. When given concurrently, combined SRS and ICT may result in improved freedom from DBF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Lesion-Proof Brain? Multidimensional Sensorimotor, Cognitive, and Socio-Affective Preservation Despite Extensive Damage in a Stroke Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Adolfo M.; Sedeño, Lucas; Herrera Murcia, Eduar; Couto, Blas; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report an unusual case of mutidimensional sensorimotor, cognitive, and socio-affective preservation in an adult with extensive, acquired bilateral brain damage. At age 43, patient CG sustained a cerebral hemorrhage and a few months later, she suffered a second (ischemic) stroke. As a result, she exhibited extensive damage of the right hemisphere (including frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions), left Sylvian and striatal areas, bilateral portions of the insula and the amygdala, and the splenium. However, against all probability, she was unimpaired across a host of cognitive domains, including executive functions, attention, memory, language, sensory perception (e.g., taste recognition and intensity discrimination), emotional processing (e.g., experiencing of positive and negative emotions), and social cognition skills (prosody recognition, theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and emotional evaluation). Her functional integrity was further confirmed through neurological examination and contextualized observation of her performance in real-life tasks. In sum, CG's case resists straightforward classifications, as the extent and distribution of her lesions would typically produce pervasive, multidimensional deficits. We discuss the rarity of this patient against the backdrop of other reports of atypical cognitive preservation, expound the limitations of several potential accounts, and highlight the challenges that the case poses for current theories of brain organization and resilience. PMID:28119603

  13. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  14. HFE H63D, C282Y and AGTR1 A1166C polymorphisms and brain white matter lesions in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Ola H; Kirby, Janine; Savva, George; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G

    2011-03-01

    Incidental white matter lesions (WML) are a common neuroradiological finding in elderly people and have been linked to dementia and depression. Various mechanisms including hypoxia and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the etiology of WML. The hemochromatosis (HFE) gene p.H63D and p.C282Y polymorphisms have been linked to dysregulation of iron metabolism and increased levels of ROS, whereas Angiotensin II receptor 1 (AGTR1) c.1166A → C polymorphism is known as a vascular risk factor. These genetic polymorphisms were characterized in brains donated to the UK MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) to assess their potential role in the risk for development of age-related WML. The study cohort comprised 258 brain donated to CFAS. WML severity was assessed in the postmortem brain donations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and scored using the Scheltens' scale. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of extracted DNA followed by restriction enzyme digestion was used to genotype the samples. Genotypes were validated using direct sequencing in a smaller sample. The results show that HFE p.H63D polymorphism is not associated with WML severity in the whole cohort. However, there is a significant association of the D allele with severity of WML in noncarriers of the APOE ε4 allele. No association is demonstrated between the HFE p.C282Y nor the AGTR1 c.1166A → C polymorphisms and WML severity. The HFE gene appears to be a genetic risk factor for severe aging WML independently of the APOE ε4 genotype. This would support the role of iron-related oxidative stress, in addition to previously studied factors, e.g., hypoxia as potential risk factors for developing prominent aging WML.

  15. Photoacoustic imaging of an inflammatory lesion model in the neonatal rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar; Berti, Romain; Londono, Irène; Xie, Ningshi; Bellec, Pierre; Lesage, Frédéric; Lodygensky, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a condition that may cause significant neurodevelopmental handicap in premature newborns. It is characterized by white matter injury, associated with inflammation. This work aimed to assess the impact of inflammation on cerebral oxygen saturation (sO2) using depth-sensitive photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The aspects of PVL were reproduced in a rodent model by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the corpus callosum. The results of this exploratory work reveal lower sO2 values in LPS group, as compared to sham controls; showing decreased values in the corpus callosum and in the left cortex, ipsilateral to the injection site. Interhemispherical connectivity was not affected by LPS injection, as shown by functional connectivity analysis. This study supports the use of PAT as a non-invasive tool to assess oxygenation values in vivo in the newborn brain.

  16. Brain lesions in preterm infants: initial diagnosis and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    Children surviving premature birth present with a wide spectrum of motor, sensory and cognitive disabilities, ranging from slight motor deficits, school difficulties and behavioural problems to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. The anatomic and functional substrate of these problems can be investigated using a variety of imaging techniques. Cranial US coupled with colour Doppler is a well-established method for the initial diagnosis of intraventricular haemorrhage, parenchymal haemorrhagic infarct and periventricular leukomalacia. MRI is useful for the follow-up study of brain maturation. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging coupled with sophisticated tools of tissue segmentation and analysis at a voxel level offer substantial anatomic and functional information on pathological conditions that define the prognosis of preterm infants. (orig.)

  17. Pharmacological treatments inhibiting levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-lesioned monkeys: brain glutamate biochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eMorin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiglutamatergic drugs can relieve Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms and decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID. This review reports relevant studies investigating glutamate receptor subtypes in relation to motor complications in PD patients and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Antagonists of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, display antidyskinetic activity in PD patients and animal models such as the MPTP monkey. Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor antagonists were shown to reduce the severity of LID in PD patients as well as in already dyskinetic non-human primates and to prevent the development of LID in de novo treatments in non-human primates. An increase in striatal post-synaptic NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors is documented in PD patients and MPTP monkeys with LID. This increase can be prevented in MPTP monkeys with the addition of a specific glutamate receptor antagonist to the L-DOPA treatment and also with drugs of various pharmacological specificities suggesting multiple receptor interactions. This is yet to be well documented for presynaptic mGlu4 and mGlu2/3 and offers additional new promising avenues.

  18. An Endocrine Jaw Lesion: Dentist Perspective in Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapala, Lavanya; Babburi, Suresh; Venigalla, Aparna; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Ganipineni, Kiranmai

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumor is a rare nonneoplastic focal giant cell lesion that occurs in hyperparathyroidism patients with a prevalence rate of 0.1% in jaws. We report an extremely rare case of brown tumor in mandible of a 40-year-old female patient that presented as the first clinical manifestation of hyperparathyroidism. Dentist played a pivotal role in the present case by the early diagnosis of lesion and its intervention. PMID:27974979

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain lesions using S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in arundic acid- (ONO-2506) treated stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Hideaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Satou, Takao; Ohta, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana

    2009-10-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) used as a model of essential hypertension cause a high incidence of brain stroke on the course of hypertension. Incidences and sizes of brain lesions are known to relate to the astrocyte activities. Therefore, relation between brain damage and the expression profile of the astrocytes was investigated with morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses using astrocyte marker antibodies of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with or without arundic acid administration, a suppressor on the activation of astrocytes. Arundic acid extended the average life span of SHRSP. An increase in brain tissue weight was inhibited concomitant with a lower rate of gliosis/hemosiderin deposit/scarring in brain lesions. S100B- or GFAP-positive dot and filamentous structures were decreased in arundic acid-treated SHRSP, and this effect was most pronounced in the cerebral cortex, white matter, and pons, and less so in the hippocampus, diencephalon, midbrain, and cerebellum. Blood pressure decreased after administration of arundic acid in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg/day arundic acid), but not in the low-dose group (30 mg/kg/day). These data indicate that arundic acid can prevent hypertension-induced stroke, and may inhibit the enlargement of the stroke lesion by preventing the inflammatory changes caused by overproduction of the S100B protein in the astrocytes.

  20. Imaging of brain tumors and other lesions utilizing /sup 99m/Tc phosphates and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Burt, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.

    1982-11-01

    The intensity of parenchymal brain lesions was compared using /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and /sup 99m/Tc phosphate. The following conclusions were made: 1. If the /sup 99m/Tc phosphate intensity is greater than the intensity of the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scan, and the patient is evaluated within four weeks of ictus, the lesion is a CVA (P less than .001). 2. If the /sup 99m/Tc phosphate intensity is less than or equal to the intensity of the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scan, and the patient is evaluated within four weeks of ictus, the parenchymal lesion is not a CVA (P less than .001). 3. If the evaluation takes place longer than six weeks after ictus, then no evaluation about the nature of the lesion can be made based upon uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate.

  1. Clusterin expression in non-neoplastic adenohypophyses and pituitary adenomas: cytoplasmic clusterin localization in adenohypophysis is related to aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, A Işin Doğan; Eren, Bülent; Türkmen, Nursel; Comunoğlu, Nil; Fedakar, Recep

    2008-01-01

    Clusterin is a circulating multifunctional glycoprotein produced in several kinds of epithelial and neuronal cells. Clusterin is upregulated during different physiological and pathological states, such as senescence, type-2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer disease, and in various neoplasms. Herein, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of clusterin in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis of human autopsy subjects and pituitary adenomas. We also investigated the association of clusterin increase with age in adenohypophysis of autopsy subjects. Immunohistochemically, clusterin was found positive in the cytoplasm of all adenoma cases, and in the cytoplasm of parenchymal cells, stellate cells, mixed cell follicles and in colloidal material inside of the follicles of non-neoplastic adenohypophysis as well. Clusterin expression in pituitary adenomas was found significantly higher than in non-neoplastic adenohypophyses. In addition, in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis, a significant increase in clusterin expression levels between young (or=61 years) subjects (p adenohypophysis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that clusterin expression was found in non-neoplastic adenohypophysis and in upregulated amounts in pituitary adenomas. This study also demonstrated that in non-neoplastic adenohypophyses, increase of clusterin positive cells; histopathological findings of calcification or presence colloidal material accumulation in large follicles were associated with age. To our knowledge, immunohistochemical localization of clusterin in pituitary adenomas was not reported previously.

  2. Topographical and quantitative assessment of white matter injury following a focal ischaemic lesion in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, P S; Patterson, J; Graham, D I; Takasago, T; Dewar, D; McCulloch, J

    1998-06-01

    Axonal injury following cerebral ischaemia has attracted less attention than damage in grey matter. However, it is becoming increasingly recognised that axons are highly vulnerable to focal ischaemia [D. Dewar, D.A. Dawson, Changes of cytoskeletal protein immunostaining in myelinated fibre tracts after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat, Acta. Neuropathol., 93 (1997) 71-77] [2]; [L. Pantoni, J.H. Garcia, J.A. Gutierrez, Cerebral white matter is highly vulnerable to ischemia, Stroke, 27 (1996) 1641-1647] [10]; [P. S. Yam, T. Takasago, D. Dewar, D.I. Graham, J. McCulloch, Amyloid precursor protein accumulates in white matter at the margin of a focal ischaemic lesion, Brain Res., 760 (1997) 150-157] [15]. Since white matter does not contain neuronal cell bodies or synapses it is likely that the mechanisms of injury and strategies for its protection are different from those in grey matter. In order that the effect of therapeutic intervention on the protection of axons can be assessed, a method by which axonal injury can be mapped and quantified is required. For this purpose, we investigated immunocytochemical methods using amyloid precursor protein (APP) following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. APP is transported by fast anterograde axonal transport [E.H. Koo, S.S. Sisodia, D.R. Archer, L.J. Martin, A. Weidemann, K. Beyreuther, P. Fischer, C.L. Masters, D.L. Price, Precursor of amyloid protein in Alzheimer disease undergoes fast anterograde axonal transport, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (1990) 1561-1565] [7] and has been shown to accumulate following a variety of insults to axons, indicative of dysfunction of axonal transport [R.N. Kalaria, S.U. Bhatti, E.A. Palatinsky, D.H. Pennington, E.R. Shelton, H.W. Chan, G. Perry, W.D. Lust, Accumulation of the beta amyloid precursor protein at sites of ischemic injury in rat brain, Neuroreport, 4 (1993) 211-214] [4]; [T. Kawarabayashi, M. Shoji, Y. Harigaya, H. Yamaguchi, S. Hirai, Expression of APP

  3. The distribution of radioactivity in brains of rats given (N-methyl- sup 11 C)PK 11195 in vivo after induction of a cortical ischaemic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.E.; Hume, S.P.; Cullen, B.M.; Myers, R.; Manjil, L.G.; Turton, D.R.; Luthra, S.K.; Bateman, D.M.; Pike, V.W. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit)

    1992-02-01

    PK 11195 is a selective ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine bindings site (PTBBS). There are few sites in normal brain but their number increases in association with tissue necrosis. The time-course of appearance of PTBBS around a focally induced ischaemic lesion in frontal cortex of rat brain was established by autoradiography using (N-methyl-{sup 3} H )PK 11195. Using this information and the same experimental model of ischaemia, the distribution of radioactivity after injection of carbon-11 labelled PK 11195 was studied. The purpose was to synthesize (N-methyl-{sup 11}C)PK 11195 and to test its suitability as a tracer for depicting the presence of PTBB in ischaemic lesions. The time-profiles of distribution of radioactivity in brain regions after intravenous injection of tracer and the ratio of radioactivity in lesioned compared with unlesioned cortex were determined. Data for the temporal (days after lesion induction) and for the regional retention of radioactivity were consistent with independent evidence (autoradiographic and immunohistochemical) for the occurence of increased numbers of PTBBS, predominantly in association with macrophages, in areas undergoing necrosis. (Author).

  4. Comprehensive analysis of human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-W locus transcription in multiple sclerosis brain lesions by high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katja; Richter, Christin; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Ruprecht, Klemens; Mayer, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) of the HERV-W group comprise hundreds of loci in the human genome. Deregulated HERV-W expression and HERV-W locus ERVWE1-encoded Syncytin-1 protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the actual transcription of HERV-W loci in the MS context has not been comprehensively analyzed. We investigated transcription of HERV-W in MS brain lesions and white matter brain tissue from healthy controls by employing next-generation amplicon sequencing of HERV-W env-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR products, thus revealing transcribed HERV-W loci and the relative transcript levels of those loci. We identified more than 100 HERV-W loci that were transcribed in the human brain, with a limited number of loci being predominantly transcribed. Importantly, relative transcript levels of HERV-W loci were very similar between MS and healthy brain tissue samples, refuting deregulated transcription of HERV-W env in MS brain lesions, including the high-level-transcribed ERVWE1 locus encoding Syncytin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR likewise did not reveal differences in MS regarding HERV-W env general transcript or ERVWE1- and ERVWE2-specific transcript levels. However, we obtained evidence for interindividual differences in HERV-W transcript levels. Reporter gene assays indicated promoter activity of many HERV-W long terminal repeats (LTRs), including structurally incomplete LTRs. Our comprehensive analysis of HERV-W transcription in the human brain thus provides important information on the biology of HERV-W in MS lesions and normal human brain, implications for study design, and mechanisms by which HERV-W may (or may not) be involved in MS.

  5. Analysis of Small Ischemic Lesions in the Examinees of a Brain Dock and Neurological Examination of Animals Subjected to Cortical or Basal Ganglia Photothrombotic Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Tabata, Hitoshi; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya; Schallert, Timothy; Keep, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cases of small brain ischemic lesions found in examinees of a brain dock (neurological health screening center). Small cerebral infarction was found in 17 % of the examinees (733 cases). White matter lesions were found in 24 %. Infarctions were located in the cortex or subcortical white matter in 31 % and in the basal ganglia in 44 % of cases. Infratentorial infarction was found in 1.6 %. We have developed an animal model of small infarction in the cortex or basal ganglia induced by photothrombosis in rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats or Mongolian gerbils were anesthetized and photothrombotic infarction was induced in the left caudate nucleus or parietal cortex by light exposure via an optic fiber and intravenous Rose Bengal dye injection. Histological examination revealed development of a small spherical infarction surrounding the tip of the optic fiber. The lesion turned to a cyst by 6 weeks after lesioning. Neurological deficits were found in animals both with cortical and caudate infarction. Behavioral changes in an open field test differed with the lesion site. Neurological deficits were sustained longer in animals with larger infarctions. Thus, photothrombotic infarction is useful for analyzing location-dependent and size-dependent neurological and neuropathological changes after cerebral infarction.

  6. Progress and prospects in neurorehabilitation: clinical applications of stem cells and brain-computer interface for spinal cord lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Mariana; Peressutti, Caroline; Machado, Sergio; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide, causing a temporary or permanent impairment of neuromotor functions. Mostly associated to traumatic lesions, but also to other forms of disease, the appropriate treatment is still unsure. In this review, several ongoing studies are presented that aim to provide methods of prevention that ensure quality of life, and rehabilitation trends to patients who suffer from this injury. Stem cell research, highlighted in this review, seeks to reduce damage caused to the tissue, as also provide spinal cord regeneration through the application of several types of stem cells. On the other hand, research using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology proposes the development of interfaces based on the interaction of neural networks with artificial tools to restore motor control and full mobility of the injured area. PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analyses were performed to identify studies published from 2000 to date, which describe the link between SCI with stem cells and BCI technology.

  7. Effects of isoflurane, fentanyl, or thiopental anesthesia on regional cerebral blood flow and brain surface PO2 in the presence of a focal lesion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, R; Schürer, L; Berger, S; Enzenbach, R; Peter, K; Baethmann, A

    1993-11-01

    These studies were conducted to determine the effect of anesthetic drugs on tissue perfusion and O2 supply in the brain with focal cerebral edema. Using an open cranium preparation, we studied the effects of isoflurane (I; 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration), of fentanyl (F; 0.5-1 microgram.kg-1 x min-1), or of thiopental (T; 32.5 mg.kg-1 x h-1) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional brain tissue PO2 in albino rabbits (n = 6 per group) with a focal brain lesion (cold injury). The doses of anesthetics were sufficient to suppress nociception. rCBF (H2 clearance) and tissue PO2 (multiwire surface electrode) were studied adjacent to and distant from the lesion. Cerebral hyperemia developed immediately after trauma in all groups, although the flow increase did not attain statistical significance. rCBF was subsequently reduced by about 25% in the vicinity of the lesion. Distant from the trauma, a continuing hyperemia (+30%) was later observed in animals with isoflurane, whereas rCBF was decreased then by 10%-20% in animals with fentanyl, or was unchanged with thiopental. Brain tissue PO2 was increased with isoflurane in areas distant from the lesion, but decreased with fentanyl. However, with thiopental, the PO2 level had already been lowered before trauma with a subsequent tendency toward normalization. The heterogeneity of the tissue PO2 in fentanyl anesthesia, as well as the increased frequency of hypoxic PO2 values with thiopental, might have resulted from microcirculatory disturbances. Thus, although isoflurane seemed to facilitate hyperemia with an increased O2 supply to the brain, fentanyl tended to induce the opposite response. Although these properties suggest the potential to manipulate perfusion and O2 supply in cerebral ischemia or hyperemia after head injury, the effects of such measures on intracranial pressure, neurologic status, and outcome have yet to be proven.

  8. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury predictive of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Analysis with brain-image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Megalooikonomou, V.; Davatzikos, C.; Chen, A.; Bryan, R. N.; Gerring, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distribution of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children after closed-head injury and the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained from 76 children without prior history of ADHD were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after closed-head injury. After manual delineation of lesions, images were registered to the Talairach coordinate system. For each subject, registered images and secondary ADHD status were integrated into a brain-image database, which contains depiction (visualization) and statistical analysis software. Using this database, we assessed visually the spatial distributions of lesions and performed statistical analysis of image and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of the 76 children, 15 developed secondary ADHD. Depiction of the data suggested that children who developed secondary ADHD had more lesions in the right putamen than children who did not develop secondary ADHD; this impression was confirmed statistically. After Bonferroni correction, we could not demonstrate significant differences between secondary ADHD status and lesion burdens for the right caudate nucleus or the right globus pallidus. CONCLUSION: Closed-head injury-induced lesions in the right putamen in children are associated with subsequent development of secondary ADHD. Depiction software is useful in guiding statistical analysis of image data.

  9. Pitfalls of improperly procured adjacent non-neoplastic tissue for somatic mutation analysis using next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing provides an efficient system for detecting somatic alterations in neoplasms. The detection of such alterations requires a matched non-neoplastic sample for adequate filtering of non-somatic events such as germline polymorphisms. Non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to the excised neoplasm is often used for this purpose as it is simultaneously collected and generally contains the same tissue type as the neoplasm. Following NGS analysis, we and others have frequently observed low-level somatic mutations in these non-neoplastic tissues, which may impose additional challenges to somatic mutation detection as it complicates germline variant filtering. Methods We hypothesized that the low-level somatic mutation observed in non-neoplastic tissues may be entirely or partially caused by inadvertent contamination by neoplastic cells during the surgical pathology gross assessment or tissue procurement process. To test this hypothesis, we applied a systematic protocol designed to collect multiple grossly non-neoplastic tissues using different methods surrounding each single neoplasm. The procedure was applied in two breast cancer lumpectomy specimens. In each case, all samples were first sequenced by whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in the neoplasm and determine their presence in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. We then generated ultra-deep coverage using targeted sequencing to assess the levels of contamination in non-neoplastic tissue samples collected under different conditions. Results Contamination levels in non-neoplastic tissues ranged up to 3.5 and 20.9 % respectively in the two cases tested, with consistent pattern correlated with the manner of grossing and procurement. By carefully controlling the conditions of various steps during this process, we were able to eliminate any detectable contamination in both patients. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the

  10. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury in children predictive of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R. Nick

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distributions of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children, adolescents, and young adults after closed-head injury (CHI) and development of the reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained in 94 subjects without a history of PTSD as determined by parental interview were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after CHI. Lesions were manually delineated and registered to the Talairach coordinate system. Mann-Whitney analysis of lesion distribution and PTSD status at 1 year (again, as determined by parental interview) was performed, consisting of an analysis of lesion distribution versus the major symptoms of PTSD: reexperiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects, 41 met the PTSD reexperiencing criterion and nine met all three PTSD criteria. Subjects who met the reexperiencing criterion had fewer lesions in limbic system structures (eg, the cingulum) on the right than did subjects who did not meet this criterion (Mann-Whitney, P =.003). CONCLUSION: Lesions induced by CHI in the limbic system on the right may inhibit subsequent manifestation of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Copyright RSNA, 2002.

  11. Neuroanatomical localization and quantification of amyloid precursor protein mRNA by in situ hybridization in the brains of normal, aneuploid, and lesioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendotti, C.; Forloni, G.L.; Morgan, R.A.; O' Hara, B.F.; Oster-Granite, M.L.; Reeves, R.H.; Gearhart, J.D.; Coyle, J.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Amyloid precursor protein mRNA was localized in frozen sections from normal and experimentally lesioned adult mouse brain and from normal and aneuploid fetal mouse brain by in situ hybridization with a {sup 35}S-labeled mouse cDNA probe. The highest levels of hybridization in adult brain were associated with neurons, primarily in telencephalic structures. The dense labeling associated with hippocampal pyramidal cells was reduced significantly when the cells were eliminated by injection of the neurotoxin ibotenic acid but was not affected when electrolytic lesions were placed in the medial septum. Since the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein has been localized to mouse chromosome 16, the authors also examined the expression of this gene in the brains of mouse embryos with trisomy 16 and trisomy 19 at 15 days of gestation. RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed a marked increase in amyloid precursor protein mRNA in the trisomy 16 mouse head and brain when compared with euploid littermates or with trisomy 19 mice.

  12. Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate in the evaluation of patients with cerebrovascular lesions. The diagnostic value related to age of the lesion and to the size, type and localisation revealed by CT-scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Christensen, J; Skriver, E B

    1983-01-01

    Brain scintigraphy with Tc99-pertechnetate (Tc99-scan) was performed 4 times in 95 consecutive stroke patients: on average 5 days, 18 days, 103 days and 194 days after the stroke. The type (infarct, hematoma), size and localisation of the lesion was evaluated by CT-scan performed 3 times in all......: on average 3 days, 18 days and 207 days after the stroke. The detection rate of Tc99-scan was 31% on day 5, 47% on day 18, 18% on day 103 and 9% on day 194. The detection rate was however highly dependent upon: (i) the localisation of the lesion, i.e. superficially localised lesions were nearly always...... identified (90%) while infarcts localised deep in the hemisphere were identified in only 20% of the patients; (ii) the size of the lesion, i.e. large deep infarcts were seen with a much higher frequency than small deep infarcts. The detection rate of the CT-scan was practically not dependent upon the time...

  13. Assessment of the structural brain network reveals altered connectivity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Kerstin; Boyd, Roslyn N; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Rose, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term to describe the spectrum of disorders of impaired motor and sensory function caused by a brain lesion occurring early during development. Diffusion MRI and tractography have been shown to be useful in the study of white matter (WM) microstructure in tracts likely to be impacted by the static brain lesion. The purpose of this study was to identify WM pathways with altered connectivity in children with unilateral CP caused by periventricular white matter lesions using a whole-brain connectivity approach. Data of 50 children with unilateral CP caused by periventricular white matter lesions (5-17 years; manual ability classification system [MACS] I = 25/II = 25) and 17 children with typical development (CTD; 7-16 years) were analysed. Structural and High Angular Resolution Diffusion weighted Images (HARDI; 64 directions, b = 3000 s/mm(2)) were acquired at 3 T. Connectomes were calculated using whole-brain probabilistic tractography in combination with structural parcellation of the cortex and subcortical structures. Connections with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) in children with unilateral CP compared to CTD were identified using network-based statistics (NBS). The relationship between FA and performance of the impaired hand in bimanual tasks (Assisting Hand Assessment-AHA) was assessed in connections that showed significant differences in FA compared to CTD. FA was reduced in children with unilateral CP compared to CTD. Seven pathways, including the corticospinal, thalamocortical, and fronto-parietal association pathways were identified simultaneously in children with left and right unilateral CP. There was a positive relationship between performance of the impaired hand in bimanual tasks and FA within the cortico-spinal and thalamo-cortical pathways (r(2) = 0.16-0.44; p treatment may elucidate the neurological correlates of improved functioning due to intervention.

  14. Digital Chromoendoscopy for Diagnosis of Diminutive Colorectal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To compare the accuracy of digital and real-time chromoendoscopy for the differential diagnosis of diminutive (<5 mm neoplastic and nonneoplastic colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods. This is a prospective randomized study comparing the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE system (65 patients/95 lesions and indigo carmine (69 patients/120 lesions in the analysis of capillary meshwork and pit pattern, respectively. All lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter, and magnification was used in both groups. Histopathology was the gold standard examination. Results. Of 215 colorectal lesions, 153 (71.2% were adenomas, and 62 were hyperplastic polyps (28.8%. Morphological analysis revealed 132 (61.4% superficial lesions, with 7 (3.3% depressed lesions, and 83 (38.6% protruding lesions. Vascular meshwork analysis using FICE and magnification resulted in 91.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, and 92.6% accuracy in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions. Pit pattern analysis with indigo carmine and magnification showed 96.5% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, and 94.2% accuracy for the same purpose. Conclusion. Both magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy showed high accuracy in the histopathological diagnosis of colorectal lesions less than 5 mm in diameter.

  15. Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Murakami, Osamu; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka; Arai, Yoichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    Adrenomedullin 2/intermedin (AM2/IMD) is a new member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family. AM is expressed in various tumors including adrenocortical tumors and modulates tumor growth. The AM2/IMD expression has not been studied, however, in adrenal tumors. The expression of AM2/IMD and AM was therefore studied in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunocytochemistry (ICC). Immunoreactive (IR)-AM2/IMD was measured by RIA. Furthermore, the expression of AM2/IMD and its receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 1, 2, and 3 mRNA in these tissues was studied by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). ICC showed that AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were localized in adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas. AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were detected in medulla of attached non-neoplastic tissues, while the degree of immunoreactivity for AM2/IMD and AM in cortices of attached adrenals was relatively weak or undetectable. RIA detected IR-AM2/IMD in adrenal tumors (0.414+/-0.12 to 0.786+/-0.27 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M.) and attached adrenal tissues (0.397+/-0.052 pmol/g wet weight). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography showed one broad peak eluted in the similar position to synthetic AM2/IMD with several minor peaks. RT-PCR showed expression of AM2/IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 mRNA in tissues of adrenal tumors and attached adrenal glands. In conclusion, AM2/IMD is expressed in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues and may play (patho-)physiological roles in normal and neoplastic adrenals as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.

  16. Reversible lesions in the brain parenchyma in Wilson’s disease conifrmed by magnetic resonance imaging:earlier administration of chelating therapy can reduce the damage to the brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duko B Kozi; Igor Petrovi; Marina Svetel; Tatjana Pekmezovi; Aleksandar Ragaji; Vladimir S Kosti

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resolution of brain lesions in patients with Wilson’s disease during the long-term chelating therapy using magnetic resonance imaging and a possible signiifcance of the time latency between the initial symptoms of the disease and the introduction of this therapy. Initial magnetic resonance examination was performed in 37 patients with proven neurological form of Wilson’s disease with cerebellar, parkinsonian and dystonic presentation. Magnetic resonance reexamination was done 5.7 ± 1.3 years later in 14 patients. Patients were divided into: group A, where chelating therapy was initiated < 24 months from the ifrst symp-toms and group B, where the therapy started≥ 24 months after the initial symptoms. Symmetry of the lesions was seen in 100% of patients. There was a signiifcant difference between groups A and B regarding complete resolution of brain stem and putaminal lesions (P= 0.005 andP=0.024, respectively). If the correct diagnosis and adequate treatment are not established less than 24 months after onset of the symptoms, irreversible lesions in the brain parenchyma could be ex-pected. Signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging might therefore, at least in the early stages, represent reversible myelinolisis or cytotoxic edema associated with copper toxicity.

  17. Quantitative texture analysis of brain white matter lesions derived from T2-weighted MR images in MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, C P; Petroudi, S; Seimenis, I; Pantziaris, M; Pattichis, C S

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the application of texture analysis methods on brain T2-white matter lesions detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prognosis of future disability in subjects diagnosed with clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain lesions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) from 38 symptomatic untreated subjects diagnosed with CIS as well as normal white matter (NWM) from 20 healthy volunteers, were manually segmented, by an experienced MS neurologist, on transverse T2-weighted images obtained from serial brain MR imaging scans (0 and 6-12 months). Additional clinical information in the form of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), a scale from 0 to 10, which provides a way of quantifying disability in MS and monitoring the changes over time in the level of disability, were also provided. Shape and most importantly different texture features including GLCM and laws were then extracted for all above regions, after image intensity normalization. The findings showed that: (i) there were significant differences for the texture futures extracted between the NAWM and lesions at 0 month and between NAWM and lesions at 6-12 months. However, no significant differences were found for all texture features extracted when comparing lesions temporally at 0 and 6-12 months with the exception of contrast (gray level difference statistics-GLDS) and difference entropy (spatial gray level dependence matrix-SGLDM); (ii) significant differences were found between NWM and NAWM for most of the texture features investigated in this study; (iii) there were significant differences found for the lesion texture features at 0 month for those with EDSS≤2 versus those with EDSS>2 (mean, median, inverse difference moment and sum average) and for the lesion texture features at 6-12 months with EDSS>2 and EDSS≤2 for the texture features (mean, median, entropy and sum average). It should be noted that whilst there were no differences

  18. Brain atrophy and lesion load are related to CSF lipid-specific IgM oligoclonal bands in clinically isolated syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, Maria Jose; Bosca, Isabel; Simo-Castello, Maria; Casanova, Bonaventura [Hospital La Fe, Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Department, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Marti, Gracian [Hospital Quiron, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Mental Health Network, ISCIII, Valencia (Spain); Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Hospital Quiron, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Valencia (Spain); Coret, Francisco [Hospital Clinic Universitari, Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Department, Valencia (Spain); Alvarez-Cermeno, Jose C. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Neurology Department, Madrid (Spain); Villar, Luisa M. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Immunology Department, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this work is to study the relationship between the presence of lipid-specific oligoclonal IgM bands (LS-OCMB) in CSF, with both T2 lesion volume (T2LV) accumulation and brain atrophy (percentage change of brain volume-PCBV-and brain parenchyma fraction-BPF) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of demyelination. Twenty-four CIS patients were included in this prospective study. IgG oligoclonal bands (OCGB) and LS-OCMB were determined in paired serum and CSF samples within 3 months since clinical onset. Brain MRI studies were scheduled at baseline, 3 months, first and second years after CIS onset. Differences in T2LV, PCBV and BPF between CIS patients according to the type of OCB were studied. Nine patients had no OCB; 15 had only OCGB, and seven had OCGB + LS-OCMB present in the CSF. LS-OCMB were associated with greater T2LV in all scheduled MRI studies. At the end of follow-up (year 2), it was threefold higher in patients with these antibodies than in those without LS-OCMB (3.95 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.36 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.001). At that point, brain atrophy was also higher in patients with LS-OCMB (BPF, 0.73 in LS-OCMB+ patients vs. 0.76 in negative ones, p = 0.03). The rate in brain atrophy was higher in the first group of patients as well. Considering only patients with OCGB, the presence of LS-OCMB was also related to greater T2LV, T2LV increase and a trend towards higher atrophy rate. The presence of LS-OCMB in the first event suggestive of demyelination is related to an early increase in lesion load and brain atrophy. These data are in line with prospective studies showing the clinical prognostic value of LS-OCMB. (orig.)

  19. DYNAMICS OF HIGHGER MENTAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBLITERATING LESIONS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES IN SURGICAL BRAIN REVASCUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obliterating atherosclerosis of internal carotid arteries is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke and discirculatory encephalopathy. It causes up to 40% of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. Currently, the strategy for stroke prevention is determined by the intensive development of surgical methods of treatment, primarily methods for managing lesions of brachiocephalic arteries. Based on the results of a number of international multicenter randomized studies, indications for reconstructive operations for BCA, tactics for managing patients in the postoperative period were formulated. A number of patients with atherosclerotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries have reduced cognitive functions. The aim of the study is to compare cognitive functions (CF in patients who underwent different surgical approaches in the treatment of obliterating atherosclerotic lesion of internal carotid arteries (ICA. MATERIAL AND METHODS We studied higher mental functions (HMFs in 116 patients with obliterating unilateral or bilateral lesion of ICA. The study of cognitive functions (MF was performed prior to carotid endarterectomy (CE, group 1, n=73 and transluminal balloon angioplasty of ICAs (TBA of ICA, group 2, n=43, and on days 5–7 and 30–31 after cerebral revascularization (CR. To assess the overall severity of cognitive impairment, the summary indicators of main screening neuropsychological tests were used: MMSE; MoCA; Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB; Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results Neuropsychologic disorders were reavealed in 98% of patients prior to surgery. An initially comparable condition of HMF in groups with CE and TBA of ICA was revealed. MMSE2 revealed a significant improvement in the results in group 1 both in comparison with the initial data (p<0.05 and in comparison with the results of the second test of group 2. The results of MMSE1 and MMSE2 in group 2 did not show significant differences

  20. Brain lesions comprised of aluminum-rich cells that lack microtubules may be associated with the cognitive deficit of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2009-11-01

    A recent longitudinal study described an inducible rodent model for age-related cognitive deterioration. This model was produced by chronically feeding rats aluminum, from age 12 months onwards, in measured amounts equivalent to total aluminum levels ingested by Americans from their food, beverages and aluminum additives. The rats performed a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory discrimination task weekly throughout middle age and old age. One-third of the rats attained significantly lower mean performance scores in old age than middle age, in an aluminum dose-dependent manner, and exhibited behavioral signs observed in dementia. The present study used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to identify neuropathological difference between brains of rats that showed cognitive deterioration and the cognitively intact controls. Most aged rat brains had large numbers of aluminum-loaded pyramidal cells in their entorhinal cortex and temporal association cortex but the cognitively deteriorated rats had threefold more such cells than controls (paluminum-rich microtubule-depleted pyramidal cells with shriveled processes, and loss of synapse density. Corticolimbic sections from brains of humans with Alzheimer's disease also showed neuropathology consistent with this type of damage. The evidence suggests bioavailable aluminum gradually accumulates in cortical and limbic regions of susceptible subjects' brains, eventually producing hippocampal lesions consisting of dysfunctional aluminum-rich microtubule-depleted pyramidal cells with damaged neurites and synapse loss. These lesions expand over time, disrupting afferent and efferent hippocampal circuitry with the development of clinically overt dementia.

  1. Brain histopathology in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: identification of lesions associated with clinical neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes and the role of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniëlle; Rijnink, Emilie C; Nabuurs, Rob J A; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M; Versluis, Maarten J; Emmer, Bart J; Zandbergen, Malu; van Buchem, Mark A; Allaart, Cornelia F; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bruijn, Jan A; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement is a poorly understood manifestation of SLE. We studied post-mortem histopathology in relation to clinical NPSLE syndromes and complement deposition in brains of NPSLE and SLE patients and controls. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between cerebral post-mortem histopathology and ex vivo 7 T MRI findings in SLE and NPSLE. A nationwide search for autopsy material yielded brain tissue from 16 NPSLE and 18 SLE patients. Brains obtained from 24 patients who died of acute cardiac events served as controls. Apart from a histopathological evaluation, paraffin-embedded cortical tissue was stained for components of the classical, lectin and terminal complement pathways. Diffuse vasculopathy, microinfarction, macroinfarction, vasculitis and microthrombi occurred significantly more often in NPSLE than SLE patients and were absent in controls. Focal vasculopathy was found in both SLE patients and controls. Complement deposition was strongly associated with both SLE and NPSLE, but not with controls (P < 0.001). Microthrombi were found uniquely in NPSLE and were associated with C4d and C5b-9 deposits (P < 0.05). A 7 T MRI was unable to detect most small vessel injury that was visible histopathologically. Our study demonstrates that histopathological lesions in NPSLE represent a continuum, ranging from non-specific lesions such as focal vasculopathy, to more specific lesions including C4d- and C5b-9-associated microthrombi and diffuse vasculopathy related to clinical syndromes defining NPSLE. Complement deposition may be a key factor in the interaction between circulating autoantibodies and thromboischaemic lesions observed in NPSLE. Therefore, complement inhibition may have novel therapeutic potential in NPSLE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  3. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  4. Preoperative cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide measured by brain perfusion SPECT predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions caused by microemboli during carotid endarterectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Kenta; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)]|[Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether preoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide measured by quantitative brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions on postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) that are caused by microemboli during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). One hundred and fifty patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) underwent CEA under transcranial Doppler monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preoperative CVR to acetazolamide was measured using [{sup 123}I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine SPECT, and region of interest (ROI) analysis in the ipsilateral MCA territory was performed using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. DWI was performed within 3 days before and 24 h after surgery. Twenty-six patients (17.3%) developed new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, among the variables tested, a high number of MES during carotid dissection (95% CIs, 1.179 to 1.486; P < 0.0001) and preoperative reduced CVR to acetazolamide (95% CIs, 0.902 to 0.974; P = 0.0008), which were significantly associated with the development of new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI. In 47 patients with MES during carotid dissection, the combination of number of MES during carotid dissection and CVR to acetazolamide identified development of new postoperative ischemic lesions on DWI with a positive predictive value of 100% or zero. Preoperative CVR to acetazolamide measured by quantitative brain perfusion SPECT predicts development of cerebral ischemic lesions on postoperative DWI that are caused by microemboli during CEA. (orig.)

  5. [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 PET imaging of translocator protein TSPO (18 kDa) in the normal and excitotoxically-lesioned nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavisse, S.; Inoue, K.; Jan, C.; Petit, F.; Dauguet, J.; Guillermier, M.; Rbah-Vidal, L.; Van Camp, N.; Aron-Badin, R.; Hantraye, P. [CEA, I2BM, MIRCen, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, CNRS, URA2210, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peyronneau, M.A.; Goutal, S.; Dolle, F. [CEA, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Remy, P. [CEA, I2BM, MIRCen, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, CNRS, URA2210, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Service de Neurologie, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil (France)

    2014-12-09

    We aimed to characterize pharmacologically the TSPO- radioligand [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 in the brain of healthy cynomolgus monkeys and evaluate the cellular origin of its binding in a model of neurodegeneration induced by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA). [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 PET images were acquired before and at 2, 7, 14, 21, 49, 70, 91 days after putaminal lesioning. Blocking and displacement studies were carried out (PK11195). Different modelling approaches estimated rate constants and V{sub T} (total distribution volume) which was used to measure longitudinal changes in the lesioned putamen. Sections for immunohistochemical labelling were prepared at the same time-points to evaluate correlations between in vivo [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binding and microglial/astrocytic activation. [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 showed a widespread distribution with a higher signal in the thalamus and occipital cortex and lower binding in the cerebellum. TSPO was expressed throughout the whole brain and about 73 % of [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binding was specific for TSPO in vivo. The one-tissue compartment model (1-TCM) provided good and reproducible estimates of V{sub T} and rate constants, and V{sub T} values from the 1-TCM and the Logan approach were highly correlated (r {sup 2} = 0.85). QA lesioning induced an increase in V{sub T}, which was +17 %, +54 %, +157 % and +39 % higher than baseline on days 7, 14, 21 and 91 after QA injection, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed an early microglial and a delayed astrocytic activation after QA injection. [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binding matched TSPO immunopositive areas and showed a stronger colocalization with CD68 microglia than with GFAP-activated astrocytes. [{sup 18}F]DPA-714 binds to TSPO with high specificity in the primate brain under normal conditions and in the QA model. This tracer provides a sensitive tool for assessing neuroinflammation in the human brain. (orig.)

  6. Immunoexpression of the COX-2, p53, and caspase-3 proteins in colorectal adenoma and non-neoplastic mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Renan Brito; Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; Soares, Thélia Maria Santos; Rodrigues, Simone Rabello de Souza; Campos, Mariane Antonieta Menino; Toloi, Giovanna Canato; Waisberg, Jaques

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the immunoexpression of the COX-2, p53, and caspase-3 proteins in colorectal adenomas and non-neoplastic mucosa. Methods: 72 individuals were subjected to colonoscopy, which provided 50 samples of adenomas and 45 samples of non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. The tissue samples were obtained via the tissue microarray technique and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using primary anti-p53, anti-COX-2, and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The positivity and intensity of the immunoreaction were classified. The analyzed variables were as follows: site of the adenomas in the colon, degree of dysplasia, size, and score of positivity and intensity of immunoexpression of the p-53, caspase-3, and COX-2 proteins. Results: The immunoexpression of mutated protein p53 was positive in 30 (60%) adenoma samples and negative in 20 (40%) adenoma samples. The immunoexpression of mutated protein p53 was negative in 39 (86.6%) samples and positive in 6 (13.3%) samples of the non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa (p<0.0001). Significant differences were seen between both the largest size (p=0.006) and the highest degree of dysplasia (p<0.0001) of the adenomas and the intensity of immunoexpression of mutated protein p53. The positivity and intensity of immunoexpression of COX-2 (p=0.14) and caspase-3 (p=0.23) showed no significant differences between the adenomas and the non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. Conclusion: Mutated protein p53 was hyperexpressed in the adenomas compared with the non-neoplastic mucosa. Greater size and greater degree of dysplasia in the adenomas were associated with higher expression of mutated protein p53. The immunoexpression of COX-2 and caspase-3 in the adenomas did not exhibit a correlation with the anatomical-pathological features of the tumors and did not differ from the corresponding expression levels in the non-neoplastic mucosa. PMID:24488384

  7. DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC

  8. Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala

  9. A prospective comparison of brain contrast characteristics and lesion detection using single-shot fast spin-echo and fast spin-echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, T K; Halpin, S F; Bourne, M W; Hourihan, M D; Perkins, T; Sun, Y; Tan, S

    1999-07-01

    MRI is limited by movement artefact, even with current imagers, when examining a restless or claustrophobic patient. We prospectively analysed the images of 92 patients produced by a single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence and compared them with conventional (FSE) and reduced-time fast spin-echo (RT-FSE) techniques, with regard to lesion detection and movement artefact in brain imaging. Images obtained in each case were independently reviewed and scored for overall diagnosis, number of lesions detected, and movement artefact. FSE showed 1217 lesions, RT-FSE 1137, and SSFSE 1044. This discrepancy arose mainly in patients with multiple sclerosis or small-vessel disease, since with SSFSE we were less able to separate small, adjacent low-contrast lesions than with FSE. Arbitrary movement scores were 36, 25 and zero respectively. There were, however, no clinically significant differences in overall diagnosis between the three techniques. SSFSE thus proved a reliable, fast, accurate method for obtaining T2-weighted images, and may be of particular use in the restless, claustrophobic or obtunded patient.

  10. A prospective comparison of brain contrast characteristics and lesion detection using single-shot fast spin-echo and fast spin-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, T.K.; Halpin, S.F.S.; Bourne, M.W.; Hourihan, M.D.; Perkins, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Sun, Y.; Tan, S. [GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    MRI is limited by movement artefact, even with current imagers, when examining a restless or claustrophobic patient. We prospectively analysed the images of 92 patients produced by a single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) pulse sequence and compared them with conventional (FSE) and reduced-time fast spin-echo (RT-FSE) techniques, with regard to lesion detection and movement artefact in brain imaging. Images obtained in each case were independently reviewed and scored for overall diagnosis, number of lesions detected, and movement artefact. FSE showed 1217 lesions, RT-FSE 1137, and SSFSE 1044. This discrepancy arose mainly in patients with multiple sclerosis or small-vessel disease, since with SSFSE we were less able to separate small, adjacent low-contrast lesions than with FSE. Arbitrary movement scores were 36, 25 and zero respectively. There were, however, no clinically significant differences in overall diagnosis between the three techniques. SSFSE thus proved a reliable, fast, accurate method for obtaining T2-weighted images, and may be of particular use in the restless, claustrophobic or obtunded patient. (orig.)

  11. Inter- and intrahemispheric dissociations in ideomotor apraxia: a large-scale lesion-symptom mapping study in subacute brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Aurelie L; Radman, Narges; Mesot, Delphine; Chouiter, Leila; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2013-12-01

    Pantomimes of object use require accurate representations of movements and a selection of the most task-relevant gestures. Prominent models of praxis, corroborated by functional neuroimaging studies, predict a critical role for left parietal cortices in pantomime and advance that these areas store representations of tool use. In contrast, lesion data points to the involvement of left inferior frontal areas, suggesting that defective selection of movement features is the cause of pantomime errors. We conducted a large-scale voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analyses with configural/spatial (CS) and body-part-as-object (BPO) pantomime errors of 150 left and right brain-damaged patients. Our results confirm the left hemisphere dominance in pantomime. Both types of error were associated with damage to left inferior frontal regions in tumor and stroke patients. While CS pantomime errors were associated with left temporoparietal lesions in both stroke and tumor patients, these errors appeared less associated with parietal areas in stroke than in tumor patients and less associated with temporal in tumor than stroke patients. BPO errors were associated with left inferior frontal lesions in both tumor and stroke patients. Collectively, our results reveal a left intrahemispheric dissociation for various aspects of pantomime, but with an unspecific role for inferior frontal regions.

  12. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with and without freezing of gait: a comparative analysis of vascular lesions using brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M J; Cabello, J P; Pastor, C; Muñoz-Torrero, J J; Carrasco, S; Ibañez, R; Vaamonde, J

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling and enigmatic symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Vascular lesions, observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, may produce or exacerbate this symptom. The study includes 22 patients with Parkinson's disease subjects, 12 with freezing of gait and 10 without. All patients underwent an MRI scan and any vascular lesions were analysed using the modified Fazekas scale. Patients with FOG scored higher on the modified Fazekas scale than the rest of the group. Although the two groups contained the same percentage of patients with vascular lesions (50% in both groups), lesion load was higher in the group of patients with FOG. Vascular lesions in the periventricular area and deep white matter seem to be the most involved in the development of FOG. Vascular lesions may contribute to the onset or worsening of FOG in patients with PD. This study suggests that cerebral vascular disease should be considered in patients with FOG. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN THE THYROID LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules the main indication for FNAC, and the goal of this diagnostic procedure is to detect thyroid neoplasm for surgical resection and to identify non-neoplastic lesions that may be managed conservatively. MATERIAL AND METHOD Three hundred and fourteen patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed on physical examination underwent fine-needle aspiration with 23-gauge needle and 10ml syringe. FNAC results were classified into non-neoplastic lesion and neoplastic lesion for diagnosis. RESULT AND ANALYSIS We included 314 cases; 37 were male and 277 were female with female-to-male ratio of 7.48:1. The age ranged from 8 to 87 years with a median age of 47.5 years. Maximum number of patients were found in age group of 41-50 years. In the present study we found 285(90.76% non-neoplastic lesion and 29(9.23% neoplastic lesions. Out of 285 non-neoplastic lesion, most commonly encountered were colloid goiter 178(56.68% and second most common thyroiditis 100(31.84%. Out of 314,29(9.23% neoplastic lesions, most commonly encountered neoplasm were papillary carcinoma 14(4.45% followed by 9(2.86% follicular neoplasm, Hurthle cell neoplasm 2(0.63%, medullary carcinoma 4(1.27%. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES  To study the distribution of various thyroid lesions among the age and sex groups.  To study the cytomorphological, clinical and biochemical correlation. CONCLUSION Clinical features and serum findings when used alone to diagnose thyroid lesion, diagnosis will be missed in many cases.

  14. Interleukin-17- and interleukin-22-secreting myelin-specific CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are related with active brain lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Ana Cristina; Hygino, Joana; Ferreira, Thais B; Kasahara, Taissa M; Barros, Priscila O; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Regis M; Camargo, Solange; Rueda, Fernanda; Alves-Leon, Soniza V; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is believed that immunological events in the early stages have great impact on the disease course. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells from MS patients in the early phase of the disease and correlate it to clinical parameters, as well as to the effect of in vitro corticoid treatment. Peripheral T cells from MS patients were stimulated with MBP with our without hydrocortisone for 5 days. The cytokines level were determined by ELISA. The number of active brain lesions was determined by MRI scans, and the neurological disabilities were assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. Our results demonstrated that MS-derived T cells responded to MBP by producing high levels of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cytokines. Although the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-17 and IL-22 was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition, only IL-17 and IL-22 levels correlated with active brain lesions. The ability of hydrocortisone to inhibit IL-17 and IL-22 production by MBP-specific CD4(+) T cells was inversely related to the number of active brain lesions. Finally, the production of both cytokines was significantly higher in cell cultures from Afrodescendant patients and it was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition. In summary, our data suggest that IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are associated with radiological activity of the MS in early stages of the disease, mainly among Afrodescendant patients who, normally, have worse prognosis.

  15. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study

    OpenAIRE

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; YILMAZ, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Methods Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A si...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 18 = Lesion Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The fact sheet notes that the designation of traumatic brain injury as a separate category of disability signals that schools should provide children and youth with access…

  17. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Watanabe, Hideaki; Bjarkam, Carsten;

    2005-01-01

    developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...

  18. Immunohistochemical expression study of proapoptotic BH3-only protein bad in canine nonneoplastic tissues and canine lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, M; Croci, M; Vaughan, L; Guscetti, F

    2013-09-01

    The BH3-only protein Bad is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that acts as a sensitizer in intrinsic apoptosis by inactivating antiapoptotic members through heterodimer formation. Bad has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis, including lymphoma formation in humans and mice, through alteration in expression or functional status. Here, its immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in canine nonneoplastic and lymphoma tissues using tissue microarrays. Bad was expressed in the cytoplasm of a wide range of nonneoplastic tissues, especially epithelial cells. Nonneoplastic lymph nodes displayed weak immunostaining in the follicular germinal centers only. Immunoblotting supported these observations but also revealed presence of nonspecific labeling in some organs. Of 81 lymphomas, 29 (35.8%) displayed moderate to strong immunohistochemical Bad labeling, and a significant expression increase was found in lymphomas (especially B cell and double negative) compared to nonneoplastic lymph nodes. These findings warrant further investigations of the functional status, the involvement of partner proteins, and a possible impact of Bad on prognosis in canine lymphoma.

  19. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells.

  20. Brain, Craniofacial, and Dental Lesions of a Free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Implicated in a Human Attack in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabenlander, Marc; Stepaniuk, Kevin; Carstensen, Michelle; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant brain, craniofacial, and dental lesions in a free-ranging wolf (Canis lupus) involved in a human attack. On postmortem examination, the wolf presented asymmetric atrophy and bone remodeling affecting the mandible, incisive, maxilla, lacrimal, palatine, frontal, and ethmoid bones. There was an asymmetrical skeletal malocclusion and dental abnormalities including rotated, malpositioned, partially erupted teeth, and an odontogenic cyst associated with an unerupted canine tooth. Brain changes were bilateral loss and atrophy of extensive cortex regions including olfactory bulb, peduncles, and tract, and the frontal lobe. We highlight the relevance of a thorough postmortem examination of wildlife to elucidate disease-based abnormal behavior as the reason for human-animal conflict.

  1. Current trends in intraoperative optical imaging for functional brain mapping and delineation of lesions of language cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Neal; Uhlemann, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques.

  2. Aportes de la espectroscopía por resonancia magnética en las lesiones cerebrales The contribution of the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the brain lesions Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Surur

    2010-09-01

    way, the biochemical information provided by MRS is added to the morphologic information provided by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Even though the gold standards to determine the definite diagnosis of a brain lesion is still the biopsy, the MRS is a non-invasive method, free of complications which would help determine the type of lesion and avoid unnecessarybiopsies in non-tumor processes. The objective of this work is to determine if the monovoxel MRS hydrogen proton (H+ long Eco Time (TE is capable to differentiating or not the nature of the tumor from the brain lesions and classify them into levels of malignity. Material and Method: This is a retrospective study in which female and male patients of any ages were selected. A standard study of MRI was performed in them and it was completed with monovoxel ERM. Results: 47 lesions were analyzed and 43 (92.9% were adequately characterized, with a sensibility (S of 96.8% (IC 89-100, specificity (E of 89.6% (IC 76-100, positive predictive value (PPV of 91.1% (IC 80-100 and a negative predictive value (NPV of 96.3% (IC 87-100. There are many variables that can influence the acquisition of a spectrum capable of being analyzed and from them, inter-observer differences can emerge. However, our results were similar to those in other publications. Conclusion: The MRS together with the MRI proved to be a reliable method to determine whether a brain lesion is a tumor or not, with acceptable statistic values.

  3. Intellectual impairment and brain MRI findings in myotonic dystrophy. With a special reference to hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Etsuko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    We performed a correlative study between intellectual impairment, CTG repeat expansion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, including hippocampal atrophy, white matter lesions and ventricular dilatation in 15 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). They included 4 males and 11 females aged from 20 to 66 years, averaging 43 years of age and 15 years of duration of illness. Nine patients had intellectual impairment (WAIS-R<80). Negative correlations were found between full scale IQ (FSIQ), duration of illness (p<0.05) and CTG repeat expansion (p<0.05). Compared with normal controls, the patients with MD showed a significant reduction in size of the hippocampal head (p<0.01), which was positively correlated to FSIQ, verbal IQ and performance IQ levels (p<0.05). Ten patients had white matter lesions. Severer white matter lesions tended to be recognized in patients with longer duration of illness and with decreased FSIQ level. These results suggest that hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions are related to intellectual impairment in patients with MD. (author).

  4. Parallel olfactory processing in the honey bee brain: odor learning and generalization under selective lesion of a projection neuron tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eCarcaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of parallel neural processing is a fundamental problem in Neuroscience, as it is found across sensory modalities and evolutionary lineages, from insects to humans. Recently, parallel processing has attracted increased attention in the olfactory domain, with the demonstration in both insects and mammals that different populations of second-order neurons encode and/or process odorant information differently. Among insects, Hymenoptera present a striking olfactory system with a clear neural dichotomy from the periphery to higher-order centers, based on two main tracts of second-order (projection neurons: the medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT. To unravel the functional role of these two pathways, we combined specific lesions of the m-ALT tract with behavioral experiments, using the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER conditioning. Lesioned and intact bees had to learn to associate an odorant (1-nonanol with sucrose. Then the bees were subjected to a generalization procedure with a range of odorants differing in terms of their carbon chain length or functional group. We show that m-ALT lesion strongly affects acquisition of an odor-sucrose association. However, lesioned bees that still learned the association showed a normal gradient of decreasing generalization responses to increasingly dissimilar odorants. Generalization responses could be predicted to some extent by in vivo calcium imaging recordings of l-ALT neurons. The m-ALT pathway therefore seems necessary for normal classical olfactory conditioning performance.

  5. Parallel Olfactory Processing in the Honey Bee Brain: Odor Learning and Generalization under Selective Lesion of a Projection Neuron Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The function of parallel neural processing is a fundamental problem in Neuroscience, as it is found across sensory modalities and evolutionary lineages, from insects to humans. Recently, parallel processing has attracted increased attention in the olfactory domain, with the demonstration in both insects and mammals that different populations of second-order neurons encode and/or process odorant information differently. Among insects, Hymenoptera present a striking olfactory system with a clear neural dichotomy from the periphery to higher-order centers, based on two main tracts of second-order (projection) neurons: the medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). To unravel the functional role of these two pathways, we combined specific lesions of the m-ALT tract with behavioral experiments, using the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER conditioning). Lesioned and intact bees had to learn to associate an odorant (1-nonanol) with sucrose. Then the bees were subjected to a generalization procedure with a range of odorants differing in terms of their carbon chain length or functional group. We show that m-ALT lesion strongly affects acquisition of an odor-sucrose association. However, lesioned bees that still learned the association showed a normal gradient of decreasing generalization responses to increasingly dissimilar odorants. Generalization responses could be predicted to some extent by in vivo calcium imaging recordings of l-ALT neurons. The m-ALT pathway therefore seems necessary for normal classical olfactory conditioning performance.

  6. NEUROCHEMICAL LESIONING IN THE RAT-BRAIN WITH IONTOPHORETIC INJECTION OF THE 1-METHYL-4-PHENYLPYRIDINIUM ION (MPP+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; KNIGGE, MF; VANDERWAL, A

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoretic injections of the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) were made in the dopaminergic part of the substantia nigra to see whether this injection technique could be used for inducing localized neurochemical lesions in dopaminergic cell groups and to assess the effects of MPP+ on non-do

  7. Biochemical indications of cerebral ischaemia and mitochondrial dysfunction in severe brain trauma analysed with regard to type of lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Schalén, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    ), cerebral haemorrhagic contusion (CHC) and no mass lesion (NML). Altogether about 150,000 biochemical analyses were performed during the initial 96 h after trauma. Compromised aerobic metabolism occurred during 38 % of the study period. The biochemical pattern indicating mitochondrial dysfunction was more...

  8. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Bernardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn SOD or the control GFP transgenes 2 hours after intracortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA administration, and daily functional evaluation was performed. Moreover, 3 days after, lesion volume, neuronal degeneration and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results Overexpression of Cu/Zn SOD transgene after NMDA administration showed improved functional outcome and a reduced lesion volume at 3 days post lesion. In secondary degenerative areas, increased neuronal survival as well as decreased numbers of degenerating neurons and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was seen. Interestingly, injection of the NLSCt vector carrying the control GFP transgene also displayed a significant neuroprotective effect but less pronounced. Conclusion When the appropriate levels of Cu/Zn SOD are expressed transiently after injury using the non-viral modular protein vector NLSCt a neuroprotective effect is seen. Thus recombinant modular protein vectors may be suitable for in vivo gene therapy, and Cu/Zn SOD should be considered as an interesting therapeutic transgene.

  9. Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur; Sonmez, Erkin; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2010-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas and epidermoids account for a vast majority of the lesions occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA. The aim of this study was to reveal our experience in the treatment of the rare lesions of the CPA. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA. We have excluded those patients with a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma, schwannoma and epidermoids. Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.

  10. Effects of JPEG data compression on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of small vessels ischemic lesions of the brain; Efeitos da compressao de dados JPEG na avaliacao de lesoes vasculares cerebrais isquemicas de pequenos vasos em ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Paulo Eduardo de Aguiar; Abdala, Nitamar; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: paulokuriki@gmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Objective: to establish the maximum achievable JPEG compression ratio without affecting quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of ischemic lesion in small vessels of the brain. Material and method: fifteen DICOM images were converted to JPEG with a compression ratio of 1:10 to 1:60 and were assessed together with the original images by three neuro radiologists. The number, morphology and signal intensity of the lesions were analyzed. Results: lesions were properly identified up to a 1:30 ratio. More lesions were identified with a 1:10 ratio then in the original images. Morphology and edges were properly evaluated up toa 1:40 ratio. Compression did not affect signal. Conclusion: small lesions were identified ( < 2 mm ) and in all compression ratios the JPEG algorithm generated image noise that misled observers to identify more lesions in JPEG images then in DICOM images, thus generating false-positive results.(author)

  11. Changes in /sup 3/H-substance P receptor binding in the rat brain after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentration in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.

  12. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  13. Playing to (self-)rehabilitate: A month-long randomized control trial with brain lesion patients and a tablet game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik Ole; Hald, Kasper; Jørgensen, Helle Rovsing Møller;

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress ...... in the attention training properties of the game. The game showed potential for bedside assessment, insight support, and motivation by providing knowledge about rehabilitative progress....

  14. Epidemiological survey of oral lesions in children and adolescents in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Camila Porto; Alves, Técia Daltro Borges; dos Santos, Nilton César Nogueira; dos Santos, Heloísa Laís Rosário; Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Oliveira, Márcio Campos

    2015-11-01

    To identify the most frequent oral lesions in children and adolescents in Reference Units of Oral Lesions of Public Universities of Bahia, Brazil, in the period between 1996 and 2010, and estimate the association between socio-demographic factors and type of oral lesions found. Cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from medical records, records of requests and reports of biopsies from patients aged between 0 and 19 years treated in Reference Units of Oral Lesions of Public Universities in Bahia, Brazil, in the period between 1996 and 2010. For data analysis, we used descriptive analysis of the variables, bivariate analysis by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) to assess the association between oral lesions and gender, age and skin color, and the analysis of potential modifying and confounding effects by logistic regression modeling. To calculate the p-value of associations, we used the chi-square test, and plesions. The most prevalent lesions were mucoceles (14.2%), fibroma (5.6%) and pyogenic granuloma (5.3%). The variable "age" was the only socio-demographic characteristics among those analyzed that showed a statistically significant association with both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, according to bivariate analysis, considering the rates adjusted for potential confounders. Neoplastic lesions appeared more often in the age group 0-9 years, while the non-neoplastic lesions were more prevalent in individuals 10-19 years. There was no effect modification noted in the predictive models analyzed. The study identified the existence of a broad range of oral lesions affecting children and adolescents. Most of the lesions found were of the non-neoplastic type. The age of individuals was associated with the type of oral lesion found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CYTOLOGICAL PATTERNS OF THYROID LESIONS: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmakanta Kumbhakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diverse cytological patterns of thyroid lesions may occur in the thyroid gland for its various diseases. The thyroid lesions may be nonneoplastic lesions or neoplastic lesions. Most of the thyroid lesions clinically present as thyroid swellings either as thyroid nodules or as diffuse enlargement of the gland itself. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is a rapid, easy to perform, minimally invasive and cost-effective first line high diagnostic accuracy test for cytological evaluation of thyroid lesions with minimum complications. The thyroid gland is easily accessible for Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA procedure due to its superficial location. The accurate cytological diagnosis of the thyroid lesions can direct the treatment modalities of the lesions and reduce unnecessary thyroid surgeries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES A hospital-based study to determine the cytological patterns of thyroid lesions by FNAC and to correlate the cytological and histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was based on “FNAC analysis of 100 thyroid lesions presented as thyroid swellings” (study group in the period of two (02 years from June 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016, in the cytopathology section of the Pathology Department of Tezpur Medical College and Hospital, Tezpur, Assam. Histopathological correlation was done in the surgically treated thyroid lesions of the study group. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS Female patients (87 comprised majority of thyroid lesions (87.00%, while male patients (13 were only 13.00% of thyroid lesions with a male and female patients’ ratio of 6.69:1 in the study group. Maximum patients with thyroid lesions, irrespective of sex in the study group were in the age group of 31-40 years. The youngest patient in the study group was a 7 years old girl diagnosed as lymphocytic thyroiditis and the oldest patient in the study group was a 73 years old female diagnosed as colloid goitre. Out of 100 thyroid

  16. Social Cognition Impairments in Relation to General Cognitive Deficits, Injury Severity, and Prefrontal Lesions in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be sens

  17. Sonography of Abdominal Wall Masses and Masslike Lesions: Correlation With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Sonography is usually regarded as a first-line imaging modality for masses and masslike lesions in the abdominal wall. A dynamic study focusing on a painful area or palpable mass and the possibility of ultrasound-guided aspiration or biopsy are the major advantages of sonography. On the other hand, cross-sectional imaging clearly shows anatomy of the abdominal wall; thereby, it is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of diseases. Cross-sectional imaging can help differentiate neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of abdominal wall lesions compared with computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  18. What do brain lesions tell us about theories of embodied semantics and the human mirror neuron system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Analia L; Baldo, Juliana V; Dronkers, Nina F

    2012-02-01

    Recent work has been mixed with respect to the notion of embodied semantics, which suggests that processing linguistic stimuli referring to motor-related concepts recruits the same sensorimotor regions of cortex involved in the execution and observation of motor acts or the objects associated with those acts. In this study, we asked whether lesions to key sensorimotor regions would preferentially impact the comprehension of stimuli associated with the use of the hand, mouth or foot. Twenty-seven patients with left-hemisphere strokes and 10 age- and education-matched controls were presented with pictures and words representing objects and actions typically associated with the use of the hand, mouth, foot or no body part at all (i.e., neutral). Picture/sound pairs were presented simultaneously, and participants were required to press a space bar only when the item pairs matched (i.e., congruent trials). We conducted two different analyses: 1) we compared task performance of patients with and without lesions in several key areas previously implicated in the putative human mirror neuron system (i.e., Brodmann areas 4/6, 1/2/3, 21 and 44/45), and 2) we conducted Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping analyses (VLSM; Bates et al., 2003) to identify additional regions associated with the processing of effector-related versus neutral stimuli. Processing of effector-related stimuli was associated with several regions across the left hemisphere, and not solely with premotor/motor or somatosensory regions. We also did not find support for a somatotopically-organized distribution of effector-specific regions. We suggest that, rather than following the strict interpretation of homuncular somatotopy for embodied semantics, these findings support theories proposing the presence of a greater motor-language network which is associated with, but not restricted to, the network responsible for action execution and observation.

  19. Analysis of vaginal microenvironment in 435 cases with nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan XIE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship of vaginal micro-ecological condition with the nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva (NNEDV in order to provide clues on diagnosis and treatment of NNEDV. Methods  The outpatient data of 435 cases of NNEDV as diagnosed by biopsy, collected from Jan. 2012 to Jun. 2015 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate their vaginal microflora. Results  Fifty-four of the 435 patients (12.4% were proved to harbor normal vaginal microflora, and in 381 patients imbalanced vaginal microflora was found (87.6%, and among them the pathogens were clearly diagnosed in 161 cases, accounting for 37.0% (161/435; the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was 13.1% and 10.4%, respectively, and it was significantly higher than the incidence of other vaginitis (P<0.05. Conclusion  Most of NNEDV patients are suffering from unbalanced vaginal micro-ecological imbalance, and vaginitis such as BV and VVC may be associated with the NNEDV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.10

  20. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  1. Symptomatic Histologically Proven Necrosis of Brain following Stereotactic Radiation and Ipilimumab in Six Lesions in Four Melanoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Du Four

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases previously treated with ipilimumab with a total of six histologically confirmed symptomatic lesions of RNB without any sign of active tumour following stereotactic irradiation of MBM are reported. These lesions were all originally thought to be disease recurrence. In two cases, ipilimumab was given prior to SRT; in the other two ipilimumab was given after SRT. The average time from first ipilimumab to RNB was 15 months. The average time from SRT to RNB was 11 months. The average time from first diagnosis of MBM to last follow-up was 20 months at which time three patients were still alive, one with no evidence of disease. These cases represent approximately three percent of the total cases of melanoma and ten percent of those cases treated with ipilimumab irradiated in our respective centres collectively. We report this to highlight this new problem so that others may have a high index of suspicion, allowing, if clinically warranted, aggressive surgical salvage, possibly resulting in increased survival. Further studies prospectively collecting data to understand the denominator of this problem are needed to determine whether this problem is just the result of longer survival or whether there is some synergy between these two modalities that are increasingly being used together.

  2. A probabilistic framework for the spatio-temporal segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Mayer, Arnaldo; Shahar, Allon

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a novel statistical image-sequence (video) modeling scheme to sequences of multiple sclerosis (MS) images taken over time. A unique key feature of the proposed framework is the analysis of the image-sequence input as a single entity as opposed to a sequence of separate frames. The extracted space-time regions allow for the detection and identification of disease events and processes, such as the appearance and progression of lesions. According to the proposed methodology, coherent space-time regions in the feature space, and corresponding coherent segments in the video content are extracted by unsupervised clustering via Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). The parameters of the GMM are determined via the maximum likelihood principle and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The clustering of the image sequence yields a collection of regions (blobs) in a four-dimensional feature space (including intensity, position (x,y), and time). Regions corresponding to MS lesions are automatically identified based on criteria regarding the mean intensity and the size variability over time. The proposed methodology was applied to a registered sequence of 24 T2-weighted MR images acquired from an MS patient over a period of approximately a year. Examples of preliminary qualitative results are shown.

  3. Can Doppler flow parameters of carotid stenosis predict the occurrence of new ischemic brain lesions detected by diffusion-weighted MR imaging after filter-protected internal carotid artery stenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Y; Akdemir, R; Ayhan, L T; Keser, N

    2014-04-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stent placement are increasingly being used for the treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Carotid angioplasty and stent placement carry an inherent risk of distal cerebral embolization, precipitating new brain ischemic lesions and neurologic symptoms. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted imaging after protected carotid angioplasty and stent placement and to determine the association of new lesions with ICA Doppler flow parameters. Fifty-two patients (mean age, 68 ± 11 years) with 50%-69% (n = 20, group 1) and ≥70% (n = 32, group 2) internal carotid artery stenosis underwent carotid angioplasty and stent placement with distal filter protection. DWI was performed before and 48 hours after carotid angioplasty and stent placement. Thirty-three (63.4%) patients showed new lesions. The average number of new postprocedural lesions was 3.4 per patient. Most of the postprocedural lesions were <5 mm (range, 3-23 mm), cortical and corticosubcortical, and clinically silent. Group 2 had a significantly higher number of new lesions compared with group 1 (P < .001). A significant relationship was found between ICA Doppler flow parameters and the appearance of new lesions. The appearance of new ischemic lesions was significantly related to the Doppler flow parameters, particularly peak systolic velocity.

  4. Effect of valproic acid and injury on lesion size and endothelial glycocalyx shedding in a rodent model of isolated traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Cecilie Heerdegen; deMoya, Marc A; Perner, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about the endothelial response and the effects of endothelial glycocalyx shedding. We have previously shown that treatment with valproic acid (VPA) improves outcomes following TBI and hemorrhagic shock.In this model, we...... hypothesized that severe isolated TBI would cause shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx, as measured by serum syndecan-1 (sSDC-1) levels. We further hypothesized that VPA treatment would reduce this response and reduce lesion size volume. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to TBI + VPA (n = 8......), TBI + saline vehicle control infusion (n = 8), sham + saline vehicle control infusion (n = 6), or sham + VPA (n = 8). TBI animals were subjected to severe controlled cortical impact and killed 6 hours after injury. VPA 300 mg/kg was given as an intravenous bolus 30 minutes after injury. Serum samples...

  5. Short-term effect of erythropoietin on brain lesions and aquaporin-4 expression in a hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat model assessed by magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Olivier; Villega, Frédéric; Pieter Konsman, Jan; Sanchez, Stéphane; Raffard, Gérard; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Chateil, Jean-François; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

    2010-08-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is an endogenous cytokine that regulates hematopoiesis and is widely used to treat anemia. In addition, it has recently increased interest in the neurosciences since the new concept of Epo as a neuroprotective agent has emerged. The potential protective effect of human recombinant Epo (r-hu-Epo) on a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) pup rat model was studied. Cerebral HI was obtained by permanent left carotid artery ligature of pups followed by a 2-h hypoxia. Three hours after carotid occlusion, brain lesions were assessed by magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging. Intraperitoneal administration of r-hu-Epo (30,000 U/kg dose) limited both the HI-induced brain lesion area and the decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the lesion. To identify potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Epo, immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3 and water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) were performed. No early apoptosis was detected, but up-regulation of AQP4 expression was observed in HI pups that received r-hu-Epo compared with HI animals without treatment. This study demonstrates an early neuroprotective effect of Epo with regard to brain lesion area and ADC values. One possible mechanism of Epo for decreasing brain edema and cellular swelling could be a better clearance of water excess in brain tissue, a process possibly mediated by AQP4.

  6. Delayed Methylene Blue Improves Lesion Volume, Multi-Parametric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements, and Behavioral Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Justin Alexander; Boggs, Robert Cole; Manga, Hemanth; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability in both civilian and military populations worldwide. There is a critical need for the development of neuroprotective agents that can circumvent damage and provide functional recovery. We previously showed that methylene blue (MB), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–grandfathered drug with energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, given 1 and 3 h post-TBI, had neuroprotective effects in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the neuroprotection of delayed MB treatment (24 h postinjury) post-TBI as measured by lesion volume and functional outcomes. Comparisons were made with vehicle and acute MB treatment. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies were performed at 1 and 3 h and 2, 7, and 14 days after an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. We found that delaying MB treatment 24 h postinjury still minimized lesion volume and functional deficits, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The data further support the potential for MB as a neuroprotective treatment, especially when medical teatment is not readily available. MB has an excellent safety profile and is clinically approved for other indications. MB clinical trials on TBI can thus be readily explored. PMID:25961471

  7. Delayed Methylene Blue Improves Lesion Volume, Multi-Parametric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements, and Behavioral Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Boggs, Robert Cole; Manga, Hemanth; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability in both civilian and military populations worldwide. There is a critical need for the development of neuroprotective agents that can circumvent damage and provide functional recovery. We previously showed that methylene blue (MB), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-grandfathered drug with energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, given 1 and 3 h post-TBI, had neuroprotective effects in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the neuroprotection of delayed MB treatment (24 h postinjury) post-TBI as measured by lesion volume and functional outcomes. Comparisons were made with vehicle and acute MB treatment. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies were performed at 1 and 3 h and 2, 7, and 14 days after an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. We found that delaying MB treatment 24 h postinjury still minimized lesion volume and functional deficits, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The data further support the potential for MB as a neuroprotective treatment, especially when medical teatment is not readily available. MB has an excellent safety profile and is clinically approved for other indications. MB clinical trials on TBI can thus be readily explored.

  8. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  9. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyekyung; Baek, Tae Hwa; Park, Meeja; Lee, Seung Yun; Son, Hyun Jin; Kang, Dong Wook; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. Methods We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Conclusions Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27550048

  10. Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Philip C; Burgess, Stephen; Nounu, Aayah; Zheng, Jie; Okoli, George N; Bowden, Jack; Wade, Kaitlin Hazel; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Willeit, Peter; Aviv, Abraham; Gaunt, Tom R; Hemani, Gibran; Mangino, Massimo; Ellis, Hayley Patricia; Kurian, Kathreena M; Pooley, Karen A; Eeles, Rosalind A; Lee, Jeffrey E; Fang, Shenying; Chen, Wei V; Law, Matthew H; Bowdler, Lisa M; Iles, Mark M; Yang, Qiong; Worrall, Bradford B; Markus, Hugh Stephen; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Chris I; Spurdle, Amanda B; Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Wolpin, Brian; Amundadottir, Laufey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Lund, Eiliv; Duell, Eric J; Canzian, Federico; Severi, Gianluca; Overvad, Kim; Gunter, Marc J; Tumino, Rosario; Svenson, Ulrika; van Rij, Andre; Baas, Annette F; Bown, Matthew J; Samani, Nilesh J; van t'Hof, Femke N G; Tromp, Gerard; Jones, Gregory T; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Elmore, James R; Johansson, Mattias; Mckay, James; Scelo, Ghislaine; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Bracci, Paige M; Neale, Rachel E; Olson, Sara H; Gallinger, Steven; Li, Donghui; Petersen, Gloria M; Risch, Harvey A; Klein, Alison P; Han, Jiali; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Taylor, Philip R; Maris, John M; Aben, Katja K; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wiencke, John K; Walsh, Kyle M; Wrensch, Margaret; Rice, Terri; Turnbull, Clare; Litchfield, Kevin; Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Li, Yong; Mijatovic, Vladan; Sapkota, Yadav; Low, Siew-Kee; Zondervan, Krina T; Montgomery, Grant W; Nyholt, Dale R; van Heel, David A; Hunt, Karen; Arking, Dan E; Ashar, Foram N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan; Comeau, Mary E; Brown, W Mark; Silverman, Edwin K; Hokanson, John E; Cho, Michael H; Hui, Jennie; Ferreira, Manuel A; Thompson, Philip J; Morrison, Alanna C; Felix, Janine F; Smith, Nicholas L; Christiano, Angela M; Petukhova, Lynn; Betz, Regina C; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhu, Caihong; Langefeld, Carl D; Thompson, Susan D; Wang, Feijie; Lin, Xu; Schwartz, David A; Fingerlin, Tasha; Rotter, Jerome I; Cotch, Mary Frances; Jensen, Richard A; Munz, Matthias; Dommisch, Henrik; Schaefer, Arne S; Han, Fang; Ollila, Hanna M; Hillary, Ryan P; Albagha, Omar; Ralston, Stuart H; Zeng, Chenjie; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Reis, Andre; Uebe, Steffen; Hüffmeier, Ulrike; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Otowa, Takeshi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Davila, Sonia; Xie, Gang; Siminovitch, Katherine; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Försti, Asta; Chen, Bowang; Landi, Stefano; Franke, Andre; Fischer, Annegret; Ellinghaus, David; Flores, Carlos; Noth, Imre; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Foo, Jia Nee; Liu, Jianjun; Kim, Jong-Won; Cox, David G; Delattre, Olivier; Mirabeau, Olivier; Skibola, Christine F; Tang, Clara S; Garcia-Barcelo, Merce; Chang, Kai-Ping; Su, Wen-Hui; Chang, Yu-Sun; Martin, Nicholas G; Gordon, Scott; Wade, Tracey D; Lee, Chaeyoung; Kubo, Michiaki; Cha, Pei-Chieng; Nakamura, Yusuke; Levy, Daniel; Kimura, Masayuki; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Hunt, Steven; Spector, Tim; Soranzo, Nicole; Manichaikul, Ani W; Barr, R Graham; Kahali, Bratati; Speliotes, Elizabeth; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Jonas, Jost B; Wong, Tien Yin; Fogh, Isabella; Lin, Kuang; Powell, John F; Rice, Kenneth; Relton, Caroline L; Martin, Richard M; Davey Smith, George

    2017-05-01

    The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of

  11. Association between the fMRI manifestations of activated brain areas and muscle strength in patients with space-occupying lesions in motor cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Zheng; Xiaoke Chen; Guorui Liu; Renhua Wu

    2006-01-01

    was obvious smaller in the patients with motor deficit than in those without motor deficit (P < 0.01). ② The M1 activation and changes were observed in contralateral hemisphere in the patient group, and the activated volume was obviously larger than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The activated volumes of M1 and PMC in ipsilateral hemisphere were obviously larger than those in the control group (P < 0.05), but that of SMA had no obvious difference between the two groups (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: fMRI can be used to observe the activation of the brain motor functional areas of patient with space-occupying lesions in motor area, and evaluate the state of their motor function. The larger the distance of displacement of M1 compressed by tumor, the more obviously the muscle strength decreases in the patients.

  12. Peripheral Exophytic Oral Lesions: A Clinical Decision Tree

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    Hamed Mortazavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of peripheral oral exophytic lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral exophytic lesions according to their clinical features. General search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of keywords such as “oral soft tissue lesion,” “oral tumor like lesion,” “oral mucosal enlargement,” and “oral exophytic lesion.” Related English-language articles published since 1988 to 2016 in both medical and dental journals were appraised. Upon compilation of data, peripheral oral exophytic lesions were categorized into two major groups according to their surface texture: smooth (mesenchymal or nonsquamous epithelium-originated and rough (squamous epithelium-originated. Lesions with smooth surface were also categorized into three subgroups according to their general frequency: reactive hyperplastic lesions/inflammatory hyperplasia, salivary gland lesions (nonneoplastic and neoplastic, and mesenchymal lesions (benign and malignant neoplasms. In addition, lesions with rough surface were summarized in six more common lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method.

  13. Health status in older hospitalized patients with cancer or non-neoplastic chronic diseases

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    Corica Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether cancer is more disabling than other highly prevalent chronic diseases in the elderly is not well understood, and represents the objective of the present study. Methods We used data from the Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell'Anziano (GIFA study, a large collaborative observational study based in community and university hospitals located throughout Italy. Our series consisted of three groups of patients with non-neoplastic chronic disease (congestive heart failure, CHF, N = 832; diabetes mellitus, N = 939; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, N = 399, and three groups of patients with cancer (solid tumors without metastasis, N = 813; solid tumors with metastasis, N = 259; leukemia/lymphoma, N = 326. Functional capabilities were ascertained using the activities of daily living (ADL scale, and categorical variables for dependency in at least 1 ADL or dependency in 3 or more ADLs were considered in the analysis. Cognitive status was evaluated by the 10-items Hodgkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT. Results Cognitive impairment was more prevalent in patients with CHF (28.0% or COPD (25.8% than in those with cancer (solid tumors = 22.9%; leukemia/lymphoma = 19.6%; metastatic cancer = 22.8%. Dependency in at least 1 ADL was highly prevalent in patients with metastatic cancer (31.3% vs. 24% for patients with CHF and 22.4% for those with non-metastatic solid tumors, p Conclusion Cancer should not be considered as an ineluctable cause of severe cognitive and physical impairment, at least not more than other chronic conditions highly prevalent in older people, such as CHF and diabetes mellitus.

  14. 脑部病变与眩晕和非眩晕性头晕关系初步观察%Initial analysis of the relation between the brain lesion and the subtype of dizziness.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜树军; 李晓荟; 岳阳; 刘鹏; 刘建民; 刘平; 汪丽芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究脑部病变与眩晕和非眩晕性头晕的关系.方法 收集2010年1月-2011年8月在我院就诊的患者136例资料.病例收集标准:①有头晕症状,包括眩晕和非眩晕性头晕;②有中枢性病变;③良性阵发性位置性眩晕和梅尼埃病被排除.观察眩晕和非眩晕性头晕所占比例,观察各脑叶病变与眩晕和非眩晕性头晕的关系,观察疾病种类与眩晕和非眩晕性头晕的关系.结果 136例患者中,眩晕病例占23%,非眩晕性头晕病例占77%.幕上幕下病变均伴有眩晕和非眩晕性头晕症状,其中幕下病变伴随的眩晕症状多于幕上病变,小脑病变伴随的眩晕症状多于桥脑,小脑中线病变伴随的眩晕症状多于小脑半球.病种与眩晕及非眩晕性头晕之间未发现明确的规律.结论 中枢神经系统病变出现的非眩晕性头晕多于眩晕,幕上病变也可能出现眩晕,幕下病变引起的眩晕可能多于幕上病变,小脑中线病变引起眩晕可能多于小脑半球.非眩晕性头晕可能是中枢神经系统对损伤的非特异反应.%Objective To invesligale the relationship belween the brain lesion and vertigo or dizziness wilhoul vertigo. Methods To collect the dales of the palienls which had the brain lesion and vertigo or dizziness wilhoul vertigo in the same lime from January 2010 to Augusl 2011. BPPV and Meinere disease were excluded. To analyse the relation belween the location and nalure of the lesion and vertigo and dizziness wilhoul vertigo. Results There were 136 palienls collected. 23% palienls had vertigo and 77% palienls had dizziness wilhoul vertigo. Both the supralenlorial lesion or infralenlorial lesion all could have vertigo. Vertigo occurred more in the infralenlorial lesions than in the supralenlorial lesions. Vertigo occurred more in the cerebellum lesions than in the pons lesions. Vertigo occurred more in lesions in the midline of cerebellum than in cerebellum cortex. No definile relation

  15. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  16. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao ePeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface Cx-2D allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex–-changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and

  17. Spreading brain lesions in a familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with V180I mutation over 4 years

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    Deguchi Kentaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report a female patient with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with V180I mutation (fCJD with V180I, who was serially followed up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG for up to four years. Case presentation At 6 months after the onset, diffusion-weighted images (DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR of brain MRI revealed an increased signal intensity in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex with left dominancy except for the occipital lobe. However, her follow-up MRI at four years showed the high-signal regions spreading to the occipital cerebral cortex in DWI and FLAIR images, and bilateral frontal cerebral white matter in FLAIR images. EEG showed a progressive and general slow high-voltage rhythm from 7–8 to 3–5 c/s over four years, without evidence of periodic synchronous discharge. These findings correspond to the symptom progression even after akinetic mutism at 18 months. Conclusion We suggest that serial MRI and EEG examinations are useful for early diagnosis of fCJD with V180I and for monitoring disease progression.

  18. Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

  19. Nonneoplastic Tongue Swellings of Lymphatic and Lymphocytic Origin: Three Case Reports

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    Manar A. Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue is formed of a mass of muscles and salivary gland embedded in anterior highly vascular and posterior lymphoid stroma and covered by specialized surface epithelium. Growths from all of these heterogonous components may occur resulting in a wide variation in clinical features and behavior, ranging from self-limiting to aggressive lesions. Therefore, surgical excision is the treatment of choice. The aim of the current study is to report three different lesions that came to the Oral Surgery Department in the Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University. Following clinical and histopathological examination, the diagnosis of reactive lymphoproliferative lesion, cystic lymphoepithelial lesion, and developmental lymphatic vessel malformation was reached.

  20. Does Serum N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predict the Severity of Angiographic Lesions in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome?

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    Afsaneh Rajabiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, a polypeptide secreted by ventricular myocytes in response to stretch, was suggested as a predictor of adverse prognosis of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We examined the association between NT-proBNP level and angiographic findings in ACS patients to determine whether it could be used as a predictor of the severity of angiographic lesions.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 126 patients with chest pain or other ischemic heart symptoms suggestive  of ACS.  Venous  blood  samples  were  drawn  to  measure  serum  levels  of  NT-proBNP. Afterward,  coronary angiography was performed and the patients were categorized into four groups according to the number of coronary vessels with significant stenosis. The severity of angiographic lesions was assessed with the Gensini scoring system.Results: According to angiographic diagnosis, 11 (8.7% patients had normal coronary arteries (no coronary artery disease [CAD] and 115 (91.3% had CAD, of whom 108 (85.7% had obstructive CAD and 7 (5.6% had minimal CAD. The serum NT-proBNP concentration was higher in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (p value <0.01. A progressive significant increase in the NT-proBNP concentration according to the Gensini score and the number of involved vessels was reported after adjustment for sex and age. Furthermore, the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC analysis indicated that an NT-proBNP cut-point of 400 pg/ml could predict obstructive CAD with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 78%.Conclusion: Higher levels of NT-proBNP among our ACS patients were associated with the severity of angiographic lesions in terms of both the Gensini score and the number of involved vessels. This finding underscores the potential role of NT-proBNP in predicting the severity of CAD before performing angiography.

  1. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF NODULAR LESIONS OF THYROID: A STUDY

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    Shanthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available piration Cytology in diagnosing the nature of thyroid lesions and comparing its results with histopathological findings. It was observed that FNAC is the investigation of choice in thyroid swellings and has excellent patient compliance, is simple and quick to perform in outpatient department and is cost effective with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study comparing cytology and corresponding histopathology reported in 60 cases of nodular thyroid lesions. The statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity and accuracy in nodular thyroid lesions. RESULTS On cytological examination of the 671 cases, initial diagnosis/impression as non-neoplastic was given for 616 cases (91.80% and neoplastic for 47 cases (7.00% in which 17 cases (36.17% were benign and 28 cases (59.57% were given as malignant, 5 cases were reported as suspicious for malignancy and for 5 cases samples were inadequate for a cytological diagnosis. Sensitivity of FNA in non-neoplasm lesions 92.5%, follicular neoplasm 87.5% and malignancies 68.42%. The specificity of FNA in non-neoplastic lesion is 100%, in follicular neoplasm is 96% and in malignancy 100%. Accuracy in FNAC for non-neoplastic lesion and follicular neoplasm 95% and malignancy 91%. CONCLUSION It was observed that FNAC is a vital reliable tool, safe and accurate method to evaluate nodular thyroid lesions. It greatly influences the treatment decision. In spite of accuracy of FNAC in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions, certain pitfalls were highlighted in diagnosing follicular neoplasm, which constitutes a “Gray zone” and papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. We hope that a better understanding of these pitfalls wound help avoiding them in future and will contribute to better patient care.

  2. Follicular adenomas exhibit a unique metabolic profile. ¹H NMR studies of thyroid lesions.

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    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. However, more than 90% of thyroid nodules are benign. It remains unclear whether thyroid carcinoma arises from preexisting benign nodules. Metabolomics can provide valuable and comprehensive information about low molecular weight compounds present in living systems and further our understanding of the biology regulating pathological processes. Herein, we applied ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling to identify the metabolites present in aqueous tissue extracts of healthy thyroid tissue (H, non-neoplastic nodules (NN, follicular adenomas (FA and malignant thyroid cancer (TC as an alternative way of investigating cancer lesions. Multivariate statistical methods provided clear discrimination not only between healthy thyroid tissue and pathological thyroid tissue but also between different types of thyroid lesions. Potential biomarkers common to all thyroid lesions were identified, namely, alanine, methionine, acetone, glutamate, glycine, lactate, tyrosine, phenylalanine and hypoxanthine. Metabolic changes in thyroid cancer were mainly related to osmotic regulators (taurine and scyllo- and myo-inositol, citrate, and amino acids supplying the TCA cycle. Thyroid follicular adenomas were found to display metabolic features of benign non-neoplastic nodules and simultaneously displayed a partial metabolic profile associated with malignancy. This finding allows the discrimination of follicular adenomas from benign non-neoplastic nodules and thyroid cancer with similar accuracy. Moreover, the presented data indicate that follicular adenoma could be an individual stage of thyroid cancer development.

  3. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of space occupying lesions of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Space occupying lesions (SOLs of the pancreas are commonly encountered in day to day practice either as an incidental finding or during evaluation of symptomatic patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the final diagnosis at follow-up with diagnosis made at computed tomography (CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of EUS data of 131 patients referred for tissue diagnosis of SOL in pancreas was done. The lesions were classified as malignant, benign, and nonneoplastic by both CT/MRI and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA in conjunction with clinical presentation, biochemical parameters, and tumor markers. Follow-up cases with a final diagnosis alone were included for the comparative analysis. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive values (NPV for CT/MRI and EUS-FNA were computed against the follow-up data. Results: Of the 131, there were 78 males (59.5%. The median age of presentation was 48 years (range: 11-82 years. Follow-up information on the final diagnosis was available for 54 patients. Confirmed diagnosis at follow-up was malignant lesion in 18, benign in 13 and 23 with a nonneoplastic lesion. When EUS-FNA outcome was compared with the definitive diagnosis of the 54 patients, it had a higher sensitivity for malignant (66.7% vs. 61.1% and nonneoplastic lesions (78.3% vs. 73.9% and was similar to CT/MRI for benign lesions (76.9% for both. EUS-FNA had a higher specificity (87.8% vs. 80.5% with a good PPV for benign lesions (66.7% vs. 55.6%. CT/MRI was less accurate than EUS-FNA in predicting benign (79.6% vs. 85.2% and nonneoplastic lesions (79.6% vs. 81.5% compared to malignant lesions wherein it was similar at 81.5%. The high NPV with a lower PPV for both EUS/FNA and CT/MRI suggests that follow-up definitive diagnosis was superior to

  4. Rate of cardiac arrhythmias and silent brain lesions in experienced marathon runners: rationale, design and baseline data of the Berlin Beat of Running study

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    Haeusler Karl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular exercise is beneficial for cardiovascular health but a recent meta-analysis indicated a relationship between extensive endurance sport and a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, an independent risk factor for stroke. However, data on the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias or (clinically silent brain lesions during and after marathon running are missing. Methods/ Design In the prospective observational “Berlin Beat of Running” study experienced endurance athletes underwent clinical examination (CE, 3 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, carotid ultrasound imaging (CUI and serial blood sampling (BS within 2-3 days prior (CE, MRI, CUI, BS, directly after (CE, BS and within 2 days after (CE, MRI, BS the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON 2011. All participants wore a portable electrocardiogram (ECG-recorder throughout the 4 to 5 days baseline study period. Participants with pathological MRI findings after the marathon, troponin elevations or detected cardiac arrhythmias will be asked to undergo cardiac MRI to rule out structural abnormalities. A follow-up is scheduled after one year. Results Here we report the baseline data of the enrolled 110 athletes aged 36-61 years. Their mean age was 48.8 ± 6.0 years, 24.5% were female, 8.2% had hypertension and 2.7% had hyperlipidaemia. Participants have attended a mean of 7.5 ± 6.6 marathon races within the last 5 years and a mean of 16 ± 36 marathon races in total. Their weekly running distance prior to the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON was 65 ± 17 km. Finally, 108 (98.2% Berlin Beat-Study participants successfully completed the 38th BMW BERLIN-MARATHON 2011. Discussion Findings from the “Berlin Beats of Running” study will help to balance the benefits and risks of extensive endurance sport. ECG-recording during the marathon might contribute to identify athletes at risk for cardiovascular events. MRI results will give new insights into the link

  5. BM-derived cells randomly contribute to neoplastic and non-neoplastic epithelial tissues at low rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldini, D; Moreno, E; Martin, V; Gratwohl, A; Marone, C; Mazzucchelli, L

    2008-12-01

    Epithelial cancers can arise from BM-derived cells (BMCs) in animal models. We studied whether the same phenomenon can occur in humans. Biopsy specimens from carcinomas and healthy adjacent tissues were obtained from three women who had undergone allogeneic BMT from an HLA-matched brother. Complete donor hematopoietic chimerism was verified by cytogenetic analysis, RFLP analysis or by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Biopsies were studied for the presence of the Y chromosome derived from BM-derived cells by combined FISH and immunohistochemical staining. In our studies, we showed that human epithelial neoplastic and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues incorporate the Y chromosome at low and comparable rates. The lack of enrichment in malignancies argues against the possibility that BM-derived cells represent a direct source of carcinomas, and we suggest that these cells randomly contribute to neoplastic and non-neoplastic epithelial cells. On the basis of the absence of a fusion karyotype, we favor a model in which the differentiation of BM-derived cells is largely determined by the microenvironment encountered.

  6. The diagnostic and prognostic implications of silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions in periodontal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja Mini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The periodontal lesions with cellular proliferation can be assessed by various methods. One of the most recent methods to determine the proliferative activity is silver-staining nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR staining. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, if AgNOR count can act as a proliferative marker and can aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal lesions. Materials and Methods: For this study, subjects with healthy gingival status, non-neoplastic lesions, neoplastic lesions, and plaque-induced gingivitis were included. Following the provisional diagnosis of clinical entity, biopsies were taken from the respective selected sites for histopathological diagnosis. In plaque-induced gingivitis cases, a second biopsy was taken from the selected sites 3 weeks following scaling. After histological confirmation, one more section was prepared, which was subjected to AgNOR staining, and AgNOR numbers were counted by individual and cluster counts and statistically analyzed. Results: Results showed the highest AgNOR count in neoplastic lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions showed a higher AgNOR count as compared to clinically healthy gingiva. Plaque-induced gingivitis showed a considerable reduction in AgNOR count after treatment. Conclusion: Results of this study confirmed that AgNOR count reflects the cellular proliferation and has a limited diagnostic value. However, the prognostic value of AgNOR for periodontal lesions is dependable.

  7. Reevaluation and Classification of Duodenal Lesions in B6C3F1 Mice and F344 Rats from 4 Studies of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M; Ward, Jerrold M; Thompson, Chad M

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen-week and 2-year drinking water studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the duodenum of B6C3F1 mice but not F344 rats. In the 2-year study, Cr(VI) exposure was additionally associated with duodenal adenomas and carcinomas in mice only. Subsequent 13-week Cr(VI) studies conducted by another group demonstrated non-neoplastic duodenal lesions in B6C3F1 mice similar to those of the NTP study as well as mild duodenal hyperplasia in F344 rats. Because intestinal lesions in mice are the basis for proposed safety standards for Cr(VI), and the histopathology data are relevant to the mode of action, consistency (an important Hill criterion for causality) was assessed across the aforementioned studies. Two veterinary pathologists applied uniform diagnostic criteria to the duodenal lesions in rats and mice from the 4 repeated-dose studies. Comparable non-neoplastic intestinal lesions were evident in mice and rats from all 4 studies; however, the incidence and severity of intestinal lesions were greater in mice than rats. These findings demonstrate consistency across studies and species and highlight the importance of standardized nomenclature for intestinal pathology. The differences in the severity of non-neoplastic lesions also likely contribute to the differential tumor response.

  8. Differential diagnosis of dumbbell lesions associated with spinal neural foraminal widening: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivrak, Ali Sami [Selcuk University, Meram Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, 42080 Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: alisamikivrak@hotmail.com; Koc, Osman; Emlik, Dilek; Kiresi, Demet; Odev, Kemal [Selcuk University, Meram Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, 42080 Konya (Turkey); Kalkan, Erdal [Selcuk University, Meram Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, Konya (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reliably demonstrate typical features of schwannomas or neurofibromas in the vast majority of dumbbell lesions responsible for neural foraminal widening. However, a large variety of unusual lesions which are causes of neural foraminal widening can also be encountered in the spinal neural foramen. Radiologic findings can be helpful in differential diagnosis of lesions of spinal neural foramen including neoplastic lesions such as benign/malign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP), chondroid chordoma, superior sulcus tumor, metastasis and non-neoplastic lesions such as infectious process (tuberculosis, hydatid cyst), aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), synovial cyst, traumatic pseudomeningocele, arachnoid cyst, vertebral artery tortuosity. In this article, we discuss CT and MRI findings of dumbbell lesions which are causes of neural foraminal widening.

  9. Spectrum of Lesions Affecting the Renal Pelvis and Pelviureteric Junction: A 13-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Hema; Suresh, Pooja Kundapur; Guni, Laxman Prabhu Gurupur; Bhat, Shaila; Kini, Jyoti Ramanath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both, the renal pelvis and the ureter, are affected by developmental, reactive and neoplastic disorders, though rare in incidence. Aim This series of cases were analysed to study the clinicopathological characteristics of the common and comparatively rare lesions involving the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction. Materials and Methods A retrospective collection of 476 nephrectomies and pelviureteric junction resections, received over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was done. The patients’ clinical details were obtained and the histopathological findings reviewed. The lesions were classified into non-neoplastic and neoplastic categories. Results Primary involvement of the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction was seen in 105 of 476 specimens. The mean age was 54.5 years with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The non-neoplastic lesions accounted for 76.2% of cases with a majority being pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy (68.6%) causing hydronephrosis. Urothelial carcinomas were encountered in 20% of the cases. A majority of the urothelial carcinomas were infiltrative (81%) and high grade (71%) tumours. Conclusion Renal pelvis, a conduit to propel urine, can be the site for numerous disorders. Non-neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplasms. Pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy was the commonest lesion in our study. In the neoplastic category, urothelial carcinoma was most common. However, rare lesions such as hamartomatous fibroepithelial polyp, Von Brunn’s nests, flat urothelial hyperplasia and intramuscular haemangioma of upper ureter at the pelviureteric junction were encountered along with occasional cases of tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27042468

  10. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Methods Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. Results For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D1cm3 was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D0.1cm3 was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D1cm3 to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D0.1cm3 to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D0.1cm3 to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). Conclusions SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency. PMID:24884967

  11. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-05-21

    To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D(1cm3) was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D(0.1cm3) was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D(1cm3) to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency.

  12. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy); Funktionelle Bildgebung bei Hirntumoren (Perfusion, DTI, MR-Spektroskopie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  13. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto; Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student'st test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  14. Glycomics expression analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of human colorectal cancer tissues and non-neoplastic mucosa by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolla, Ana Paula Cleto [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Jaques [Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Saba, Gabriela Tognini [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Waisberg, Daniel Reis [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Margeotto, Fernando Beani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’s t test. The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

  15. A novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 differentiates between neoplastic lesions in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Fermér, Christian; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Mäenpää, Hanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Nilsson, Olle; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-07-01

    Follicular thyroid lesions are the bane of cytopathology. Differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma is impossible, and often these neoplasms are indistinguishable even from uninodular goitre. In other cancers as well, a theory of stem cells as the origin of cancer has been discussed in thyroid carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine a novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 in follicular lesions in an attempt to find a marker for differential diagnosis in thyroid cytopathology. HESC5:3 was raised against and is specific for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. The epitope of this novel antibody is to be defined. Immunohistochemical expression of HESC5:3 was examined in clinical material comprised of follicular neoplasms (83 adenomas, 43 carcinomas) and non-neoplastic lesions (41 goitrous, 22 hyperplastic, 23 normal tissue specimens). Staining differed significantly between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Nuclear staining was increased in non-neoplastic cells, whereas in neoplastic cells expression was mainly cytoplasmic. There was no difference between benign and malignant lesions, suggesting a role in early tumourigenesis. In conclusion, the HESC5:3 epitope may be of benefit as a neoplasia marker in distinguishing between uninodular goitre and neoplasia. Characterization of the epitope would increase the interest in this promising new stem cell associated marker.

  16. Reliability of quantifying vascular white matter brain lesions - a contribution to reproducible quantitative diagnosis; Reliabilitaet der Quantifizierung von vaskulaeren Laesionen der weissen Hirnsubstanz - ein Beitrag zur replizierbaren quantitativen Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, ZI, Fakultaet fuer klinische Medizin Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Diepers, M. [Abt. Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Mannheim (Germany); Disque, C.; Dzialowski, I.; Kitzler, H.; Rodewald, A. [Abt. Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Dresden (Germany); Struffert, T. [Abt. Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Homburg (Germany); Trittmacher, S. [Abt. Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums Giessen (Germany); Wille, P.R. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie der Univ. Mainz (Germany); Krumm, B. [Abt. Biostatistik, ZI, Fakultaet fuer klinische Medizin Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: microangiopathic lesions of the brain tissue correlate with the clinical diagnosis of vascular subcortical dementia. The ''experience-based'' evaluation is insufficient. Rating scales may contribute to reproducible quantification. Materials and methods: in MRI studies of 10 patients, 9 neuroradiologists quantified vascular white matter lesions (WMLs) at two different points in time for 12 anatomically defined regions with respect to number, size and localization (score). For 9 observers and 10 studies, 90 intra-observer differences were obtained for each of the 12 WML scores. To calculate the inter-observer reliability, rating pairs were formed. Furthermore, 360 differences were computed for each score and rating for 12 anatomically defined WML scores, and the intraclass correlation (ICC) was calculated as a measure of agreement (reliability). Results: as to the intra-observer reliability, the median of the differences was 1.5 for the entire brain as opposed to 0 for defined brain regions. The corresponding values for the inter-observer reliability were 3 and 1, respectively. The mean intra-class correlation coefficient for the 10 studies was 0.88, whereas the mean interclass correlation concerning the inter-observer reliability was 0.70, with the first and second rating being averaged. The rating of each study took about 6 minutes. Conclusion: the rating scale with high intra- and inter-observer reliability can dependably quantify WMLs and correlates with the clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia. Using a reliable rating scale, the diagnostic distinction of age - associated physiological vs. pathological size of the NMC can make a contribution to the reproducible quantifiable diagnostic evaluation of vascular brain tissue lesions within the framework of dementia diagnostics. (orig.)

  17. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  18. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender

    2017-01-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs.

  19. Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Wang; Darfler, Marlene M; Alvarez, Hector;

    2008-01-01

    of invasive cancer. Biomarker discovery in precursor lesions has been hampered by the ready availability of fresh specimens, and limited yields of proteins suitable for large scale screening. METHODS: We utilized Liquid Tissue, a novel technique for protein extraction from archival formalin-fixed material...... their overexpression in IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer....

  20. Brain MR Spectroscopy: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Arsalan Zamani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in brain MR spectroscopy can be classified in"nthree different fields: MR spectroscopy with a higher"nstrength scanner, integration of MR spectroscopy with"nother imaging techniques in the diagnosis of brain"ntumors, and the topic of MRS in psychiatric diseases."nMRS with a higher strength magnet: The theoretical"nadvantage of a 3T magnet over a 1.5T magnet is an"nexpected two fold increase in signal to noise ratio. In"nIran J Radiol 2011, 8 (Supp.1 S63"nfact because of other factors (increased susceptibility"neffects, difficulty in achieving good shimming, shorter"nT1 values and the SAR issue this improved signal/"nnoise ratio is less than a factor of two. Nevertheless,"nin MRS with a higher strength magnet, there is a"ndefinite improved spectral resolution. This under"nproper condition allows a better separation of peaks"nthat were close together (or even superimposed on one"nanother on a 1.5T magnet. Imaging lactate becomes"nmore challenging as we will see."nAs the MRS has becomes better refined and its"ncapabilities better understood, it has found its way"ninto multiple imaging algorithms of brain tumors. One"nof the best known of these begins by dividing lesions"non the basis of whether they enhance or not and then,"nduring the rest of the algorithm uses MRS results in"nconjunction with DWI, and perfusion imaging toward"na more accurate diagnosis. The accuracy of these"nalgorithms is being tested but the results so far have"nbeen promising. The role of MRS in these algorithms"nis on differentiation of non-enhancing lesions (nonneoplastic"nvs. neoplastic and in the differentiation"nof high grade neoplasm into primary and metastatic"ndisease."nMRS in psychiatric disease: MR imaging in general"nand MRS in particular, have been used in psychiatry"nfor almost 30 years now. As imaging has evolved and"nimproved it has become more and more clear that"npsychiatric disease, like organic disease, has its own"nneuropathology. Although

  1. Patient- and lesion-tailored algorithm of endovascular treatment for arterial occlusive disease of extracranial arteries supplying the brain: safety of the treatment at 30-day follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Latacz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, stenting plays an important role as an alternative treatment modality, especially in high-risk patients. The actual safety profile associated with stenting procedures is probably better than that reported by randomized controlled trials. Aim : To assess the safety of stent implantations in extracranial arteries supplying the brain, and also to identify risk factors associated with this procedure. Material and methods: This was a post hoc analysis, with 30-day follow-up. We analyzed the results of treatment of 372 patients who underwent 408 procedures, 197 such procedures in asymptomatic, and 211 in symptomatic individuals. Stenting procedures were performed using a technique and armamentarium which were tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions. Results : There were 6 (1.5% strokes, including 2 (0.5% major strokes, 1 ipsi- and 1 contralateral, and 4 (1.0% minor strokes. In asymptomatic patients there was 1 (0.3% minor stroke. Transient ischemic attacks occurred in 5 (1.2% patients. There were 2 (0.5% non-STEMI myocardial infarctions and 2 (0.5% non-stroke related fatalities. Risk factors of these adverse events were diabetes mellitus, lesions localized in a tortuous segment of the artery, embolic material in the filter and bilateral stenoses of carotid arteries. Additional risk factors in asymptomatic patients were renal impairment and advanced coronary artery disease; and in symptomatic patients, grade 3 arterial hypertension, dislipidemia, cigarette smoking and lesions requiring predilatation. Conclusions : Stenting procedures of extracranial arteries supplying the brain, which are tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions, seem to be relatively safe.

  2. Patient- and lesion-tailored algorithm of endovascular treatment for arterial occlusive disease of extracranial arteries supplying the brain: safety of the treatment at 30-day follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latacz, Paweł; Simka, Marian; Brzegowy, Paweł; Janas, Piotr; Kazibudzki, Marek; Pieniążek, Piotr; Ochała, Andrzej; Popiela, Tadeusz; Mrowiecki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, stenting plays an important role as an alternative treatment modality, especially in high-risk patients. The actual safety profile associated with stenting procedures is probably better than that reported by randomized controlled trials. To assess the safety of stent implantations in extracranial arteries supplying the brain, and also to identify risk factors associated with this procedure. This was a post hoc analysis, with 30-day follow-up. We analyzed the results of treatment of 372 patients who underwent 408 procedures, 197 such procedures in asymptomatic, and 211 in symptomatic individuals. Stenting procedures were performed using a technique and armamentarium which were tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions. There were 6 (1.5%) strokes, including 2 (0.5%) major strokes, 1 ipsi- and 1 contralateral, and 4 (1.0%) minor strokes. In asymptomatic patients there was 1 (0.3%) minor stroke. Transient ischemic attacks occurred in 5 (1.2%) patients. There were 2 (0.5%) non-STEMI myocardial infarctions and 2 (0.5%) non-stroke related fatalities. Risk factors of these adverse events were diabetes mellitus, lesions localized in a tortuous segment of the artery, embolic material in the filter and bilateral stenoses of carotid arteries. Additional risk factors in asymptomatic patients were renal impairment and advanced coronary artery disease; and in symptomatic patients, grade 3 arterial hypertension, dislipidemia, cigarette smoking and lesions requiring predilatation. Stenting procedures of extracranial arteries supplying the brain, which are tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions, seem to be relatively safe.

  3. Treatment of benign brain lesions True Beam radiosurgery in the first year of experience; Tratamiento de lesiones cerebrales benignas con radiocirugia en el True-Beam: Primer ano de experiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lliso, F.; Carmona, V.; Gimeno, J.; Candela, C.; Bautista, J. A.; Perez-Calatayud, J.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the work is analyse the first year of experience in the treatment of injury brain benign with Rapid Arc in the patients treated in a throttle True Beam STX with radiosurgery who achieved an adequate level of efficiency and accuracy. (Author)

  4. Clinical, histopathological and therapeutic considerations in non-neoplastic abnormal uterine bleeding in menopause transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniţescu, F I; Tănase, Florentina; Simionescu, Cristiana; Iliescu, D

    2011-01-01

    With the decline of ovarian hormonal function, from the fifth decade of life, women enter the menopause transition, during which bleeding becomes irregular in duration and time of occurrence. Secondary to ovarian dysfunction, developmental and maturation endometrial anomalies occur, which are clinically translated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which in many cases at this age can be caused by organic lesions (fibroma, polyps, endometritis, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, etc.). The retrospective study included a total of 256 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding in menopause transition. Statistics showed that the incidence of these types of bleeding increases with age (64.5%) and parity (30.5%), with symptoms consisting mostly in different clinical forms of abnormal uterine bleeding (62.1%), and leiomyomas prevailing at histopathological examination (49.6%). Progesterone replacement therapy was the first therapeutic choice for correcting these types of bleeding. Progesterone therapy is useful not only for therapeutic purposes to amend the bleeding, but also as a precaution against the development of endometrial carcinoma. Progestogens cancel the proliferative and mitogenic effect of estrogens, even when administered in sequential regimen 10-12 days per month.

  5. Early destructive lesions in the developing brain: clinical and electrographic correlates Lesões destrutivas precoces no cérebro em desenvolvimento: correlatos clínicos e eletrográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Low

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early brain insults can cause cavitary lesions including porencephaly (POR and multicystic encephalopathy (MCE. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and electrographic correlates associated to these types of destructive brain lesions. METHOD: Patients with POR and MCE were selected and submitted to clinical and Video-EEG monitoring. The following variables were analyzed: demographic data, type of lesion, presence of gliosis, perinatal complications, epilepsy, brain atrophy, and presence and frequency of epileptiform discharges. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, 65% males, 35% females, ages ranging from 1 to 40 years, 14 with MCE and 6 with POR. Eighteen patients had hemiparesis, 19 had epilepsy (current or in the past, seven of them had refractory seizures, and 16 had epileptiform discharges. All patients with MCE had gliosis while only 2 with POR had it. CONCLUSIONS: No correlation was observed between type of lesion and clinical and electrographical outcome. However, a positive correlation was observed between frequency of discharges and presence of brain atrophy, and between MCE and gliosis.OBJETIVO: Insultos cerebrais precoces podem causar lesões cavitárias incluindo porencefalias (POR e encefalomalacias multicisticas (EMC. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar correlatos clínicos e eletrográficos associados a estes dois tipos de lesões destrutivas. MÉTODO: Pacientes com POR e EMC foram selecionados e submetidos à avaliação neurológica e monitorização vídeo-eletrencefalográfica, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis: dados demográficos, tipo de lesão, presença de gliose, complicações perinatais, epilepsia, atrofia cerebral, presença e freqüência de descargas epilépticas. RESULTADO: Vinte pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 65% do sexo masculino, 35% do feminino, idades entre 1 e 40 anos, sendo 14 com EMC e 6 com POR. Dezoito pacientes tinham hemiparesia, 19 tinham ou tiveram epilepsia

  6. Review of the non-neoplastic kidney effects of hydrocarbon exposure in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.C.; Petrone, R.L.; Hemstreet, G.P. III

    1988-07-01

    This review has demonstrated that there is a considerable amount of information in the medical literature concerning hydrocarbon-associated kidney effects. Ravnskov has stated that glomerulonephritis should be recognized legally as an occupational disease, yet there is no mention of hydrocarbon exposure in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis in two standard American textbooks of internal medicine. Two recently published textbooks of occupational medicine state without reservation that studies have linked hydrocarbon exposure to glomerulonephritis and base this conclusion on the previously cited studies of Beirne and Brennan, Zimmerman, and Ravnskov. The following conclusions have been reasonably substantiated: 1. Massive exposure to petroleum distillates on rare occasions may cause acute renal failure due to tubular necrosis. This appears to be a reversible lesion which, depending on the level of exposure, the medical care and support available, and pre-existing renal function, may be without chronic sequelae. 2. Case reports linking Goodpasture's syndrome and other types of glomerulonephritis to hydrocarbon exposure are based on circumstantial evidence and cannot be used to establish a causal association. 3. The evidence from the eight case-control studies of hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis is inconclusive. Six of the eight published case-control studies show a positive association between hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis, but four of the six studies have methodologic flaws that could explain the observed effect. The findings in the one positive study that is methodologically acceptable were not replicated in a subsequent study utilizing a similar design. 4. Studies of hydrocarbon-exposed occupational cohorts have generally revealed a lower than expected risk of death from renal causes. 69 references.

  7. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  8. Density abnormalities in normal-appearing gray matter in the middle-aged brain with white matter hyperintense lesions: a DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan Peng,1,* Shenhong Li,2,* Ying Zhuang,3,* Xiaojia Liu,4 Lin Wu,2 Honghan Gong,2 Dewu Liu,1 Fuqing Zhou2 1Burn Center, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 3Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Little is known about the structural alterations within gray matter (GM in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH lesions. Here, we aimed to examine the anatomical changes within the GM and their relationship to WMH lesion loads in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Twenty-three middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group and 23 demographically matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. A Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Liealgebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry was used to measure the GM density, and the correlations between WMH lesion volume and extracted GM values in abnormal regions were identified by voxel-based morphometry analysis. Results: Compared with the healthy control subjects, the WMH group had a significantly decreased GM density in the left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left and right premotor cortex, and left and right middle cingulate cortex and an increased GM density in the bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right temporoparietal junction, left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC, and left inferior parietal lobule. A relationship was observed between the normalized WMH lesion volume and the decreased GM density, including the left middle frontal gyrus (ρ=-0.629, P=0.002, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.507, P=0.019, right middle cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.484, P=0.026, and

  9. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  10. Telomere length in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship to the severe clinical phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Sumi, Kazuya; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Hirata, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. To clarify the clinical importance of telomere shortening in colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC), we measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa in UC patients and assessed its relationship to various clinical subtypes. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured in colonic biopsies obtained from rectal inflammatory mucosa from 86 UC patients as well as paired non-inflammatory proximal colonic mucosae from 10 patients. Data were correlated with various clinical phenotypes. In paired samples, average relative telomere length of rectal inflammatory mucosa was shortened compared to normal appearing proximal colon in eight out of ten cases (p = 0.01). Telomere length shortening was significantly associated with more severe Mayo endoscopic subscore (p telomere length was significantly shortened in the same phenotypes than the others (p = 0.003). Telomere shortening is associated with more severe clinical phenotypes of UC, reflecting severe inflammatory state in the colonic mucosa.

  11. Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0744 TITLE: Development of Assays for Detecting Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated...with Cancer in Non-Neoplastic Prostate Tissue PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Farhad Kosari, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN...Significant Prostate Cancer Based on Molecular Alterations Associated with Cancer in Non- Neoplastic Prostate Tissue 5b. GRANT NUMBER 10623678 5c

  12. Lesions inflammatory activity quantification in multiple sclerosis using [{sup 11}C]-(R)-PK11195 PET brain images; Quantificacao da atividade inflamatoria em lesoes na esclerose multipla usando imagens PET cerebrais com [{sup 11}C]-(R)-PK11195

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, Phelipi N.; Narciso, Lucas D.L.; Dartora, Caroline M.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da, E-mail: phelipi.schuck@acad.pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Imagens Medicas

    2016-07-01

    The criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis include the presence of lesions in brain regions called black holes (BH), characterized by low signal on magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted. Studies suggest that lesions in MS, if there is an inflammatory process, can be detected in PET imaging with [{sup 11}C]- (R)-PK11195. The aim of this study is to investigate the uptake of [{sup 11}C]-(R)-PK11195 in BH in PET images, searching for inflammation activity in lesions and neighborhoods. Semiquantitative methods of SUV and uptake normalization were applied to PET images, in different time intervals, acquired from 8 MS patients and 5 healthy controls. Higher uptake was identified in BH and its edges, when compared with health controls white matter, when the SUV method is applied (p < 0,01, 40 to 60 min). When uptake normalization method is applied, smaller uptake in black holes and its your edges is observed, when compared with white matter apparently healthy (p < 0,01, 0 to 60 min). (author)

  13. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: A prospective study on 114 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfanti, U.; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G.; Palermo, G.; Zini, E.

    2015-01-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FN...

  14. Relationship between dysphagia and the location of brain lesions in acute stroke%急性脑卒中患者脑损伤部位与吞咽障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 孟然; 张国平; 田少华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the incidence of dysphagia and the location of brain lesions in patients with acute stroke.Methods Swallowing function was assessed by Watin drinking water test within 48 hours after admission in 226 cases with acute stroke.The location of the brain lesions was identified by CT and / or MRI.According to the US National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS),evaluation of nerve functions was evaluated within 24 hours after admission in stroke patients.Results The incidence of dysphagia was 50.4% (114 /226) in 226 patients in acute stage.The degree of neurological deficit of stroke patients on admission was significantly correlated with the occurrence of dysphagia (x2 =13.35,P=0.02).The incidence of dysphagia caused by lesions in internal carotid artery trunk (hemisphere in combination with basal ganglia/internal capsule) was more common in anterior circulating territory(internal carotid artery system),dysphagia with internal carotid arterg(ICA) trunk occlusion (hemisphere in combination with basal ganglia/internal capsule) was more common than that caused by cortex branches occlusion (hemisphere-cortex) or penetrating ICA injuries (basal ganglia/internal capsule) and cortex branches occlusion (hemisphere-cortex),respectively(x2 =8.228,P<0.05).The incidences of dysphagia induced by brain lesions of different cortex lobes had no statistic differences(x2 =0.312,P>0.05).In posterior circulating territory (vertebro-basilar system),the incidence of swallowing disorders was significantly higher in brain stem group than in the thalamus and cerebellum (x2 =27.292,P<0.001).The incidence of the dysphagia caused by lesions in cerebral hemispheres,combined basal ganglia / internal capsule and brain stem lesions were significantly higher than those caused by other lesions(x2 =35.639,P<0.000).Conclusions Brain lesions of hemisphere combined basal ganglia/internal capsule and brain stem are significantly associated with

  15. Late effects of enriched environment (EE) plus multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) after traumatic brain injury in rats: Ongoing improvement of neuromotor function despite sustained volume of the CNS lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert-Gruener, Marcela; Maegele, Marc; Garbe, Janika; Angelov, Doychin N

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed that the combination between MEOS and EE applied to rats for 7-15 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with reduced CNS lesion volume and enhanced reversal of neuromotor dysfunction. In a continuation of this work, we tested whether these effects persisted for longer post-operative periods, e.g. 30 days post-injury (dpi). Rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) or to sham injury. After LFP, one third of the animals (injured and sham) was placed under conditions of standard housing (SH), one third was kept in EE-only, and one third received EE+MEOS. Standardized composite neuroscore (NS) for neurological functions and computerized analysis of the vibrissal motor performance were used to assess post-traumatic neuromotor deficits. These were followed by evaluation of the cortical lesion volume (CLV) after immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase, caspase 3 active, and GFAP. Finally, the volume of cortical lesion containing regeneration-associated proteins (CLV-RAP) was determined in sections stained for GAP-43, MAP2, and neuronal class III beta-tubulin. We found (i) no differences in the vibrissal motor performance; (ii) EE+MEOS rats performed significantly better than SH rats in NS; (iii) EE-only and EE+MEOS animals, but not SH rats, showed better recovery at 30 dpi than at 15 dpi; (iv) no differences among all groups in CLV (larger than that at 15 dpi) and CLV-RAP, despite a clear tendency to reduction in the EE-only and EE+MEOS rats. We conclude that EE+MEOS retards, but cannot prevent the increase of lesion volume. This retardation is sufficient for a continuous restoration of neurological functions.

  16. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  17. Successful combination immunotherapy of anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody-positive encephalitis with extensive multifocal brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Yuki; Okada, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Mari; Yamaguchi, Keiji

    2017-08-31

    A 78-year old woman who presented with akinetic mutism was admitted to our hospital. Brain MRI showed multifocal increased T2/FLAIR signal with extensive cortical-subcortical involvement. We suspected autoimmune encephalitis and the patient received methylprednisolone pulse. Her conscious level gradually recovered, but later relapsed again and presented with refractory status epilepticus. We treated her with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and pulsed cyclophosphamide, with satisfactory response. A brain biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and reactive gliosis. Anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibodies test came back to be positive after her recovery, and the diagnosis of anti-GABAA receptor antibody-positive encephalitis was made. This is a very rare case where brain biopsies were performed in a patient with anti-GABAA receptor antibody-positive encephalitis.

  18. Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR, demethoxycurcumin (DMC, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60 mg/kg, body weight, per oral for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10 μg/2 μL into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA, DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2 receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Brain white matter lesions correlated to newborns death and lethality Fatores correlacionados ao óbito e à letalidade hospitalar em neonatos com lesão da substância branca cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Argollo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe hospital lethality rates and factors correlated to death in neonates with brain white matter lesions. METHODS: a retrospective study was performed from January 1994 to December 2001. Neonates with white brain matter lesions were divided into survival and death groups and their medical files reviewed through the single blind method to determine evolution. Death certificates provided the cause of death. The groups were compared through correlation coefficients. Hospital lethality rate was calculated. RESULTS: ninety three cases of white brain matter lesions and seven deaths were determined. Hospital lethality rate was of 8.2.% (95%CI: 2.4-14.0 independently from lesion occurrence time, and of 10.3% (95%CI: 3.3-17.3 for deaths occurred during prenatal and perinatal periods. Death was correlated to: Apgar score, non-cephalic presentation, gestational age, hyperglicemia, hypercalcemia, convulsion, respiratory insufficiency and atelectasy. CONCLUSIONS: hospital lethality was of 10.3% generating the following hypothesis: perinatal asphyxia must be the principal direct and indirect etiologic factor (aggravating the expression of prematurity and infection diseases, of prenatal and perinatal mortality among newborns with white brain matter lesions; and OBJETIVOS: descrever a taxa de letalidade hospitalar e fatores correlacionados com o óbito em crianças com lesão da substância branca cerebral (LSB. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo realizado de janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Os neonatos com LSB foram divididos em sobreviventes ou óbito, e seus prontuários revisados de forma cega para a evolução. Dos atestados de óbito, a causa de morte. Os grupos foram comparados por coeficientes de correlação. Calculada a taxa de letalidade hospitalar. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados 93 casos de LSB e sete óbitos. A taxa de letalidade hospitalar foi de 8,2%, (IC95%: 2,4-14,0, independentemente da época de instalação da lesão, e de

  20. Indices of Impaired Self-Awareness in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Focal Frontal Lesions and Executive Deficits : Implications for Outcome Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2010-01-01

    In patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), impairments of self-awareness are frequently found and associated with worse functional outcome and poor compliance with rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indications of impaired self-awareness could be

  1. Indices of Impaired Self-Awareness in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Focal Frontal Lesions and Executive Deficits : Implications for Outcome Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2010-01-01

    In patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), impairments of self-awareness are frequently found and associated with worse functional outcome and poor compliance with rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indications of impaired self-awareness could be

  2. Cytological spectrum of salivary gland lesions and their correlation with epidemiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneet Kaur Sandhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role fine-needle aspiration (FNA in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions has evolved over the years. Although clinical and radiological parameters help to narrow the differential diagnosis the tissue diagnosis still remains the gold standard. Materials and Methods: This study is from January 2013 to December 2015 in our Department of Pathology where 170 salivary gland lesions were aspirated. The aim of the present study was to analyze adequacy rate in relation to the size of lesion and to evaluate varied cytological spectrum of salivary gland lesions with emphasis on differential diagnosis and to correlate cytological diagnosis with age, gender and anatomical site. Results: The 170 cytological smears were categorized into two groups: Group 1 adequate aspirations (88.2%, Group 2 inadequate aspirations (11.7%. The adequate aspirations were subdivided as neoplastic (53.33% and nonneoplastic (46.66%. The distribution of the various neoplastic lesions (80; 53.33% were 66 (82.5% benign, 12 (15% were malignant and 2 (2.5% were suspicious of malignancy. Among benign neoplasms, the pleomorphic adenoma (62; 93.3% was the most frequent followed by Warthins tumor (4; 6%. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenoid cystic carcinoma (6; 50%, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (4; 33.3%, malignant lymphoma (1; 8.3% and metastatic carcinomatous deposits (1; 8.3%. In two cases, cytological picture indicated suspicion for malignancy however specific tumor typing could not be done. The neoplasms occurred more frequently in the parotid gland (65%, followed by submandibular gland (21.3% and minor salivary glands (13.8%. The nonneoplastic lesions (70 included 68.6% cases of chronic sialadenitis, 17.1% cases were reported as mucocele, 11.4% cases of acute sialadenitis 2.9% cases as tubercular granulomas. Conclusion: FNA cytology provides useful information on the management of salivary gland lesions and prevents unnecessary surgery in cases

  3. The Clinical Value Discussion of Using CT to Diagnose Coronary Disease Which Caused Brain Tissue Lesions%应用CT诊断冠心病引起脑组织病变的临床价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立莎

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨CT诊断冠心病引起脑组织病变的临床应用价值。方法:将选取的100例冠心病引起脑组织病变患者按年龄分为老年组和非老年组,其中老年组54例,非老年组46例,采用CT对所有患者进行检查,观察其检查结果、两组的CT特点和所出现的临床表现。结果:CT检查显示局限性低密度区改变、豆状核边界不清、大脑中动脉区改变和双侧额极低密度改变等病灶非常明确,具有较高的阳性诊断率;非老年组患者CT检查显示的单侧脑组织病灶明显多于老年组,显示的多脑组织病灶则明显较老年组少,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);老年组中患者的构音障碍、偏瘫和意识障碍等明显较非老年组多见,而出现偏身感觉障碍、头晕和头痛等症状明显少于非老年组,差异均具有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。结论:常规CT扫描检查对于冠心病引起脑组织病变的患者的诊断具有比较重要的临床价值,与临床表现结合可对患者做出明确诊断。%Objectives:To discuss clinical application value of using CT to diagnose coronary disease which caused brain tissue lesions.Methods:Divided those 100 cases of coronary disease which caused brain tissue lesions patients into senile group and non-senile group according to their ages,senile group has 54 cases,while non-senile group has 46 cases,adopted CT to check up all of the patients,observed their inspection results,these two groups’ CT characteristics and their clinical features.Results:CT examination showed that change of limitations low density area,unclear boundary of lenticular nucleus, change of the brain artery area and change of bilateral forehead extremely low density these nidus were very clear,it has fairly high positive diagnosisi rate;Unilateral brain tissue focus which showed in non-senile group through the CT examination is obviously more than senile group

  4. 18FECH PET/CT脑显像在脑占位诊断中的价值分析%Analysis of false positive and false negative of 18FECH PET/CT in brain lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程欣; 崔瑞雪; 党永红; 潘慧; 李方

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of the high uptake of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose{18FDG)in brain, its disadvantage in brain lesion positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging. [18F]Flunroethyl-dimethyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium(18FECH)background uptake in brain was low. It could improve the sensitive and specificity of brain lesions diagnosis. We analyzed the false positive and false negative in 18FECH PET imaging in brain lesions with the aim of improving the accuracy of diagnosis with 18FECH PET imaging. Methods: 58 patients with brain lesion were studied using 18FDG PET and 18FECH PET/CT brain imaging. It was considered a positive result that increased tracer uptake relative to the surrounding background radioactivity in 18FECH PET/CT imaging, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for lesion and peritumoral regions was measured, and a lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratio (LNR) was calculated. LNK >2 that was considered a positive result. There were eleven false negative and false negative. The diagnoses of all patients were verified by biopsy or operation under neuronavigation guidance, and pathology including immunohistochemistry. Results: l.Five were false positive (one tuberculous granuloma, one necrosis of cerebral infarction, one pilosity hardenability gliocyte proliferation, one hemorrhage caused by vascular malformation and one demyelination). 2. Six were false negative (one dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, two grade Ⅱ glioma , one grade Ⅱ oligodendroglioma, one grade Ⅱ oligoastrcytoma and one grade Ⅲ anaplastic oligoastrcytoma). 3. The rate of false positive was 13.2%(5/38), the rate of false negative was 15.8%(6/38), the accuracy of 18FECH PET/CT was 71.1%(27/38). Conclusion: 18FECH PET/CT clearly reveals the location and extent of the tumors and has a role in qualitative diagnosis. Howeve, it also has a certain rate of false positivity and false negativity.%目的:由于大脑皮层对氟代脱氧葡萄糖([18F

  5. Processos proliferativos gengivais não neoplásicos em paciente sob tratamento ortodôntico Non-neoplastic proliferative gingival processes in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Gregnanin Pedron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a aparatologia ortodôntica dificulta a higiene bucal e pode contribuir para a formação de lesões gengivais, como os processos proliferativos gengivais não neoplásicos. Essas lesões, dependendo de alguns fatores - como o tempo de evolução, constituintes histopatológicos e condições bucais -, podem ser reversíveis, em alguns casos, por meio da orientação sobre higiene bucal e da terapia periodontal básica. Entretanto, na maioria das vezes há necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico. OBJETIVO: o propósito deste trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente portadora de aparatologia ortodôntica fixa que apresentou duas lesões gengivais distintas, diagnosticadas como granuloma piogênico e hiperplasia gengival inflamatória. Foram discutidas as características clínicas e histopatológicas, incidência e frequência, modalidades terapêuticas e prevenção de ambas as lesões, demonstrando a importância do encaminhamento do material colhido ao exame histopatológico, dada a possibilidade de diversas hipóteses diagnósticas. Em ambas as lesões foi realizada a exérese cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: a lesão na arcada superior, diagnosticada como granuloma piogênico, apresentou recorrência, sendo necessária terapia periodontal básicae repetiçãodoprocedimento cirúrgico. Alesão na arcada inferior foi diagnosticada como hiperplasia gengival, sendo removida cirurgicamente e acompanhada clinicamente, com prescrição de orientação da higiene bucal ao pacienteINTRODUCTION: Orthodontic appliances render oral hygiene difficult and may contribute to the development of gingival lesions such as non-neoplastic proliferative gingival processes. These lesions, depending on such factors as development time, histopathological components and oral conditions may be reversible in some cases - through oral hygiene advice and basic periodontal therapy. In most cases, however, surgical treatment is required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja K Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of salivary glands is one of the most commonly done first line investigations in the head and neck region. Objectives: To study the cytological features of various salivary gland lesions and to correlate with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Materials and Methods: All the FNAC slides of salivary gland lesions received at cytology lab of a tertiary hospital for a period of 3 years that is, from January 2011 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological correlation was done for cases wherever available. Results: During the study period salivary gland FNAC was done for 100 cases. Among them, 51 (51% were reported as nonneoplastic and 49 as neoplastic (49%. Histopathological correlation was available in 18 cases (18%. The accuracy of salivary gland cytology is 77.7% (14/18 cases. The mean age of presentation of all the salivary gland lesions ranged from 12 years to 92 years with the mean age being 47.7 years. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1. Parotid gland was involved in 74 cases and submandibular gland in 26 cases. Bilateral involvement was noted in 1 case (1%. Conclusion: Being a minimally invasive procedure, FNA of salivary glands continues to be an important diagnostic tool in the preoperative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in spite of few pitfalls in diagnosing due to cytomorphological overlapping.

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Clusters in Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack by Cognitive Status and Stroke Subtype: Frequency and Relationships with Vascular Lesions, Brain Atrophy and Amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Lau, Alexander Y. L.; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhaolu; Liu, Wenyan; Lam, Bonnie Y. K.; Au, Lisa; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Xiong, Yun-yun; Lo, Eugene S. K.; Law, Lorraine S. N.; Leung, Thomas W. H.; Lam, Linda C. W.; Chan, Anne Y. Y.; Soo, Yannie O. Y.; Leung, Eric Y. L.; Wong, Lawrence K. S.; Mok, Vincent C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. Methods Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3–6 months post index admission. NPI symptoms were classified into four symptom clusters (Behavioral Problems, Psychosis, Mood Disturbance & Euphoria) derived from a confirmatory factor analysis of the 12 NPI items. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent associations between demographic, clinical and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes (white matter changes, old infarcts, whole brain atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy [MTLA] and frontal lobe atrophy [FLA]) with the presence of NPI symptoms and all symptom clusters except euphoria. 11C-Pittsburg Compound B Positron Emission Tomography (11C-PiB PET) was performed in 24 patients to measure amyloid retention for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) pathology. Results 50.6% of the whole sample, including 28.7% cognitively normal and 66.7% of patients with mild cognitive symptoms, had ≥1 NPI symptoms. Frequencies of symptom clusters were largely similar between stroke subtypes. Compared to patients with cardioembolic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage, those with TIA had less frequent mood disturbance. Stroke severity at admission and MTLA were the most robust correlates of symptoms. FLA was associated with behavioral problems cluster only. Frequency of symptom clusters did not differ between patients with and without significant amyloid retention. Conclusion Frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms increased with level of cognitive impairment but was largely similar between stroke subtypes. Stroke severity and MTLA

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several mening...

  9. Empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Dong, Yuanli; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yingxin; Diao, Yutao; Cui, Yi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Qiang; Liu, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between empty-nest-related psychological distress and the progression of white matter lesions (WMLs) and cognitive impairment in 219 elderly subjects aged 60 years or over. Psychological distress was assessed using the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Short-Form. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE and MoCA. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. After 5.2-year follow-up, the reductions in MMSE and MoCA scores and the increases in periventricular (P)WMH, deep (D)WMH, and total WMH volumes in the empty-nest elderly were greater than those in the non-empty-nest elderly (P < 0.05). The reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and increased volumes of PWMH and total WMH in the empty-nest elderly living alone were greater than those in the empty-nest elderly living with a spouse (P < 0.05). UCLA-LS and GDS scores were significantly and independently associated with reduced MMSE and MoCA scores and the increased volumes of PWMH, DWMH, and total WMH. The results indicate that empty-nest-related psychological distress is associated with progression of WMLs and cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:28256594

  10. Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system with tumor-like lesion, mimicking brain malignant glioma: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guilin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated angiitis of the central nervous system (IACNS is a rare but severe vascular disease, which could present like an isolated inflammatory lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. To date, only a few such cases with tumor-like IACNS have been reported. Case Presentation A 35-year-old woman presented with headache and left-sided weakness. MRI scans initially mislead us to a diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM. Surgery was performed. The mass was sub-totally resected. Pathological examination confirmed a cerebral vasculitis. Radiological features, such as disproportionate mass effect, striped hemorrhage and abnormal enhancement of adjacent vessels, could be helpful to distinguish a tumor-like IACNS from a GBM. Single therapy with high doses of steroid did not improve the patient's condition. Combined therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide showed great benefit to the patient. No relapse occurred during the period of 18 months follow-up. Conclusions Although a tumor-like IACNS has no established imaging features, a diagnosis of tumor-like IACNS should be suspected when MRI shows inappropriate presentations of a tumor. Greater awareness of this potential manifestation of IACNS may facilitate more prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A;

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... that MT-III immunoreactivity was also present in microglia, monocytes and/or macrophages in the leptomeninges and lying adjacent to major vessels. In freeze lesioned rats, both MT-I+II and MT-III immunoreactivities increased in the ipsilateral cortex. The pattern of MT-III immunoreactivity significantly...

  12. Microsatellite instability in tumor and nonneoplastic colorectal cells from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic high microsatellite-instable tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmaier, W; Gänsbauer, S; Beyser, K; Renke, B; Hartmann, A; Rümmele, P; Jauch, K W; Hofstädter, F; Rüschoff, J

    2000-01-01

    Genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) have been frequently studied in various tumor types. Genetic heterogeneity of nonneoplastic cells has not yet been sufficiently investigated. However, genomic instability in normal cells could be a potentially important issue, in particular when these cells are used as reference in LOH and MSI analyses of tumor samples. In order to investigate possible genetic abnormalities in normal colorectal cells of tumor patients, MSI analyses of normal colonic mucosa were performed. Up to 15 different laser-microdissected normal regions containing 50-150 cells were investigated in each of 15 individual microsatellite-stable, sporadic high microsatellite-instable (MSI-H) and hereditary non-polyposis coli cancer (HNPCC) colorectal cancer patients. Frequent MSI and heterogeneity in the MSI pattern were found both in normal and tumor cells from 10 HNPCC and sporadic MSI-H tumor patients whose tumors had defect mismatch repair protein expressions. This observation shows that MSI can also occur in nonneoplastic cells which has to be considered in MSI analyses for molecular HNPCC screening. In addition, considerable genetic heterogeneity was detected in all MSI-H (sporadic and HNPCC) tumors when analyzing five different regions with less than 150 cells, respectively. These differences were not detectable in larger tumor regions containing about 10,000 cells. Thus, heterogeneity of the MSI pattern (e.g. intratumoral MSI) is an important feature of tumors with the MSI-H phenotype.

  13. Tumefação cerebral congestiva em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: frequência e associação com outras lesões cranioencefálicas Congestive brain swelling in victims of fatal road traffic accidents: frequency and association with other head injury lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÃO SILVA GUSMÃO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo anatomopatológico macro e microscópico do encéfalo de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito. A tumefação cerebral congestiva (TCC ocorreu em 21 (17,5% pacientes. Consoante com a tumefação cerebral, que determina aumento volumétrico do encéfalo, foi encontrado aumento do peso médio do encéfalo. A contusão cerebral foi a lesão mais frequentemente associada com a TCC (76,2%, enquanto os hematomas intracranianos foram observados em quase metade dos casos.A morphological study, macro and microscopical, was made of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents. Congestive brain swelling occurred in 21 (17.5% patients. Owing to the brain swelling that increases the brain volume, an increase of brain weight was also observed. Brain contusion was the most frequent lesion associated with congestive brain swelling (76.2%, while the intracranial haematomas were observed in almost half of the cases.

  14. Application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the differentiation of high-grade brain neoplasm and inflammatory brain lesions Aplicação da espectroscopia por ressonância magnética na diferenciação de lesões expansivas encefálicas neoplásicas e inflamatórias

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    José Roberto Lopes Ferraz-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors and inflammatory brain lesions. The examinations of 81 individuals, who performed brain MRS and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with ages between 10 and 80 years old, were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 individuals with diagnoses of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Group B was formed of 39 individuals with diagnosis of glial neoplasms. On analyzing the ROC curve, the discriminatory boundary for the Cho/Cr ratio between inflammatory lesions and tumors was 1.97 and for the NAA/Cr ratio it was 1.12. RMS is an important method useful in the distinction of inflammatory brain lesions and high-degree tumors when the Cho/Cr ratio is greater than 1.97 and the NAA/Cr ratio is less than 1.12. And so this method is important in the planning of treatment and monitoring of the therapeutic efficiency.O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a aplicação da espectroscopia por ressonância magnética (ERM no diagnóstico diferencial entre lesões expansivas encefálicas inflamatórias e neoplásicas. Foram analisados retrospectivamente 81 indivíduos que realizaram exames de ERM com idade entre 10 a 18 anos, divididos em dois grupos. O grupo A foi formado por 42 indivíduos com diagnóstico de neurotoxoplasmose e o grupo B foi formado por 39 indivíduos com diagnóstico de neoplasias gliais. Após análise da curva ROC observou-se que o valor discriminatório da relação Co/Cr entre lesões inflamatórias e neoplásicas foi de 1,97 e da relação Naa/Cr foi de 1,12. A espectroscopia por RM é um método útil na distinção de lesões expansivas inflamatórias e neoplasias de alto grau quando a relação Co/Cr é maior que 1,97 e a relação Naa/Cr é menor que 1,12, o que torna este método importante no planejamento do tratamento e monitorização da eficácia terapêutica.

  15. Selective preservation of a lexical category in aphasia: dissociations in comprehension of body parts and geographical place names following focal brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodglass, H; Wingfield, A

    1993-12-01

    The selective dissociation of memory for proper names is discussed in the context of a review of dissociations involving broadly defined vs narrowly defined semantic categories in brain damaged adults. Two narrowly defined categories for which dissociations have been reported are body parts (selectively impaired in comprehension) and geographical place names (selectively preserved in comprehension). In this study, 167 aphasic patients were tested for their ability to correctly identify body parts and map locations from spoken names, relative to a baseline for correct responses on general word discrimination (object identification). Wernicke's aphasics and Global aphasics both had significantly more success in pointing to named map locations and significantly worse performance in pointing to named body parts than they had in selecting other objects from multiple choice. Anomic aphasics showed precisely the opposite pattern of results. Other aphasic subgroups (Broca's aphasics, Mixed Nonfluent aphasics, Conduction aphasics, Transcortical Motor and Transcortical Sensory aphasics, and Mixed Fluent aphasics) did not show significant deviations in either direction. We suggest that the selective preservation for place names may be related to their status as proper names.

  16. Efifcacy of Gamma Knife Radiation Therapy in Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastasis Lesions and Whole Brain Radiation Therapy%肺癌脑转移病灶患者伽马刀放射治疗及全脑放射治疗的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬聘; 秦坤明; 王仁生; 阮林

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy analysis of lung lesions in patients with brain metastases Gamma Knife radiation therapy and whole brain radiation therapy.Methods:March 2002~ March 2013 in our hospital diagnosis and treatment of 500 cases of lung cancer patients with brain metastases as the research object. According to the specific circumstances of the patient decided to use the gamma knife radiation therapy or whole brain radiation therapy.Gamma Knife radiotherapy group and whole brain radiotherapy group in gender, age was not significantly different,P>0.05,comparable.Results:The Gamma Knife radiotherapy group and whole brain radiotherapy efficacy in the near future, with a median survival time and 1-year progression-free survival without brain lesions was no significant difference; 1-year survival rate was significantly higher than the gamma knife radiotherapy whole brain radiotherapy; adverse reaction rate of gamma knife radiotherapy group was significantly higher than the whole-brain radiotherapy.Conclusion:The adverse reaction rates using the gamma knife radiation is small, good effect, and thus overall due to the whole brain radiotherapy, but in clinical practice should also consider the specific circumstances of the patient treatment decisions for patients with larger tumors may be two were combined to achieve a more satisfactory outcome.%目的:探讨分析肺癌脑转移病灶患者伽马刀放射治疗(放疗)及全脑放射治疗的疗效。方法:选取2002年3月~2013年3月在我院接受诊断和治疗的500例肺癌脑转移患者作为研究对象。根据患者具体情况决定使用伽马刀放射治疗或全脑放射治疗。伽马刀放疗组和全脑放疗组患者在性别、年龄方面差异不明显,P>0.05,具有可比性。结果:伽马刀放疗组和全脑放疗组在近期疗效、中位生存期和1年无颅脑病灶进展生存率方面无明显差异;伽马刀放疗组的1年生存率明显高于全脑

  17. How to approach breast lesions in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yiming, E-mail: yiminggao@gmail.com [New York University Langone Medical Center, 221 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10016 (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Saksena, Mansi A.; Brachtel, Elena F.; Meulen, Deborah C. ter; Rafferty, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Recognize why the diagnostic approach to the developing breast differs from that to the adult breast. • Review of embryology, early breast development, and later pubescent breast development. • Learn the spectrum of common and uncommon pediatric breast lesions. • Develop an algorithm for diagnostic evaluation and management of pediatric breast lesions. - Abstract: Assessment of a pediatric breast lesion always starts with clinical evaluation. When imaging of a pediatric breast is indicated, ultrasound is the mainstay. The vast majority of pediatric breast complaints are of benign etiology, therefore the diagnostic/management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Correlation with age and clinical history helps to direct diagnosis. It is essential to be familiar with the imaging appearance of the normal developing breast at various Tanner stages, in order to diagnose physiologic breast findings and to minimize unnecessary biopsies in young breasts vulnerable to injury. Normal anatomic structures, developmental conditions, benign neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions are common causes of breast complaints in children. Uncommon benign masses and rarely, secondary more than primary malignancies may present in a pediatric breast. Chest wall masses such as Ewing's sarcoma or rhabdomyosarcoma occur in children and may involve the breast via contiguous growth or locoregional metastasis. In addition, special attention should be given to any breast lesion in a child with risk factors predisposing to breast cancer, such as known extramammary malignancy, genetic mutations, prior mantle irradiation, or strong family history of breast cancer, which usually requires biopsy to exclude the possibility of malignancy. Conclusion: The developing breast is vulnerable to injury, and because breast malignancy is uncommon in children, diagnostic and management approach emphasizes “first do no harm”. Understanding normal breast development and the

  18. Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e distribuição das lesões no encéfalo Bovine polioencephalomalacia: epidemiology, clinical signs and distribution of lesions in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2009-07-01

    -hemorrágicas leves ou moderadas foram observadas em 49% dos casos nos núcleos da base, em 39% dos casos no tronco encefálico e em 26% dos casos no tálamo. Lesões telencefálicas foram consistentemente observadas nas lâminas dos córtices dos lobos occipital, parietal e frontal. Nessas regiões as camadas granular externa e interna foram as mais afetadas tanto por neurônios necróticos quanto por edema em todas as regiões avaliadas. Tanto os giros quanto os sulcos foram afetados igualmente.Thirty one cases of polioencephalomalacia (PEM diagnosed from 1999-2008 in cattle from the Southern (13 cases and Midwestern (18 cases Brazil were studied. Morbidity (0.04%-6.66 %, mortality (0.04%-6.66 %, and lethality (50%-100% rates were similar in both regions studied. There was no clear association between PEM cases and age, sex or seasonality. Cases occurred mainly in cattle raised at pasture; in the Southern the disease affected mainly young cattle (one-year old or less while mainly older cattle (three-year-old or older were affected in the Midwest. Clinical signs more frequently observed included blindness, incoordination, circling, opisthotonus, recumbence and peddling movements. Clinical course varied from 12 hours to 8 days (average three days and a half. In 11 cases no gross changes were observed in the brain. Main gross findings in the brain of remaining cases included congestion with swelling and flattening of gyri, softening and yellow discoloration of cerebral cortex, hemorrhagic foci in the brain stem, cerebellum and telencephalon, and cerebellar herniation. The main histopathological changes were in the cortex of occipital, parietal and frontal telencephalic lobes; however less prominent and less frequently found lesions occurred in the hippocampus, basal nuclei, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. The type of microscopic cortical lesions was consistent in all cases and included segmentar laminar neuronal necrosis (red neurons, spongiosis, swollen of vascular endothelial

  19. Intramedullary non-specific inflammatory lesion of thoracic spine: A case report

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    Antonelli Manila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several non-neoplastic lesions which mimick intramedullary spinal cord neoplasm in their radiographic and clinical presentation. These can be classified as either infectious (TB, fungal, bacterial, parasytic, syphilis, CMV, HSV and non-infectious (sarcoid, MS, myelitis, ADEM, SLE inflammatory lesions, idiopathic necrotizing myelopathy, unusual vascular lesions and radiation myelopathy. Although biopsy may be indicated in many cases, an erroneous diagnosis of intramedullary neoplasm can often be eliminated pre-operatively. Case description the authors report a very rare case of intramedullary non-specific inflammatory lesion of unknown origin, without signs of infection or demyelinization, in a woman who showed no other evidence of systemic disease. Conclusions Intramedullary lesions that mimick a tumor can be various and difficult to interpret. Preoperative MRI does not allow a certain diagnosis because these lesions have a very similar signal intensity pattern. Specific tests for infective pathologies are useful for diagnosis, but histological examination is essential for establishing a certain diagnosis. In our case the final histological examination and the specific tests that we performed have not cleared our doubts regarding the nature of the lesion that remains controversial.

  20. Abnormal expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in brain glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein are important factors to regulate cell cycle. While, the combination of them can provide exactly objective markers to evaluate prognosis of patients with brain glioma needs to be further studied based on pathological level.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P27 protein in both injured and normal brain glioma tissues and analyze the effect of them on onset and development of brain glioma.DESIGN: Case contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 63 patients with brain glioma were selected from Department of Neurosurgery,the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from July 1996 to June 2000. There were 38 males and 25 females and their ages ranged from 23 to 71 years. Based on pathological classification and grading standards of brain glioma, patients were divided into grade Ⅰ - tⅡ (n =30) and grade Ⅲ - Ⅳ (n =33). All cases received one operation but no radiotherapy and chemiotherapy before operation. Sample tissues were collected from tumor parenchyma. Non-neoplastic brain tissues were collected from another 12 non-tumor subjects who received craniocerebral trauma infra-decompression and regarded as the control group. There were 10 males and 2 females and their ages ranged from 16 to 54 years. The experiment had got confirmed consent from local ethic committee and the collection was provided confirmed consent from patients and their relatives. All samples were restained with HE staining so as to diagnose as the brain glioma.While, all patients with brain glioma received radiotherapy after operation and their survival periods were followed up.METHODS: Primary lesion wax of brain glioma was cut into serial sections and stained with S-P immunohistochemical staining. Brown substance which was observed in tumor nucleus was regarded as the

  1. 穴位注射治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的临床观察%Clinical observation of acupoint injection in the treatment of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of acupoint injection of compound Danshen injection in the treatment of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva.Methods 96 patients with vaginal epithelial non tumor like lesions were enrolled in this study,including 38 cases of squamous epithelial hyperplasia,lichen sclerosus in 42 cases,lichen sclerosus associated with squamous cell hyperplasia in 16 cases.Take Zhōngjí,Guīlái,Huìyīn, Sānyīnjīao,Zhàohaǐ,and Tàichōng six points,each acupoint injected compound Danshen injection 2mL,injected twice a week,10 times for a course of treatment,after 2 weeks began next course of treatment,a total of three courses.The clinical curative effect and incidence of adverse reaction of three types of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva were compared.Results The effective rates (effective rate =clinical control +effective +valid)of three types of epi-thelial disorders of vulva tumor like lesions were squamous epithelial hyperplasia 92.11%,lichen sclerosus 90.48%, hardening of lichen planus associated with squamous cell hyperplasia 87.50%,there was no significant difference among the three types of lesions(χ2 =4.102,P >0.05).The total effective rate of three types of nonneqlastie epithe-lial disorders of tumor was 90.62% by acupoint injection,and there were no serious adverse reactions in all patients during therapy.A patient of lichen sclerosus appeared the symptoms of nausea,sweating during treatment due to nerv-ous,and after psychological guidance the symptoms disappeared,re -treatment did not appear.Conclusion The acu-point injection of compound Danshen injection in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial non -tumor like lesions has better clinical effect,and has no serious adverse reactions.%目的:观察穴位注射复方丹参注射液治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的疗效。方法96例外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的患者,其中鳞状上皮增生38例,硬化性苔癣42例,硬化性

  2. The prevalence and diagnostic significance of fluid-fluid levels in focal lesions of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, London Bone and Soft Tissue Tumour Service, HA7 4LP, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) in focal bone lesions. Clinical and radiological details of 738 consecutive patients referred with focal lesions of bone and who had undergone MRI were reviewed. FFLs were identified in 83 (11.2%). The proportion of the lesion occupied by FFLs was estimated, based on imaging in all available planes, as <1/3, 1/3-2/3, >2/3 but not the entire lesion, and complete. The degree of FFL change in each lesion was correlated with the final diagnosis, which was either histological (n=80) or clinicoradiological (n=3). There were 31 female and 52 male patients, mean age 25.5 years (range 5-83 years). Histology revealed 46 benign, 32 malignant and 2 non-neoplastic lesions. A clinicoradiological diagnosis was made in the 3 lesions without histology: 2 were benign (simple bone cyst and intraosseous lipoma) and 1 malignant (a metastasis). Malignant neoplasms commonly showed FFLs which occupied <1/3 of the entire lesion (n=22/32, 68.8%), and 50% of all the lesions in this group were conventional intramedullary osteosarcomas (n=16). With increasing FFL change, malignancy became less frequent: with >2/3 (but incomplete) FFL change, 81% (n=13/16) of tumours were benign. If the entire tumour showed FFL change, the histology was benign in 100% (n=11). The extent of FFLs within a focal bone lesion appears to be inversely related to the degree of malignancy. If at least 2/3 of the lesion shows FFL change, 89% of diagnoses are benign. (orig.)

  3. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  4. Utility of Papanicolaou test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a study in a tertiary care centre of western Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Bisht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among females in India. It is also one of the major causes of deaths among them. Papanicolaou (Pap cytological test helps in detecting the early epithelial abnormalities in cervical cells. The morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer has come down in countries with well-established screening programmes at national level. This study was conducted to emphasize the value of cervical screening as a tool for early detection of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of cervix. Slide positivity rate was computed and clinico-pathological correlation was done. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014 (3 years, on 2202 women aged between 20-70 years coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital in Bareilly, India. After staining with conventional Papanicolaou technique, all cases were classified as per Bethesda nomenclature (2001. Results: Out of 2202 cases, 85.16% slides were found to be negative for intraepithelial abnormalities and 14.84% slides were labelled as positive for epithelial lesions. 97.67% of high grade lesions were found in women more than 40 years. Smears with epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in older age groups whereas smears negative for epithelial cell abnormality were found more common in young age groups. Conclusion: Pap test is a cost effective cancer screening and is a simple method to detect various lesions of cervix, non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic. High risk screening programmes should be directed to all women >40 years. Pap test is especially useful to diagnose precancerous lesions of cervix, thereby early detection of these lesions and subsequent proper treatment can be helpful in prevention of cervical cancer. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1070-1076

  5. Spectrum of Oral Lesions in A Tertiary Care Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashok; Kumar, Parbodh

    2015-01-01

    Aim The present study was undertaken to study the spectrum and pattern of various oral cavity lesions in a tertiary care hospital in Rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Background Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for tumour and tumour like lesions especially in males. It has been observed that benign lesions are more common than malignant ones. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital during the period of two years from June 2012 to May 2014. The study included 133 cases of oral cavity lesions. The parameters included in the study were age, gender, site of the lesion and histopathological diagnosis. Special stains and Immunohistochemical markers were applied as and when required. Data collected were analysed. Results A total of 133 cases were included in the present study. The age ranged from 8 to 80 years. Males were affected more often than females with a Male: Female ratio of 3.3:1. The most common involved site was tongue 39 (29.32%) followed by tonsil in 30 (22.56%), buccal mucosa 27(20.32%), floor of mouth 14 (10.53%), palate 12(9.02%), lower lip 8 (6.02%), upper lip 2(1.50%) and vestibule in 1 (0.75%) cases. Of the 133 cases, 63 cases (47.36%) were malignant, 52 non-neoplastic (39.10%) and 18 cases (13.53%) of benign neoplasias. The various lesions included - Squamous cell carcinoma, Verrucous carcinoma, Carcinoma-in-situ, Leukoplakia, Fibroma, Lipoma, Squamous cell papilloma, Lymphoid hyperplasia, Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, Haemangioma, Schwannoma, Atypical Pleomor -phic adenoma, Pleomorphic adenoma, Epidermal cyst, Retention cyst, Parasitic infestation, Tubercular pathology, Granulation tissue, Chronic Sialadenitis and Chronic non-specific inflammatory pathology. A larger epidemiopathological study in this region needs to be carried out for detailed statistical analysis. Conclusion Benign lesions were the predominant pathology. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignant

  6. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

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    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  7. Language and focal brain lesion in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Lia; Riesgo, Rudimar; Pedroso, Fleming; Goldani, Marcelo; Danesi, Marlene; Ranzan, Josiane; Sleifer, Pricila

    2010-07-01

    Childhood ischemic strokes can lead to problems like hemiplegias, epilepsies, cognitive changes (memory and mathematical solutions), and language ability (reading, writing, and aphasias). The purpose of this study was to evaluate language and its aspects in children with unilateral ischemic stroke and associate them with the age during the event, injured side, and occurrence of epilepsy. Thirty-two children between 8 months and 19 years of age were evaluated. Among them, 21 (65%) had a change in their language skills, there being a connection between age and the time of injury (P < .05). The most impaired aspects were their phonology, semantics, and syntax. In this sample, there was a persistent change in the semantic aspect, which is an alert for the early detection of learning and future development problems.

  8. Histopathological study of lesions of nose and paranasal sinuses and association of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV with sinonasal papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma

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    Beigh Ambreen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions involve the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses which are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The nose and paranasal sinuses are exposed to a variety of infections, chemically irritating, antigenically stimulating, traumatic and undoubtedly many other influences and consequences of these multifaceted deleterious exposures result in the formation of tumour-like and truly neoplastic conditions. To study histopathological pattern of sinonasal lesions and association of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV with sinonasal papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The present study was a hospital based observational study conducted over a period of three years from January, 2010 to January, 2013 in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Srinagar which included 181 cases of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses followed by study of association of HPV with sinonasal papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Out of total 181 cases, 114 were non-neoplastic and 67 were neoplastic. Out of 67 neoplastic lesions, 46 were benign and 21 were malignant. Nasal polyp was most common among non neoplastic lesions. Inverted sinonasal papilloma was most common benign lesion and squamous cell carcinoma was most common malignant lesion seen. Out of a total of 181 sinonasal lesions 101 (55.8% were present in males and 80 (44.2% were present in females with male to female ratio being 1.26:1. The age range of patients with sinonasal lesions varied from 5-75 years with a mean age being 34.67 (SD±16.58 years. HPV positivity was seen in 4 (13.33% out of 30 cases of inverted papillomas, 3 out of 6 (50% exophytic papillomas tested positive for HPV. Out of 9 squamous cell carcinomas HPV positivity was seen in 2 (22.2% cases. Categorizing the sinonasal lesions according to histopathological features into various types helps us to know the

  9. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

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    Anca Chiriac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  10. Evaluation of scoring system in cytological diagnosis and management of breast lesion with review of literature

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    N M Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC breast is generally considered as a rapid, reliable, and safe diagnostic tool to distinguish non-neoplastic from neoplastic breast lesions. Masood′s Scoring Index has been proposed to help in sub-grouping of breast lesions so as to help in surgical management. Aims: To assess the accuracy of Modified Masood′s Scoring Index (MMSI in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions in patients with palpable breast lump, and review of literature. Settings and Design: A prospective study from a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: This prospective study included a total of 100 cases, both females and males, with palpable breast lump, in the age range of 10-80 years, over a period of 2 years from January 2007 to 2009, who underwent FNAC. They were cytologically grouped into five categories as suggested by Masood et al, and confirmed by histopathology. Results: Evaluation of Masood Scoring Index led to modification (Modified Masood Scoring Index; MMSI by shifting score 9 from Group I to Group II, thus increasing the diagnostic accuracy of the breast lesions. Conclusions: MMSI was found to be a useful, easily reproducible scoring method of breast lesions to improve diagnostic accuracy of nonproliferative breast disease and proliferative breast disease without atypia cases, as the prognosis and treatment of these cases varies.

  11. Curved Needles in CT-Guided Fine Needle Biopsies of Abdominal and Retroperitoneal Small Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Massimo; Saba, Luca; Rossi, Enrica; Nizzoli, Rita; Tiseo, Marcello; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Brunese, Luca; Rotondo, Antonio; Rossi, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    To demonstrate the advantages of using curved needles in fine needle aspiration (FNA) with CT-guided, for analyzing abdominal and/or retroperitoneal small lesions which are impossible to reach with conventional non-surgical biopsy techniques, particularly in cases in which the cytology sample was not possible to obtain by means of US or CT guide with axial images. An authorization for CT-guided FNA in patients with neoplasms is not required by the institutional review board of our Institute. From April 2012 to November 2014, the study included retrospectively 25 patients (16 M, 9 F) who underwent CT-guided FNA of abdominal and/or retroperitoneal small lesions (biopsy procedure because of the interposition of anatomical obstacles. Patients with suspected lymphomas or sarcomas, pediatric patients and patients with bleeding diathesis were excluded. Cytology reports were used for evaluating suitability. The biological material was considered to be suitable for cytological study, with a diagnostic value in all 25 cases, finding in particular: out of 23 neoplastic lesions (85%), 21 were malignant (90.2%) and 2 were benign (8%). 2 out 25 were non-neoplastic benign lesions (8%). No procedural complications arose in any of the cases (0%). Using curved needles, there is an effective improvement in CT-guided FNA of abdominal and retroperitoneal small lesions which are difficult to achieve with conventional CT or ultrasound guide.

  12. Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology of thoracic lesions: 10 year experience of an interventional pulmonologist

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    Varinder Saini

    2016-12-01

    Results: 435 patients underwent CT-guided FNAC. Age ranged from 10 to 95 years, with male preponderance. Diagnostic yield was 80.2%. Neoplastic lesions (255/435 (58.6% were most commonly diagnosed with majority (206/255 (80.8% being non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This was followed by non-neoplastic lesions (94/435 (21.6% with Tuberculosis (42/94(44.7% being most common in this group. In 227/435 patients, other details like side and size of the lesion, position of patient during the procedure, depth of lesion from skin surface, number of passes undertaken and complications, if any, were also available. They were separately analyzed. Mean size of lesion was 5.7575 X 5.4173cms (maximum vertical X maximum horizontal diameter. Mean depth to which needle was inserted was 5.6663cms. Mean number of passes per patient were 1.98. Right sided lesions were more commonly sampled than left. Supine positioning was most commonly employed. Overall complication rate was 4% (9/227. Conclusions: CT-guided FNAC for thoracic lesions can serve as early diagnostic tool and guide in planning effective management strategies. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5185-5189

  13. Telomere length in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and its relationship to H. pylori infection, degree of gastritis, and NSAID use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Okubo, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured by real-time PCR. H. pylori infection status, histological severity of gastritis, and serum pepsinogens (PGs) were also investigated. E-cadherin (CDH1) methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Average relative telomere length of H. pylori-infected subjects was significantly shortened when compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.002) and was closely associated with all histological parameter of gastritis (all p values gastritis and CDH1 methylation status. Also, telomere shortening is accelerated by NSAID usage especially in H. pylori-negative subjects.

  14. 3.0T MR对肝豆状核变性颅脑病变的诊断及临床意义%Diagnosis and clinical significance of 3.0T MR in brain lesion of hepatolenticular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红伟; 张伶; 祁佩红; 薛鹏; 漆剑频; 夏黎明; 胡道予

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨3.0T MR肝豆状核变性(HLD)的颅脑MRI表现与及其临床意义.方法 对临床和实验室检查证实的23例肝豆状核变性患者行颅脑MRI平扫,扫描序列包括T1FLAIR、T2WI、T2FLAIR、DWI.分析颅脑异常MRI表现部位及临床体征,评估其临床相关性.结果 23例颅脑MRI均有异常发现,病灶呈稍长或长T1、稍长或长T2信号,FLAIR高信号,部分病灶呈低信号,DWI进展期病灶呈高信号.脑MRI异常信号发病部位依次为豆状核(21/23)、丘脑(19/23)、中脑(18/23)、内囊后肢(14/23)、桥脑(13/23,其中桥脑背侧、腹侧)、尾状核头(11/23)、齿状核(8/23)、小脑中脚(5/23)、额叶(5/23)、胼胝体压部(4 /23)、枕叶(1 /23),脑萎缩14例,且基底节、丘脑、中脑及齿状核多对称分布,形如"八字"或"展翅蝴蝶"样,MR病变部位与临床症状有一定相关性.结论 HLD颅脑MRI最具有特征性征象为双侧基底节、丘脑等对称性的异常信号,可广泛累及其他部位,多伴脑萎缩,而DWI可以反映进展期病灶情况,且受累部位与临床症状有一定相关性,从而指导临床诊治.%Objective To explore the MRI features of hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD), and to study the correlations between the MRI features and clinical data, such as the neurologic symptoms in HLD.Methods 23 patients with HLD confirmed by clinical and experiment results performed plain MRI scanning.The MRI features of HLD, the neurologic symptoms and the correlations between them were analyzed.Results 23 patients all showed abnormal signal on MRI with midly lower or lower T1 signal, mildly higher or higher T2 signal, and high signal on FLAIR.The signal on DWI was high in progressed HLD.The lesions involved the nucleus lentiformis (21 /23), the thalami (19 /23) ,the mesencephalon (18 /23), pars occipitalis capsulae internae (14/23), the pons (13 /23), the caput nuclei caudati (11 /23), the dentate nucleus (8 /23), the pedunculuscerebellarismedius (5 /23

  15. Cryptococcus gattii fungemia: report of a case with lung and brain lesions mimicking radiological features of malignancy Fungemia por Cryptococcus gattii: relato de um caso com lesões cerebrais e pulmonares nos achados radiológicos mimetizando câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Mattos Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old apparently immunocompetent white man developed lung and brain lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. The radiologic features mimicked those of lung cancer metastatic to the central nervous system. C. gattii was recovered from cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, brain biopsy, and blood. The same fungus was recovered from pulmonary and brain specimens at autopsy. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests were diagnostic in our case and should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of unexplained pulmonary and cerebral lesions. A literature search showed few reports of fungemia by this species of Cryptococcus, contrasting to C. neoformans.Homem branco de 64 anos, aparentemente imunocompetente, desenvolveu lesões pulmonares e cerebrais por criptococose disseminada. Os achados radiológicos foram similares àqueles encontrados em pacientes com câncer de pulmão e metástase no sistema nervoso central. C. gattii foi isolado de cultivos de lavado broncoalveolar, biópsia cerebral e sangue. O mesmo fungo foi encontrado em fragmentos pulmonares e cerebrais obtidos da autópsia. Testes de antígeno no soro e no líquido cefalorraquidiano foram diagnóstico no nosso caso e devem ser incluídos na avaliação diagnóstica de lesões pulmonares e cerebrais indefinidas. Pesquisa na literatura mostrou poucos relatos de fungemia por esta espécie de Cryptococcus, contrastando com C. neoformans.

  16. SIRT1 overexpression in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Perez, Anneliese; Wang, Xiaohong I; Li, Min; Zhang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix involves the progression of premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and is associated with persistent human papillomavirus infection. Most CINs will regress, and the challenge is to identify the lesions likely to progress to invasive cancer. We evaluated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in nonneoplastic cervix, CINs, and SCCs as a potential biomarker to predict disease progression. A total of 101 cases were selected including 29 CIN 1s, 32 CIN 2s, 16 CIN 3s, 2 microinvasive SCCs, and 22 invasive SCCs. Cervical nonneoplastic squamous epithelium showed weak positivity of SIRT1 in the basal layer. SIRT1 cytoplasmic overexpression was found in 13.8% of CIN 1s (4/29), 40.6% of CIN 2s (13/32), and 50% of CIN 3s (8/16), and it was statistically significant between CIN 1 and CIN 2/3 lesions (P=.01). All 24 cases of invasive and microinvasive SCC showed SIRT1 overexpression, with 25% (6/24) showing cytoplasmic staining only, 4.2% (1/24) showing nuclear staining only, and 70.8% (17/24) showing both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. From CIN 1 to SCC, SIRT1 expression showed steady and statistically significant increase (CIN 1 versus CIN 2-3, P=.01; CIN 2-3 versus SCC, P=.0001). Thus, SIRT1 may serve as a potential biomarker for predicting the progression of CIN to invasive SCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 三维可视化图像引导立体定位脑干及松果体区病灶活检术的研究%The technical report of three-dimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明; 于新; 李志超; 惠瑞; 刘锐; 尹丰; 张雷鸣; 程岗; 张剑宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methodology,technical essential and significance of threedimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy (SB) for lesions in pineal region and brain stem.Methods A total of 88 cases of lesions in pineal region and brain stem underwent image-guided SB in our department were retrospectively studied.Frame-based and CAS-2 type frameless SBs were performed in 57 and 31 cases respectively.Pre-biopsy three-dimension visualized image reconstruction was performed by SB planning software and the structure related to possible trajectory in each image slice was confirmed.The most suitable trajectory was selected accordingly.For lesions in pineal region,anterior-frontal trans-tentorium cerebella hiatus trajectory for avoiding tentorial margin was used.For lesions in mesencephalon,posteriorfrontal trans-lateral ventrical-thalamus trajectory via the vertical axis of brain stem was used.For pontal lesions,supra-occipital trans-pedunculus cerebellaris medius trajectory was used.Results Histological diagnosis was established in all 88 cases,which gave a high diagnostic yield (100%).Fifty-six lesions (64%) located in brain stem (middle brain and pons) and 32 (36%) in pineal region.In 56 brain stem lesions,there were 38 cases (68%) of glioma,3(5%) lymphoma,2(4%) neurodegenerative disease,6 (11%) multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelinating lesion,2 (4%) non-specific inflammation,2 (4%)brain infarct,2(4%) brain metastases,and 1 (2%) radiation necrosis.For lesions in pineal region,there were 18 cases (56%) of germ cell tumor,4(13%) glioma,9 (28%) pineal cell tumor,and 1 (3%) Wemicke encephalopathy.One case (1%) died of biopsy-related hemorrhage.The neurological deficits became severe because of hemorrhage in 5 cases,the medical treatment was adopted in 3 cases (3%)and drainage in 2 (2%).Conclusions Stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem was a safe and effective procedure that could help

  18. Ghost cell lesions

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    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  19. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...... the activity of primary coronal and root lesions reliably and accurately at one examination by using the combined information obtained from a range of indicators--such as visual appearance, location of the lesion, tactile sensation during probing and gingival health....

  20. Oculogyric Crisis Associated with Disulfiram-Induced Pallidonigral Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyeok; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Jin Goo; Lee, Myung Sik

    2009-01-01

    We report a man who developed oculogyric crisis one month after disulfiram intoxication. Brain MRI showed lesions involving bilateral globus pallidus and left substantia nigra. In our patient, neuronal discharges from pathologically reorganized basal ganglia circuit to the mid-brain ocular motor center might lead to tonic deviation of the eyes. PMID:24868355

  1. Oculogyric Crisis Associated with Disulfiram-Induced Pallidonigral Lesion

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    Jae Hyeok Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a man who developed oculogyric crisis one month after disulfiram intoxication. Brain MRI showed lesions involving bilateral globus pallidus and left substantia nigra. In our patient, neuronal discharges from pathologically reorganized basal ganglia circuit to the mid-brain ocular motor center might lead to tonic deviation of the eyes.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of p16ink4a in inflammatory, preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions

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    Gajanin Radoslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High-risk human papilloma viruses play a main role in the development of cervical dysplasias and carcinomas. p16INK4a can be considered as a surrogate marker of active highrisk human papillomaviruses infection in dysplastic and neoplastic cells of the cervix. This study was aimed at determining the presence and level of p16INK4a expression in inflammatory, preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix. Material and Methods. The study was performed on 109 samples of cervical biopsy. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 36 patients, 34 patients had a preneoplastic change (dysplasia in stratified squamous cervix epithelium and a nonspecific inflammatory process was found in 39 patients. In all samples, immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies to p16INK4a was performed. Results. The expression of p16INK4a was verified in all cases of cervical cancer (100%, in 67.65% of dysplastic cervical lesions and in 38.5% of inflammatory lesions. A statistically highly significant difference was found in the presence and level of expression among neoplasic, dysplastic and inflammatory lesions of the cervix (χ² = 76.02, p < 0.001. The expression was more frequent and had a higher level in neoplastic and high grade dysplastic lesions compared to expression in inflammatory lesions and low grade dysplasias. Conclusion. The analysis of the presence of p16INK4a can differentiate non-neoplastic, high grade preneoplastic and neoplastic changes of the cervix. The use of p16INK4a in interpreting borderline lesions of the cervix can enable a rational therapeutic treatment of patients.

  3. Review Article: The Role of Molecular Pathological Epidemiology in the Study of Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Diseases in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Nishihara, Reiko; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Wang, Molin; Nishi, Akihiro; Lochhead, Paul; Qian, Zhi Rong; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Nan, Hongmei; Yoshida, Kazuki; Milner, Danny A; Chan, Andrew T; Field, Alison E; Camargo, Carlos A; Williams, Michelle A; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-07-01

    Molecular pathology diagnostics to subclassify diseases based on pathogenesis are increasingly common in clinical translational medicine. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary science based on the unique disease principle and the disease continuum theory. While it has been most commonly applied to research on breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, MPE can investigate etiologic heterogeneity in non-neoplastic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, drug toxicity, and immunity-related and infectious diseases. This science can enhance causal inference by linking putative etiologic factors to specific molecular biomarkers as outcomes. Technological advances increasingly enable analyses of various -omics, including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, microbiome, immunomics, interactomics, etc. Challenges in MPE include sample size limitations (depending on availability of biospecimens or biomedical/radiological imaging), need for rigorous validation of molecular assays and study findings, and paucities of interdisciplinary experts, education programs, international forums, and standardized guidelines. To address these challenges, there are ongoing efforts such as multidisciplinary consortium pooling projects, the International Molecular Pathological Epidemiology Meeting Series, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-MPE guideline project. Efforts should be made to build biorepository and biobank networks, and worldwide population-based MPE databases. These activities match with the purposes of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K), Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON), and Precision Medicine Initiatives of the United States National Institute of Health. Given advances in biotechnology, bioinformatics, and computational/systems biology, there are wide open opportunities in MPE to contribute to public

  4. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  5. [Peculiarities of brain mechanisms of compensation of oxygen-dependent energy deficit, organization of emotions and cognitive activity at delayed consequences of perinatal lesion of CNS of the hypoxic-ischemic genesis in children of 3-6 years with delay of psychic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyukhina, V A; Matveev, Yu K; Ivanova, T B; Koshulko, M A; Nurok, M Yu

    2014-01-01

    There are summarized results of studies on peculiarities of formation of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of brain circulation and respiration at oxygen-dependent energy deficit in the 3-6-year old children with delayed consequences of perinatal CNS lesion of the hypoxic-ischemic genesis and delay of psychic development (DPD) with use of the systemic-integrative approach and of parameters of superslow information-control systems of brain and of organism. In the examined contingent of children, differences have been revealed in development of emotional sphere and the higher psychic functions depending on character of disorganization of regulatory CNS functions and of the type of formed compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of autoregulation of cerebral circulation and of the system of external respiration.

  6. CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions, 3. Non-tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    A study is made of the usefulness and limitations of the CT diagnosis of sellar and juxtasellar lesions other than tumors. This study is based on 112 verified cases at Nagoya University Hospital from October, 1976, to December, 1981. The lesions included in this study are classified into four groups: vascular, inflammatory, traumatic lesion, and congenital anomaly. Although cerebral angiography is the cardinal method for the diagnosis of vascular lesions, CT is useful for the evaluation of a giant aneurysm, the localization of bleeding, or infarction by a ruptured aneurysm. Radiation brain necrosis, a special form of vascular lesion, can also be diagnosed if the critical analysis is made after previous irradiation. CT findings are helpful for the local diagnosis of acute inflammatory lesions, such as basal meningitis or abscess, but specific diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical signs and CSF study. Abnormal CT findings are obtained from a chronic inflammatory process, such as arachnoiditis adhesiva, glanuloma, or mucocele. Differential diagnosis is necessary with brain tumors. The CT findings of an arachnoid cyst are often diagnostic. Metrizamide or air cisternography, either combined with CT or without it, is important for the diagnosis of basal meningoencephalocele and hypothalamic hamaroma. Pneumocephalus and an intracranial foreign body resulting from a head injury can be diagnosed by plain skull and CT. The diagnosis of CSF leakage or prolapse cerebri associated with a skull-base fracture has been most difficult, but even it is possible by a combination of polytomography and high-resolution CT with metrizamide cisternography.

  7. STEREOTACTIC SURGERY OF MULTI-TARGET LESION IN DRUG ADDICTION RELATED BRAIN AREAS FOR HEROIN DEPENDENCE%脑立体定向多靶点毁损术治疗海洛因依赖的术后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礼刚; 李定君; 夏祥国; 明扬; 刘洛同; 刘亮; 包长顺

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨立体定向毁损术治疗海洛因依赖的手术方法并评估其手术疗效.方法:应用PET、fMRI和多排螺旋CT及手术计划系统进行靶点定位,对158例海洛因依赖者多个成瘾相关脑区进行三种不同靶点组合的定向毁损术,术后随访6~12月,评价手术疗效.结果:术前脑PET、fMRI异常分别为145例和141例.全部病例手术顺利,术中无死亡.术后近期共有47例(29.7%)发生不同程度手术并发症和副作用,其中嗅觉或味觉减退21例,性格改变10例,短时记忆减退17例,智力下降7例,脑缺血脑梗死致偏瘫3例,其中2例合并大小便失禁,并发颅内出血及血肿2例,伤口感染2例.随访6~12月,108例(68.4%)获较完整资料,手术疗效优52例(48,1%),良19例(17.6%),差35例(32.4%),死亡2例(1.9%);共29例(26.9%)存在手术并发症和副作用.病例手术前后神经心理评估比较无统计学意义(P>0.05),但与正常人比较具有统计学意义(P<0.05),复吸病例与正常人和未发生复吸病例比较也有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同手术组间手术并发症和副作用发生率及复吸率无差异,但手术并发症和副作用的类型与手术方式有关.结论:海洛因依赖者存在脑功能异常区及异常精神心理行为.定向毁损术治疗海洛因依赖近期安全有效,无严重并发症,复吸率较低.发生复吸与患者精神心理因素和特定环境等有关.%Objective: To investigate the surgical procedure of stereotactic lesion for heroin dependence and assess its effects. Methods: 158 patients with heroin dependence were divided into three groups and were underwent stereotactic surgery of different combination of targets which were located by SPECT/PET (single photon emission computerized tomography/positron emission tomography), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging),MSCT(multi-spiral CT, MSCT)and the planned operative system from May to October in 2004. 2 years follow-ups were carried out

  8. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; κ-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, κ-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  10. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  11. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  12. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klistorner

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage.Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR.Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD, which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI.This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at

  13. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, Alexander; Vootakuru, Nikitha; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart L; Parratt, John; Garrick, Raymond; Levin, Netta; Masters, Lynette; Lagopoulos, Jim; Barnett, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage. Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR) of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR. Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD), which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD) in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local) T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI. This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at least within

  14. STUDY OF INTRAOPERATIVE SQUASH CYTOLOGY OF INTRACRANIAL AND SPINAL CORD LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IHC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The causes of discordant diagnoses achieved at squash cytology of intracranial and spinal cord tumours were ascertained. Lesions having the advantage of diagnostic accuracy by squash cytology of intracranial and spinal cord lesions was also determined. METHODS Squash preparations of 72 patients suspected to have neoplasia were made and stained with rapid haematoxylin and eosin stain and toluidine blue stain. The smears were classified according to the cytomorphological criteria and the squash cytodiagnoses were compared. RESULTS Total 72 cases were studied, 93.9% were neoplastic and 6.1% non-neoplastic on histopathology. Amongst neoplasms, Astrocytic tumours constituted 26.3% of cases followed by Meningiomas comprising 20.8%. Amongst the benign lesions, Tuberculoma was seen most frequently (6.95%. Overall diagnostic accuracy of squash was 98.65%. On statistical analysis, Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive value (PPV and Negative Predictive Value (NPV of squash cytology were 98.6%, 100%, 100% and 80% respectively. CONCLUSION Intraoperative Squash is reliable, accurate, cost effective diagnostic modality when combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques.

  15. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocular appearance. is discussion does not attempt to classify lesions, but only highlights ... magnifying glass. Examine what you can see and evert the upper ... look at the cornea and feel for pre-auricular and submandibular lymph nodes.

  16. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003850.htm Oropharynx lesion biopsy To use the sharing features on this ... Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. ...

  17. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal...... or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal...... health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health...

  18. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  19. Unusual benign breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gporter@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Hamilton, L.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to show examples of the radiological (mammography and/or ultrasound) and pathological appearances of unusual benign breast lesions. The conditions covered are granular cell tumours, fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, myofibroblastomas, haemangiomas, neurofibromas, and leiomyomas. The article includes the first published description of the ultrasound appearance of a myofibroblastoma. Knowledge of these appearances may help confirm or refute radiological-pathological concordance of percutaneous biopsy results during multidisciplinary assessment of these lesions and aid patient management.

  20. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  1. The relation between white matter lesions of different parts of brain after acute cerebral infarction and depressive disorder%急性脑梗死后不同部位脑白质病变与抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽杰; 于敏; 周莹; 侯宇; 娄伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨急性脑梗死后不同部位的脑白质病变(WML)对抑郁发生的影响.方法 纳入大连市第三人民医院神经内科2012年3月至2013年4月住院的急性脑梗死患者97例,根据有无脑白质病变分为2组,比较2组间汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评分及汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分有无差异.对有WML组行改良Scheltens评分,并将改良Scheltens评分与HAMD评分进行直线相关分析,了解额叶、颞叶、顶叶、枕叶、基底节、侧脑室旁及小脑、脑干等不同部位的白质损害程度与抑郁严重程度的相关性.结果 有WML组HAMD评分(10±6)分,HAMA评分(11±4)分,无WML组HAMD评分(6±4)分,HAMA评分(9±3)分,2组之间HAMD及HAMA评分比较差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);有WML组59例患者HAMD评分(10±6)分与改良Scheltens评分总分(4.39±0.49)分及额叶(2.76±0.43)分、枕叶白质(1.61±0.49)分、额部脑室旁白质(2.85±0.36)分,病变呈明显正相关(r=0.395,P=0.002;r=0.438,P =0.001;r =0.247,P=0.005;r =0.385,P=0.003).结论 急性脑梗死后不同部位的WML与抑郁障碍相关,主要以额部白质病变为主,额部白质病变越严重,抑郁程度越重.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between white matter lesions(WML) of different parts of brain after acute cerebral infarction and depressive disorder.Methods The clinical data of 97 patients with acute cerebral infarction were analyzed.All patients were divided into 2 groups according to with or without WML.The differences of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) between 2 groups were analyzed.The WML group was scored using the semiquatitative rating scale of Scheltens Rating Scale(Scheltens).The correlation between the scheltens of lateral ventricle,frontal lobe,parietal lobe,temporal lobe,occipital lobe,basal ganglia,cerebella,brainstem and HAMD were observed.Results In WML group,the scale of HAMD was 10 ±6 and HAMA was 11 ±4.In without WML group

  2. Adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor imaging with [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET in the rat brain after quinolinic acid lesion. Comparison with the dopamine receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ogi, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Nobutaka [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan). Positron Medical Center] [and others

    2002-11-01

    We proposed [{sup 11}C]KF18446 as a selective radioligand for mapping the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors being highly enriched in the striatum by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we investigated whether [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect the change in the striatal adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat after unilateral injection of an excitotoxin quinolinic acid into the striatum, a Huntington's disease model, to demonstrate the usefulness of [{sup 11}C]KF18446. The extent of the striatal lesion was identified based on MRI, to which the PET was co-registered. The binding potential of [{sup 11}C]KF18446 significantly decreased in the quinolinic acid-lesioned striatum. The decrease was comparable to the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C] raclopride binding to dopamine D{sub 2} receptors in the lesioned striatum, but seemed to be larger than the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C]SCH23390 binding to dopamine D{sub 1} receptors. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography validated the PET signals. We concluded that [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect change in the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat model, and will provide a new diagnostic tool for characterizing post-synaptic striatopallidal neurons in the stratum. (author)

  3. Detection of tumoral lesions in the posterior fossa, in brain computerized tomography scans for various conditions of acquiring a preliminary approach; Deteccion de lesiones tumorales en fosa posterior en imagenes de Tomografia Computarizada cerebral para diversas condiciones de adquisicion: un enfoque preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Carvalho-Filho, A. E.; Khoury, H. J.; Casas, M. C.; Andrade, M. E.; Paz, J. E.

    2010-07-01

    The present work performs a study over 13 tomographic images, using an anthropomorphic head phantom. It contains small lesions in the posterior fossa. Tube current (I [mA]), slice thickness (E [mm]), were the parameters changed among studies, looking for the best acquisition conditions, which permit good lesion detectability, and applying the lowest dose. Air Kerma in air [mGy] was calculated. Image quality was analyzed by both expert criterion and some merit figures. Two of them were global: contrasts to noise ratio (RCR [dB]) and signal to noise ratio (RSR). The rest of the measures used were relatives to the maximum dose condition: The gain in signal to noise ratio (SNR [dB]) and the maximum signal to noise ratio (PSNR [dB]), the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and the structural similarity index (SSIM). Objective and subjective results were correlated. It is shown that it is possible to reduce the dose using lower values of mAs without affecting lesion detectability and keeping good image quality for the scanner used. An optimized protocol is also proposed for the technology used. (Author) 27 refs.

  4. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  5. Vasopressin serum levels in patients with severe brain lesions and in brain-dead patients Níveis séricos de arginina vasopressina em pacientes com lesão cerebral grave e em pacientes com morte encefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Araújo Cintra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe brain lesions (SBL and brain-dead patients (BD frequently present with vasopressin (AVP secretion disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate AVP serum levels in SBL and BD patients. DESIGN: Prospective, open label, observational trial. SETTING: A general teaching hospital. METHOD: Three groups of adult subjects (age> 18y of both sexes were included in this study: control group: 29 healthy volunteers; SBL group: 17 patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCSINTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com lesão cerebral grave (LCG ou com morte encefálica (ME freqüentemente apresentam alterações na secreção de vasopressina (AVP. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis séricos de AVP em pacientes com LCG e ME. DESENHO: Estudo prospectivo, aberto, observacional. LOCAL: Um hospital geral universitário. MÉTODO: Sujeitos adultos (idade >18 anos, de ambos os sexos, foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle: 29 voluntários sadios; grupo LCG: 17 pacientes com pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG<8; grupo ME: 11 pacientes com diagnóstico de ME. Amostras de sangue venoso foram colhidas pela manhã, em repouso, nos pacientes do grupo controle, e de 8/8h, por 24h, nos pacientes dos grupos LCG e ME, para dosagens de AVP. Variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais de interesse foram anotadas concomitantemente. RESULTADOS: Os valores da AVP (pg/ml foram [média (DP; mediana]: grupo controle [2,2(1,1; 2,0]; grupo LCG [5,7(6,3; 2,9] e grupo ME [2,6(1,0; 2,8]. Observou-se maior variação dos níveis séricos de AVP no grupo LCG, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação aos demais (p=0,06. Hipotensão (p=0,02, hipernatremia (p=0,0001, hiperosmolaridade sérica (p=0,0001 e hiposmolaridade urinária (p=0,003 foram proeminentes no grupo ME em relação ao grupo LCG. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos níveis de AVP entre os grupos, notando-se apenas uma maior variação de seus níveis s

  6. Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Jai Shiva Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography perfusion (CTP has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

  7. An exploration of autologous marrow stem cells transplantation for treatment of vulvar non-neoplastic intraepithelial lesions%骨髓干细胞治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样变的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红莲; 闫星妹; 何淑莹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨自体骨髓干细胞移植治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样变的机理.方法 提取自体骨髓血中的干细胞,在外阴病变部位多点注射.结果 10例患者均行干细胞种植1次,其中治愈3例,显效4例,有效2例,无效1例.结论 自体骨髓干细胞移植可明显恢复病变部位的皮肤,是治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样变的新的有效方法.

  8. Cerebral multicystic lesions in a child with neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    İsikay, Sedat; Yilmaz, Kutluhan

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome, with frequent involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). As well as abnormal cellular differentiation, disordered cell migration during development is the most common cause of the various brain lesions. Cystic lesions are rarely observed in neurocutaneous diseases, and the origin of the cysts is not known. This paper presents a rare case, a child at the age of 3, who was diagnosed as NF-1 and was observed ...

  9. Associated intracranial lesions: meningioma and anterior communicating aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic associated intracranial lesions are more frequently diagnosed with the utilization of high-resolution imaging. The occurrence of brain tumors together with intracranial aneurysms are a very rare situation. This coexistence is still a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as no consensus concerning imaging that may cover both type of intracranial lesion was established. We report a case of a 62 years old patient with a meningioma and aneurysm treated in one session with good outcome.

  10. Associated intracranial lesions: meningioma and anterior communicating aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Ion Georgiana; Faiyad Z.; Poeata I.

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic associated intracranial lesions are more frequently diagnosed with the utilization of high-resolution imaging. The occurrence of brain tumors together with intracranial aneurysms are a very rare situation. This coexistence is still a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as no consensus concerning imaging that may cover both type of intracranial lesion was established. We report a case of a 62 years old patient with a meningioma and aneurysm treated in one session with good outcome.

  11. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LESION LOCATION AND COGNITIVE DOMAINS IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislava Bugarski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Localization of brain lesions in acute ischemic stroke has a significant effect on performance in various cognitive domains. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is association between different locations of ischemic brain lesions and different cognitive domains. The study included 40 acute ischemic stroke pati-ents (26 male and 14 female, aged 45-78 years, with 8-16 years of education. Lesi-on location was visualized using brain computerized tomography, whereas perfor-mance in different cognitive domains was assessed using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. The following domains were evaluated: executive function, language, immediate recall, delayed recall, attention, divergent reasoning, and visual-constructive performance in two dimensions. A series of categorical re-gression analyses were applied. The results showed a significant association between the domains of executive function and language and a set of predictors rela-ted to lesion location. Global brain atrophy was found to be a significant partial pre-dictor of performance in all cognitive domains, with higher degrees of global brain atrophy correlating with poorer performance in each of the studied domains. Combi-ned (cortical-subcortical lesions and unilateral lesions were both found to be signi-ficant partial predictors for language, with a higher lesion load being associated with poorer language performance. Combined lesions were also a significant partial pre-dictor for delayed recall, with a higher lesion load correlating with poorer perfor-mance in the delayed recall domain.

  13. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  14. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  15. Traumatic plexus lesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, R.T.M. van; Cohen, S.P.; Kleef, M. van; Mekhail, N.; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain, motor, and sensory deficits characterize patients with a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus. Frequently, more severe injuries co-exist that require immediate surgical attention. Early rehabilitation and physical therapy are the cornerstones of treatment. Pharmacological management can be

  16. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  17. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  18. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  19. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  20. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  1. Non-local means inpainting of MS lesions in longitudinal image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eGuizard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical imaging, multiple sclerosis (MS lesions can lead to confounding effects in automatic morphometric processing tools such as registration, segmentation and cortical extraction and subsequently alter individual longitudinal measurements. Multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI inpainting techniques have been proposed to decrease the impact of MS lesions in medical image processing, however, most of these methods make the assumption that lesions only affect white matter. Here, we propose a method to fill lesion regions using the patch-based non-local mean (NLM strategy. The method consists of a hierarchical concentric filling strategy after identification of the lesion region. The lesion is filled iteratively, based on the surrounding tissue intensity, using an onion peel strategy. This concentric technique presents the advantage of preserving the local information and therefore the continuity of the anatomy and does not require identification of any a priori normal brain tissues. The method is first evaluated on simulated artificial MS lesions and, second, we performed a power analysis to evaluate brain atrophy and ventricular growth in patients with MS. The method was compared to two different publicly available methods (FSL lesion fill and Lesion LEAP and more classic method approaches. The proposed method was shown to exceed the other methods in reproducing the fidelity of the images where the lesions were inpainted. The method also improved the power to detect brain atrophy or ventricular growth by decreasing the sample size by 25% in the presence of MS lesions.

  2. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...