WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonnative english-speaking phd

  1. Preparing Non-Native English-Speaking ESL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that non-native English-speaking teacher trainees face as they begin teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in Western, English-speaking countries. Despite a great deal of training, non-native speaker teachers may be viewed as inadequate language teachers because they often lack native speaker competence…

  2. How TESOL Educators Teach Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stefan; Phillabaum, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of California TESOL educators about issues related to nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs). A good deal of research suggests that NNESTs are as effective, if not more so, than native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and that their treatment in today's work world should be reconsidered; in…

  3. The Attitudes and Perceptions of Non-Native English Speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Attitudes and Perceptions of Non-Native English Speaking Adults toward Explicit Grammar Instruction. ... to excel in their academic careers, obtain good jobs, and interact well with those who speak English. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Feedback in online course for non-native English-speaking students

    CERN Document Server

    Olesova, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the

  5. Student Perceptions of How TESOL Educators Teach Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillabaum, Scott; Frazier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on how TESOL professionals educate nonnative English-speaking students in MA programs indicates a general conviction that native-speaking and nonnative-speaking MA students should be treated equally during their studies in MA programs. Absent from this discussion and much of the literature on this topic, however, are the voices of…

  6. Strategies for Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers' Continued Development as Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Luciana C.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on nonnative-English-speaking (NNES) teachers by providing specific ways in which they can use their nonnative status in the classroom and in their professional work in the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). Drawing on the author's own experiences as an English learner, she…

  7. Empowering Non-Native English Speaking Teachers through Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Nur

    2010-01-01

    Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students' critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) when incorporated into English teacher…

  8. The Knowledge Base of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers: Perspectives of Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…

  9. Incidental Displays of Cultural Knowledge in the Nonnative-English-Speaking Teacher's Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaraton, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Examines incidental cultural knowledge displays by two nonnative-English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in their intensive English program classrooms. Focuses on the nature of the discourse produced in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes taught by NNESTs. Analysis of videotaped classroom data indicates that a wide and unpredictable range of…

  10. Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers, Context and English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2009-01-01

    This article contends that, in spite of a recent upsurge in writing on non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in the global discourse of English language teaching (ELT), the experiences of NNESTSs working within their own state educational systems remain seriously under-investigated. To help to redress this, the article explores, from their…

  11. EMPOWERING NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKING TEACHERS THROUGH CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hayati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.

  12. "But This Program Is Designed for Native Speakers...": The Perceived Needs of Nonnative English Speaking Students in MA TESOL Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly A.

    Discussions of training and preparation needs for nonnative English speaking (NNES) master's students in teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) graduate programs have seldom given voice to the students themselves nor addressed their perceptions of whether their needs are being met in existing programs. This study reports on the…

  13. Scaffolding Learning: Developing Materials to Support the Learning of Science and Language by Non-Native English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitska, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the UK, like many other English first-language-speaking countries, has encountered a steady and continuous increase in the numbers of non-native English-speaking learners entering state primary and secondary schools. A significant proportion of these learners has specific language and subject learning needs, many of which can only…

  14. Language and Academic Identity: A Study of the Experiences of Non-Native English Speaking International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halic, Olivia; Greenberg, Katherine; Paulus, Trena

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences of non-native English-speaking international students regarding language, culture and identity in the context of their graduate studies. Interviews were conducted with each of the eight participants. Interpretive analysis was used within a constructivist frame. The findings of this study are…

  15. Scaffolding Learning: Developing Materials to Support the Learning of Science and Language by Non-Native English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitska, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the UK, like many other English first-language-speaking countries, has encountered a steady and continuous increase in the numbers of non-native English-speaking learners entering state primary and secondary schools. A significant proportion of these learners has specific language and subject learning needs, many of which can only…

  16. The Development and Validation of the "Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS)" for Non-Native English Speaking Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…

  17. Effects of the Differences between Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers on Students' Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…

  18. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MacKay, I., and Meador D. (2002). The production of English vowels by fluent early and late Italian- English bilinguals. Phonetica, 59:49- 71...U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace...International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace/Airports 6. Performing Organization Code

  19. Self-perceived oral communication competence in English, self-perceived employability and career expectations among non-native English speaking business professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokka, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objectives for this thesis were 1) to understand non-native English speaking business professionals' self-perception of their oral communication competence in English, 2) to understand the importance of English language and competence in English for non-native English speaking business professionals when they consider employability and career expectations and finally 3) to study whether the concepts of self-perceived oral English communication competence, self-...

  20. Exploring the beliefs of native and non-native English speaking kindergarten teachers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wen Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the beliefs of native and non-native English speaking teachers on teaching English in kindergartens. A qualitative case study design is used to construct individual portraits and a cross-case analysis of several kindergarten teachers and analyze data following the qualitative data analysis methods by Taylor and Bodgan (1998. Data collected by interview and classroom observation show 4 different beliefs to be salient across the cases: language learning, the role of the teacher, the role of the learner, and self-efficacy. Data analysis shows teacher beliefs that are complex and closely related to the teacher’s life and learning experiences, multiple identities, and different environmental affordances and constraints. Therefore, the teachers’ subjective account from an emic perspective is useful for describing this complexity. The findings of this study have implications for constructing "a technical culture" (Kleinsasser, 1993, in which teachers may find themselves, that supports the teacher, and that contributes to quality teaching and professional growth.

  1. An Exploration of the Scientific Writing Experience of Nonnative English-Speaking Doctoral Supervisors and Students Using a Phenomenographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.

  2. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  3. Investigating Applications of Speech-to-Text Recognition Technology for a Face-to-Face Seminar to Assist Learning of Non-Native English-Speaking Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study applied speech-to-text recognition (STR) technology to assist non-native English-speaking participants to learn at a seminar given in English. How participants used transcripts generated by the STR technology for learning and their perceptions toward the STR were explored. Three main findings are presented in this study. Most…

  4. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those of…

  5. Talk About Mouth Speculums: Collocational Competence and Spoken Fluency in Non-Native English-Speaking University Lecturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Pete

    Despite the large body of research into formulaic language and fluency, there seems to be a lack of empirical evidence for how collocations, often considered a subset of formulaic language, might impact on fluency. To address this problem, this dissertation examined to what extent correlations...... might exist between overall language proficiency, collocational competence and spoken fluency in non-native English-speaking university lecturers. The data came from 15 20-minute mini-lectures recorded between 2009 and 2011 for an English oral proficiency test for lecturers employed at the University...... of Copenhagen. The 15 lecturers came from three departments: Large Animal Science, Information Technology and Mathematics. Test examiners’ global and fluency scores from the test were analysed against collocational competence, measured as collocations produced per thousand words spoken, and three temporal...

  6. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non-native

  7. How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived by Young Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of Korean elementary school teachers' accents on their students' listening comprehension. It also examined students' attitudes toward teachers with American-accented English (a native speaker model) and Korean-accented English (a nonnative speaker model). A matched-guised technique was used. A Korean American…

  8. Reading Experiences of Nonnative-English-Speaking Preservice English Teachers: A Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas-Cetinkaya, Yesim

    2012-01-01

    In an EFL context, where language learners and users lack sufficient opportunities to receive oral input, reading in English plays a major role in improving nonnative preservice English teachers' language proficiency and allowing them to access information recorded exclusively in English. The current study investigates prospective nonnative…

  9. Pragmatic assessment of request speech act of Iranian EFL learners by non-native English speaking teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of raters' comments on pragmatic assessment of L2 learners is among new and understudied concepts in second language studies. To shed light on this issue, the present investigation targeted important variables such as raters’ criteria and rating patterns by analyzing the interlanguage pragmatic assessment process of the Iranian non-native English speaking raters (NNESRs regarding the request speech act, while considering important factors such as raters’ gender and background teaching experiences. For this purpose, 62 raters’ rating scores and comments on Iranian EFL learners’ requests based on six situations of specified video prompts were analyzed. The results of the content analysis of raters’ comments revealed nine criteria, including pragmalinguistic and socio-pragmatic components of language, which have been noted by raters differently through six request situations. Among the considered criteria, politeness, conversers’ relationship, style and register, and explanation were of great importance to NNESRs. Furthermore, t-test and chi-square analysis of raters’ assigned rating scores and mentioned criteria across different situations verified the insignificance of factors such as raters’ gender and teaching experiences on the process of EFL learners’ pragmatic assessment. In addition, the results of the study suggest the necessity of teaching L2 pragmatics in language classes and in teacher training courses.

  10. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those…

  11. The Pedagogy and Its Effectiveness among Native and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers in the Korean EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun Ha

    2010-01-01

    As English progressively becomes the global language, many native English speakers move to foreign countries to work as English teachers. However a review of the literature reveals that there is little research on their actual performance compared to the non-native local English teachers. This comparative case study examines pedagogic practices of…

  12. Publishing and Learning Writing for Publication in English: Perspectives of NNES PhD Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Publication in international journals has become a prerequisite to PhD graduation. This study thus provides a framework for understanding the learning of writing skills and publishing practices of nonnative English-speaking PhD students by investigating their perceptions of publishing and learning to write for publication. Findings show that these…

  13. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  14. Learning Pitch Patterns in Lexical Identification by Native English-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Perrachione, Tyler K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates the learning of nonnative suprasegmental patterns for word identification. Native English-speaking adults learned to use suprasegmentals (pitch patterns) to identify a vocabulary of six English pseudosyllables superimposed with three pitch patterns (18 words). Successful learning of the vocabulary necessarily…

  15. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  16. STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS ON THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  17. The Impact of Non-Native English Teachers' Linguistic Insecurity on Learners' Productive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2017-01-01

    The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…

  18. IMPLEMENTING SPEECH COMMUNITY STRATEGY TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ ENGLISH SPEAKING ABILITY

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    Huriyah Huriyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing speech community strategy to enhance students English speaking ability. This classroom action research describes how the implementation of speech community strategy increases the students’ English speaking ability. The research stages consist of planning, implementing, observing, evaluating and reflecting. The study indicates that the providing of speech community can increase English speaking ability at students of SMA Sekar Kemuning Islamic Boarding School Cirebon

  19. Factors that Enhance English-Speaking Speech-Language Pathologists' Transcription of Cantonese-Speaking Children's Consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved…

  20. Homework Practices of English and Non-English-Speaking Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…

  1. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  2. Homework Practices of English and Non-English-Speaking Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…

  3. English-Speaking Latino Parents' Literacy Practices in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Terry Irvine; Felix, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed the literacy practices of 45 English-speaking parents of Latino kindergarten through second graders using English questionnaires. The results of the survey were similar in many respects to other studies of English-speaking Latinos and unlike studies of Spanish-speaking Latinos. Respondents reported numbers of children's books…

  4. The Effect of Reading Aloud on English Speaking Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子奇

    2014-01-01

    English speaking ability is one of the most direct ways and standards to judge whether one ’s English is good or not. How to improve English speaking ability is always a heated topic among English learners. Many educators have examined that reading English aloud has been attested to be an effective method of learning English, especially improving English speaking abili-ty. This paper, through a questionnaire survey, is to analyze the relationship between students ’oral English outcome and their reading aloud, followed by the reasons why reading aloud affects English speaking ability, attempting to find out effective strate-gies to help English learners to improve their English speaking ability.

  5. The intercultural identities of nonnative English teachers : An overview of research worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.; Tigelaar, E.H.; Verloop, N.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative-English-speaking teachers who teach English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) can play an important role in the promotion of intercultural competence and often have an advantage over native-English-speaking ESL/EFL teachers because they once were language learners and more aware of

  6. THE DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACTS USED IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khatib Bayanuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about an analysis of the directive speech acts used in english speaking class at the third semester of english speaking class of english study program of IAIN STS Jambi. The aims of this research are to describe the types of directive speech acts and politeness strategies that found in English speaking class. This research used descriptive qualitative method. This method used to describe clearly about the types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts based on the data in English speaking class. The result showed that in English speaking class that there are some types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts, such as: requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisores as types, as well as on-record indirect strategies (prediction statement, strong obligation statement, possibility statement, weaker obligation statement, volitional statement, direct strategies (imperative, performative, and nonsentential strategies as politeness strategies. The achievement of this research are hoped can be additional knowledge about linguistics study, especially in directive speech acts and can be developed for future researches. Key words: directive speech acts, types, politeness strategies.

  7. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  8. The Non-Native English Speaker Teachers in TESOL Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…

  9. Parent involvement in school: English speaking versus Spanish speaking families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Thorn, Antoinette; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras; Ha, Jung Hee; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.

  10. How is the Elective-English Speaking Taught in High Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽燕

    2013-01-01

    English Speaking is the skill that the students will be judged upon most in real-life situations. This article written to discuss how to have the the optional course-English Speaking Training in high schools to train the students English speaking abil-ity.

  11. Native English Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate native English-speaking teachers' beliefs about Korean EFL learners, following a qualitative case study approach. Participants consisted of 3 Americans and 15 Canadians, aged 29-41, who were a part of a university teaching staff in Korea. The data collection employed questionnaires and interviews. The results…

  12. Native-English Speaking Instructors Teaching Writing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling

    2015-01-01

    This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…

  13. Socializing English-Speaking Navajo Children to Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how young children are socialized to the process and products of storytelling as part of everyday family life is important for language and literacy instruction. A language socialization framework was used to understand storytelling practices on the Navajo Nation. This study examined how three young English-speaking Navajo children,…

  14. Student Disengagement in English-Speaking Montréal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Daniel; Ruglis, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how student disengagement is conceptualized by English-speaking youth attending English urban public schools in Montreal, Quebec. School dropout is theorized as being a culminating event in a process of school disengagement (Rumberger, 2011). Using 2 qualitative methods (maps and interviews) in a grounded theory approach…

  15. Library Education in the English-Speaking Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Dorothy

    1973-01-01

    A library school to serve the English-speaking Caribbean has been set up with Unesco assistance at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. This article examines the potential demand for librarians in the region, discusses various problems facing the profession and prospects for the future. (15 references) (Author)

  16. Assessing English speaking skills of prospective teachers at entry and graduation level in teacher education program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad; Hussain, Shafqat; Shah, Ashfaque Ahmad; Jabeen, Mehlah

    2014-01-01

    .... This study explores the extent of improvement in English speaking skills among prospective teachers of one year teacher education program at three public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan...

  17. English vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination by native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners: The effect of vowel duration dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lin; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Dong, Qi; Guan, Jingjing; Liu, Chang

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between English vowel identification and English vowel formant discrimination for native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. The identification of 12 English vowels was measured with the duration cue preserved or removed. The thresholds of vowel formant discrimination on the F2 of two English vowels,/Λ/and/i/, were also estimated using an adaptive-tracking procedure. Native Mandarin Chinese-speaking listeners showed significantly higher thresholds of vowel formant discrimination and lower identification scores than native English-speaking listeners. The duration effect on English vowel identification was similar between native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. Moreover, regardless of listeners' language background, vowel identification was significantly correlated with vowel formant discrimination for the listeners who were less dependent on duration cues, whereas the correlation between vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination was not significant for the listeners who were highly dependent on duration cues. This study revealed individual variability in using multiple acoustic cues to identify English vowels for both native and non-native listeners.

  18. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  19. The Question of Culture: EFL teaching in non-English-speaking countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cem and Margaret Alptekin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Two conflicting pedagogical views exist in teaching EFL (English as a foreign language) abroad. One, promoted chiefly by native English speaking teachers, is that English teaching should be done with reference to the socio-cultural norms and val-ues of an English-speaking country, with the pur-pose of developing bilingual and bicultural individu-als.

  20. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  1. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

  2. Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nonie K. Lesaux

    2012-01-01

    ...? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes...

  3. Comparison of ophthalmic training in 6 English-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Abigail T; Simunovic, Matthew P; Mammo, Zaid; Mitry, Danny; Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Bradley, Patrick; Mahroo, Omar A

    2016-06-01

    To compare key characteristics of ophthalmology training programs in 6 different English-speaking countries: Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Seven ophthalmologists with personal knowledge of all 6 systems contributed. The main features examined were career pathway, duration of training, surgical training, governing bodies, and examination structure. Data were collected from the literature, online resources, and personal experience. Several differences were highlighted, including length of training (ranging from 4 to 9 years after medical school), number of surgical procedures such as cataracts (ranging from minimum 86 to approximately 600), and structure of fellowship training. As trainees increasingly seek international experience to enhance their knowledge and skills, the similarities and differences between training programs in different countries have become more relevant. Some of these differences may reflect differing needs of different patient populations and different healthcare delivery systems across the globe. However, these differences should also prompt educators to more carefully scrutinize their own training system and search for potential improvements. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…

  5. Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…

  6. EFL Secondary Students’ Perceptions on Native and Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia Tjokrokanoko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the secondary students’ perceptions towards NESTs and NNESTs in an English course in Surabaya regarding the teachers’ teaching competence, cultural knowledge of English language teaching, teaching style, and classroom management. Most secondary students perceived both teacher groups were good at most categories. Using questionnaires distributed to 96 secondary school students of an English course who participated in this study, the researchers found that 38 students took part in doing a focus group interview. The interview was done to capture deeper perceptions that could be gained. The study reported that cultural knowledge of the English language teachers, especially the NESTs, exceeded that of the NNESTs. This research finding also proved that students perceived NESTs to be as good as NNESTs in such areas as teaching grammar, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, both NESTs and NNESTs were perceived to be not able to understand the students’ special needs since teachers at the the English course under study handled one level for about twelve meetings only.

  7. Hospice and palliation in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox; Chiochankitmun, Nina; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2014-07-01

    This article presents empirical data on the limited availability of hospice and palliative care to the 6 million people of the English-speaking Caribbean. Ten of the 13 nations therein responded to a survey and reported employing a total of 6 hospice or palliative specialists, and having a total of 15 related facilities. The evolving socioeconomic and cultural context in these nations bears on the availability of such care, and on the willingness to report, assess, and prioritize pain, and to prescribe opiates for pain. Socioeconomics and culture also impinge on what medications and modalities of care are routinely available for pain or other conditions and can challenge professionalism, empathy, and responsiveness to patients' unrelieved pain. Although all respondents report having a protocol for pain management, hospice, or end-of-life care, their annual medical use of opiates is well below the global mean. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which monitors such use, encourages Caribbean and other low- and middle-income countries to increase their use of opiates to treat pain, and to overcome both unfounded fears of addiction and overly restrictive interpretation of related laws and regulations. Contextual considerations like those described here are important to the success of policies and capacity-building programs aiming to increase access to hospice and palliation, and perhaps to improving other aspects of health and healthcare. Exploring and responding to the realities of socioeconomic and cultural conditions will enhance public and policy dialogue and improve the design of interventions to increase access to palliative and hospice care. Improving access to palliative and hospice care in the Caribbean demonstrates beneficence and helps to fulfill human rights conventions.

  8. Strategies for Improving Academic Performance by Non-Native English Speakers in Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Tracye A.; Stinson, Terrye A.; Sivakumaran, Thillainatarajan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of non-native English speaking students in higher education has increased dramatically. Educators at all levels have experienced challenges in meeting the academic needs of these students and continue to seek strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper describes some of this research related to K-12 and…

  9. Constraints of lexical stress on lexical access in English: Evidence from native and nonnative listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, N.; Cutler, A.; Wales, R.

    2002-01-01

    Four cross-modal priming experiments and two forced-choice identification experiments investigated the use of suprasegmental cues to stress in the recognition of spoken English words, by native (English-speaking) and nonnative (Dutch) listeners. Previous results had indicated that suprasegmental inf

  10. Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research with Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouriotis, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The ethical considerations of three education researchers working with non-native English-speaking participants were examined from a critical theory stand-point in the light of the literature on research ethics in various disciplines. Qualitative inquiry and data analysis were used to identify key themes, which centered around honor and respect…

  11. Pragmatic Rating of L2 Refusal: Criteria of Native and Nonnative English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Minoo; Tajeddin, Zia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shed light on rater criteria for assessing the performance of language skills (e.g., Eckes, 2005). However, the interface between rater assessment and interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) has remained largely unnoticed. To address this interface, this study explored the ratings native (NES) and nonnative English speaking (NNES)…

  12. Linguistic Support for Non-Native English Speakers: Higher Education Practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow Andrade, Maureen; Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions in English-speaking nations host significant populations of non-native English speakers (NNES), both international and resident. English language proficiency is a critical factor to their success. This study reviews higher education practices in the United States related to this population. Findings indicate…

  13. Native and Non-Native Dichotomy: Challenges of and Attitudes Towards Native and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Pérez, Jasmina Laura

    2015-01-01

    [ES]El número de profesores de inglés sigue creciendo debido a la importancia de esta lengua. El presente trabajo investiga el rol de los profesores de inglés nativos y los profesores de inglés no nativos en contextos en los que el inglés se enseña como lengua extranjera, mediante el análisis del concepto nativo, los desafíos de estos profesores y las actitudes de Perez 2 estudiantes, profesores de inglés nativos y no nativos hacia ambos grupos de profesores, con el propósito de identif...

  14. Phonics training for English-speaking poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Eve, Philippa M; Jones, Kristy; Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; Anandakumar, Thushara; Larsen, Linda; Marinus, Eva; Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne

    2012-12-12

    Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies. The primary aim of this review was to measure the effect that phonics training has on the literacy skills of English-speaking children, adolescents, and adults whose reading was at least one standard deviation (SD), one year, or one grade below the expected level, despite no reported problems that could explain their impaired ability to learn to read. A secondary objective was to explore the impact of various factors, such as length of training or training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on poor word reading skills. We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses-UK and Ireland, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E-theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations

  15. Factors that enhance English-speaking speech-language pathologists' transcription of Cantonese-speaking children's consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-08-01

    To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Task 1 (baseline) involved transcribing English words. In Task 2, students transcribed 25 words spoken by a Cantonese adult. An average of 59.1% consonants was transcribed correctly (72.9% when Cantonese-English transfer patterns were allowed). There was higher accuracy on shared English and Cantonese syllable-initial consonants /m,n,f,s,h,j,w,l/ and syllable-final consonants. In Task 3, students identified consonant errors and transcribed 100 words spoken by Cantonese-speaking children under 4 additive conditions: (1) baseline, (2) +adult model, (3) +information about Cantonese phonology, and (4) all variables (2 and 3 were counterbalanced). There was a significant improvement in the students' identification and transcription scores for conditions 2, 3, and 4, with a moderate effect size. Increased skill was not based on listeners' proficiency in speaking another language, perceived transcription skill, musicality, or confidence with multilingual clients. Speech-language pathology students, with no exposure to or specific training in Cantonese, have some skills to identify errors and transcribe Cantonese. Provision of a Cantonese-adult model and information about Cantonese phonology increased students' accuracy in transcribing Cantonese speech.

  16. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P speaking Latinos vs 79.8% English-speaking Latinos, P speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 4: Non-Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating with Native English-Speaking Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    speak in Spanish to Aero México pilots and English to pilots flying for British Airways or Qantas Airways . We explored how the controllers...first report (Prinzo & Campbell, 2008) provided an analysis of the first three sections of the structured interview: 1) Background Information...was not very good; one aircraft is coming out from Lima on the same airway we’re on coming in. They had to wait. ATC kept calling him for DME5

  18. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 6: Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating With Non-Native English-Speaking Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Member states...required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English language...Research is needed to determine the optimal speech rate for ATC messages. (2) ATC messages must be delivered using standard ICAO terms and phraseology. (3

  19. EFL LEARNERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPROVEMENT OF THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mahripah

    2014-01-01

    analysis show that all respondents show positive attitudes towards the improvement of their English speaking performance. Although female students have more positive attitudes than male students, the difference is not significant. The results also show that students’ attitudes towards their speaking performance change in accordance with their learning time. Their self-assessment of their speaking performance has a significant correlation with their attitudes. Their positive attitudes towards the improvement of their English speaking performance serve as a foundation to the success of the English language learning. Therefore, learners should pay attention to and maintain attitudes to improve their speaking performance.

  20. RADCOM: a computerized translation device for use during fluoroscopic examination of non-English-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, M J; Cohen, A J

    1994-02-01

    We developed and have implemented RADCOM (RADiology COMmunicator), a computerized speech-based language translator for use during fluoroscopic examination of non-English-speaking patients. It is controlled completely by voice commands issued into a headset microphone. The system output is digital audio via a small speaker, in the native language of the patient. RADCOM currently supports more than 40 commands in more than a dozen languages. The language data base is easily expandable. We have performed more than 20 fluoroscopic examinations with the RADCOM system. The non-English-speaking patients respond well, following the selected instructions appropriately.

  1. Integrating Academic Language, Thinking, and Content: Learning Scaffolds for Non-Native Speakers in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to explore possibilities for scaffolding academic language and historical thinking for non-native English speaking students in two middle school classrooms. The teaching approach focused on six dimensions of historical thinking: background knowledge, cause, effect, bias, empathy, and application. The…

  2. Communicative Functions of the Nurse-Patient Relationship: Observations of Native and Non-Native Nurses in United States Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jo Linda

    A study compared the nurse-patient communication of native and non-native English-speaking nurses. Examination of the literature on nurse-patient relationships and a brief survey of native nurses yielded an instrument for observation of nurses. Ten nurses were observed for 3 hourse each. Transcripts of the observations of the five non-native…

  3. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  4. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure with Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Pena, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a) whether…

  5. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  6. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Activities Commonly Used in English Speaking Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    Classroom activities, such as English dubs, role-play, brainstorming etc can be very useful for the teaching of oral English. In recent years, although considerable attention has been paid to the use of classroom activities in English speaking classes, the perceptions of teachers and students about such activities have been ignored. Therefore,…

  7. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  8. Orthography-Induced Transfer in the Production of English-Speaking Learners of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study on the effect of orthography on L1-based phonological transfer in L2 production in 40 novice English-speaking learners of Spanish. In particular, the role of auditory-orthographic training and production and the influence of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences are examined. Data elicited via a picture-naming task…

  9. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  10. Infinitives or Bare Stems? Are English-Speaking Children Defaulting to the Highest-Frequency Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Sanna H. M.; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Young English-speaking children often produce utterances with missing 3sg -s (e.g., *He play). Since the mid 1990s, such errors have tended to be treated as Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, in which the verb is a non-finite form (e.g., Wexler, 1998; Legate & Yang, 2007). The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional…

  11. An Investigation into the Consequential Validity of a Diagnostic College English Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the verification of the consequential validity of a Diagnostic College English Speaking Test. A case study was conducted with 28 sophomore students from a national key university in China engaged in seven sets of DCEST tests. The analysis of the DCEST scores of the students in the experiment group indicates that progress has…

  12. Beginning Science Curriculum for English Speaking Tropical Africa (African Primary Science Program). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The African Primary Science Program, which was established in 1960 as part of the African Education Program, has operated widely in English-speaking African countries. Science centers have been established with program assistance in seven of these: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its goals have been centered on…

  13. Chinese Students' Perceptions of Native English-Speaking Teachers in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2010-01-01

    The article reports the views of 20 Chinese English as a foreign Language (EFL) students on the strengths and weaknesses of native English-speaking (NES) teachers in EFL teaching. Responding to an open-ended questionnaire and in-depth interviews, EFL students named the following as NES teachers' strengths: native language authenticity, cultural…

  14. The Comparison of Politeness Strategies in Chinese Culture and in Eng-lish Speaking Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龄

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society, as the development of globalization a growing tendency of how to communication effective⁃ly between different culture and languages has becoming a matter of fact. Even though a great number of communication strate⁃gies used to reduce the culture shock, obstacles in cultural exchanges still remains due to the culture differences. Politeness theory, as an important communication strategy, is still the most important and influential theory for cross-cultural communication. While there still has a few controversial arguments being conducted. It results in the issue of this article:Is there different compar⁃ing Chinese culture with English Speaking Culture in Terms of Politeness Strategies? In this paper, I will present a general review of classic politeness theories including Brown&Levinson, Leech’s research in English speaking culture and Gu and Xu’s findings in Chinese culture. Among their theories some specific politeness strategies such as face-saving strategy, politeness principle and its maxims will be used to give an image of the difference between Chinese culture and English speaking culture in terms of po⁃liteness strategies. In the definition of‘politeness’, two characteristics are worth mentioning:universality as well as culture-specif⁃ic. Therefore the article concludes by the arguing that, in spite of a few similarities, there are differences between in Chinese cul⁃ture and in English speaking context in politeness.

  15. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  16. Do Chinese- and English-Speaking Preschoolers Think Differently about Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yao; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Metalinguistic awareness is the ability to identify, reflect upon, and manipulate linguistic units. It plays a critical role in reading development. The present study investigated Chinese- and English-speaking preschoolers' metalinguistic awareness development and the role of cognitive and linguistic abilities in its development. Forty-two…

  17. Parental Numeric Language Input to Mandarin Chinese and English Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alicia; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Adelchanow, Lauren; Rottman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the number-specific parental language input to Mandarin- and English-speaking preschool-aged children. Mandarin and English transcripts from the CHILDES database were examined for amount of numeric speech, specific types of numeric speech and syntactic frames in which numeric speech appeared. The results showed that…

  18. Talking Shop: The Communicative Teaching of English in Non-English-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excerpts from a discussion session involving six panelists and 150 teachers of English in non-English-speaking countries range from the revolution in the communicative approach to the extent to which the mother tongue is taken into account, translation, grammatical correctness, teaching large classes, and textbook development. (MSE)

  19. Cultural Differences In Politeness Principle Between China and English-speaking Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2009-01-01

    Therw are many cultural differences in China and English-speaking Countries.They will cause communication problems if you don't know them.This paper states one of thenr-the differences in politeness principle.And it helps people communicate properly when you are in different cultural background.

  20. Ideas for Teachers of Non-English-Speaking Children. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A series of lesson ideas for school teachers with both monolingual English-speaking and bilingual students in the same class includes 18 cultural and cross-cultural topics. They include: the island of Cuba, the flag of Cuba, the flag of Mexico, the development of Mexican music, Benito Juarez, the flag of Puerto Rico, the seal of Puerto Rico, a…

  1. Blogs as a Learning and Assessment Instrument for English-Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the usefulness of blogs in evaluating English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners' oral performance and explored their reactions toward using blogs as a learning and assessment tool for English-speaking performance. Fifty-one college students participated in a semester-long blog project, and each uploaded five audio entries to…

  2. The Challenges and Opportunities for Chinese Overseas Postgraduates in English Speaking Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of Chinese students pursue their higher education degree in an overseas university. This research paper sets out to raise a discussion about some of the major challenges that such Chinese postgraduates might experience when studying at universities in English speaking countries drawing from ethnographic and sociological…

  3. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple…

  4. Does Learning Spanish Grammatical Gender Change English-Speaking Adults' Categorization of Inanimate Objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinski, Elena; Sera, Maria D.

    2011-01-01

    Second language acquisition studies can contribute to the body of research on the influence of language on thought by examining cognitive change as a result of second language learning. We conducted a longitudinal study that examined how the acquisition of Spanish grammatical gender influences categorization in native English-speaking adults. We…

  5. Ideas for Teachers of Non-English-Speaking Children. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A series of lesson ideas for school teachers with both monolingual English-speaking and bilingual students in the same class includes 18 cultural and cross-cultural topics. They include: the island of Cuba, the flag of Cuba, the flag of Mexico, the development of Mexican music, Benito Juarez, the flag of Puerto Rico, the seal of Puerto Rico, a…

  6. Improving the English-Speaking Skills of Young Learners through Mobile Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong; Lin, Chin-Hsi; You, Jiaxin; Shen, Hai jiao; Qi, Song; Luo, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Most students of English as a foreign language (EFL) lack sufficient opportunities to practice their English-speaking skills. However, the recent development of social-networking sites (SNSs) and mobile learning, and especially mobile-assisted language learning, represents new opportunities for these learners to practice speaking English in a…

  7. Promoting Speaking Accuracy and Fluency in Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at English Speaking Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Göksu, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the literature about teaching and learning English speaking in depth and draw main guidelines about how to increase speaking accuracy and fluency in language classrooms for both English language learners and teachers. The first section of the paper is about the general features of speaking skills. The second section…

  8. Results of the 2015 Relationship Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2015-01-01

    Annually, members of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics are invited to participate in a Relationship Testing Workshop. In 2015, 64 laboratories participated. Here, we present the results from the 2015 workshop, which included relationship testing...

  9. Respectful Interactions: Learning with International Students in the English-Speaking Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Janette; Viete, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    International students entering postgraduate courses in Australian universities encounter numerous challenges in their new environments. Many relate to the academic literacy and pedagogical practices in the English-speaking academic environment, which international students time and again have reported assume local linguistic and cultural…

  10. Effectiveness of "Scaffolding Instruction" to English Speaking and Writing in Senior High School%Effectiveness of"Scaffolding Instruction"to English Speaking and Writing in Senior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元嘉瑛

    2016-01-01

    English speaking and writing both embody the students' English proficiency and thinking skills. Scaffolding Instruction is a teaching mode which can provide appropriate assistance when the learners are faced difficulties during the learning. In this paper, first the overview of Scaffolding Instruction will be discussed. Then the application of Scaffolding Instruction in classroom teaching will be introduced based on a case analysis of an English speaking and writing lesson.

  11. Applying innovation method to assess english speaking performance on communication apprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of research studies are now available to shed some light on ELT methods. Currently, educational portfolios are implemented in Science, Mathematics and Geography and also have become widely used in ELT. When the students prepared their own portfolios, they self-monitored their performances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-monitoring and portfolios on college students’ English speaking performance. The participants involved in this study were 60...

  12. Teaching Medicine to Non-English Speaking Background Learners in a Foreign Country

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    Teaching abroad exposes medical educators to unfamiliar teaching methods and learning styles that can enhance their overall teaching repertoire. Based on the author’s experience teaching residents for one month at a community hospital in Japan and a review of the non-English speaking background (NESB) educational literature, pedagogical principles and lessons for successful international NESB instruction are outlined. These methods include understanding the dissimilar linguistic, cultural, an...

  13. MAIN ASPECTS IN LANGUAGE TRAINING OF NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING AIRMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Pazyura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world and rapid development of technical progress aviation industry has been gaining more importance for humanity and requires a deeper understanding of the English language, its basic characteristics and mechanisms of functioning. Purpose: The aim of the article is to study the influence of the proficiency of English on flight safety, to consider the main communication problems of non-English speaking aviation personnel, highlight possible directions for training English-speaking personnel. In the article the author tries to show the disadvantage at which non-English speaking airline staff work in case of emergency. The article highlights the issue about high level aviation English proficiency necessary to avoid communication problem. Methods: For the research scientific general methods have been used which are main ways of studying scientific sources, and comparative method for synchronic comparison of events in the different regions. Results: The author concludes that at the same time it is necessary for aviation personnel to master plain language for understanding context of communication, to minimize uncertainty and improve understanding between the controller and pilot. Discussion: It stresses the idea that the language proficiency level that exceeds the minimum standards according to ICAO, contributes significantly to the reduction of communication problems and in such a way ensures safety.

  14. Initial consonant deletion in bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cuzner, Suzanne Lea

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed. Initial consonant deletion errors were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of cross-linguistic effects and an analysis of phonemic complexity were performed. Monolingual English-speaking children exhibited initial consonant deletion at a significantly lower rate than bilingual children in their Spanish productions; however, no other quantitative differences were found across groups or languages. Qualitative differences yielded between-language interaction in the error patterns of bilingual children. Phonemic complexity appeared to play a role in initial consonant deletion. Evidence from the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders supports analysing bilingual speech using a cross-linguistic framework. Both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  16. Toward a Composite, Personalized, and Institutionalized Teacher Identity for Non-Native English Speakers in U.S. Secondary ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chen; Varghese, Manka M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in English language teaching and teacher identity has increasingly focused on understanding non-native English-speaking teachers. In addition, much of this research has been conducted in adult English as a second language (ESL) settings. Through a multiple-case qualitative study of four teachers in an underexplored research setting--that…

  17. Toward a Composite, Personalized, and Institutionalized Teacher Identity for Non-Native English Speakers in U.S. Secondary ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chen; Varghese, Manka M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in English language teaching and teacher identity has increasingly focused on understanding non-native English-speaking teachers. In addition, much of this research has been conducted in adult English as a second language (ESL) settings. Through a multiple-case qualitative study of four teachers in an underexplored research setting--that…

  18. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  19. Help-seeking characteristics of Chinese- and English-speaking Australians accessing Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Isabella; Andrews, Gavin; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Internet treatments may overcome barriers and improve access to mental health services for people who do not access professional help. It may be particularly beneficial for Chinese Australians, a group that tends to delay and underutilize face-to-face treatments. This study explored the appeal of Internet therapy to Chinese- and English-speaking Australians with depression who accessed Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programs. Data collected from previous randomised controlled trials of iCBT depression programs were used. Using a matched samples design, 55 Chinese- and 55 English-speaking iCBT participants with depression were matched on age, gender, and depression screener scores. They were compared on their symptom severity, previous help-seeking patterns, and reasons for seeking Internet treatment. The Chinese-speaking participants had significantly milder depressive symptoms and were less likely to have previously sought professional help compared to the English-speaking participants (all ps speaking participants were more likely to seek iCBT due to lack of knowledge about face-to-face treatment (p = 0.005), while the English-speaking participants were more likely to report not benefiting from traditional help (p = 0.030). The attraction of iCBT appears to be the reduction of structural barriers to treatment. iCBT may reduce treatment delay and increase access to Chinese Australians who have not sought professional help. English-speaking Australians are seeking iCBT as an additional means of getting help.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL AND COMMUNICATION ABILITY OF THE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan, K.; N. Santha Kumar; B Devi

    2017-01-01

    This paper endeavors to express about the importance of English speaking skill in the modern world , and how speaking skill is been ignored by the students rather by teachers who ask the students to predominantly focus on the written skill when they are in schools and are giving more prominence to the  writing skill than the speaking skill  in order to get more marks in their public examinations of standard 10thand 12th which lead the students to drive to the  higher studies if they secure  t...

  1. Study on Origin and Cultural Connotation of Names in English-speaking Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻馨锐

    2014-01-01

    The names in English-speaking countries are full of historical origin and cultural connotation. For the significance of family name and given name, this paper focus on the origin and culture connotation of family name and given name, and also the hidden influences of name played on human beings. Moreover, the relationship between development of society and English name will also be concerned because we can not ignore that the development of society has made great effects to English name. According to the whole essay, we can easily realize the origin and connotation of English name through all my researches and analyses.

  2. The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in English-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    The translation of Pavlov's lectures (Pavlov, 1927) provided English-speaking psychologists with access to the full scope of Pavlov's research and theoretical ideas. The impact this had on their study of the psychology of learning can be assessed by examining influential books in this area. This reveals that Watson (1924) had been highly effective in promoting the misleading idea that Pavlov was a fellow S-R theorist. This assumption was not questioned by Tolman (1932), Hilgard and Marquis (1940) or by Hull (1943). However, this mistake was not made by Skinner (1938), who also provided the strongest arguments against Pavlov's belief that behavioral effects required explanation in terms of physiological processes. Post-1927 most learning research in the English-speaking countries continued to use instrumental, rather than Pavlovian, conditioning procedures. Nevertheless, many of the issues addressed by this research were ones that Pavlov had been the first to raise, so that his major influence can be seen as that of defining a research program for subsequent students of learning.

  3. Utilitarian and Recreational Walking Among Spanish- and English-Speaking Latino Adults in Micropolitan US Towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Mark P; Lee, Chanam; Saelens, Brian E; Lee, Chunkuen; Berke, Ethan M; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Patterson, Davis G; Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2017-04-01

    Walking among Latinos in US Micropolitan towns may vary by language spoken. In 2011-2012, we collected telephone survey and built environment (BE) data from adults in six towns located within micropolitan counties from two states with sizable Latino populations. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression modeling to examine relationships between ethnicity-language group [Spanish-speaking Latinos (SSLs); English-speaking Latinos (ESLs); and English-speaking non-Latinos (ENLs)] and utilitarian walking and recreational walking, accounting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and BE characteristics. Low-income SSLs reported higher amounts of utilitarian walking than ENLs (p = 0.007), but utilitarian walking in this group decreased as income increased. SSLs reported lower amounts of recreational walking than ENLs (p = 0.004). ESL-ENL differences were not significant. We identified no statistically significant interactions between ethnicity-language group and BE characteristics. Approaches to increase walking in micropolitan towns with sizable SSL populations may need to account for this group's differences in walking behaviors.

  4. Misconceptions and miscommunication among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, Cecilia K; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena C; Sevilla, Claudia; Cichowski, Sara; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karyn; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer T

    2015-04-01

    Limited data exist on women's experience with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms. We aimed to describe factors that prevent disease understanding among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women. Women with POP were recruited from female urology and urogynecology clinics in Los Angeles, California, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Eight focus groups were conducted, four in Spanish and four in English. Topics addressed patients' emotional responses when noticing their prolapse, how they sought support, what verbal and written information was given, and their overall feelings of the process. Additionally, patients were asked about their experience with their treating physician. All interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Qualitative analysis yielded two preliminary themes. First, women had misconceptions about what POP is as well as its causes and treatments. Second, there was a great deal of miscommunication between patient and physician which led to decreased understanding about the diagnosis and treatment options. This included the fact that women were often overwhelmed with information which they did not understand. The concept emerged that there is a strong need for better methods to achieve disease and treatment understanding for women with POP. Our findings emphasize that women with POP have considerable misconceptions about their disease. In addition, there is miscommunication during the patient-physician interaction that leads to further confusion among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women. Spending more time explaining the diagnosis of POP, rather than focusing solely on treatment options, may reduce miscommunication and increase patient understanding.

  5. Planning of Hiatus-Breaking Inserted /ɹ/ in the Speech of Australian English-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2017-04-14

    Non-rhotic varieties of English often use /ɹ/ insertion as a connected speech process to separate heterosyllabic V1.V2 hiatus contexts. However, there has been little research on children's development of this strategy. This study investigated whether children use /ɹ/ insertion and, if so, whether hiatus-breaking /ɹ/ can be considered planned, as evidenced by F3 lowering on V1. Thirteen Australian English-speaking children (7 girls, 6 boys; mean age 6;1 [years;months]) participated in an elicited production task. The stimuli included carrier sentences containing 4 test words (linking /ɹ/ context: door, floor; intrusive /ɹ/ context: paw, claw) followed by of (e.g., "This is the paw of the cat"). After familiarization containing auditory and picture prompts, children produced test sentences upon presentation of picture prompts alone. Eight children produced /ɹ/ insertion; the others used (some) glottalization. The incidence of /ɹ/ did not vary across linking or intrusive contexts, and inserted /ɹ/ was associated with F3 lowering at V1 onset relative to control items without /ɹ/. Six-year-old Australian English-speaking children who use /ɹ/ insertion show evidence of planning ahead and inserting /ɹ/ as a segment. The implications for the development of speech-planning processes and phonological and lexical representations are discussed.

  6. Towards Defining a Valid Assessment Criterion of Pronunciation Proficiency in Non-Native English-Speaking Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Talia

    2008-01-01

    Intelligibility has been widely regarded as an appropriate goal for second language pronunciation teaching. Yet there is no universally accepted definition of intelligibility, nor any field-wide consensus on the best way to measure it. Further, there is little empirical evidence to suggest which pronunciation features are crucial for…

  7. Teaching Physics in English: A Continuing Professional Development for Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Sangpradit, Theerapong

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) using English integrated science approach training curriculum and to promote physics teacher's efficacy to be expert teachers and be able to teach Physics in English. The quality of the curriculum was at a high level corresponding to the congruence scores of the…

  8. Pragmatic Assessment of Request Speech Act of Iranian EFL Learners by Non-Native English Speaking Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Minoo; Khanlarzadeh, Neda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of raters' comments on pragmatic assessment of L2 learners is among new and understudied concepts in second language studies. To shed light on this issue, the present investigation targeted important variables such as raters' criteria and rating patterns by analyzing the interlanguage pragmatic assessment process of the Iranian…

  9. English Business Communication Skills Training Needs of Non-Native English-Speaking Managers: A Case in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chia-Jung

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey of managers in high-technology industry in Taiwan regarding their needs for English business communication skills in the workplace. Finds that English conversation and English telephoning are the most urgently needed training courses. (SR)

  10. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…

  11. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…

  12. Investigating the Problems of English Speaking of the Students of Islamic Boarding School Program at STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Hadijah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ ability, the problems and their reasons why they faced problems on English speaking. The triangulation of mixed methods was used in this study. The quantitative data gathered from the speaking test result by involving 130 students of Islamic Boarding School Program and the qualitative data gathered from the questionnaire and interview results from the selected students who meet the criteria. The findings showed that the students’ ability was categorized low (62.93; the students have problems on grammar (42.20%, pronunciation (36.60%, vocabulary (35.20%, fluency (36% and comprehension (34.40%; the students’ reason in facing the problems on English speaking English were not only having limited knowledge on the components of speaking skills including pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension but also they have own personal reasons, such as shy to perform speaking, lack of self confidence, lack of speaking practice, limited time given for preparation on English speaking test, the difficulties at using and understanding the speaking material found in the English textbook, the environment (dormitory did not support them to acquire and use English as a medium daily interaction and they preferred to study the Islamic knowledge and Arabic than English. This study indicated that the students’ ability should be increased by giving motivation and taught them with the suitable and interested English speaking materials.

  13. Canciones en la clase: The Why and How of Integrating Songs in Spanish by English-Speaking and Bilingual Artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Bruce Dean; Mason, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Instructors are prepared to use Spanish versions of English-speaking and bilingual artists' recordings to teach language structures and enhance the five skill areas. This article reviews the literature and pedagogical use of songs and also provides a list of recordings, recommendations for classroom use, and two sample lesson plans. (Contains 20…

  14. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  15. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  16. Canciones en la clase: The Why and How of Integrating Songs in Spanish by English-Speaking and Bilingual Artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Bruce Dean; Mason, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Instructors are prepared to use Spanish versions of English-speaking and bilingual artists' recordings to teach language structures and enhance the five skill areas. This article reviews the literature and pedagogical use of songs and also provides a list of recordings, recommendations for classroom use, and two sample lesson plans. (Contains 20…

  17. Pain Management Programmes for Non-English-Speaking Black and Minority Ethnic Groups With Long-Term or Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A E; Shaw, R L

    2015-12-01

    Increasing ethnic diversity in the UK means that there is a growing need for National Health Service care to be delivered to non-English-speaking patients. The aims of the present systematic review were to: (1) better understand the outcomes of chronic pain management programmes (PMPs) for ethnic minority and non-English-speaking patients and (2) explore the perspectives on and experiences of chronic pain for these groups. A systematic review identified 26 papers meeting the inclusion criteria; no papers reported on the outcomes of PMPs delivered in the UK. Of the papers obtained, four reported on PMPs conducted outside the UK; eight reported on ethnic differences in patients seeking support from pain management services in America; and the remaining papers included literature reviews, an experimental pain study, a collaborative enquiry, and a survey of patient and clinician ratings of pain. The findings indicate a lack of research into UK-based pain management for ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking patients. The literature suggests that effective PMPs must be tailored to meet cultural experiences of pain and beliefs about pain management. There is a need for further research to explore these cultural beliefs in non-English-speaking groups in the UK. Culturally sensitive evaluations of interpreted PMPs with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the effectiveness of current provision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. On the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Reflexive Passives and Reflexive Impersonals by French- and English-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2006-01-01

    This study, a partial replication of Bruhn de Garavito (1999a; 1999b), investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by French- and English-speaking adults at an advanced level of proficiency. The L2 acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by native French and…

  19. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  20. Results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and two alleged fathers. The laboratories were encouraged...

  1. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...

  2. Language Development in Children With Cleft Palate With or Without Cleft Lip Adopted From Non-English-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy R; Bellucci, Claudia Crilly; Coppersmith, Jody; Linde, Sebastian B; Curtis, Arthur; Albert, Meredith; O'Gara, Mary M; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether language skills differed between children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate (CP±CL) who were adopted into an English-speaking home from a non-English-speaking country (late English exposure [LE]) and children with CP±CL raised from birth in an English-speaking home (early English exposure [EE]). Children (51 LE, 67 EE), ages 3;0 (years;months) to 9;0, completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), Preschool Second Edition or Fourth Edition. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of age of adoption and time in an English-speaking home on language skills, as measured by the CELF-P2 and CELF-4. Children with CP±CL who were adopted scored less well on all language indices, with mean adjusted differences between LE and EE children ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD on the CELF index scales. Only 53% of the EE children and 57% of the LE children obtained scores above 90 on all indices. For LE children, younger age at adoption was associated with better language skills. CP±CL increases risk for language delay, with the highest risk for LE children. LE children with CP±CL should receive language services soon after adoption.

  3. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  4. Applying innovation method to assess english speaking performance on communication apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Li-Jyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of research studies are now available to shed some light on ELT methods. Currently, educational portfolios are implemented in Science, Mathematics and Geography and also have become widely used in ELT. When the students prepared their own portfolios, they self-monitored their performances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-monitoring and portfolios on college students’ English speaking performance. The participants involved in this study were 60 college students majoring in the Department of Applied Foreign Languages at one university of technology in Taiwan. In the study, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to test the effects of using communication apprehension. In the portfolio group, the students’ communication apprehension was lowered. In conducting this study, the researcher hoped that this research could provide valuable perspective on the use of portfolios and self-monitoring

  5. Korean- and English-speaking children use cross-situational information to learn novel predicate terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B; Paik, Jae H

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines children's attention to cross-situational information during word learning. Korean-speaking children in Korea and English-speaking children in the US were taught four nonce words that referred to novel actions. For each word, children saw four related events: half were shown events that were very similar (Close comparisons), half were shown events that were not as similar (Far comparisons). The prediction was that children would compare events to each other and thus be influenced by the events shown. In addition, children in these language groups could be influenced differently as their verb systems differ. Although some differences were found across language, children in both languages were influenced by the type of events shown, suggesting that they are using a comparison process. Thus, this study provides evidence for comparison, a new mechanism to describe how children learn new action words, and demonstrates that this process could apply across languages.

  6. Teaching medicine to non-English speaking background learners in a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2009-06-01

    Teaching abroad exposes medical educators to unfamiliar teaching methods and learning styles that can enhance their overall teaching repertoire. Based on the author's experience teaching residents for one month at a community hospital in Japan and a review of the non-English speaking background (NESB) educational literature, pedagogical principles and lessons for successful international NESB instruction are outlined. These methods include understanding the dissimilar linguistic, cultural, and academic backgrounds of the learners, emphasizing pace and clarity of speech, presenting a conceptual framework instead of detailed discourse on subjects, and regular visual reinforcement of spoken words. The limitations introduced by the language barrier and the use of interpreters are briefly discussed. As society and institutions of higher learning become more global and multicultural, clinician-educators may benefit from teaching in other countries in order to enhance their teaching skills with NESB learners, both abroad and in their own institutions.

  7. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  8. KEY FACTORS OF PROCESS MATURITY IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING CARIBBEAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delroy Chevers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The information system (IS community has been struggling with the delivery of low quality systems. Software process improvement (SPI has been accepted as one of the remedies to overcome this problem, with process maturity being a key element. However, most studies on process maturity and the determinants of IS quality have been conducted in large firms in developed countries. This study assessed the key determinants of process maturity in small software development firms in the English-speaking Caribbean (ESC. Using the established practices in the capability maturity model integration (CMMI as the baseline for the analysis, it was found that project monitoring & control, and verification & validation are key determinants of process maturity in the ESC. These findings can assist IS professionals in their quest to produce higher quality software products, as well as provide a platform for further refinement of the proposed research model by IS researchers.

  9. Dialect Density in Bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Shuriff, Rebecca; Barlow, Jessica A.; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how the two phonological systems of bilingual children interact. In this exploratory study, we examine children's use of dialect features to determine how their speech sound systems interact. Six monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children and 6 bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English speaking children, ages 5-7 years, were included in the current study. Children's single word productions were analyzed for (1) dialect density and (2) frequency of occurrence of dialect features (after Oetting & McDonald, 2002). Nonparametric statistical analyses were used to examine differences within and across language groups. Results indicated that monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar dialect density, but differed on the types of dialect features used. Findings are discussed within the theoretical framework of the Dual Systems Model (Paradis, 2001) of language acquisition in bilingual children. PMID:25009677

  10. Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an English-speaking ethnic Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese.

  11. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  12. Mobility limitations and fear of falling in non-English speaking older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, English 85.7% had mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.

  13. Global Professional Identity in Deterretorialized Spaces: A Case Study of a Critical Dialogue between Expert and Novice Nonnative English Speaker Teachers (Identidad profesional global en espacios desterritorializados: un estudio de caso de los diálogos críticos entre profesores de inglés no nativos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Nieto, Carmen Helena; Meadows, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the online, peer-peer dialogue between two groups of nonnative English-speaking teachers who are attending graduate programs in Colombia and the United States. Framed by the theoretical concepts of critical pedagogy and global professional identity, a qualitative analysis of the data shows that their expert vs. novice roles…

  14. Investigating the Problems of English Speaking of the Students of Islamic Boarding School Program at STAIN Samarinda

    OpenAIRE

    Sitti Hadijah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the students’ ability, the problems and their reasons why they faced problems on English speaking. The triangulation of mixed methods was used in this study. The quantitative data gathered from the speaking test result by involving 130 students of Islamic Boarding School Program and the qualitative data gathered from the questionnaire and interview results from the selected students who meet the criteria. The findings showed that the students’ ability was categorized l...

  15. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  16. The development of education indicators for measuring quality in the English-speaking Caribbean: how far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Anica G

    2015-02-01

    Education evaluation has become increasingly important in the English-speaking Caribbean. This has been in response to assessing the progress of four regional initiatives aimed at improving the equity, efficiency, and quality of education. Both special interest groups and local evaluators have been responsible for assessing the progress of education and providing an overall synthesis and summary of what is taking place in the English-speaking Caribbean. This study employed content analysis to examine the indicators used in these education evaluation studies since the declaration of the Caribbean Plan of Action 2000-2015 to determine these indicators' appropriateness to the Caribbean context in measuring education progress. Findings demonstrate that the English-speaking Caribbean has made strides in operationalizing quality input, process, and output indicators; however quality outcome indicators beyond test scores are yet to be realized in a systematic manner. This study also compared the types of collaborative partnerships in conducting evaluation studies used by special interest groups and local evaluators and pinpointed the one that appears most suitable for special interest groups in this region.

  17. Eating disorder nutrition counseling: strategies and education needs of English-speaking dietitians in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Jadine; Milne, Ryna Levy

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile nutrition counseling strategies for eating disorders that English-speaking Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) use and to explore their educational needs in this area. A cross-sectional survey consisting of open- and closed-ended questions on nutrition counseling strategies was developed and administered via mail. Types of strategies included assessment, rapport-building, educational, and behavior-change strategies. Sixty-five of the 116 eligible RDs who were members of the Dietitians of Canada Eating Disorder Network responded to the survey. Descriptive statistics, chi(2), and Spearman correlation statistics were used. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Canadian RDs used strategies that were familiar and strategies they considered useful. Content-oriented or "doing" strategies were used more often than strategies that involved some process-oriented or "thinking" strategies. Reading and intuition were the most frequently reported learning routes. Seventy-one percent of respondents were dissatisfied with the educational opportunities available to RDs in this area in Canada. In Canada, both generalist RDs and specialist eating disorders RDs work with clients with eating disorders. In the absence of a formal nutrition counseling education program, there seems to be a reliance on informal learning routes such as reading or intuition, which may be suboptimal. To optimize eating disorders nutrition practice in Canada, formal coordinated programming that accounts for the educational needs of specialist RDs as well as generalist RDs is needed.

  18. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2016-09-09

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  19. A case based reflection on communicating end of life information in non-English speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Carl; Malpas, Phillipa

    2016-11-01

    Mr X was a 56year old Chinese man (non-English speaking), who presented to the emergency department with a range of non-specific symptoms. On full workup, he was diagnosed with an advanced cancer of the pancreas. It was an aggressive, highly treatment resistant cancer, with an alarmingly poor prognosis. Before the diagnosis had been made, the family had informed our team that we were not to discuss medical issues with Mr X directly, and that upon arriving on a diagnosis we were to come to them first and they would subsequently inform him. They reported that Mr X was in support of this arrangement. Eventually we told the family about Mr X's diagnosis, and they asserted their collective will to keep this information from him, reaffirming that all medical discussion go through them. However, the doctor in charge explained the diagnosis to Mr X using an interpreter while his family were away from his bed. In this discussion, I consider this case from the perspective of respecting patients' and families' preferences around medical treatment and care.

  20. Intervocalic consonants in the speech of English-speaking Canadian children with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Barbara; Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of intervocalic consonants has been insufficiently studied, both in terms of subject numbers, and in terms of differentiating syllabification patterns from those involving vowel feature assimilation. The question has remained: are English intervocalic consonants syllable-initial (onsets), syllable-final (codas) or ambisyllabic? This study addresses these issues in the speech of 44 English-speaking Canadian children with phonological disorders. Intervocalic consonants resembled word-initial onsets in that they were deleted less often than word-final consonants. When there was no deletion, intervocalic consonants were more likely to be segmentally unique (ambisyllabic?) than like onsets or codas. In segmental inventories, segments rarely appeared only in intervocalic position, and showed an equal affinity to onsets and codas, with two exceptions. Sonorant continuants and, to a lesser extent, fricatives showed patterns in intervocalic position that may have reflected assimilation. For children with less severe disorders, velars and fricatives occurred intervocalically only if they also occurred in codas, suggesting a coda-like (ambisyllabic?) status.

  1. Exploration of Open Educational Resources in Non-English Speaking Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Cobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, open educational resources (OER initiatives have created new possibilities for knowledge-sharing practices. This research examines how, where, and when OER are attracting attention in the higher education sector and explores to what extent the OER discussion has moved beyond the English-speaking world. This study analysed English, Spanish, and Portuguese OER queries over a long-term period (2007-2011. The data retrieval was conducted using four online platforms: two academic journal databases (Web of Knowledge and Scopus, one video-sharing Web site (YouTube, and one document-sharing Web site (Scribd. The number (more than 32,860 of search results collected indicate an increasing interest in online OER discussion across languages, particularly outside academic journal databases. Additionally, a widening ‘language gap’ between OER discussions in English and other languages was identified in several platforms. This research reports some of the cultural and language challenges caused by the expansion of the OER discussion and highlights relevant findings in this field.

  2. Assessing successive bilinguals in two languages: A longitudinal look at English-speaking children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidnes, Maureen; Tuller, Laurice

    2016-10-04

    This study examines longitudinal standardized test scores in both languages of a group of successive bilinguals with L1 English acquiring L2 French. Participants included 22 native English-speaking children living in France. French was evaluated using a standardized receptive vocabulary test, as well as tests of phonology and morphosyntax. English was evaluated using the Core Language Score subtests from the CELF-4-UK. The children varied in age (6;9-12;7) and length of exposure (0;11-3;9) to French and were tested twice at 12-month intervals. At T1, 7 children scored below norms in both languages, while only 3 did so at T2. Two out of these 3 were arguably not typically developing children. Length of exposure to French emerged as an important factor only at T1, when a number of children were in early stages of acquisition (≤18months of exposure). English scores varied by age and weekly use of English. In successive bilingual children, language performance on L2 standardized tests can be expected to be (well) below norms during the first 18 months of exposure. English scores revealed that weak L1 performance is part of typical development in this bilingual context, but that L1 retention is also a possibility.

  3. Perception of pitch height in lexical and musical tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Lekich, Allison; Zhang, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the music-speech relationship by examining pitch height perception in lexical and musical tones. English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians identified multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without typical cues for speaker normalization. The musicians also identified note names of piano, viola, and pure tones without a reference pitch. In the Taiwanese task, both the musicians and nonmusicians were able to identify tone height above chance, but only for tones at the extremes of the speakers' overall vocal range. The musicians only had a slight advantage over the nonmusicians. In the music task, none of the musicians met the criterion for absolute pitch. Timbre did not affect how accurately the musical tones were identified. No correlations were found between performance in the Taiwanese task and that in the music task. It was concluded that musicians' advantage in lexical tone perception arose from the ability to track F0 contours. The ability to identify pitch height in lexical tones appears to involve calibrating acoustic input according to gender-specific, internally stored pitch templates.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF GRADUATE ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITIES IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rolim Ensslin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates there is a shortage of professors of accounting. For some researchers this lack is related to the high price paid to obtain an advanced degree in this area. According to the American Accounting Association (AAA, graduate programs need to be more attractive, less stressful and less expensive for students. Therefore, the objective of this study is to map the characteristics of the selection process, the courses offered and the requirements to obtain a master’s degree in accounting from universities located in English-speaking. This study can be classified as descriptive, with a theoretical-conceptual nature and a qualitative approach. We rely on secondary sources and apply inductive logic. The main results are that in the United States, 71% of the programs require candidates to have knowledge of accounting, finance, economics, taxes, statistics and mathematics; 75% of Australian universities require a minimum score on the TOEFL for foreign students, 20% have a minimum GPA and 10% require taking the GMAT; and no Canadian university requires a letter of recommendation. Regarding the purpose of the courses, 88% of the institutions that offer master programs in accounting focus on improved professional qualification of accountants. In Australia, 30% of the programs last 18 months, while in Canada this figure is 66% and in New Zealand, 50% of the programs last at least two years. With respect to the graduation requirements, 82% of the universities require between 4 and 9 mandatory disciplines. In conclusion, the master programs in the United States and United Kingdom are relatively more demanding with respect to the degree requirements than in the other countries investigated.

  5. Tornado hazard communication disparities among Spanish-speaking individuals in an English-speaking community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Leslie; Franc, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-02-01

    The state of Oklahoma, known for destructive tornados, has a native Spanish-speaking (NSS) population of approximately 180,241, of which 50% report being able to speak English "very well" (US Census Bureau). With almost 50% of these native Spanish-speaking persons being limited English proficient (LEP), their reception of tornado hazard communications may be restricted. This study conducted in northeast Oklahoma (USA) evaluates the association between native language and receiving tornado hazard communications. This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among a convenience sample of NSS and native English-speaking (NES) adults at Xavier Clinic and St. Francis Trauma Emergency Center in Tulsa, OK, USA from September 2009 through December 2009. Of the 82 surveys administered, 80 were returned, with 40 NES and 40 NSS participants. A scoring system (Severe Weather Information Reception (SWIR)) was developed to quantify reception of hazard information among the study participants (1-3 points=poor reception, 4-5=adequate reception, 6-8=excellent reception). Pearson's chi-squared test was used to calculate differences between groups with Yates' continuity correction applied where appropriate, and SWIR scores were analyzed using ANOVA. P-valuestornado siren. NSS were less likely to have Internet access (Ptornado warning reception between NSS and NES. Poor English proficiency was noted to be 75% among NSS, which is approximately 25% more than estimated by the US Census Bureau. This study demonstrates a need for emergency managers to recognize when appropriate and overcome communication disparities among limited English proficient populations.

  6. An Analysis Of Self-Inflicting Violence In The English-Speaking Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries including those that are self-inflicted results in 12% of the world’s burden of disease. In the case of attempted suicide, this attracts globaldisability adjusted life years lost (11% throughout the World, while in the Caribbean, potential years of life lost represents 27%. These aremanifested in the form of (i microfracture of vertebrae; (ii echimosis (from asphyxiation; (iii long-term developmental, reproductive andsystemic effects (from poisoning; inter alia. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of self-inflicting violence on the well-being ofindividuals in the English-Speaking Caribbean. Information was obtained via field research (convenience and snowball sampling, police statisticsusing the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS 17.0 to analyze the data. Self-inflicting violence in the form of attempted suicide has shownconstant increase over the period 2005 (N=121 to 2006 (N=134, but a slight decline in 2007 (N=133. Attempted suicide was significantlydominant among female than male, especially those within the 10-44 age cohort. Males were more likely to fail at attempted suicide than theirfemale counterparts were over the period 2003-2007 (male = 225, female = 38. The method of suicide most practiced in Jamaica over the period2003-2008 was hanging, followed by shooting, poisoning and drowning. The least practiced methods were jumping and electrocution. In 2008,causes of such suicide methods were as a result of depression (19.1%, domestic matters (10.6%, mental disorder (8.5%, murder (2.1%, andunknown (59.6%. Self-inflicting violence (commonly drug overdose, cutting, hanging, poisoning, shooting bears serious socio-medical implicationsand has economic impact on both individuals and states.

  7. Acquisition of contrastive voicing in typically developing American English-speaking children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Elaine Russo

    This study was an investigation of voicing acquisition in typically developing children. The research was motivated by the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the acquisition of contrastive voicing. In general, researchers have disagreed about the age at which children develop distinctive voicing categories. Some of the inconsistencies in the voicing literature may have been the result of differences in methodology and data analysis approaches. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to re-examine the acquisition of distinct voicing categories, the role of methodology, and the influence of type of data analysis used to determine results. The voicing acquisition of 10 typically developing English-speaking 2-year-old children was examined. The children were recorded every 2 weeks for from 4 to 6 months. Multiple repetitions were elicited for 4 target utterances containing initial /b p d t/. Frequency distributions as well as measures of central tendency and skewness were calculated for each recording session of each child. Additional criteria for assessment of contrastive voicing, including range size, accuracy of VOT productions, overshoot, and discreteness, were also calculated for summary data and full data sets. Overall, the children in this study displayed continuous progress toward the production of distinct voicing categories characterized by a sum reduction in range size, increased accuracy, decreased overshoot overall per target phoneme, and increased discreteness among the voicing categories. The findings of this study support the presence of an overshoot for /p/ and /t/, as previously suggested in the literature, as well as the presence of overshoot for /b/ and many inaccurate /d/ distributions, a characteristic not commonly noted in the existing literature. Furthermore, the differences in findings resulting from the use of mean VOT values or summary statistics in comparison with full data sets, reveals the need to use additional

  8. How noise and language proficiency influence speech recognition by individual non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xie, Lingli; Li, Yongjun; Chatterjee, Monita; Ding, Nai

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how speech recognition in noise is affected by language proficiency for individual non-native speakers. The recognition of English and Chinese sentences was measured as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in sixty native Chinese speakers who never lived in an English-speaking environment. The recognition score for speech in quiet (which varied from 15%-92%) was found to be uncorrelated with speech recognition threshold (SRTQ/2), i.e. the SNR at which the recognition score drops to 50% of the recognition score in quiet. This result demonstrates separable contributions of language proficiency and auditory processing to speech recognition in noise.

  9. Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Walkinshaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The English language teaching industry in East and Southeast Asia subscribes to an assumption that native English-speaking teachers (NESTs are the gold standard of spoken and written language, whereas non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs are inferior educators because they lack this innate linguistic skill. But does this premise correspond with the views of second language learners? This article reports on research carried out with university students in Vietnam and Japan exploring the advantages and disadvantages of learning English from NESTs and non-NESTs. Contrary to the above notion, our research illuminated a number of perceived advantages—and disadvantages—in both types of teachers. Students viewed NESTs as models of pronunciation and correct language use, as well as being repositories of cultural knowledge, but they also found NESTs poor at explaining grammar, and their different cultures created tension. Non-NESTs were perceived as good teachers of grammar, and had the ability to resort to the students’ first language when necessary. Students found classroom interaction with non-NESTs easier because of their shared culture. Non-NESTs’ pronunciation was often deemed inferior to that of NESTs, but also easier to comprehend. Some respondents advocated learning from both types of teachers, depending on learners’ proficiency and the skill being taught.

  10. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  11. Repeated presentation of stimuli and production of original response by English-speaking Indian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, B D; Khatena, J; Morse, D T

    1993-08-01

    Sounds and Images, a measure of originality, was administered to 131 English-speaking high school students of Orissa, India in 1987. The test has two forms, viz., IA and IB. Each form has four sounds which were presented three times. To each the students wrote their verbal images which were scored for originality and analyzed for effects of multiple presentation and differential sounds. The main effects of sounds (IA, IB), of presentation (IA), and the interaction of presentation by sound (IB) were nonsignificant, but presentation (IB) and the interaction of presentation by sound were significant.

  12. Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick Shamin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done on adolescents aged 10 – 19 years old and published during the period 1980 – 2005 were included. Results Ninety-five relevant papers were located. Five papers were published in the 1980s, 47 in the 1990s, and from 2000–2005, 43 papers. Health risk behaviours and outcomes were divided into seven themes. Prevalence data obtained for these, included lifetime prevalence of substance use: cigarettes-24% and marijuana-17%; high risk sexual behaviour: initiation of sexual activity ≤ 10 years old-19% and those having more than six partners-19%; teenage pregnancy: teens account for 15–20% of all pregnancies and one-fifth of these teens were in their second pregnancy; Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs: population prevalence of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia in 18–21 year-olds was 26%; mental health: severe depression in the adolescent age group was 9%, and attempted suicide-12%; violence and juvenile delinquency: carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days-10% and almost always wanting to kill or injure someone-5%; eating disorders and obesity: overweight-11%, and obesity-7%. Many of the risk behaviours in adolescents were shown to be related to the adolescent's family of origin, home environment and parent-child relationships. Also, the protective effects of family and school connectedness as well as increased religiosity noted in studies from the United States were also applicable in the Caribbean. Conclusion There is a substantial body of literature on Caribbean adolescents documenting prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviours. Future research

  13. Reading skills and the discrimination of English vowel contrasts by bilingual Spanish/English-speaking children: Is there a correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the discrimination of English vowel contrasts in real and novel word-pairs by 21 children: 11 bilingual Spanish/English- and 10 monolingual English-speaking children, 8-12 years of age (M=10; 6; Mdn=10; 4). The goal was to determine if children with poor reading skills had difficulty with discrimination, an essential factor in reading abilities. A categorial discrimination task was used in an ABX discrimination paradigm: A (the first word in the sequence) and B (the second word in the sequence) were different stimuli, and X (the third word in the sequence) was identical to either A or to B. Stimuli were produced by one of three different speakers. Seventy-two monosyllabic words were presented: 36 real English and 36 novel words. Vowels were those absent from the inventory of Spanish vowels. Discrimination accuracy for the English-speaking children with good reading skills was significantly greater than for the bilingual-speaking children with good or poor reading skills. Early age of acquisition and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English played the greatest role in bilingual children's discrimination and reading skills. The adjacency of vowels in the F1-F2 acoustic space presented the greatest difficulty.

  14. An uphill struggle: effects of a point-of-choice stair climbing intervention in a non-English speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W

    2006-10-01

    Increases in lifestyle physical activity are a current public health target. Interventions that encourage pedestrians to choose the stairs rather than the escalator are uniformly successful in English speaking populations. Here we report the first test of a similar intervention in a non-English speaking sample, namely the Hong Kong Chinese. Travellers on the Mid-Levels escalator system in Hong Kong were encouraged to take the stairs for their health by a point-of-choice prompt with text in Chinese positioned at the junction between the stairs and the travelator. Gender, age, ethnic origin, and walking on the travelator were coded by observers. A 2 week intervention period followed 2 weeks of baseline monitoring with 57 801 choices coded. Specificity of the intervention was determined by contrasting effects in Asian and non-Asian travellers. There was no effect of the intervention on stair climbing and baseline rates (0.4%) were much lower than previous studies in Western populations (5.4%). Nonetheless, a modest increase in walking up the travelator, confined to the Asian population (OR = 1.12), confirmed that the intervention materials could change behaviour. It would be unwise to assume that lifestyle physical activity interventions have universal application. The contexts in which the behaviours occur, e.g. climate, may act as a barrier to successful behaviour change.

  15. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers.

  16. Peculiarities of Teaching the Topic «Protein-Energy Malnutrition in Children» to English-Speaking Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Kuznetsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems that arise during the process of teaching the topic «Protein-energy malnutrition in children» to the English-speaking students are discussed in this article. It highlights the differences in the protocols of various countries, in particular presents the comparative analysis of terminological concepts of hypotrophy, protein-energy malnutrition, undernutrition, stunting, acute, chronic malnutrition, wasting, kwashiorkor, provides anthropometric indicators to assess the severity of inanition (optional use of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, gives anthropometric criteria to diagnose the severity of protein-energy malnutrition and the group at risk for its development. The article describes the issues of managing patients with severe and moderate malnutrition according to foreign documents, presents the differential table for the choice of treatment of a child with severe malnutrition, highlights the principles, phases and stages of treatment, features of mana­ging patients with the use of products ready for use (ready to use therapeutic food. Analysis of protocol of Ukraine, the World Health Organization, India, Kenya has allowed to adapt me­thods of teaching this topic to English-speaking students.

  17. An efficient strategy allowed English-speaking reviewers to identify foreign-language articles eligible for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Jason W; Bruno, Paul; Malik, Keshena; Connell, Gaelan; Torrance, David; Ngo, Trung; Kirmayr, Karin; Avrahami, Daniel; Riva, John J; Ebrahim, Shanil; Struijs, Peter A A; Brunarski, David; Burnie, Stephen J; LeBlanc, Frances; Coomes, Eric A; Steenstra, Ivan A; Slack, Tesha; Rodine, Robert; Jim, Janey; Montori, Victor M; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2014-05-01

    To assess English-speaking reviewers' accuracy in determining the eligibility of foreign-language articles for a systematic review. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of therapy for fibromyalgia. Guided by 10 questions, English-speaking reviewers screened non-English-language articles for eligibility. Teams of two native-language speakers provided reference standard judgments of eligibility. Of 15,466 potentially eligible articles, we retrieved 763 in full text, of which 133 were published in 19 non-English languages; 53 trials published in 11 languages other than English proved eligible. Of the 53 eligible articles, English-language reviewers guided by the 10 questions mistakenly judged 6 as ineligible; of the 80 ineligible articles, 8 were incorrectly judged eligible by English-language reviewers (sensitivity=0.89; specificity=0.90). Use of a simple three-step rule (excluding languages with less than three articles, reviewing titles and abstracts for clear indications of eligibility, and noting the lack of a clearly reported statistical analysis unless the word "random" appears) led to accurate classification of 51 of 53 articles (sensitivity=0.96; specificity=0.70). Our findings show promise for limiting the need for non-English-language review teams in systematic reviews with large numbers of potentially eligible non-English-language articles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A report of the 2000 and 2001 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the international society for forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Morling, Niels

    2002-01-01

    During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed to the participat......During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed...

  19. Enhancing student performance: Linking the geography curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the English-speaking Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Jennifer C.

    In a 21st century knowledge society individuals are expected to use their knowledge and skills to think critically, problem solve, make decisions, comprehend new ideas, communicate, and collaborate effectively with others. Helping students achieve this level of performance is no easy task and it brings into focus the fact that the effectiveness of any education system rests on the systemic coordination or alignment of three crucial components: curriculum, instruction and assessment (referred to as the CIA). These components must work in concert to facilitate and enhance student performance. However, educational reform typically targets these components in isolation, often treating only one component, rather than the system as a whole. The misalignment of these components can adversely affect student performance in any discipline. When the CIA components are out of alignment, it is difficult to evaluate student and system performance and achieve improvement in an educational system. Therefore, using geography education in Trinidad & Tobago as a case study, this study examined the nature of the alignment among the CIA components in the advanced geography system in the English- Speaking Caribbean and the extent to which the alignment may be affecting student performance. The study sought to determine the possible sources and causes of misalignment, the challenges to achieving alignment, and ways of achieving greater coordination among the CIA components of the system. The methodology employed in the study involved the use of classroom observations, interviews, and the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum Alignment Model which uses content analyses and surveys. The results showed that there were varying degrees of alignment among the components. There was acceptable alignment (Alignment Index ≥ 0.25) between the curriculum and assessment. However, the alignment between curriculum and instruction or assessment and instruction was poor (Alignment Index ≤ 0.12). The baseline

  20. A comparative analysis of policies addressing rural oral health in eight English-speaking OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Leonard A; Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    documents in this study. When the language of concepts related to rural oral health was examined, the qualitative analysis identified four discourse themes related to both causality and solutions. These ranked discourse themes focused on service models, workforce issues, social determinants of health, and prevention. None of the policies addressed the structural economic determinants of unequal rural oral health, nor did they specifically assert the rights of children in rural communities to equitable oral health care. This study documented the limited focus on rural oral health that existed in national oral health policies from eight different English-speaking countries. It supports the need for an increased focus on rural oral health issues in oral health policies, particularly as increased oral health is clearly associated with increased general health. It speaks to the critical importance of periodic analysis of the content of oral health policies to ensure that issues of inequality are addressed. Further, it reinforces the need for research findings about effective oral health care to be translated into practice in the development of practical and financially viable policies to make access to oral health care more equitable, particularly for people living in rural and remote areas.

  1. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  2. Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Swaziland. Report on the Supply of Secondary Level Teachers in English-Speaking Africa. Country Study No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John W.; Cammaerts, F. C. A.

    One of 14 studies on the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa, this report begins with a survey of Swaziland's geography and economic potentials, and the financial viability of its economic growth. Despite its small size, the wide market areas available and the existence of non-agricultural opportunities give promise of…

  3. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  4. An English-Speaking Prekindergarten Teacher for Young Latino Children: Implications of the Teacher-Child Relationship on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This case study was designed to describe how an effective English-speaking prekindergarten teacher develops strategies for communicating with and teaching young English language learners. The teacher's classroom practices to enhance her own relationship with the children promoted opportunities for the Latino children to become full participants in…

  5. Assessing a Self-Report Health Measure for Non-English-Speaking Elders: Issues in Using the SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Cody, Michael; Silverstein, Merril; Chin, Soo-Young; Garcia, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Approved versions of the SF-36 Version 1.0 are used for limited-English-speaking individuals whose primary languages are Korean, Chinese, and Spanish to test the respective translations for use among immigrants to the United States. Method: Surveys are completed by an older adult and a nominated adult family caregiver (N = 132).…

  6. The Representation of Professionalism in Native English-Speaking Teachers Recruitment Policies: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The status of English as a global language has played a significant role in contemporary language education policies across the world. In East Asia, the hegemony of English has been reflected in a number of central governments' policies of recruiting native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) to participate in English language education. This…

  7. An English-Speaking Prekindergarten Teacher for Young Latino Children: Implications of the Teacher-Child Relationship on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This case study was designed to describe how an effective English-speaking prekindergarten teacher develops strategies for communicating with and teaching young English language learners. The teacher's classroom practices to enhance her own relationship with the children promoted opportunities for the Latino children to become full participants in…

  8. Developmental Differences in Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Reading Aloud Growth Rates between English-Speaking Students and English Language Learners in Grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental difference in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) reading aloud performance between Grade 8 English-speaking students and English language learners (ELLs) using two theories of reading development: compensatory model and cumulative model. Fifty non-ELLs and 133 ELLs were administered the…

  9. Recommendations to Public Speaking Instructors for the Negotiation of Code-Switching Practices among Black English-Speaking African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deric M.; Walker, Felicia R.

    2004-01-01

    Six recommendations that instructors can employ to encourage effective classroom code-switching practices among Black English-speaking students in the basic communication course are discussed. These include reconsidering attitudes, communicating expectations, demonstrating model language behavior, affirming students' language, creating culturally…

  10. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth's vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  11. Satisfaction with care and decision making among parents/caregivers in the pediatric intensive care unit: a comparison between English-speaking whites and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David; Unger, Jennifer B; Ornelas, Beatriz; Chang, Jennifer C; Markovitz, Barry P; Dodek, Peter M; Heyland, Daren K; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-04-01

    Because of previously documented health care disparities, we hypothesized that English-speaking Latino parents/caregivers would be less satisfied with care and decision making than English-speaking non-Latino white (NLW) parents/caregivers. An intensive care unit (ICU) family satisfaction survey, Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version), was completed by English-speaking parents/caregivers of children in a cardiothoracic ICU at a university-affiliated children's hospital in 2011. English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers of patients, younger than 18 years, admitted to the ICU were approached to participate on hospital day 3 or 4 if they were at the bedside for greater than or equal to 2 days. Analysis of variance, χ(2), and Student t tests were used. Cronbach αs were calculated. Fifty parents/caregivers completed the survey in each group. Latino parents/caregivers were younger, more often mothers born outside the United States, more likely to have government insurance or no insurance, and had less education and income. There were no differences between the groups' mean overall satisfaction scores (92.6 ± 8.3 and 93.0 ± 7.1, respectively; P = .80). The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version) showed high internal consistency reliability (α = .95 and .91 for NLW and Latino groups, respectively). No disparities in ICU satisfaction with care and decision making between English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of advance care planning in elderly Italian and Greek speaking patients as compared to English-speaking patients: an Australian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn

    2015-08-28

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65 years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1 h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (pspeaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Analyzing research article introductions by Iranian and native English-speaking authors of Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari Ahmadi, Hesamoddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of academic writing in the dissemination of research findings among members of scientific communities, efforts have been made by language specialists to achieve a more detailed understanding of this register, with hopes that the derived features could then be used to teach researchers, writing in a second/foreign language, to more effectively communicate the results of their studies. This study sets out to achieve a similar goal through the analysis of research article introductions in terms of the frequency and function of their lexical bundles. To this end, a corpus of 200 research article introductions by published authors in the field of Applied Linguistics was compared to a similar corpus by Iranian, non-native writers of the same field. The findings reveal that Iranian authors use more 4-word lexical bundles in their writing compared to their native-speaker counterparts. Syntactic and functional differences between the two corpora are introduced and implications for academic writing instructors are discussed in detail.

  14. Improving the Academic Performance of Non-Native English-Speaking Students: The Contribution of Pre-Sessional English Language Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andy; Snell, Martin; Davey-Evans, Sue; Talman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    There is an established, if weak, inverse relationship between levels of English language proficiency and academic performance in higher education. In response, higher education institutions (HEIs) insist upon minimum entry requirements concerning language for international applicants. Many HEIs now also offer pre-sessional English courses to…

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Korean Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' Prior Teaching Experience and Their L2 Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ku

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore five Korean NNESTs' L2 pragmatic competence and its relationship with their teaching experiences using DCT questionnaires of English request. This study in particular examined (1) five Korean NNESTs pragmatic competencies in English requests, (2) the relationship between their English teaching and learning…

  16. In Their Own Voices: Reflections of Native and Nonnative English Speaking TESOL Graduate Students on On-Line Pragmatic Instruction to EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss a study that involved incorporating instructional pragmatics into an ESL Methodology course. Graduate students who were taking an ESL Methodology course were required to read the literature on interlanguage and instructional pragmatics and teach requestive speech act strategies to Taiwanese EFL students through…

  17. Investigating the Impact of Personality Factors on Perceived Communication Mobility of Non-Native English Speaking Thai Professionals in International Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…

  18. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  19. Living with sugar: influence of cultural beliefs on type 2 diabetes self-management of English-speaking Afro-Caribbean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chrystal A S

    2012-08-01

    Studies show that cultural beliefs influence disease conceptualization, adaption, and coping strategies of chronic diseases. This study investigated the type 2 diabetes cultural belief model of English-speaking Afro-Caribbean women in southwest Florida. A 53 item cultural consensus beliefs questionnaire was designed and administered to 30 Afro-Caribbean women diabetics. Cultural consensus analysis found that these women shared a single cultural belief model about type 2 diabetes, .72 ± .081 SD. Women with higher cultural knowledge scores (r(s) = -.41730, P = .0218) were significantly younger at type 2 diabetes diagnosis than women with lower scores. In qualitative interviews, women described ongoing struggles to modify their traditional Caribbean diet and believed in the efficaciousness of traditional Caribbean medicine and prayer to treat type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest that health practitioners treating English-speaking Afro-Caribbean diabetics should offer culturally appropriate nutritional guidance and inquire about their use of traditional Caribbean medicines.

  20. Research in Sport and Exercise Psychology Between 2003 and 2013 : an Analysis of the English-Speaking Publication Trends Before the Field’s 50th Anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, Lilla; Vega Marcos, Ricardo de la; Szabo, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise psychology as a scholastic field was officially inaugurated in 1965 in Rome on the occasion of the first World Congress on Sports Psychology. As it nears its 50th anniversary in 2015, we have conducted a content analysis of the existing six subject specific English-speaking international journals in the field to obtain an overview of research and publication trends. Articles (n = 2276) published between 1 January 2003 and 1 January 2013 were examined. The type of publicati...

  1. The relationships between illness and treatment perceptions with adherence to diabetes self-care: A comparison between Arabic-speaking migrants and Caucasian English-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, Hamzah; Mc Narmara, Kevin; Kilmartin, Gloria M; Kilmartin, John F; Marriott, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    To compare illness and treatment perceptions between Arabic-speaking immigrants and Caucasian English-speaking people with type 2 diabetes, and explore the relationships between these beliefs and adherence to self-care activities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthcare settings with large Arabic populations in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia. Adherence to self-care activities, illness and treatment perceptions, and clinical data were recorded. Bivariate associations for continuous normally distributed variables were tested with Pearson's correlation. Non-parametric data were tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. 701 participants were recruited; 392 Arabic-speaking participants (ASPs) and 309 English-speaking participants (ESPs). There were significant relationships between participants' illness and treatment perceptions and adherence to diabetes self-care activities. ASPs' negative beliefs about diabetes were strongly and significantly correlated with poorer adherence to diet recommendations, exercise, blood glucose testing and foot care. ASPs were significantly less adherent to all aspects of diabetes self-care compared with ESPs: dietary behaviours (P=confidence interval (CI)=-1.17, -0.84), exercise and physical activity (P=speaking migrants' illness and treatment perceptions were significantly different from the English-speaking group. There is a pressing need to develop new innovative interventions that deliver much-needed improvements in adherence to self-care activities and key health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychometric characteristics of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in English speaking non-Hispanic whites and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Schweizer, C Amanda; Dimsdale, Joel E; Loredo, José S

    2013-01-15

    The current study investigated the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among English speaking non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent (HMD). The PSQI was administered during a telephone interview. In order to test the factor structure of the PSQI structure across ethnic/language groups, multiple group confirmatory analysis with covariates (MIMIC) was employed. The 1- and 3-factor versions of the PSQI previously reported in the literature were examined. San Diego County. Community-dwelling English speaking, NHW (n = 1,698) and English (n = 654) and Spanish (n = 792) speaking HMD. A single-factor scoring model fit across language/ethnic groups; however, a 3-factor model provided a better than the 1-factor model in all language/ethnic groups. The subscale sleep medications loaded poorly and was removed from all models. Across groups, a 3-factor model of the PSQI more reliably assessed sleep quality than a single-factor global score. Results indicate that the 3-factor structure of the PSQI was uniform across English speaking NHW and English and Spanish speaking HMD.

  3. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers.

  4. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish–English speaking children: Theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children’s single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4–8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers. PMID:25118791

  5. Knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students: insights into the wider English-speaking Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia

    2014-02-01

    Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASSROOM (Problems Relate to Teacher and Students in the Speaking Classroom Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Listyaningrum Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological aspect regarding to learning attitudes plays in determining learning achievement. Psychological problems also involve not only to the students but also teacher. Less-confidence, speech anxiety, and low self-esteem are almost common problem in classroom, and occur on both teachers and students. Students who have low of self-confidence are often hardly able to control themselves for public speaking in the classroom, like, Governing his/ her behavior on that his/her peers think, lose belief on self, thinking that his/her friends dis-appraising, afraid of getting mistakes, etc. However, teachers which are low self-esteem and confidence also lose their performance and ability to manage their classroom optimally. Low self-esteem may caused by teacher’s poor understanding on subject matter. Both of psychological problems impact on dis-effectiveness of classroom activities. This paper takes accounts of some psychological problems of students and teachers in English speaking classroom, and some guidelines to overcome. At the last discus, this paper also provides some keys of how to make good classroom atmosphere.

  7. The OEAD: New Perspectives on English–Arabic Dictionaries for English-Speaking Users and Users' Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Benzehra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The article sheds light on the necessity of finding new techniques to rank the users' preferences for English–Arabic dictionaries. The first section of the article reports the findings of an experimental technique devised for this particular purpose. The reviews for dictionaries on Amazon. com turn out to be a more valuable source of lexicographical information than had been expected. It will also be shown how the reviews can determine the future buyers' choice as to which English–Arabic or Arabic–English dictionary would meet their needs. Based on the Amazon reviews, the article devotes a section to investigate the microstructural features of some lexical entries in the Oxford English–Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage (OEAD. To learn more about the dictionary's microstructure, the next section analyzes a pre-selected list of 113 lexical units in an attempt to test the dictionary for the amount of information it provides for some high-frequency items. The article deals with the OEAD mostly from the point of view of encoding English-speaking users. The Modern Language Association (MLA recently reported that from 1998 to 2002 there was a 92% increase in the number of Arabic programs throughout the United States, hence the pressing need for dictionaries designed with English-speaking users as the target group. The article suggests that an extensive linguistic revision of the OEAD will make it more systematic and userfriendly.

    OPSOMMING: Die OEAD: Nuwe perspektiewe op Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke vir Engelssprekende gebruikers en gebruikersopnames. Hierdie artikel werp lig op die noodsaaklikheid om nuwe tegnieke te kry om gebruikers se voorkeure vir Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke in rangorde te plaas. Die eerste afdeling van die artikel doen verslag van die bevindings van 'n eksperimentele tegniek ontwerp vir hierdie bepaalde doel. Die resensies van woordeboeke op Amazon.com het geblyk 'n meer waardevolle bron van

  8. Cultural conflict: the impact of western feminism(s) on nurses caring for women of non-English speaking background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette

    2002-09-01

    Much research has been conducted for understanding the health needs of people of different cultural backgrounds and the problems they experience in seeking health care. In Australia, despite such research, it is argued that there remains an exclusionary health care culture that continues to affect equity and access for people of non-English speaking background. There was a need for research in which health professionals examined their own Anglo-Australian culture and its impact on other ethnic communities. Such concerns provided the impetus for a feminist praxis study to engage nurses in understanding and improving care for migrant women. This study was conducted with 26 nurses in a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Five collaborative research groups were formed, each consisting of four to six nurses who were co-researchers. Together, the nurses and researchers explored the health care experiences of migrant women, using a variety of quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies. This paper explores a major finding of the study, which was the impact of liberal feminist approaches on the practices of Australian nurses who cared for women of different ethnicity and race. The study found that the efforts of liberal feminist nurses to "treat all people the same" meant that women from different cultural backgrounds did not always receive equity in care. Through the feminist praxis process the nurses were able to explore contradictions in their practice and focus on equity in care to meet the specific gendered and racially constructed needs of women of different cultural backgrounds. A number of strategies were adopted that included regular use of female health interpreters and provision of privacy for migrant women when caring for their children.

  9. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sandy Ming-San

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository

  10. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  11. Communication challenges experienced by migrants with cancer: A comparison of migrant and English-speaking Australian-born cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Amelia; Lipson-Smith, Ruby; Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Goldstein, David; Jefford, Michael; Bell, Melanie L; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the difficulties faced by different migrant groups is vital to address disparities and inform targeted health-care service delivery. Migrant oncology patients experience increased morbidity, mortality and psychological distress, with this tentatively linked to language and communication difficulties. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the communication barriers and challenges experienced by Arabic, Greek and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) speaking oncology patients in Australia. This study employed a cross-sectional design using patient-reported outcome survey data from migrant and English-speaking Australian-born patients with cancer. Patients were recruited through oncology clinics and Australian state cancer registries. Data were collected regarding patient clinical and demographic characteristics and health-care and communication experiences. Data from the clinics and registries were combined for analysis. Significant differences were found between migrant groups in demographic characteristics, communication and health-care experiences, and information and care preferences. Chinese patients cited problems with understanding medical information, the Australian health-care system, and communicating with their health-care team. Conversely, Arabic- and Greek-speaking patients reported higher understanding of the health-care system, and less communication difficulties. Our study findings suggest that migrant groups differ from each other in their health communication expectations and requirements. Lower education and health literacy of some groups may play a role in poorer health outcomes. Public health interventions and assistance provided to migrants should be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of that language or cultural group. Future research directions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Presentation of self and symptoms in primary care consultations involving patients from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Celia; Sarangi, Srikant; Moss, Becky

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on the PLEDGE research project (Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice) 1 The Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice (PLEDGE) project was funded by Sir Siegmund Warburg's Voluntary Settlement (2001-2003). The research team was: Celia Roberts, Roger Jones, Becky Moss, Srikant Sarangi and Val Wass. which has a database of 232 video-recorded interactions from GP surgeries in South East London. We focus on the opening episodes-the first opportunity the patient has to report on why they have come to see the doctor-to explore some of the contrasts in self presentation and the interactional work that doctors do when faced with the unexpected. Patients who speak a local London or standard variety of English present three aspects: a description of symptoms, the context in which they occurred, and an affective or epistemic stance. These 'micro discourse routines' are accomplished interactionally through the design of figure/ground relationships, framing and metacommunication and presentation of the 'moral self'. Although some patients from non-English speaking backgrounds use broadly similar 'micro discourse routines', the majority configure the relationship between medically salient facts, adequate contextual information and the stance which conveys the 'moral self' in different and apparently less 'orderly' ways. So openings often become protracted and harder work interactionally for both sides. While conversation analytic studies and communication skills textbooks represent the medical consultations as orderly, we suggest that such apparent orderliness must, at least, be partly the result of ironing out linguistic and cultural diversity. Interactional sociolinguistic analysis is used to shed light on the design of these routines and to provide analytic frameworks for doctors in reflecting on their own practice in ways which challenge patient-centred models.

  13. Barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use among Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809

  14. A report of the 1995 and 1996 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, A; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Lincoln, P

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of the 1995 and 1996 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. In 1995, 18 laboratories participated and in 1996, 21 laboratories participated. Each year, blood samples from three persons (child...... for investigations in crime cases by the European DNA Profiling Group. In 1996, eight laboratories reported the results of PCR based typing of the short tandem repeat (STR) locus HumTH01, six laboratories reported results of HumVWA31A typing, and five laboratories reported the results of typing of the STR locus Hum...

  15. Effects of noise, reverberation and foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' performance of English speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z Ellen; Wang, Lily M

    2016-05-01

    A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech from native English-speaking talkers and 59 with native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking talkers. Results show that, while higher BNLs were generally more detrimental to listeners with lower English proficiency, all listeners experienced significant comprehension deficits above RC-40 with native English talkers. This limit was lower (i.e., above RC-30), however, with Chinese talkers. For reverberation, non-native listeners as a group performed best with RT up to 0.6 s, while native listeners performed equally well up to 1.2 s. A matched foreign accent benefit has also been identified, where the negative impact of higher reverberation does not exist for non-native listeners who share the talker's native language.

  16. The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-speaking peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M

    2011-06-01

    A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588

  18. 任务型教学法在医学英语口语课堂中的应用%The Application of TBLT In Medical English Speaking Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕秀荣

    2015-01-01

    研究问题是探讨任务型教学法在医学英语口语教学中是否具有可行性?基于Willis提出的任务型教学模式的三阶段,即任务前、任务环和语言聚焦,在医学英语口语课堂中进行了任务设计。研究结果表明任务型教学法在医学英语口语教学中切实可行,可以激发学生的兴趣,提高医学英语口语教学。%The research question is tofi nd out whether Task-based Language Teaching(TBLT) is feasible in medical English speaking class. According to Willis’ three stages in TBLT, that is pre-task, task cycle, and language focus, the tasks in medical English speaking class are designed. It concludes that TBLT is feasible in medical English speaking class. Meanwhile, students’ interest in English is stimulated and the medical English speaking teaching and learning is improved.

  19. A report of the 2002-2008 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2009-01-01

    The English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) offers an annual Paternity Testing Workshop open to all members of the group. Blood samples, a questionnaire and a paper challenge are sent to the participants. Here, we present the results...... increased from 46 in 2002 to 68 in 2008. The results showed an increasing degree of concordance concerning methods and DNA systems used and a high degree of uniformity in typing results with discrepancies in 0.1 and 0.3 % of all submitted PCR-based results. The paper challenges showed uniformity...... in the calculation of the weight of evidence for simple cases with straight-forward genetic constellations. However, a high degree of variation existed in complex scenarios with rare genetic constellations such as genetic inconsistencies/possible silent alleles, rare alleles and haplotypes....

  20. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  1. The relationship between brain reaction and English reading tests for non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Tian, Yu-Jie; Kuo, Ting-Hua; Sun, Koun-Tem

    2016-07-01

    This research analyzed the brain activity of non-native English speakers while engaged in English reading tests. The brain wave event-related potentials (ERPs) of participants were used to analyze the difference between making correct and incorrect choices on English reading test items. Three English reading tests of differing levels were designed and 20 participants, 10 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 24, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Experimental results were analyzed by performing independent t-tests on the ERPs of participants for gender, difficulty level, and correct versus wrong options. Participants who chose incorrect options elicited a larger N600, verifying results found in the literature. Another interesting result was found: For incorrectly answered items, different areas of brain showing a significant difference in ERPs between the chosen and non-chosen options corresponded to gender differences; for males, this area was located in the right hemisphere whereas for females, it was located in the left. Experimental results imply that non-native English speaking males and females employ different areas of the brain to comprehend the meaning of difficult items.

  2. Health Care Disparities Among English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse at Public and Private Hospitals: What Are the Barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Dunivan, Gena C; Wieslander, Cecelia K; Sevilla, Claudia; Barrera, Biatris; Rashid, Rezoana; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karen; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer Tash

    The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Thirty-three women were Spanish-speaking and 25 were English-speaking. Spanish speakers were younger (P = 0.0469) and less likely to have a high school diploma (P speaking women had more concerns that the bulge or treatments could lead to cancer, were more resistant to treatment options, and were less likely to be offered surgery. Women in the private hospital desired more information, were less embarrassed, and were more likely to be offered surgery as first-line treatment. The concept emerged that patient care for POP varied based on socioeconomic status and language and suggested the presence of disparities in care for underserved women with POP. The discrepancies in care for Spanish-speaking women and women being treated at public hospitals suggest that there are disparities in care for POP treatment for underserved women. These differences may be secondary to profit-driven pressures from private hospitals or language barriers, low socioeconomic status, low health literacy, and barriers to health care.

  3. Perception of native and non-native affricate-fricative contrasts: cross-language tests on adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have shown improved sensitivity to native-language contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrasts when comparing 6-8 and 10-12-month-old infants. This developmental pattern is interpreted as reflecting the onset of language-specific processing around the first birthday. However, generalization of this finding is limited by the fact that studies have yielded inconsistent results and that insufficient numbers of phonetic contrasts have been tested developmentally; this is especially true for native-language phonetic contrasts. Three experiments assessed the effects of language experience on affricate-fricative contrasts in a cross-language study of English and Mandarin adults and infants. Experiment 1 showed that English-speaking adults score lower than Mandarin-speaking adults on Mandarin alveolo-palatal affricate-fricative discrimination. Experiment 2 examined developmental change in the discrimination of this contrast in English- and Mandarin-leaning infants between 6 and 12 months of age. The results demonstrated that native-language performance significantly improved with age while performance on the non-native contrast decreased. Experiment 3 replicated the perceptual improvement for a native contrast: 6-8 and 10-12-month-old English-learning infants showed a performance increase at the older age. The results add to our knowledge of the developmental patterns of native and non-native phonetic perception.

  4. Effects of traditional teaching vs a multisensory instructional package on the science achievement and attitudes of English language learners middle-school students and English-speaking middle-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, Haver

    This research was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a Multi-sensory Instructional Package (MIP) (Dunn & Dunn, 1992) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on the science achievement- and attitude-test scores of middle-school English Language Learner (ELL) and English-speaking sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle-school students. The dependent variables were students' science- and attitude-test scores. The independent variables were the two instructional strategies, ELL and English-speaking (Non-ELL) status, and three grade levels. The sample consisted of 282 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade ELL and Non-ELL middle-school students. Learning Styles: The Clue to You! (LS: CY) (Burke & Dunn, 1998) was administered to determine learning-style preferences. The control groups were taught sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade science lessons traditionally and the experimental groups were instructed on the same units using MIPs. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. All three groups experienced both traditional and multi-sensory instruction in all three sub-units. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of an MIP rather than a traditional approach for teaching science content to both ELLs and English-speaking middle-school students. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with an MIP approach.

  5. 高职英语口语大赛与英语教学互动关系研究%Study on the Interaction of Practical English Speaking Contest and English Teaching for Professional College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春梅

    2014-01-01

    高职英语口语大赛不仅展示了高职学生英语口语才能,而且促进教师采用先进、合适的教学理念和以学生为本的教学方法,激发学习兴趣,提升教学效果。同时高职英语教学发展也推动口语大赛改革,并对大赛的局限之处进行补充。本文对口语大赛和英语教学的互动关系进行研究,旨在推动高职院校英语教学改革和发展。%The national practical English speaking contest not only shows professional college students'ability to speak English , but also urges English teachers to adopt proper and advanced teaching concepts and apply student-oriented teaching models to stimulate students'interest in learning English and to improve teaching effect .English teaching in vocational higher education ,on the other hand ,promotes the English speaking contest to reform and satisfy more students'needs to learn practical English in their future career .This paper analyzes the interaction of practical English speaking contest and English teaching for professional college students ,aiming to promote teaching reform and development in higher vocational and technical college .

  6. A report of the 2002-2008 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted; Langkjaer, Rikke Breinhold; Morling, Niels

    2009-09-01

    The English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) offers an annual Paternity Testing Workshop open to all members of the group. Blood samples, a questionnaire and a paper challenge are sent to the participants. Here, we present the results of the 2002-2008 Paternity Testing Workshops with the objective to evaluate the uniformity of DNA-profiling and conclusions of the participating laboratories as well as to clarify tendencies in typing strategies and biostatistical evaluations of the laboratories. The numbers of participating laboratories increased from 46 in 2002 to 68 in 2008. The results showed an increasing degree of concordance concerning methods and DNA systems used and a high degree of uniformity in typing results with discrepancies in 0.1 and 0.3 % of all submitted PCR-based results. The paper challenges showed uniformity in the calculation of the weight of evidence for simple cases with straight-forward genetic constellations. However, a high degree of variation existed in complex scenarios with rare genetic constellations such as genetic inconsistencies/possible silent alleles, rare alleles and haplotypes.

  7. 英语国家概况教学可视化构建%Visual Construction of the Teaching of "Major English-speaking Countries"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石子娟

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of the teaching of "Major English-speaking Countries", analyzes the limitations of traditional teaching methods. It presents a visual design of teaching profiles through charts, tables, video and multimedia. Via building a graphical representation of English society and culture, it helps students develop an international perspective, and enhance cross-cultural communication skills.%本文探讨了英语国家概况课程教学的特点,剖析了传统教学方式在讲授该课程时的局限性。提出了英语国家概况教学的可视化设计,通过图、表、视频及多媒体等直观形象的方式,构建英语国家社会与文化的图像表征,进而帮助学生拓展国际视野,提高跨文化交际能力。

  8. 英语演讲与大学英语中的情景语境教学%English Speaking and Situational Context Teaching in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶

    2012-01-01

    Situational contest is an important approach of researching and learning language, so it plays an important role in English teaching.The process of "Higher Education Cup" college students' English speaking competition better shows the characteristics of situation context,and it is closely related to students' daily life, so it stimulates students' learning enthusiasm. This competition is of certain significance to college English teaching.%情景语境是研究和学习语言的重要手段之一,在英语教学中起着重要作用。"高教杯"大学生英语演讲的比赛环节设置较好地体现了情景语境教学的特点,不仅与学生实际生活紧密相连,而且富于趣味性,激发了学生的积极性,对于大学英语教学有一定的借鉴意义。

  9. Higher acceptance rates for abstracts written in English at a national research student meeting in a non-English speaking country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Afshin; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpanah, Fatemeh; Mahdizadeh, Hamid; Golestanifar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    The rate of English-written submissions is increasing in local meetings of non-English speaking countries. However, it seems that the quality of research and methodology of the studies has not progressed. This study aimed to evaluate the association of English writing and the acceptance for presentation following the peer-review process in the 13th Annual Research Congress of Iran's Medical Sciences Students (ARCIMSS). All 1817 complete abstracts submitted to the meeting were included in this cross-sectional study. Each was evaluated for the language of the text (English or Persian), final decision after peer review (accepted vs. rejected), presentation type (oral, poster discussion and poster) and the scores of reviewing process. There were 395 (21.7%) abstracts written in English and 1422 (78.3%) in Persian. The acceptance rate for English abstracts was 33.7% and for Persian 24.6% (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22-1.98). The rate of abstracts' acceptance for presentation in oral panels was significantly higher for English abstracts than for those in Persian (25.6% versus 15.7%, OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.14-2.99). By contrast, Persian abstracts were more likely to be accepted as poster panels than were English abstracts (74.9% versus 63.9%, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10-2.58). English-written abstracts have higher chance of acceptation in a non-English speaker country like Iran.

  10. STUDENTS WRITING EMAILS TO FACULTY: AN EXAMINATION OF E-POLITENESS AMONG NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.

  11. The barriers and facilitators people with diabetes from a nonEnglish speaking background experience when managing their medications: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon-Platt, Kate; Manias, Elizabeth; Dunning, Trisha

    2014-08-01

    To explore the barriers to and facilitators of effective medication management from the perspectives of people with diabetes from a nonEnglish speaking background, carers and health professionals. The barriers that people with diabetes experience managing their medications can adversely impact on health outcomes. People from nonEnglish speaking backgrounds are at risk of medication-related problems, although there is a paucity of research in this area. A qualitative research design using a purposive sampling approach. People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from a nonEnglish speaking background, their carers, and health professionals who assisted these people and their carers to manage their medications were recruited from the diabetes outpatient clinic at an adult teaching public hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework method. Eleven people with diabetes, 10 carers and 10 health professionals were interviewed, and four key issues were identified: diabetes knowledge, diabetes impact, medication knowledge and medication management. The cost of medications, language barriers that hinder communication, forgetfulness, and poor knowledge and understanding emerged as barriers to effective medication management. Facilitators included the use of dose administration aids to manage medications, but current medication lists were not used. Findings revealed people with diabetes experienced a multitude of barriers when managing their medications, and, despite the problems people experienced, there appeared to be poor use of support aids to assist people to effectively manage their medications. The findings can be used to develop strategies aiming at improving how people from nonEnglish speaking backgrounds manage their medicines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Evolution of beliefs and opinions on matters related to marriage and sexual behaviour among French-speaking Catholic Quebecers and English-speaking Protestant Ontarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Caia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family andsexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th centuryare a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normativesystem shared by the members of Quebec's main socio-religious group, French speakingCatholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare theevolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and English speakingOntario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviourfrom the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that theevolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with thehypothesis.FrenchLes auteurs proposent d’expliquer les importants changements qui se sontproduits, dans le Québec de la deuxième moitié du 20e siècle, dans lescomportements liés à la famille et à la vie sexuelle par la transformation dusystème normatif des membres de son principal groupe socio-religieux, lesfrancophones catholiques. À partir des données de sondages Gallup, ilscomparent l'évolution des opinions des francophones catholiques du Québec etdes anglophones protestants de l’Ontario sur des questions liées à la famille etau comportement sexuel et de famille des années 1950 à 2000. L’évolution desdifférences entre les deux groupes est compatible avec l’hypothèse.

  13. Establishing the thematic framework for a diabetes-specific health-related quality of life item bank for use in an english-speaking asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelia Koh

    Full Text Available To establish a thematic framework for a Diabetes Mellitus (DM-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL item bank by identifying important HRQoL themes and content gaps in existing DM-specific HRQoL measures and determining whether Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS item banks are useful as a starting point.English-speaking Type 2 DM patients were recruited from an outpatient specialist clinic in Singapore. Thematic analysis was performed through open coding and axial coding. Items from four existing DM-specific measures and PROMIS Version 1.0 and 2.0 item banks were compared with identified themes and sub-themes.42 patients participated (25 men and 17 women; 28 Chinese, 4 Malay, 8 Indians, 2 other ethnicities. Median age was 53.70 years (IQR45.82-56.97 and the median disease duration was 11.13 (SD9.77 years. 10 subthemes (neutral emotions, coping emotions, empowered to help others, support from family, spend more time with family, relationships, financial burden on family, improved relationship, social support and religion/spirituality were not covered by existing DM-specific measures. PROMIS covered 5 of 6 themes, 15 of 30 subthemes and 19 of 35 codes identified. Emotional distress (frustration, fear and anxiety was most frequently mentioned (200 times.We had developed a thematic framework for assessing DM-specific HRQoL in a multi-ethnic Asian population, identified new items that needed to be written and confirmed that PROMIS was a useful starting point. We hope that better understanding and measurement of HRQoL of Asian DM patients will translate to better quality of care for them.

  14. 论多元智能型英语口语大赛培训策略%On the training strategy of multiple intelligence-based English speaking contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丽苹

    2012-01-01

    多元智能理论(MI)因强调促进学生各种智能的全面发展而在国内外的教育研究领域受到极大的关注。多元智能型英语口语大赛培训策略是借鉴该理论指导大学生英语口语大赛培训的一种新模式。研究表明该理论指导下的培训能激发学生的学习动机,显著提高学生英语口语能力,促进逻辑数理智能、人际交往智能、内省智能和自我观察智能等多种智能的发展;对增强学生的自信心、课堂参与意识及协作精神也会产生积极的影响。%The Multiple Intelligence Theory stressing overall development of various intelligences has been paid much attention to in educational research at home and abroad.Multiple intelligence-based college English speaking contest training strategy is a new training pattern guiding college students' oral English speaking contest by adopting the theory.The study shows that new training pattern guided by this theory can strongly stimulate students' motivation,remarkably improve their English speaking ability,promote the development of their logical-mathematical intelligence,interpersonal intelligence,intra-personal intelligence,naturalist intelligence,etc.Meanwhile,it has had positive impacts on students' class participation and cooperation awareness.

  15. 高职高专《英美国家概况》的多模态教学初探%The Teaching of A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries Based on Multimodality in Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬

    2011-01-01

    本文在多模态的教学理念指导下,探讨《荚美国家概况》教学的相关问题。%A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries is a combination of both language and cuhure learning, it plays a role in promoting students' cross-cultural communication skills. In order to change the ineffective teaching status, this paper attempts a new teaching paradigm based on Multimodality, which receives much success.

  16. Depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking immigrant persons with epilepsy compared with those in English-speaking US-born persons with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lorna; Lancman, Marcelo; Vazquez-Casals, Gonzalo; Bonafina, Marcela; Perrine, Kenneth; Sabri, Jomard

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine levels of depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking (less acculturated) immigrants with epilepsy compared with those in English-speaking US-born persons with epilepsy (PWEs). The study included 85 PWEs - 38 Spanish-speaking immigrants with epilepsy and 47 US-born PWEs. All patients underwent video-EEG monitoring and completed depression and quality-of-life inventories in their dominant language (Spanish/English). Chart review of clinical epilepsy variables was conducted by an epileptologist. Our study revealed that depression scores were significantly higher in Hispanic PWEs (21.65±14.6) than in US-born PWEs (14.50±10.2) (t (64.02)=-2.3, two-sided p=.025). Marital status, medical insurance, antidepressant use, seizure frequency, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were tested as covariates in the ANCOVA framework and were not statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Fewer Hispanics were prescribed antidepressant medications (13.15% for Hispanics and 40.42% for US-born, χ(2) (1,85) 7.71, p=.005) and had access to comprehensive health insurance coverage (χ(2) (1,85)=13.70, p=0.000). Hispanic patients were also found to be receiving significantly less AEDs compared with their US-born peers (t (83, 85)=2.33, p=.02). Although quality of life was diminished in both groups, Seizure Worry was worse for Hispanics after accounting for potential effects of marital status, medical insurance, use of antidepressants, seizure frequency, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) ((1, 83), F=7.607, p=0.007). The present study is the first of its kind to examine depression and quality of life in Spanish-speaking US immigrants with epilepsy. Spanish-speaking immigrants with epilepsy have been identified as a group at risk. They demonstrated higher depression scores and more Seizure Worry independent of epilepsy and demographic characteristics compared with their US-born peers. The Hispanic group was receiving less

  17. How to Train English Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟佩珏

    2012-01-01

    We try to make our English classrooms that surround the students with English culture.This gives the students a context for English words and phrases and adds a sense of adventure to learning English.

  18. 关于高职商务英语听说教材编写改革的思考%Considerations of Compilation Reform on Business English Speaking and Listening Textbook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁馨

    2013-01-01

    It is of great importance to attach more attention to textbook compilation in order to inspire the English learning interest of college students and promote the teaching of business English speaking and listening. The compiling group of New Practical Business English Speaking and Listening Course put forward some ideas to improve the current situation of course book compilation and hopes to establish the useful and practical content to meet the teaching objectives.%要激发高职学生的英语学习兴趣,提高商务英语听说的教学效果,教材编写是主要方面。《新实用商务英语听说教程》编写组希望在教材编写方面提供几点想法供参考,希望以此为基础真正建立起“以实用为主,够用为度,应用为目的”主要内容,使教师达到事半功倍的效果,从而保证教学目的的顺利实现。

  19. Hyperarticulation of vowels enhances phonetic change responses in both native and non-native speakers of English: evidence from an auditory event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul

    2012-08-27

    The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study of Avoidance Strategy of Face Threat of Native Speaker and Non-Native Speaker by Using Goffman’s Face-Work Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Pandarangga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the avoidance strategy of face threat by English native speaker and non-native speaker who learnt other language e.g. English. This study used Irving Goffman’s face-work theory and its relation to avoidance face threat as a framework. 2 participants (one Australian and one Indonesian took part in this study. Both participants were interviewed in English language in English speaking environment for about 30 minutes each. The participants were asked to tell about their hobbies with some open-ended questions. This study focused on spoken sentences produced by both interviewees that indicated avoidance of face threat. The findings revealed that the native speaker and non-native speaker reacted differently to avoid face threat. In addition, they also had their own strategy to avoid the face threat. This study concluded that different cultures significantly contributed to the strategy of avoidance of face threat. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3087

  1. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  2. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Guido Antonioli Conservator pacis et iustitie. La signoria di Taddeo Pepoli a Bologna (1337-1347, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Filologia romanza e cultura medievale (XIII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001   Elisabetta Filippini «In vassallatico episcopi permanere debent». Rapporti vassallatici e concessioni beneficiali dei vescovi di Cremona fra X e XIII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di Ricerca in Storia Medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2003   Marco Meschini, Innocenzo III e il "negotium pacis et fidei" in Linguadoca tra il 1198 e il 1215, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 2003   Fabrizio Ricciardelli The Politics of Exclusion in Florence (1215-1434, thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History, University of Warwick, Department of History, April 2003 Renata Salvarani Baptizare pueros et decimas dare. Cura delle anime, strutturazione ecclesiastica e organizzazione delle campagne in area gardesana fra VIII e XIII secolo (diocesi di Brescia, Verona, Mantova e Trento, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2002-2003   Vito Sibilio Le parole della prima crociata, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel medioevo euromediterraneo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  3. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.   Miguel Calleja Puerta El conde Suero Vermúdez, su parentela y su entorno social. La aristocracia leonesa en los siglos XI y XII, Tesis de doctorado en Historia, Universidad de Oviedo (España, 2000   Adele Cilento Potere e monachesimo nella Calabria bizantina: relazioni e interferenze (secc. IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (X ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2000   Amedeo De Vincentiis Firenze e i signori. Sperimentazioni istituzionali e modelli di regime nelle signorie fiorentine degli Angioini (fine XIII - metà XIV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medioevale (XI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Milano, 1999   Marco Folin Il sistema politico di un antico Stato italiano: i ducati estensi nella prima Età moderna (1452-1598, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia, Scuola Normale superiore di Pisa, 2000   Barbara Frale Guardiani del Santuario. Le radici orientali del processo contro l’ordine del Tempio (1128 - 1314, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale d’Europa (XI ciclo, Università "Ca’ Foscari" di Venezia, 2000

  4. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  5. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  6. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  7. Industrial PhD report: Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervs PhD rapport udarbejdet i tilknytning til Erhvervs PhD kurset der er obligatorisk for Erhvervs PhD studerende. Rapporten omhandler relationer melllem den akademiske verden og industrien i sammenhæng med PhD projektet, betragtet og analyseret gennem teori om bæredygtig innovation....

  8. Industrial PhD report: Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervs PhD rapport udarbejdet i tilknytning til Erhvervs PhD kurset der er obligatorisk for Erhvervs PhD studerende. Rapporten omhandler relationer melllem den akademiske verden og industrien i sammenhæng med PhD projektet, betragtet og analyseret gennem teori om bæredygtig innovation....

  9. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Federica Cengarle Le investiture feudali di Filippo Maria Visconti (1412-1447, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2005 Silvia Coazzin Liberi domini totius castri. L'aristocrazia rurale "minore" nel Senese e nella Toscana meridionale. Forme di egemonia, assetto sociale e patrimoniale di lignaggi, famiglie e gruppi consortili di castello (secc. XI-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Maria Elena Cortese Signori e castelli. Famiglie aristocratiche, dominati signorili e trasformazioni insediative nel comitatus fiorentino (fine X-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Patrizia Meli Gabriele Malaspina marchese di Fosdinovo: il condottiero ed il politico, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Federica Pessotto La Morea franca. Economia e istituzioni tra Oriente e Occidente nei secoli XIII e XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società e Religioni dal Tardoantico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli studi di Torino, 2003 Lorenzo Pubblici Dal Caucaso al Mar d’Azov. L’impatto dell’invasione mongola nella Caucasia fra nomadismo e civiltà sedentaria (1204-1395, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [01/05] Riccardo Rao "Comunia". Risorse collettive e patrimoniali dei maggiori comuni subalpini (secoli XII - inizio XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medioevale, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2005 Alessandro Soddu Feudalesimo e potere signorile in Sardegna nei secoli XI-XIV.  La signoria territoriale dei Malaspina, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia, Università "Pompeu Fabra" di Barcellona, 2004

  10. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertation. Laura Baietto Una politica per le città. Rapporti fra papato, vescovi e comuni nell'Italia centro-settentrionale da Innocenzo III a Gregorio IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Giuseppe Banfo Compresenze e sovrapposizioni di poteri territoriali di qualità diversa tra X e XIII: il caso del basso Monferrato, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Francesca Dell'Acqua La vetrata tra l'età tardo imperiale e l'altomedioevo: le fonti, l'archeologia, Tesi di Perfezionamento in Storia dell'Arte Medievale, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2001   Primo Giovanni Embriaco I vescovi di Albenga e gli sviluppi signorili nella Liguria occidentale (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2001   Antonella Ghignoli Documenti e proprietà altomedievali. Fondamenti e problemi dell'esegesi storica delle fonti documentarie nello specchio della tradizione delle carte pisane dei secoli VIII-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Vito Loré Espansione monastica e mutamenti politici. La Trinità di Cava nei suoi rapporti con i sovrani longobardi e normanni e con l'aristocrazia territoriale. Secoli XI-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Rosaria Stracuzzi Messina nel '400, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2001   Stefania Tamburini Le "portate" ecclesiastiche nel piviere di San Giovanni in Firenze nel 1427. Spunti per una riflessione sul patrimonio ecclesiastico della diocesi fiorentina,Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e informatica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001

  11. Estructura de la competencia comunicativa del enfermero colaborador en países anglófonos Structure of the communicative competence of nurses who cooperate in English-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gloria Barbón Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El progreso de la competencia comunicativa del enfermero colaborador que brinda servicios de salud a pacientes foráneos requiere de la definición de la estructura teórica, dada su significación a la hora de tener en cuenta las necesidades del contexto. En este trabajo se expone la estructura teórica de la competencia comunicativa en la enseñanza del inglés al enfermero que cooperará en países anglófonos.The communicative competence progress of nurses who assist foreign patients requires a definition of its theoretical structure, given the significance of the context. This paper presents the theoretical structure of this communicative competence within the teaching of English to nurses intended to cooperate in English-speaking countries.

  12. 多途径构建“以学生为中心”的英语国家概况教学%The Application of "Student-Centered" Approach in an Introduction to Major English-speaking Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永宁

    2012-01-01

    英国国家概况是英语专业学生的必修课.传统的教学模式在该课程的教授中存在一定的局限性,以学生为中心的教学模式可以调动学生学习的自主性和创造性,激发学生学习的热情,有效提高教学效果.%An Introdution to Major English-speaking Countries is the required courses of English major. The traditional teaching pattern has some limitations in the course teaching. Student-centered teaching mode can mobilize students' learning initiative and creativity, and stimulate the students' enthusiasm of study, effectively improve the teaching effect.

  13. “谁是卧底”在英语国家概况课堂中的应用初探%On Application of"Spy Game"to An Introduction of English-speaking Countries Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭思敏

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties of An Introduction of English-speaking Countries Course make problems for teachers and stu-dents. Based on the features of"Spy Game", the paper analyses the effects of its first application to the course and proposes a solution.%英语国家概况课程的特点给教师和学生都带来不小的难题,本文分析了“谁是卧底”游戏的特点和在课堂上的初步应用效果,为解决困难提出了一种具备可行性的方法。

  14. The Cultural Differences of Non-linguistic Communication between China and English-Speaking Countries%中英非语言交际的文化差异探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔振芳; 肖巧萍

    2015-01-01

    Non-linguistic communication plays an important role in human communication, which can ex⁃press the inner feeling, difficult to show for the linguistic communication. The paper compares the differences of non-linguistic communication between China and English-speaking countries from the body language, non-verbal language and so on, and expounds the reasons why there exits the differences.%当今社会,来自中英两个不同文化国家的交往越来越频繁,了解中英非语言交际的差异性显得异常重要。本文从中英文化差异的角度对体态语、副语言等几个方面进行了对比,剖析了形成中英非语言交际文化差异的原因。

  15. The Instructional Design of Micro-lecture Based on Flipped Classroom in College English Speaking Class%大学英语口语翻转课堂中的微课程教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom changes the traditional teaching sequence of knowledge’s indoctrination and internalization,which exerts considerable influence on the innovations of the college English teaching mode.Based on the significance of the flipped classroom in English teaching,the paper discusses how to design micro-lectures with ADDIE model in college English speaking class.%“翻转课堂”教学将传统教学模式中知识传授和知识内化两个阶段的顺序进行了翻转,对创新大学英语教学模式具有十分重要的意义。大学英语口语课可以借鉴教学设计理论中的 ADDIE 模型,通过微课的设计实现翻转。

  16. 英语国家二语教学对我国高校英语教学的启示%ESL Teaching in English-Speaking Countries and Its Enlightenment to EFL Teaching in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩忠军

    2012-01-01

    美英加澳等英语国家的二语(英语作为第二外语)教学与我国高校的英语(英语作为外语)教学有着本质的不同。通过对英语国家二语教学的个性和共性特征进行分析,总结了其优势,同时对我国高校英语教学中存在的不足进行了剖析,指出在继续保持国内英语教学优势的同时,应借鉴国外二语教学的长处,建立一个类似二语教学环境,让学生在轻松愉快的交际环境中学习英语,从而最有效地实现英语教学的根本目标。%ESL teaching in English-speaking countries such as US, UK, Canada and Australia essentially differs from EFL in Chinese universities. By analyzing the specific and general characteristics of ESL in English-speaking countries, summarizing its strengths and exploring the weaknesses of EFL in Chinese universities, this paper argues that, while the advantages of EFL teaching are to be retained,the strengths of ESL teaching should be drawn on to establish an atmosphere of quasi-ESL teaching for EFL learners, helping improve their English proficiency in a relaxed and pleasant way, and therefore to achieve the basic goal of EFL teaching.

  17. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Massimo Della Misericordia Divenire comunità. Comuni rurali, poteri signorili, identità sociali in Valtellina e nella montagna lombarda nel tardo medioevo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2003   Mariano Dell’Omo Il monastero di S. Liberatore alla Maiella centro dell’irradiazione di Montecassino nell’Abruzzo medievale e moderno. Contributo alla storia dell’organizzazione patrimoniale e della civiltà monastica cassinese nell’Italia centrale attraverso i documenti di S. Liberatore conservati nell’Archivio di Montecassino. Introduzione storica, paleografica e archivistica. Edizione dei documenti più antichi (†798-1000 e regesti di quelli posteriori (1005-1735, Tesi di dottorato in Storia Ecclesiastica, Facoltà di Storia Ecclesiastica, Pontificia Università Gregoriana di Roma,  2004   Giulia Lorenzoni Conquistare e governare la città. Forme di potere e istituzioni nel primo anno della signoria viscontea a Bologna (ottobre 1350-novembre 1351, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Federica Monteleone Il viaggio di Carlo Magno in Terra Santa. Un’esperienza di pellegrinaggio nella tradizione europea occidentale, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo   Francesca Pucci Donati Fra teorie mediche e pratica quotidiana: i calendari dietetici dell’Occidente latino altomedievale (secoli IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2004 Alberto Ricciardi L’Epistolario di Lupo di Ferrières come fonte per la storia degli intellettuali nell’età di Carlo il Calvo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Francesco Paolo Terlizzi I trattati dell'Anonimo Normanno: ricerche di ecclesiologia, Tesi

  18. The relationship between auditory-visual speech perception and language-specific speech perception at the onset of reading instruction in English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Doğu; Burnham, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Speech perception is auditory-visual, but relatively little is known about auditory-visual compared with auditory-only speech perception. One avenue for further understanding is via developmental studies. In a recent study, Sekiyama and Burnham (2008) found that English speakers significantly increase their use of visual speech information between 6 and 8 years of age but that this development does not appear to be universal across languages. Here, the possible bases for this language-specific increase among English speakers were investigated. Four groups of English-language children (5, 6, 7, and 8 years) and a group of adults were tested on auditory-visual, auditory-only, and visual-only speech perception; language-specific speech perception with native and non-native speech sounds; articulation; and reading. Results showed that language-specific speech perception and lip-reading ability reliably predicted auditory-visual speech perception in children but that adult auditory-visual speech perception was predicted by auditory-only speech perception. The implications are discussed in terms of both auditory-visual speech perception and language development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Southwest Ethnic Literature of China in English-speaking World---An Interview with Professor Mark Bender of Ohio University, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARK Bender(interviewee); HUANG Li(interviewer)

    2014-01-01

    Professor Huang Li conducted an interview with Professor Mark Bender of Ohio Uni-versity in 2013.Their discussion focuses on the translation and propagation of the ethnic literature of Southwest China in the English -speaking world. In the United States , the popular literary works by Chinese ethnic authors mainly are poems and fiction.The fiction illustrates many cultural el-ements of the ethnic minorities .The poems are u-sually very short and are easily memorized .Nowa-days Mark and his research group focus on the po-ets of Southwest China because the poets are very active, and they have created many world famous poems which enables readers to have a good sense of the poetic tradition in Southwest China . Mark has translated some poems of the Yi People, especially the poems of Akuwuwu , a poet who writes in both the Yi language and Chinese . Mark tells us many things about his translations of Yi poems.He has been translating Akuwuwu be-cause he is one of the few Yi poets who can write in the Yi language , and through his poems readers can learn a lot about the culture of the Yi . It is hard work to translate poems written in the Yi lan-guages , because few American scholars understand the language.So, they have brought a group of scholars to do the translations together , Ameri-cans, Han and Yi.In order to do better transla-tions, every year, Mark and his students go to Li-angshan to conduct interviews with some Yi peo-ple.They even attend the religious ceremonies of the Yi.In this way, they can understand Yi tradi-tions and the connotations in Akuwuwu's poems. Mark thinks it is necessary for translators to under-stand the essences of the poems as well as the cul-ture expressed in the poems .Mark emphasizes that he takes it as “hard fun” because he likes the cul-tural elements in Akuwuwu's poems, elements such as Yi religious ceremonies , costume and even the Yi words, which are the basis for good translation . When translating poems , it is very difficult

  20. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  1. 英语世界《水浒传》女性观研究%Study on the Female Characters in The Water Margin of the English-speaking World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春平

    2015-01-01

    在世界小说丛林中,《水浒传》所展现出来的女性观非常独特。针对《水浒传》的女性观问题,英语世界的批评者夏志清提出“厌女症”一说。孙述宇认为水浒世界女性观的形成,首先源于对男女柔情的不认可,其次是视女人为不祥之物。吴燕娜则认为,水浒世界的女性观表现出的是男性对女性的恐惧感。%Of all the novels,The Water Margin shows a unique view on the female characters. Xia Zhiqing,a critic of the English -speaking world,contends that the novel is a work of misogyny. Sun Shuyu explores the view on the female characters,claiming that it comes from two origins:1)disapproval of the tender feelings between the sexes;and 2)the idea that women are ominous. Wu Yanna even goes further to argue that the view of the female characters in the novel is the result of the man ’s fear of the woman.

  2. Application of Metacognitive Strategies in the Teaching of "A Survey of English-Speaking Countries"%元认知策略在“英语国家概况”教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Metacognitive strategies play a pivotal role in English learning, as they can make the learners purposefully plan, moni-tor, and adjust the entire learning process and give feedback, thus achieving the best learning effect. This paper mainly illuminates how to apply metacognitive strategies in the classroom teaching of "A Survey of English-Speaking Countries", in order to cultivate students' awareness of using metacognitive strategies and further improve their ability of autonomous learning.%元认知学习策略在英语的学习过程中起着十分重要的作用,它能使学习者有目的地对整个学习过程进行计划、监控和调节反馈,以达到最佳的学习效果。本文主要阐述在“英语国家概况”课程的课堂教学过程中如何应用元认知策略,从而培养学生对元认知策略的使用意识,进一步提高学生自主学习的能力。

  3. 英语世界对《水浒传》结构艺术渊源之研究%On the Study of the Origin of Structure in Shuihuzhuan by the English-Speaking World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春平

    2015-01-01

    Some critics of the English-speaking world including De-an Wu Swihart argue that the narrative structure in Shuihuzhuan is not the Chinese scholar's so called revolution from different material origins, but a mere intention of the author. Shiji provides the structure model for Shuihuzhuan and especially the collected biography style is a direct borrowing and has a profound impact on cre-ation of Chinese classical novels that followed.%英语世界的批评者吴德安等人认为,《水浒传》的叙事结构并非如中国学者所以为的那样"是小说不同的素材来源进化的结果",而是作者的有意为之.中国史传文学的典范《史记》为《水浒传》的创作提供了结构模型,尤其是"列传形式"更是为小说作者直接借用,并深刻影响着后世中国古典小说的创作.

  4. Using the Internet as a Tool for Teaching the Society and Culture of Major English-Speaking Countries%利用网络教辅强化英语国家社会与文化教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘艾敏

    2012-01-01

    With the fast development of information technology,the Internet is having an impact on every aspect of our lives.Using the internet as a tool and building on it as an online teaching platform can help students observe,think and study of the society and culture of major English-speaking countries more so than in a traditional classroom,which,in turn,will be the stimulation for their English language study.%随着信息技术的迅速发展,网络已经在影响着我们生活的各个方面。通过网络教辅社区形式加强英语国家社会与文化课程教学,利用灵活、远程和即时的方式有助于该课程教学的趣味性和生动性,让学生在用耳听课之外,用眼观察,用脑思考,最终让英语国家社会文化课的知识成为学生语言学习的推力。

  5. On the Design and Implementation of the Evaluation System of the Course A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries%英语国家概况课程评价体系设计与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱丰收

    2011-01-01

    为客观、公正地评价学生的学习,关注学生学习、成长与发展的过程,以"英语国家概况"课程为例,对该课程评价体系的设计思想、方案进行研究,认为要强化对学生形成性考核的评价,并结合几轮的教学实践,对实施效果进行分析。%With the purpose of evaluating students' learning objectively and fairly,and paying attention to students' learning,growth and development,this thesis analyzes the design and the scheme of the course evaluation of A Survey of English-speaking Countries.The writer thinks that it is necessary to strengthen the evaluation of the formative assessment.The implementation effects are analyzed with several rounds of practice.

  6. The effect of visuals on non-native English students' learning of the basic principles and laws of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan

    2001-10-01

    This study, involving 154 undergraduate college students in China, was conducted to determine whether the surface structure of visual graphics affect content learning when the learner was a non-native English speaker and learning took place in a non-English speaking environment. Instruction with concrete animated graphics resulted in significantly higher achievement, when compared to instruction with concrete static, abstract static, abstract animated graphics or text only without any graphical illustrations. It was also found, unexpectedly, the text-only instruction resulted in the second best achievement, significantly higher than instruction with concrete static, abstract static, and abstract animated graphics. In addition, there was a significant interaction with treatment and test item, which indicated that treatment effects on graphic-specific items differed from those on definitional items. Additional findings indicated that relation to graphics directly or indirectly from the text that students studied had little impact on their performance in the posttests. Further, 51% of the participants indicated that they relied on some graphical images to answer the test questions and 19% relied heavily on graphics when completing the tests. In conclusion, concrete graphics when combined with animation played a significant role in enhancing ESL student performance and enabled the students to achieve the best learning outcomes as compared to abstract animated, concrete static, and abstract static graphics. This result suggested a significant innovation in the design and development of ESL curriculum in computer-based instruction, which would enable ESL students to perform better and achieve the expected outcomes in content area learning.

  7. Auditory free classification of nonnative speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2013-01-01

    Through experience with speech variability, listeners build categories of indexical speech characteristics including categories for talker, gender, and dialect. The auditory free classification task—a task in which listeners freely group talkers based on audio samples—has been a useful tool for examining listeners’ representations of some of these characteristics including regional dialects and different languages. The free classification task was employed in the current study to examine the perceptual representation of nonnative speech. The category structure and salient perceptual dimensions of nonnative speech were investigated from two perspectives: general similarity and perceived native language background. Talker intelligibility and whether native talkers were included were manipulated to test stimulus set effects. Results showed that degree of accent was a highly salient feature of nonnative speech for classification based on general similarity and on perceived native language background. This salience, however, was attenuated when listeners were listening to highly intelligible stimuli and attending to the talkers’ native language backgrounds. These results suggest that the context in which nonnative speech stimuli are presented—such as the listeners’ attention to the talkers’ native language and the variability of stimulus intelligibility—can influence listeners’ perceptual organization of nonnative speech. PMID:24363470

  8. Auditory free classification of nonnative speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2013-11-01

    Through experience with speech variability, listeners build categories of indexical speech characteristics including categories for talker, gender, and dialect. The auditory free classification task-a task in which listeners freely group talkers based on audio samples-has been a useful tool for examining listeners' representations of some of these characteristics including regional dialects and different languages. The free classification task was employed in the current study to examine the perceptual representation of nonnative speech. The category structure and salient perceptual dimensions of nonnative speech were investigated from two perspectives: general similarity and perceived native language background. Talker intelligibility and whether native talkers were included were manipulated to test stimulus set effects. Results showed that degree of accent was a highly salient feature of nonnative speech for classification based on general similarity and on perceived native language background. This salience, however, was attenuated when listeners were listening to highly intelligible stimuli and attending to the talkers' native language backgrounds. These results suggest that the context in which nonnative speech stimuli are presented-such as the listeners' attention to the talkers' native language and the variability of stimulus intelligibility-can influence listeners' perceptual organization of nonnative speech.

  9. 大学英语口语课堂中学生思辨能力的缺失和培养策略%Deficiency of Speculative Thinking Ability and Its Strategies in College English Speaking Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾颖

    2012-01-01

    At present, students' speculative thinking ability in the college English Speaking class generally has some deficiencies. As front-line teachers, we should cultivate students' speculative thinking ability from three main aspects. First, we should utilize multi-media teaching means to develop students' thinking ability. Second, we should combine several kinds of teaching forms, including the form of questioning and guiding, the form of role-playing, the form of debating and the form of retelling. At last, we should adopt "process assessment" to inspire students' speculative thinking ability. The above three main strategies can arouse students' thinking initiative force in the College Speaking class and make students become the main body of teaching process. English%目前,大学英语口语课堂中学生思辨能力普遍有所欠缺。作为一线教育工作者,需从三大方面入手培养学生的思辨能力。首先,利用多媒体网络教学手段进行口语训练,发展学生的思维能力。其次结合多种教学形式,培养学生的思辨能力;这里讨论了问题引导式,角色扮演式,辩论式和复述式。最后,采用形成性评估模式,激励学生的思辨能力。上述三大培养策略能最大程度地挖掘口语课堂中学生的思维能动力,让学生真正成为教学的主体。

  10. 《孙子兵法》英译本中的道家思想%The Interpretations on the Taoist Thought in The Art of War with English Translations in English-speaking World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉英

    2012-01-01

    Among the thirty-two English translations of The Art of War in English-speaking world, six of them interpret the Taoist thought implicated in the most important military term "normal and abnormal" and in the book The Art of War itself. Some are brief, while others are quite detailed. These interpretations involve the relative views in The Secret of Caring for Life and The Great and Venerable Teacher by Zhuang Tzu, Heaven and Earth, The Book of Master Huainan ,The Book of Changes , J ij i zhenj ing ( The True Classic of the Complete Union)and Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu. These interpreters' point of view and opinions may enlighten us,and the subject of the text output can be used as references in our reading and study.%收集到的32个英语世界《孙子兵法》英译本中,有六个译本对“奇正”之法这一组重要的军事概念中以及《孙子兵法》一书中所蕴含的道家思想进行了或详细或简略的解读,涉及道家经典包括庄子的《养生主》《大宗师》《天地》和《淮南子》《易经》《既济真经》以及《道德经》。其中不少英译者的解读视角和观点能带给作为文本输出之主体的我们以启发和借鉴。

  11. Urbanism PhD Research 2008 - 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Brand, N.; Van der Burg, L.; Çalışkan, O.; Tan, E.R.; Wang, C.-Y.; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the Ph.D. research the Department introduced a special procedure for periodic evaluation: after a period of nine months the potential Ph.D. candidates are asked to present their research design, theoretical framework and methodological approach to the members of the Departme

  12. A PHD in histone language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability. PMID:23531693

  13. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  14. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  15. ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In this #CERNandSociety video, the 3 PhD students, awarded the ATLAS PhD Grant in 2015, talk about their research work within the ATLAS Collaboration and how this experience has shaped their future. Find out more about the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme: cern.ch/ATLASPhDGrant This programme is just one of the many #CERNandSociety projects at CERN. Find out more and how you can be involved: http://cern.ch/go/pBt7

  16. Reviews of the Chinese Film Studies of the 1930 s in the English-Speaking World%英语世界20世纪30年代中国电影研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石嵩

    2016-01-01

    The paper systematically reviews Chinese film studies of the 1930 s in the English-speaking world by using the cross-cultural variation theory and perspective .Chris Berry ' s proposal that Chinese left-wing films in the 1930 s should be discussed in the perspective of the aesthetics of The Third World film libera-tion, Paul G.Pickowicz's defence of unfair treatment of elements of western culture into Chinese film in that period, and Peter Harry Rist's interpretation of western influence on visual style in the Shanghai films made by Lianhua Film Company all enrich and broaden our understandings of researches on Chinese films in the 1930 s.But at the same time , this paper points out the problems and insufficiencies that scholars of the Eng-lish-speaking world who are from the heterogeneous cultural contexts encountered in that period when doing Chinese film studies , hoping to draw attention and generate in-depth discussion from academic circles .%本文运用跨文化变异研究的理论视野与方法,系统梳理审视了英语世界学者针对20世纪30年代中国电影研究时所取得的具有代表性的相关研究成果. 裴开瑞提出的将20世纪30年代中国左翼电影置于第三电影解放之美学的视野中进行探讨、毕克伟为这一时期西方文化元素进入中国影片所受的不公待遇进行的辩护、里斯特对联华电影公司影片视觉风格的西方影响研究解读等,丰富拓展了我们自身对于20世纪30年代中国电影研究的认知和理解. 但与此同时,本文指出了英语世界学者从异质文化语境介入到这一时期中国电影研究时所存在的问题和不足,希望引起国内学界的注意与深入探讨.

  17. Angles on the English-Speaking World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -industrial society. In addition to the academic articles in this issue there is a series of ‘position statements’ written by some of the major participants in the Danish debate on language policy in the universities. They were invited to state in about 500 words their essential views on the theme......Volume 9 takes up the questions – national, sociolinguistic, strategic, economic and educational – which arise in relation to the increasing use of English alongside national or vernacular languages, focusing on its use as the language of instruction in Danish Universities. Inevitably, this also...

  18. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  19. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  20. English-speaking in early Surinam?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.S.H.; Selbach, R.; Cardoso, H.C.; van den Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    I assess the opportunities of English-learning for slaves in early Surinam. Under the gradualist approach no creole could develop until the population balance had shifted significantly in favour of the slaves. With the population figures given by Arends for the years 1675, 1684 and 1695, I calculate

  1. A TEACHING APPROACH FOR FACILITATING ENGLISH SPEAKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has been commonplace for students to com-plain about their oral lessons.This paper arises froma thought of concrete problems facing Chinese high-school graduates who are unable to speak English well.Based on three elements that are crucial to languagelearning,the paper will focus on developing students’speaking abilities.In the paper,the teachers’ role ishighlighted.The students will find it the most effec-tive way to improve their speaking abilities if themethod is applied under the proper direction of aqualified teacher.

  2. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  3. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The PhD, otherwise known as the doctor of philosophy or Dr. Phil., is an internationally recognized degree, indicating that the PhD graduate has received training in research under supervision. Traditionally, the PhD was the route to an academic career, with most successful PhD graduates receivin...

  4. What PhD students really want

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Minnie

    2010-01-01

    The road to becoming an astronomer is exciting, but often fraught with danger and conflicting messages. A PhD student is inundated with catch-phrases such as "publish or perish" and "it's not about the quantity, but the quality of work". How do we know which advice to follow? How can we publish copious amounts of quality work in only three years so as to maximize our success in the future? How do we even know what "good quality" really is? With only a short time to prepare ourselves for the big wide world of Astronomy, what is the best way for a PhD student to maximize their research and ultimately maximize their success as a real astronomer? The PhD students of today are the astronomers of tomorrow, but their journey depends on a positive work environment in which they can thrive and improve. Here I present the results of a survey of current PhD students on how they believe they can maximize their success in science. I find that PhD students in Australia expect to write more papers during their PhD than is e...

  5. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  6. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, D.; van der Putten, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  7. On a Public Elective Course—A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries for Non-English Majors in Higher Vocational Colleges%试论高职非英语专业开设《英美概况》课程——从外语学习动机理论的角度来分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈水英

    2011-01-01

    First,the paper discusses the necessity of the establishment of a public elective course A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries for non-English majors in higher vocational colleges.It is very important to motivate those students in the teaching of the new course.Thus the paper then puts forward some suggestions on how to motivate the non-English majors in higher vocational colleges in the teaching of A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries,based on Wallace Lambert and Robert Gardner's classification of motivation and Dornyei's three-level framework of motivation in foreign language learning.%首先,本文试图去探讨在高职非英语专业开设公共选修课《英美概况》课程的必要性。接着综合应用了Wallace Lambert和Robert Gardner关于外语学习动机的分类理论和Dornyei有关外语学习的三层外语学习动机理论,对在高职非英语专业《英美概况》教学中如何激发学生的学习动机,提出了一些具体的建议。

  8. 实用英语口语竞赛技能训练规程研究——以浙江工贸职业技术学院为例%Research on the Skill.training Regulation of Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational College for Practical English Speaking Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蓉萍

    2012-01-01

    为提升实用英语口语竞赛能力、实现学生实用英语口语实践目标,以浙江工贸职业技术学院为例,运用任务型教学法,经过两届实践,建成由赛前调研分析、试题库的建立和完善、选手的选拔、强化训练四部分组成的实用英语口语竞赛技能训练规程。%In order to develop the ability to practical English speaking contest and make the students practise speaking English with a task-based teaching approach, the skill-training regulation of Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational College for practical English speaking contest is established, including four parts: research and analysis before contest, construction and integration of data of test paper, contestant selection, and intense training.

  9. Defining the Impact of Non-Native Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Bacher, Sven; Tim M Blackburn; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hulme, Philip E.; Kühn, Ingolf; Mrugała, Agata; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define impact. We argue that explicitly defining the impact of non-native species will promote progress toward ...

  10. Practitioner perspectives on using nonnative plants for revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Gornish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration practitioners use both native and nonnative plant species for revegetation projects. Typically, when rehabilitating damaged working lands, more practitioners consider nonnative plants; while those working to restore habitat have focused on native plants. But this may be shifting. Novel ecosystems (non-analog communities are commonly being discussed in academic circles, while practical factors such as affordability and availability of natives and the need for more drought tolerant species to accommodate climate change may be making nonnative species attractive to land managers. To better understand the current use of nonnatives for revegetation, we surveyed 192 California restoration stakeholders who worked in a variety of habitats. A large portion (42% of them considered nonnatives for their projects, and of survey respondents who did not use nonnatives in vegetation rehabilitation, almost half indicated that they would consider them in the future. Across habitats, the dominant value of nonnatives for vegetation rehabilitation was found to be erosion control, and many respondents noted the high cost and unavailability of natives as important drivers of nonnative use in revegetation projects. Moreover, 37% of respondents noted they had changed their opinion or use of nonnatives in response to climate change.

  11. Non-native educators in English language teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Braine, George

    2013-01-01

    The place of native and non-native speakers in the role of English teachers has probably been an issue ever since English was taught internationally. Although ESL and EFL literature is awash, in fact dependent upon, the scrutiny of non-native learners, interest in non-native academics and teachers is fairly new. Until recently, the voices of non-native speakers articulating their own concerns have been even rarer. This book is a response to this notable vacuum in the ELT literature, providing a forum for language educators from diverse geographical origins and language backgrounds. In additio

  12. ATLAS PhD Grants 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS PHd Grants - We are excited to announce the creation of a dedicated grant scheme (thanks to a donation from Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni following their award from the Fundamental Physics Prize foundation) to encourage young and high-caliber doctoral students in particle physics research (including computing for physics) and permit them to obtain world class exposure, supervision and training within the ATLAS collaboration. This special PhD Grant is aimed at graduate students preparing a doctoral thesis in particle physics (incl. computing for physics) to spend one year at CERN followed by one year support also at the home Institute.

  13. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  14. Non-native speech perception in adverse conditions: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lecumberri, M.L.; Cooke, M.P.; Cutler, A.

    2010-01-01

    If listening in adverse conditions is hard, then listening in a foreign language is doubly so: non-native listeners have to cope with both imperfect signals and imperfect knowledge. Comparison of native and non-native listener performance in speech-in-noise tasks helps to clarify the role of prior l

  15. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2001-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  16. Speech intelligibility of native and non-native speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the talker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to acoustic-phonetic limitations of non-native talkers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have l

  17. When the Teacher Is a Non-native Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pèter Medgyes

    2005-01-01

    @@ In "When the Teacher is a Non-native Speaker," Medgyes examines the differences in teaching behavior between native and non-native teachers of English, and then specifies the causes of those differences. The aim of the discussion is to raise the awareness of both groups of teachers to their respective strengths and weaknesses, and thus help them become better teachers.

  18. What My Ph.D. Taught Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The author started in the Ph.D. program in comparative literature at Princeton in 1992, a year after she graduated from college. She fell in love with mythology and the classical traditions and find herself teaching literature. In the remainder of her time at Princeton, she precepted for four or five more classes, got the chance to join the…

  19. Retention of prolyl hydroxylase PHD2 in the cytoplasm prevents PHD2-induced anchorage-independent carcinoma cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokilehto, Terhi [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Hoegel, Heidi [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Heikkinen, Pekka [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku (Finland); Rantanen, Krista [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Elenius, Klaus [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Sundstroem, Jari [Department of Pathology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jaakkola, Panu M. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Cellular oxygen tension is sensed by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) that regulate the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1{alpha} and -2{alpha}). The PHD2 isoform is considered as the main downregulator of HIF in normoxia. Our previous results have shown that nuclear translocation of PHD2 associates with poorly differentiated tumor phenotype implying that nuclear PHD2 expression is advantageous for tumor growth. Here we show that a pool of PHD2 is shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In line with this, accumulation of wild type PHD2 in the nucleus was detected in human colon adenocarcinomas and in cultured carcinoma cells. The PHD2 isoforms showing high nuclear expression increased anchorage-independent carcinoma cell growth. However, retention of PHD2 in the cytoplasm inhibited the anchorage-independent cell growth. A region that inhibits the nuclear localization of PHD2 was identified and the deletion of the region promoted anchorage-independent growth of carcinoma cells. Finally, the cytoplasmic PHD2, as compared with the nuclear PHD2, less efficiently downregulated HIF expression. Forced HIF-1{alpha} or -2{alpha} expression decreased and attenuation of HIF expression increased the anchorage-independent cell growth. However, hydroxylase-inactivating mutations in PHD2 had no effect on cell growth. The data imply that nuclear PHD2 localization promotes malignant cancer phenotype.

  20. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  1. The Application of Task- based Language Teaching Approach on English Speaking Anxiety-An Empirical Study of Non-English Majors%任务型教学法降低大学生英语口语焦虑的实证性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭咏梅

    2013-01-01

    English speaking anxiety, which can result from many aspects, has attracted a great interest of many researchers. The re⁃searcher made an investigation on college students’English speaking anxiety in the University of Jiangxi Traditional Chinese Medicine. To reduce students’speaking anxiety and improve the effect of college oral English course, task- based language teaching approach was adopted in the research. The empirical study was conducted in oral English class, lasting a semester. The analysis was made on the questionnaires, interviews and tests with SPSS software and descriptive expressions. It is found that task-based language teaching approach is positive in reducing students’speaking anxiety and improving student’s oral English profi⁃ciency.%  英语口语焦虑一直受到研究者的关注。该研究通过调查,了解了大学生英语口语焦虑水平,并利用口语课堂,实施任务型教学法,以降低学生的口语焦虑,提高大学英语口语课的效果。此项实证性研究为期一个学期。研究者借助SPSS对英语口语焦虑调查问卷及英语口语考试成绩的前测和后测进行分析,结合对学生的访谈,该研究发现,任务型教学法有利于降低学生英语口语焦虑、提高学生口语水平。

  2. 浅谈《英语国家概况》在专科蒙授英语专业教学中的作用%Brief Discussion on the Function of the Survey of English Speaking Countries in English Teaching of Mongolian English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海停

    2012-01-01

    Specialist English teaching for Mongolian students always put its emphasis on language teaching and development of language skills, and always ignore the improvement of the students' cultural knowledge of society, culture and customs of the English-speaking countries, which lead to big cultural differences and weak cultural awareness of the students, hampering the exact understanding of the lan- guage and daily communication. This paper explained the significance and cultural role of Introduction to English-speaking countries in Specialist English teaching for Mongolian students through the analysis of the course in that teaching.%专科蒙授英语专业教学长期以来只注重语言知识的教学和语言技能的培养,而往往会忽视学生对英语国家社会、文化、习俗等方面的文化知识的培养和提高,导致学生文化差异较大、跨文化意识淡薄,影响和制约了对语言的准确理解和日常交际。本文通过对专科蒙授英语专业教学过程中《英语国家概况》教学的探讨,阐述了《英语国家概况》这门课对蒙授英语专业教学的重要意义及文化作用。

  3. 高职非英语专业开设《英美概况》课程分析%On a Public Elective Course--A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries for Non-English Majors in Higher Vocational Colleges --From Perspective of Theory of Motivation in Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈水英

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of a public elective course A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries for non-English majors in higher vocational colleges is essential : it helps to better the existing English teaching for non-English majors in higher vocational colleges ; it helps to strengthen the students' ability of cross-cultural communication and it corresponds with the actual teaching schedule for these students. The current study combines Wallace Lambert and Robert Gardner' s classification of motivation and Dornyei' s three-level framework of motivation in foreign language learning and analyzes how to motivate the non-English majors in higher vocational colleges in the teaching of A Survey of Major English-Speaking Countries from three perpectives : the Language Level, the Learner Level and the Learning Situation Level.%将《英美概况》列入高职非英语专业的公共选修课,有利于增强高职学生的外语兴趣,有利于提升高职学生的跨文化交流能力。如何在高职非英语专业中展开《英关概况》教学,建议借鉴外语学习动机理论从语言、学习者、学习情境等三个层面来激发学生学习外语的热情和兴趣。

  4. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  5. Teaching English Speaking and English Speaking Tests in the Thai Context: A Reflection from Thai Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamkhien, Attapol

    2010-01-01

    To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…

  6. History of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Elizabeth A; Smith-Vidaurre, Grace; Salinas-Melgoza, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Monk Parakeets have been reported in increasing numbers across many cities in Mexico, and were formally classified as an invasive species in Mexico in late 2016. However, there has not been a large-scale attempt to determine how international pet trade and national and international governmental regulations have played a part in colonization, and when the species appeared in different areas. We describe the changes in regulations that led the international pet trade market to shift to Mexico, then used international trade data to determine how many parakeets were commercially imported each year and where those individuals originated. We also quantified the recent increases in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) sightings in Mexico in both the scientific literature and in citizen science reports. We describe the timeline of increased reports to understand the history of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico. As in other areas where the species has colonized, the main mode of transport is through the international pet trade. Over half a million Monk Parakeets were commercially imported to Mexico during 2000-2015, with the majority of importation (90%) occurring in 2008-2014, and almost all (98%) were imported from Uruguay. The earliest record of a free-flying Monk Parakeet was observed during 1994-1995 in Mexico City, but sightings of the parakeets did not become geographically widespread in either the scientific literature or citizen science databases until 2012-2015. By 2015, parakeets had been reported in 97 cities in Mexico. Mexico City has consistently seen steep increases in reporting since this species was first reported in Mexico. Here we find that both national and international legal regulations and health concerns drove a rise and fall in Monk Parakeet pet trade importations, shortly followed by widespread sightings of feral parakeets across Mexico. Further monitoring of introduced Monk Parakeet populations in Mexico is needed to understand the

  7. ATLAS PhD Grant Scholarship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2014-01-01

    On 11 February, the first recipients of the ATLAS PhD Grant were presented with a certificate by the programme’s selection committee. The three scholars - Lailin Xu of China, Josefina Alconada of Argentina and Gagik Vardanyan of Armenia - were delighted at being able to continue their PhD programmes at CERN.   With certificates, from left: Lailin Xu, Josefina Alconada, and Gagik Vardanyan. The selection committee members, from left: IFAE Barcelona’s Martine Bosman, Fabiola Gianotti, Peter Jenni and from CERN HR James Purvis. (Image: ATLAS/Claudia Marcelloni). Former ATLAS spokespersons Peter Jenni and Fabiola Gianotti started the fund with the Fundamental Physics Prize award money they received last year. Both have used the entirety of their prizes for educational and humanitarian programmes. "We wanted to do something for students who are working on ATLAS, in particular those who otherwise could not come here and actually see the detector they are working on,&am...

  8. PhD students share their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Last week, the second Doctoral Student Assembly gave students in the final stages of their PhD at CERN the chance to meet and present their work.   On 9 May, 24 students who are completing their PhD under the CERN Doctoral Student Programme were joined by their CERN supervisors and some of their university supervisors at an event organised by HR and the Technical Students Committee (TSC). After an address by the Director-General Rolf Heuer and short presentations by Ingrid Haug from HR and TSC Chair Stephan Russenschuck, the students presented their work in a poster session. Held in a packed Council Chamber, the event was a great opportunity for the doctoral students to get to know each other and to share their work in fields as diverse as radiation protection, computing, physics and engineering.

  9. PhD competences of food studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelo Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In European Higher Education, learning outcomes and competences have been used sometimes with different meanings and sometimes with the same meaning. But both terms have been more commonly used to refer to knowledge, understanding and abilities a student must demonstrate at the end of a learning experience.  Their use is a consequence of the paradigm shift of the Bologna Process to a learner centered education environment. The definition of standards of competences (or learning outcomes for the PhD degree is thus a need for the quality assurance of this degree. In this work, subject-specific and generic competences for the PhD in Food Science and Technology and their alignment with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF level descriptors for quality assurance purposes have been identified.

  10. Perceptual assimilation and discrimination of non-native vowel contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Michael D; Best, Catherine T; Faber, Alice; Levitt, Andrea G

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and native language assimilation (categorization and goodness rating) tests on six nonnative vowel contrasts. Discrimination was consistent with PAM assimilation types, but asymmetries predicted by NRV were only observed for single-category assimilations, suggesting that perceptual assimilation might modulate the effects of vowel peripherality on non-native vowel perception.

  11. Perceptual assimilation and discrimination of non-native vowel contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Michael D.; Best, Catherine T.; Faber, Alice; Levitt, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: The Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and L1-assimilation (categorization and goodness rating) tests on six non-native vowel contrasts. Discrimination was consistent with PAM assimilation types, but asymmetries predicted by NRV were only observed for single-category assimilations, suggesting that perceptual assimilation might modulate the effects of vowel peripherality on non-native vowel perception. PMID:24923313

  12. Social Identities and the NNES MA TESOL Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly

    This paper examines the process of identity formation of a nonnative English speaking (NNES) graduate student pursuing a master of arts in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The factors that influence the formation of a professional identity are examined for nonnative English speaking TESOL pre-service professionals. An…

  13. Language Anxiety and Counseling Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Melinda; Romero Marin, Merranda; Gelgand, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 120 master's-level counseling students were given the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale and the Counselor Self-Estimate Inventory. Significance was found for all 3 hypotheses: (a) nonnative English-speaking students have significantly more language anxiety than native English-speaking students, (b) nonnative English-speaking…

  14. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  15. Perceptual assimilation and discrimination of non-native vowel contrasts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-specific tuning in speech perception has focused mainly on consonants, while that on non-native vowel perception has failed to address whether the same principles apply. Therefore, non-native vowel perception was investigated here in light of relevant theoretical models: The Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. American-English speakers completed discrimination and L1-assimilation (categorization and goodnes...

  16. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  17. Speech Recognition of Non-Native Speech Using Native and Non-Native Acoustic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE ACOUSTIC MODELS David A. van Leeuwen and Rosemary Orr vanLeeuwentm .tno. nl R. 0rr~kno. azn. nl TNO Human Factors Research...a] is pronounced closer to the [c] by the vowels . Journal of Phonetics, 25:437-470, 1997. 32 [2] D. B. Paul and J. M. Baker. The design for [9] R. H...J. Kershaw, [12] Tony Robinson. Private Communication. L. Lamel, D. A. van Leeuwen , D. Pye, A. J. Robinson, H. J. M. Steeneken, and P. C. Wood- [13

  18. Pursuit of the Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Kerlin

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available he thesis is put forward that changes in public policy which originally promoted broad access to higher education are leading to the diminished likelihood that minorities, those from low-income backgrounds and females in underrepresented disciplines will pursue, or be able to complete, the doctorate. By reviewing a wide range of research literature and statistical reports on the status of doctoral education in the U.S. & Canada, a detailed sociological portrait of those who pursue the Ph.D. is presented. Recommendations are given for further research on doctoral education, particularly in areas of attrition,retention, student indebtedness, social stratification, and post-doctoral career plans.

  19. New Synthesis Route for PHD Polyols

    OpenAIRE

    Peshkov, Vladimir; Evtimova, Rozeta; Herzog, Michael; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of polyurea dispersion polyols (PHD) was developed using a new route via depolymerization of polyurethane polyureas by a mixture of at least two glycols in the presence of a consumable catalyst, i. e. a secondary aliphatic amine. On this way such polyols were produced with a particle size distribution with a maximum in the 120 to 400 nanometer region with hydroxyl numbers of 180 to 300 mg KOH/g being optically clear and highly reactive. The exact adjustment of the ethylene oxide...

  20. Analyzing cognitive and spelling skills in Spanish-speaking English-language learners and English-speaking Canadian learners Analizando procesos cognitivos y de escritura en niños hispano-parlantes que aprenden inglés como segunda lengua y niños canadienses de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel O’Shanahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal purpose of this study has been to analyze the cognitive processes and spelling skills in Spanish-speaking English-language learners. A sample of English-speaking Canadian learners and Spanish-speaking English-language learners was selected from different Canadian schools in the Vancouver District within British Columbia's province. We examined cognitive and spelling skills of English-speaking students and Spanish-speaking English language learners in the primary grades. We hypothesized that there would be a positive transfer from cognitive and linguistic processes from L1 to L2 spelling skills development, if no significant differences were observed among native English speakers and Spanish-language learners on these measures. There were no significant differences between the English –language learners and the native English speakers on measures of phonological awareness and spelling skills. However, English-speaking Canadian learners performed better than Spanish-speaking English-language learners on vocabulary and syntactic awareness. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido analizar los procesos cognitivos y de escritura de niños hispano-parlantes que aprenden el inglés como segunda lengua. Para ello se seleccionó a una muestra de niños canadienses de habla inglesa y otra de hispano-parlantes que reciben instrucción en inglés como segunda lengua en escuelas canadienses del distrito de Vancouver en la provincia canadiense de Columbia Británica (British Columbia. Se tomaron medidas de competencia lingu?ística (vocabulario y conciencia sintáctica, memoria de trabajo, conciencia fonológica y escritura de palabras y pseudopalabras en inglés para el grupo de monolingu?es, y las mismas medidas en los idiomas inglés y español para el grupo de hispano-parlantes. Nuestra predicción es que si existe un efecto de transferencia de L1 sobre L2 entonces existiría relación entre los procesos cognitivos y de escritura que

  1. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  2. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech for native and nonnative english speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2014-04-01

    accented, allowing for improved speech recognition. Various levels of intelligibility across the foreign-accented speech maskers did not influence results. Neither the nonnative English-speaking listeners with normal hearing nor the monolingual English speakers with hearing loss benefited from masking release when the masker was changed from native-accented to foreign-accented English. Slight modifications between the target and the masker speech allowed monolingual English speakers with normal hearing to improve their recognition of native-accented English, even when the competing speech was highly intelligible. Further research is needed to determine which modifications within the competing speech signal caused the Mandarin-accented English to be less effective with respect to masking. Determining the influences within the competing speech that make it less effective as a masker or determining why monolingual normal-hearing listeners can take advantage of these differences could help improve speech recognition for those with hearing loss in the future. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. 首要教学原理视角下医学生临床英语会话能力的培养%Cultivation of medical students’ clinical English speaking ability under the framework of the first principles of instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆怡; 樊家勇

    2016-01-01

    全球化的深入和国际医学交流日益频繁对医生临床医学英语会话能力提出更高的要求。本研究在首要教学原理的视角下,尝试构建模块化临床英语口语教学,以语言功能为教学核心,融合收集病史、询问病状、分析原因、初步检查、处方医嘱、深度检查、回应病患七个教学模块,使学生通过激活旧知、示证新知、尝试应用,最终达到语言技能的融汇贯通。教学实践证明,该教学能够引发学生兴趣、教学安排合理、符合学生认知习惯、教材选用恰当,能有效提升医学生临床英语会话能力的教学途径。%The progress of globalization and frequent international exchanges in the medical com-munity demand doctors' improved English speaking competence, particularly in the clinical aspect. On the basis of the First Principles of Instruction, the research has proposed a module-based teaching model, which integrates 7 modules, including history taking, questions about frequency and pains, analysis of the possible causes, initial check-up, giving prescription, further investigation and conditional advice. The model is cen-tered on linguistic functions and aimed at helping students become proficient in speaking medically through the phrases of demonstration, application, reflection and activation. The model, after two years suc-cessive teaching practice among the elite class undergraduates, received a favorable feedback in triggering interests, classroom arrangement, material selection, and its compliance with FLA (foreign language acquisition), and was proved to be an effective way to improve medical students' English speaking ability in handling clinical dialogues.

  4. Engineering biofuel tolerance in non-native producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of renewable biofuels through microbiological processes has drawn significant attention in recent years, mostly due to the increasing concerns on the petroleum fuel shortages and the environmental consequences of the over-utilization of petroleum-based fuels. In addition to native biofuel-producing microbes that have been employed for biofuel production for decades, recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have made it possible to produce biofuels in several non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. Compared to native producers, these non-native systems carry the advantages of fast growth, simple nutrient requirements, readiness for genetic modifications, and even the capability to assimilate CO2 and solar energy, making them competitive alternative systems to further decrease the biofuel production cost. However, the tolerance of these non-native microorganisms to toxic biofuels is naturally low, which has restricted the potentials of their application for high-efficiency biofuel production. To address the issues, researches have been recently conducted to explore the biofuel tolerance mechanisms and to construct robust high-tolerance strains for non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. In this review, we critically summarize the recent progress in this area, focusing on three popular non-native biofuel-producing systems, i.e. Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  5. Defining the impact of non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Bacher, Sven; Blackburn, Tim M; Dick, Jaimie T A; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hulme, Philip E; Kühn, Ingolf; Mrugała, Agata; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M; Sendek, Agnieszka; Vilà, Montserrat; Winter, Marten; Kumschick, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define impact. We argue that explicitly defining the impact of non-native species will promote progress toward a better understanding of the implications of changes to biodiversity and ecosystems caused by non-native species; help disentangle which aspects of scientific debates about non-native species are due to disparate definitions and which represent true scientific discord; and improve communication between scientists from different research disciplines and between scientists, managers, and policy makers. For these reasons and based on examples from the literature, we devised seven key questions that fall into 4 categories: directionality, classification and measurement, ecological or socio-economic changes, and scale. These questions should help in formulating clear and practical definitions of impact to suit specific scientific, stakeholder, or legislative contexts. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. The role of abstraction in non-native speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Bozena; Levy, Roger

    2014-09-01

    The end-result of perceptual reorganization in infancy is currently viewed as a reconfigured perceptual space, "warped" around native-language phonetic categories, which then acts as a direct perceptual filter on any non-native sounds: naïve-listener discrimination of non-native-sounds is determined by their mapping onto native-language phonetic categories that are acoustically/articulatorily most similar. We report results that suggest another factor in non-native speech perception: some perceptual sensitivities cannot be attributed to listeners' warped perceptual space alone, but rather to enhanced general sensitivity along phonetic dimensions that the listeners' native language employs to distinguish between categories. Specifically, we show that the knowledge of a language with short and long vowel categories leads to enhanced discrimination of non-native consonant length contrasts. We argue that these results support a view of perceptual reorganization as the consequence of learners' hierarchical inductive inferences about the structure of the language's sound system: infants not only acquire the specific phonetic category inventory, but also draw higher-order generalizations over the set of those categories, such as the overall informativity of phonetic dimensions for sound categorization. Non-native sound perception is then also determined by sensitivities that emerge from these generalizations, rather than only by mappings of non-native sounds onto native-language phonetic categories.

  7. Molecular Cloning of phd1 and Comparative Analysis of phd1, 2, and 3 Expression in Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive gene targeting studies in mice have revealed that prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs play important roles in murine embryonic development; however, the expression patterns and function of these genes during embryogenesis of other vertebrates remain largely unknown. Here we report the molecular cloning of phd1 and systematic analysis of phd1, phd2, and phd3 expression in embryos as well as adult tissues of Xenopus laevis. All three phds are maternally provided during Xenopus early development. The spatial expression patterns of phds genes in Xenopus embryos appear to define a distinct synexpression group. Frog phd2 and phd3 showed complementary expression in adult tissues with phd2 transcription levels being high in the eye, brain, and intestine, but low in the liver, pancreas, and kidney. On the contrary, expression levels of phd3 are high in the liver, pancreas, and kidney, but low in the eye, brain, and intestine. All three phds are highly expressed in testes, ovary, gall bladder, and spleen. Among three phds, phd3 showed strongest expression in heart.

  8. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  9. Research Collaboration and Commercialization: The PhD Candidate Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Lawrence; Kenny, Breda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores PhD students' perceptions of their entrepreneurial and commercial capabilities, their attitude towards university supports and the extent to which they engage in external collaboration. The study concentrated on current PhD researchers at one university in Ireland as a unit of analysis and provides encouraging evidence from the…

  10. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  11. The Importance of Having a Ph.D., Career Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation on the importance of having a PhD to motivate Initiative to Maximize Student Diversity Program (IMSD) undergrads towards conducting research, pursuing careers in the biomedical field, applying to grad school, and getting a Ph.D., based upon ARS scientist's experiences as a student, a ...

  12. 实用英语口语大赛对高职高专英语教学改革的影响研究%A Study of the Influence of Practical English Speaking Contest on Higher Vocational English Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍青; 卢育红; 高菊

    2014-01-01

    National Practical English Speaking Contest for Higher Vocational College Students, as a platform of testing English teaching, presenting contestants’performance, and exchanging speaking skills, has reflected problems in higher vocational English teaching. The paper proposes approaches to solve the problems by studying real test questions to clear direction of teaching reform, taking the reform of teaching evaluation as the breakthrough, improving teaching methods as the key point to construct higher voca⁃tional English teaching reform mode of classroom learning community.%基于高职院校检验英语教学、展示学子风采、切磋口语技能平台的全国高职高专实用英语口语大赛反映出的高职高专英语教学中的种种问题,提出研究比赛真题来明确教改方向,以改革教学评价为突破口,以改进教法为重点,构建高职高专英语课堂学习共同体的英语教改模式等解决问题的途径。

  13. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    tenured university positions. However, over the past 20–30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the ‘knowledge society’, and thus...... increase the competitiveness of their countries in the future economies of the world. Thus, only a small fraction of PhD graduates now end up in academic research. Yet, the PhD remains a research degree, and indeed, institutions have become heavily dependent on PhD students for their research output...... during their PhD studies. The purpose of this article is to explore how this seeming paradox is being addressed in biomedicine and to show that far from being inconsistent that the two aspects are in fact complementary. The article is based on the author’s experience as Head of Aarhus Graduate School...

  14. ['Sandwich PhD': considerations for a successful experience abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Marina de Goes; Bueno, Mariana; Gastaldo, Denise; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos

    2013-03-01

    International PhD internship, named "Sandwich PhD" in Brazil is an opportunity to improve research abilities, to become known in academic area and to establish and/or increase work opportunities in an international context. In this article, we describe key factors regarding the planning and development of the "Sandwich PhD" as experienced by professors and students involved in the collaboration between the School of Nursing, University of São Paulo and Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Canada. We also present the participation of PhD students' network as an alternative to the "Sandwich PhD". An international experience, when well-planned and developed correctly, promotes students' personal and professional development and favors the internationalization of Brazilian graduate programs and research groups.

  15. Launching a Geoscience Career: Insights Gained from MS PHD'S Beyond the PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, W. I.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Jansma, P. E.; Huggans, M. J.; Ricciardi, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program is the newest addition to the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S®) Professional Development Program in Earth System Science. This exciting new program is designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. Building upon MS PHD'S extensive professional development activities provided to URM undergraduate and graduate students, B-PhD's vision is to encourage and support URM doctoral students and early career PhD's in becoming part of the global workforce. (Since its inception in 2003, MSPHD'S supports 213 participants of which 42 have achieved the doctoral degree and another 71 are enrolled in doctoral programs.) By providing customized support and advocacy for participants, B-PhD facilitates smoother and informed transitions from graduate school to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in academia, government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In 2011, the first conference for 18 doctoral candidate and recent graduates was hosted at the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science. Using a format of guest speakers, brown bag discussions, and interactive breakout sessions, participants engaged in sessions entitled "Toolkits for Success in Academia, Business and Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This presentation will discuss outcomes from this pilot project, the use of social media to track and support ongoing B-PhD activities, and objectives for future B-PhD workshops.

  16. Italia-Netherland PhD Program: the I.O. PhD Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissima, Valentina; Borghesi, Alessandro; Bozzetti, Valentina; Dessì, Angelica; Fabiano, Adele; Risso, Francesco M; Salvo, Vincenzo; Satriano, Angela; Silvagni, Davide; Varrica, Alessandro; van Bel, Frank; Visser, Gerard H A; Vles, Hans Js; Zimmermann, Luc J I; Gavilanes, Antonio D W; Gazzolo, Diego

    2011-10-01

    In the framework of long-term scientific collaboration among the founder members coming from Holland and Italy there was a growing consensus to activate a philosophical doctorate (PhD) program, involving young Italian researchers in the field of perinatal medicine, neonatology and pediatrics. The aims were to promote excellence in research, offering to young Italian physicians the opportunity to maturate an International research experience leading to PhD degree, and to promote human and technological improvement energies in perinatal, neonatal and pediatrics research. Thus, an official collaboration among the Dutch Universities from Maastricht and Utrecht and the Italian Children's Hospital from Alessandria, has been activated on March 1st 2010, finalized to the PhD program. The experimental phase included the selection of projects and relative candidates after an interview-selection focusing on their scientific attitudes and the availability on their research projects. Candidates' selection started on May 2010 and on September 29th ten projects and candidates have been approved by the scientific commission. Research topics included: perinatal asphyxia, aging and the origin of adulthood neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotective strategies, biochemical pulmonology, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal teratology. To date, all projects have been approved by local Ethics Committee from the University/Hospital of origin of the candidates. Five manuscripts have been published and/or submitted to international Journals regarding pneumology, perinatal asphyxia and teratology, whilst about 60-70% of data regarding clinical studies have already been collected.

  17. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  18. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  19. The Ceremonial Elements of Non-Native Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Bert

    1994-01-01

    Explores reasons behind the wrongful adoption of Native American ceremonies by Euro-Americans. Focuses on the need for ceremony, its relevance to environmental education, and the fact that some immigrant cultural traditions neither fit this new land nor value the earth. Suggests how non-Natives can express their connection to the land by creating…

  20. Privilege (or "Noblesse Oblige") of the Nonnative Speaker of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Thomas J.

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. Focusing on the nonnative speaker of Russian and Russian language education in the United States, it asserts that both the quantity and…

  1. Non-Native University Students' Perception of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummul Khair; Mansourizadeh, Kobra; Ai, Grace Koh Ming

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of…

  2. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  3. 2. mednarodna konferenca My PhD = 2nd My phd International Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the organization of the second My phd InternationalConference organized in June in Bratislava. The organizer Friedrich Ebert Foundation is a German non-profit organization. During the conference young researchers from various fields dealt with the issue of ‘New Europe’ and the challenges of sustainable development. The conference was also an opportunity for young researchers to meet new colleagues and exchange their views. The interest was very big since only 40 percent of the applicants were accepted. Another interesting thing was the competitive approach towards the conference, which means that only the best articles will be published in the conference proceedings.

  4. Brenda K. Edwards, PhD | DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda K. Edwards, PhD, has been with the Surveillance Research Program (SRP) and its predecessor organizations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since 1989, serving as SRP’s Associate Director from 1990-2011.

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Michael Nye, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Nye, Ph.D., is a social scientist who studies natural risk, socio-demographic change and sustainable behavior. Prior to joining EPA, he worked for the UK Environment Agency in flood risk management and emergency preparedness

  6. ebibliographical compilation of phd theses produced at the faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... This paper attempts to provide a systematic list of Ph.D theses produced by the. Faculty of Science ... field of library and information science the concept of bibliography .... Information System (GIS) in Kano State,. Nigeria.

  7. Meet EPA Engineer Shawn Ryan, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Ryan, Ph.D. is a chemical engineer at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center. He has worked at EPA for 12 years, nine of which have been devoted to leading research to support decontamination and consequence management.

  8. Meet EPA Scientist Tim Shafer, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Shafer earned his bachelor’s degree in biology and chemistry from Hope College in Holland, MI, in 1986 and his Ph.D. in pharmacology and environmental toxicology from Michigan State University in 1991.

  9. Meet EPA Scientist Susan Yee, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Yee, Ph.D., is an ecologist at EPA's Gulf Ecology Division. She is working on the Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities program, developing decision support tools to evaluate how alternative decisions impact coastal ecosystem goods and services

  10. Meet EPA Chemist Quincy Teng, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA research chemist Quincy Teng, Ph.D., focuses on the application of metabolomics—a relatively new, specialized field of biochemistry focused on studying small molecules known as metabolites—on environmental and life sciences.

  11. Structural insight into histone recognition by the ING PHD fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Karen S; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2009-05-01

    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) tumor suppressors are implicated in oncogenesis, control of DNA damage repair, cellular senescence and apoptosis. All members of the ING family contain unique amino-terminal regions and a carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) finger. While the amino-terminal domains associate with a number of protein effectors including distinct components of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, the PHD finger binds strongly and specifically to histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). In this review we describe the molecular mechanism of H3K4me3 recognition by the ING1-5 PHD fingers, analyze the determinants of the histone specificity and compare the biological activities and structures within subsets of PHD fingers. The atomic-resolution structures of the ING PHD fingers in complex with a H3K4me3 peptide reveal that the histone tail is bound in a large and deep binding site encompassing nearly one-third of the protein surface. An extensive network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and cation-pi contacts, and complementary surface interactions coordinate the first six residues of the H3K4me3 peptide. The trimethylated Lys4 occupies an elongated groove, formed by the highly conserved aromatic and hydrophobic residues of the PHD finger, whereas the adjacent groove accommodates Arg2. The two grooves are connected by a narrow channel, the small size of which defines the PHD finger's specificity, excluding interactions with other modified histone peptides. Binding of the ING PHD fingers to H3K4me3 plays a critical role in regulating chromatin acetylation. The ING proteins function as tethering molecules that physically link the HDAC and HAT enzymatic complexes to chromatin. In this review we also highlight progress recently made in understanding the molecular basis underlying biological and tumorigenic activities of the ING tumor suppressors.

  12. Analyzing the Teaching Problems of Native English Speaking Teachers in China from the Perspective of the Cultural Stereotype Theory%文化定势理论视角下我国高校英语外教的教学问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董金伟; 陆璐

    2014-01-01

    The classroom activities of Native English-Speaking Teachers (NESTs) in China can be regarded as a behav-ior of cross-cultural communication under special contexts. As a key concept in cross-cultural studies, cultural stereotype is so important that it will lead to the success or failure of the cross-cultural communication behaviors. By analyzing problems that NESTs are facing when they teach in China, this study categorizes the stereotypes that the problems represent into three types:stereotypes based on western culture, stereotypes based on self learning experiences, and stereotypes based on misinterpretation of Chinese culture. The result reveals that no matter which type of the above stereotypes the NESTs possess, their teaching ef-fect will be negatively influenced.%随着近年来引智工程在我国的大力开展,国内高校外籍英语教师人数与日俱增,外教面临的教学问题成为各高校亟待解决的问题之一。本文从文化定势理论的视角出发,将外教在教学中遇到的主要问题归总为三类:基于西方文化形成的文化定势;基于自身学习经验形成的文化定势;基于对中国文化的误解形成的文化定势。三类中的任何一种文化定势都会对外教的教学产生负面影响。

  13. 浅析英美文化课创新教学与跨文化交际能力培养%Creative Teaching of the Course "The Society and Culture of Major English- speaking Countries" and Development of Students' Inter -cultural Communication Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任青

    2012-01-01

    The course "The Society and Culture of Major English - speaking Countries" aims to introduce the knowledge such as history, geography, religious belief, political system, economy, society, education, values, customs and traditions of major Eng- lish - speaking countries to students, and improve their understanding on the similarities and differences of Chinese and western cultures. This paper attempts to discuss a dimensional, interactive and creative teaching mode of this course, which integrates language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing into cultural knowledge teaching. With an input - output teaching strat- egy and a student -centered teaching concept, this teaching mode tries to develop students' abilities of learning and language application, so as to strengthen their inter- cultural communication ability.%英美社会与文化课重在培养学生对英美国家历史地理、宗教信仰、政治体制、经济社会、教育体系、价值观念及其文化传统等知识的了解,提高学生对中西文化差异的理解。探讨了英关社会与文化课的立体交互式创新教学模式,融合视、听、说、读、写等语言技能于文化教学实践中,输入与输出并重,以学生为主体,从培养学生的学习能力和语言运用能力入手,加强对其跨文化交际能力的培养。

  14. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd [Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public

  15. Positive Effects of Nonnative Invasive Phragmites australis on Larval Bullfrogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Alta Rogalski; David Kiernan Skelly

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on na...

  16. The intelligibility of Lombard speech for non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Lecumberri, Maria Luisa García

    2012-08-01

    Speech produced in the presence of noise--Lombard speech--is more intelligible in noise than speech produced in quiet, but the origin of this advantage is poorly understood. Some of the benefit appears to arise from auditory factors such as energetic masking release, but a role for linguistic enhancements similar to those exhibited in clear speech is possible. The current study examined the effect of Lombard speech in noise and in quiet for Spanish learners of English. Non-native listeners showed a substantial benefit of Lombard speech in noise, although not quite as large as that displayed by native listeners tested on the same task in an earlier study [Lu and Cooke (2008), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 3261-3275]. The difference between the two groups is unlikely to be due to energetic masking. However, Lombard speech was less intelligible in quiet for non-native listeners than normal speech. The relatively small difference in Lombard benefit in noise for native and non-native listeners, along with the absence of Lombard benefit in quiet, suggests that any contribution of linguistic enhancements in the Lombard benefit for natives is small.

  17. Drivers of Non-Native Aquatic Species Invasions across the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental factors that drive freshwater biological invasions. Such efforts are often limited to local scales and/or to a single taxa, missing the opportunity to observe and understand the drivers of macroscale invasion patterns at sub-continental or continental scales. Here we map the distribution of exotic freshwater species richness across the continental United States using publicly accessible species occurrence data (e.g GBIF) and investigate the role of human activity in driving macroscale patterns of aquatic invasion. Using a dasymetric model of human population density and a spatially explicit model of recreational freshwater fishing demand, we analyzed the effect of these metrics of human influence on non-native aquatic species richness at the watershed scale, while controlling for spatial and sampling bias. We also assessed the effects that a temporal mismatch between occurrence data (collected since 1815) and cross-sectional predictors (developed using 2010 data) may have on model fit. Results/Conclusions Our results indicated that non-native aquatic species richness exhibits a highly patchy distribution, with hotspots in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Florida, and human population centers on the Pacific coast. These richness patterns are correlated with population density, but are m

  18. Free classification of American English dialects by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Bradlow, Ann R

    2009-10-01

    Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance.

  19. Teaching Bilingual Teachers How to Teach Bilingual Education: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Lois

    2010-01-01

    As an experienced ESL teacher, the author understands that the discussion of the inherent strengths and weaknesses of nonnative English-speaking students in the English-speaking classroom usually focuses on the language proficiency and level of acculturation of the students. Now, however, she finds herself facing this issue, not in the context of…

  20. Toward a Conversation between ESL Teachers and Intensive English Program Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussu, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Several scholars have investigated the strengths and weaknesses of native-English-speaking (NES) and nonnative-English-speaking (NNES) teachers of English as a second language (ESL), but few researchers have explored intensive English program (IEP) administrators' and ESL teachers' perspectives on teacher training and the strengths and weaknesses…

  1. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  2. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  3. Learning to Teach across Borders: Mainland Chinese Student English Teachers in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The literature on non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) and native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) tends to focus on their respective strengths, the main strengths of NNESTs being their experience of learning English as a second language and their familiarity with their students' language and educational background. This article proposes…

  4. Learning to Teach across Borders: Mainland Chinese Student English Teachers in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The literature on non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) and native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) tends to focus on their respective strengths, the main strengths of NNESTs being their experience of learning English as a second language and their familiarity with their students' language and educational background. This article proposes…

  5. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  6. "Convenience Editing" in Action: Comparing English Teachers' and Medical Professionals' Revisions of a Medical Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ian; Tanimoto, Kimie

    2012-01-01

    Native English-speaking (NES) English teachers at universities in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts are sometimes asked to edit English manuscripts written by non-native English-speaking (NNES) colleagues in scientific fields. However, professional peers may differ from English teachers in their approach towards editing scientific…

  7. Partners in Learning: A Task-based Advanced Speaking Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Maureen

    This report describes a semester of teaching a group of non-native English-speaking students, aged 17 to 40 years and how the instructor identified three elements that appeared to be necessary for a task-based, advanced English speaking class. The three elements were: (1) ongoing needs assessment; (2) collaboration between instructor and students…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Relationship between the Advisor and the Advisee: Dissertation Writing Supervision in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu Ren

    A study examined the supervisory relationship between a non-native English-speaking doctoral student and a native English-speaking advisor, particularly in science, focusing on factors leading to effective or ineffective supervision, advisee response to advisor guidance and assistance, and the roles played by the two participants. Subjects were…

  9. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Alexandra J.; Jean, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector. PMID:28158284

  10. Using the Speech Transmission Index to predict the intelligibility of non-native speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Steeneken, Herman J. M.; Houtgast, Tammo; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2002-05-01

    The calibration of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) is based on native speech, presented to native listeners. This means that the STI predicts speech intelligibility under the implicit assumption of fully native communication. In order to assess effects of both non-native production and non-native perception of speech, the intelligibility of short sentences was measured in various non-native scenarios, as a function of speech-to-noise ratio. Since each speech-to-noise ratio is associated with a unique STI value, this establishes the relation between sentence intelligibility and STI. The difference between native and non-native intelligibility as a function of STI was used to calculate a correction function for the STI for each separate non-native scenario. This correction function was applied to the STI ranges corresponding to certain intelligibility categories (bad-excellent). Depending on the proficiency of non-native talkers and listeners, the category boundaries were found to differ from the standard (native) boundaries by STI values up to 0.30 (on the standard 0-1 scale). The corrections needed for non-native listeners are greater than for non-native talkers with a similar level of proficiency. For some categories of non-native communicators, the qualification excellent requires an STI higher than 1.00, and therefore cannot be reached.

  11. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Travis S

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astr...

  12. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2008-02-01

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  13. Tesi di dottorato PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Segnalazione di tesi di dottorato.

     

    Miguel Calleja Puerta

    El conde Suero Vermúdez, su parentela y su entorno social. La aristocracia leonesa en los siglos XI y XII, Tesis de doctorado en Historia, Universidad de Oviedo (España, 2000

     

    Adele Cilento

    Potere e monachesimo nella Calabria bizantina: relazioni e interferenze (secc. IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (X ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2000

     

    Amedeo De Vincentiis

    Firenze e i signori. Sperimentazioni istituzionali e modelli di regime nelle signorie fiorentine degli Angioini (fine XIII - metà XIV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medioevale (XI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Milano, 1999

     

    Marco Folin

    Il sistema politico di un antico Stato italiano: i ducati estensi nella prima Età moderna (1452-1598, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia, Scuola Normale superiore di Pisa, 2000

     

    Barbara Frale

    Guardiani del Santuario. Le radici orientali del processo contro l’ordine del Tempio (1128 - 1314, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale d’Europa (XI ciclo, Università "Ca’ Foscari" di Venezia, 2000

    Report of PhD Dissertations.

     

    Miguel Calleja Puerta

    El conde Suero Vermúdez, su parentela y su entorno social. La aristocracia leonesa en los siglos XI y XII, Tesis de doctorado en Historia, Universidad de Oviedo (España, 2000

     

    Adele Cilento

    Potere e monachesimo nella Calabria bizantina: relazioni e interferenze (secc. IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (X ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2000

     

    Amedeo De Vincentiis

    Firenze e

  14. Dido3 PHD Modulates Cell Differentiation and Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovylyn Gatchalian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Death Inducer Obliterator 3 (Dido3 is implicated in the maintenance of stem cell genomic stability and tumorigenesis. Here, we show that Dido3 regulates the expression of stemness genes in embryonic stem cells through its plant homeodomain (PHD finger. Binding of Dido3 PHD to histone H3K4me3 is disrupted by threonine phosphorylation that triggers Dido3 translocation from chromatin to the mitotic spindle. The crystal structure of Dido3 PHD in complex with H3K4me3 reveals an atypical aromatic-cage-like binding site that contains a histidine residue. Biochemical, structural, and mutational analyses of the binding mechanism identified the determinants of specificity and affinity and explained the inability of homologous PHF3 to bind H3K4me3. Together, our findings reveal a link between the transcriptional control in embryonic development and regulation of cell division.

  15. An analysis of Ph.D. examiners' reports in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Elena; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for an overall transformation of the nature of engineering Ph.D. programs and the way theses are assessed. There exists a need to understand the examination process to ensure the best quality outcome for candidates in engineering. The work we present in this paper uses data collected between 2003 and 2010 for a total of 1220 Australian Ph.D. theses by analysing examiner reports. Our analysis indicates that Ph.D. theses in engineering, N = 106, differ considerably from those in other fields in areas such as gender of candidates and examiners and the examiners' geographical location. We also found that assessment areas such as significance and contribution of the thesis, publications arising from the thesis, breadth, depth and recency of the literature review and communication and editorial correctness are areas in which the proportion of text of engineering examiners' comments differs significantly from other fields.

  16. Mid-Career PhD Physicists: Academia & Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2017-01-01

    What jobs do mid-career PhD physicists hold? In a first-ever study, we collected data in 2011 from over 1,500 physics PhD recipients from the classes of 1996, 1997, 2000, and 2001. About 45% of the physics PhD recipients in these classes immediately took jobs that were not temporary, and over 40% accepted postdocs. How does taking a postdoc affect mid-career employment? What is the relationship between first job (after any postdocs) and mid-career employment? How do physicists' actual jobs compare with what they thought they would be doing when they graduated? Using our initial employment and mid-career data, I will answer these questions and more.

  17. Enhancing the skills of PhD supervisors facing internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgelund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    This research started out due to some institutional changes at a department at Aalborg University as regards supervision of PhD students. For various reasons the department suddenly got a large intake of PhD students in 2008, many of which came with an international background. After a period...... of time staff members of the department began to look very frustrated. Not only did they feel burdened with the large intake, they also struggled with the task of facilitating the transition of international students to become independent scholars. The situation led to the creation of a more general...... interview study within the faculty, and an inquiry into the field of cross-cultural supervision with the purpose of enhancing the skills of PhD supervisors. As is often the case with cross-cultural exchange and inquiry, the study ended up by being just as informative on the supervision cultures and settings...

  18. Maintaining Spanish in an English-Speaking World

    OpenAIRE

    Juhasz, Audrey Constance

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino portion of the United States population continues to grow each year, more and more children in the United States leave their Spanish-speaking homes and enter English immersion schools. Throughout their lives, these children are likely to shift language preferences from their home language, to the language of the community. However, maintaining development in their first language would be a benefit to them in multiple ways. Identifying factors within bilingual homes that influenc...

  19. Culture and the Future of the English-Speaking Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that Britain's cultural legacy is why democracy has succeeded in countries modeling its culture, examining how that legacy will exist in the globalized world. Discusses Britain's abundant social capital (individualism), noting that certain characteristics of British culture may be its undoing. Recommends coping with diversity by using the…

  20. Study of English Speaking Anxiety in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳梅

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety has an important influence on two language learning as one of the affective factors in language learning. Peo-ple usually think that excessive anxiety can interfere with the learning of English, especially the spoken English. This paper mainly studies the reasons of causing anxiety, strategies of solving speaking anxiety and help students overcome affective barriers, enhanc-ing the level of spoken english.

  1. Culture and the Future of the English-Speaking Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that Britain's cultural legacy is why democracy has succeeded in countries modeling its culture, examining how that legacy will exist in the globalized world. Discusses Britain's abundant social capital (individualism), noting that certain characteristics of British culture may be its undoing. Recommends coping with diversity by using the…

  2. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Heba Awadh

    2015-01-01

    In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students' limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues…

  3. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on students’ pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger with the less competent ones (hereafter, weaker; therefore, eight pairs were observed during the lesson. The task given to the students was to express ‘Agree and Disagree’ in the context of giving opinions related to social life. Based on the observations, the task was successfully implemented by six pairs; thus, the two others faced some problems. From the first pair, it was seen that the stronger student had intimated the weaker one into speaking during the task. The other pair, who was both of the same native, did not converse in English as expected and mostly used their native language to speak with one another presumably due to respect from the stronger student towards the weaker one. In situations like this, when pair-work becomes unproductive, rotating pairs is recommended to strengthen information sharing and assigning roles to avoid a student from taking over the activity from his or her pair. In conclusion, pairing international learners with mixed speaking proficiency by teachers must be conducted as effectively as possible by initially identifying their ability and learning culture to profoundly expand the students’ language resources.

  4. Understanding English Speaking Difficulties: An Investigation of Two Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…

  5. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  6. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓茹

    2015-01-01

    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  7. Development of Archaeoastronomy in the English-Speaking World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alun

    While there are early examples of work that are now recognized as archaeoastronomy, the development of archaeoastronomy as a discipline has nearly all happened in the past 50 years. Development accelerated with the foundation of regular conference series. This in turn widened interest in astronomy from Megalithic Europe and the Maya to encompass wider geographical and historical range. This is turn has required archaeoastronomers to embrace a variety of methodological approaches.

  8. Mingle Model for Teaching English Speaking Skill for College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayenti darmayenti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a research and development project conducted in a speaking skill for the first-year students of State Institute for Islamic Studies Imam Bonjol Padang, academic year 2012/2013. Mingle as a technique in teaching speaking proposed by Pollard and Hess in 1997 was developed into a new model. Using ADDIE model as proposed by Dick and Carey in 1996, we collected the intended data through observation, questionnaire, and test. The result of the research showed that the implementation of model gave a significant difference in term of the students-learning outcome between the students who are taught through Mingle model and by traditional one or without Mingle model. The development of Mingle model included preparation, warming up, set the rule, act Mingle model, presentation, review and discussion. It is concluded that Mingle model is more effective to improve students on all components of speaking skill. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang. Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  9. Understanding English Speaking Difficulties: An Investigation of Two Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…

  10. Perspectives on communication problems in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwesa, B A

    1984-03-01

    The Caribbean is experiencing a host of serious socioeconomic problems that prevent the majority of the population from realizing and maintaining a satisfactory standard of living. Food and Nutrition Surveys of some countries identified a lack of information on health, food, and nutrition as a primary reason for the prevalence of malnutrition, infectious diseases, and nutrition related diseases. "Misinformation" creates an often insurmountable barrier to effective communication between source and receiver, in this case the health, food, and nutrition sector and the wider community. Misinformation occurs when the message is either incorrect, incomplete, inconsistent with other messages in the same program, or contradictory. This element of "misinformation" can negate the effectiveness of the message and an entire communication program. Some examples are cited which show that in programs aimed at effecting change in attitude or behavior it is essential to ensure that messages are clearly communicated to avoid misunderstanding and the right infrastructure is in place for the innovation proposed by the message to be carried out. In the Jamaica Nutrition Education Program (JNEP) were used to communicate the messages. Evaluation revealed that health staff were providing incorrect and contradictory advice about breastfeeding, which showed that they lacked basic information on the subject. In Barbados, despite an intensified health education campaign, face to face instruction in the clinics, and extensive use of the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) Breastfeeding Package as well as other locally developed materials, a marked decline in breastfeeding was recorded over the 1969-81 survey period. Misinformation and misunderstanding among mothers were identified as the key reasons for the failure of breastfeeding. In relation to the decline in breaastfeeding and incorrect weaning practices, mass media was implicated as luring mothers away from natural feeding methods towards the use of expensive imported products. A 1976 CFNI meeting established strong linkages between mass media and nutrition personnel and was the factor most responsible for the selection of an advertising/marketing approach as the chief component of the mass media strategy. In sum, there is more to communication than mere information transfer. Effective communication can produce/create the right climate for change to occur. The nature of the message is an important determining factor in attitude and behavior change, and the message must fit the intended audience. The medium of the message must be appropriate, culturally relevant, familiar and liked.

  11. Developing College Students' English Speaking Skills in Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2011-01-01

    As one of the four important communication skills, speaking has long been neglected in the language teaching, while oral English teaching has always been the weak points in college English education. Since China began to reform and open the door to the ou

  12. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmad, Diana; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on students' pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger)…

  13. 试论英语世界化与非母语英语国家的英语教育问题%English globalization and English education problems in non-native English countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Compare with phonographic system language in most countries in the world, the English grammar system simple and clear, more easy to learn. Since the 16th century, Britain's political and economic rapid development has greatly influenced the spread of English around the world and use. In addition, compared to other table of writen language, English is more easy to learn, easy to communication, English became the most widely used international language, English education has been booming, however many non-native English speaking countries young people are too worship of Anglo-American culture, ignoring the traditional culture. Therefore, we in the education teaching of English, should be given by changing the existing teaching material model, general education and so on the many kinds of way to balance the relationship between language learning and cultural transmission, use critical thinking to think about diferent cultures.%与世界大部分国家都是表音系统的语言相比,英语有着简单明了的语法系统,更容易学习。自16世纪开始,英国的政治和经济的快速发展极大地影响了英语在全球的传播和使用。另外,相比其他表音文字的语言,英语更容易学习、易于交流,英语成为国际上使用最广泛的语言,英语教育也随之蓬勃发展,然而许多非母语英语国家的年轻人过于崇拜英美文化、忽视传统文化。因此,我们在英语的教育教学中,应通过改变现有教材模式、重视通识教育等多种方式平衡语言学习与文化传播的关系,用批判性的思维来看待不同的文化。

  14. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox.

  15. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Report of PhD Dissertations.

    Francesco Barone

    Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Laura Berti Ceroni

    Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.

     

    Marco Bicchierai

    Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Emanuela Garimberti

    Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004

     

    Lorenzo Tanzini

    Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Stefania Tarquini

    Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

    Segnalazione di tesi di dottorato.

    Francesco Barone

    Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004

     

    Laura Berti Ceroni

  16. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Report of PhD Dissertations.

    Massimo Della Misericordia

    Divenire comunità. Comuni rurali, poteri signorili, identità sociali in Valtellina e nella montagna lombarda nel tardo medioevo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2003

     

    Mariano Dell’Omo

    Il monastero di S. Liberatore alla Maiella centro dell’irradiazione di Montecassino nell’Abruzzo medievale e moderno. Contributo alla storia dell’organizzazione patrimoniale e della civiltà monastica cassinese nell’Italia centrale attraverso i documenti di S. Liberatore conservati nell’Archivio di Montecassino. Introduzione storica, paleografica e archivistica. Edizione dei documenti più antichi (†798-1000 e regesti di quelli posteriori (1005-1735, Tesi di dottorato in Storia Ecclesiastica, Facoltà di Storia Ecclesiastica, Pontificia Università Gregoriana di Roma,  2004

     

    Giulia Lorenzoni

    Conquistare e governare la città. Forme di potere e istituzioni nel primo anno della signoria viscontea a Bologna (ottobre 1350-novembre 1351, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004

     

    Federica Monteleone

    Il viaggio di Carlo Magno in Terra Santa. Un’esperienza di pellegrinaggio nella tradizione europea occidentale, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo

     

    Francesca Pucci Donati

    Fra teorie mediche e pratica quotidiana: i calendari dietetici dell’Occidente latino altomedievale (secoli IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2004

    Alberto Ricciardi

    L’Epistolario di Lupo

  17. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Report of PhD dissertation.

    Laura Baietto

    Una politica per le città. Rapporti fra papato, vescovi e comuni nell'Italia centro-settentrionale da Innocenzo III a Gregorio IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002

     

    Giuseppe Banfo

    Compresenze e sovrapposizioni di poteri territoriali di qualità diversa tra X e XIII: il caso del basso Monferrato, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002

     

    Francesca Dell'Acqua

    La vetrata tra l'età tardo imperiale e l'altomedioevo: le fonti, l'archeologia, Tesi di Perfezionamento in Storia dell'Arte Medievale, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2001

     

    Primo Giovanni Embriaco

    I vescovi di Albenga e gli sviluppi signorili nella Liguria occidentale (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2001

     

    Antonella Ghignoli

    Documenti e proprietà altomedievali. Fondamenti e problemi dell'esegesi storica delle fonti documentarie nello specchio della tradizione delle carte pisane dei secoli VIII-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002

     

    Vito Loré

    Espansione monastica e mutamenti politici. La Trinità di Cava nei suoi rapporti con i sovrani longobardi e normanni e con l'aristocrazia territoriale. Secoli XI-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002

     

    Rosaria Stracuzzi

    Messina nel '400, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2001

     

    Stefania Tamburini

  18. Language Distance and Non-Native Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiszewski, Adam; Gutierrez, Eva; Fernandez, Beatriz; Laka, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explore native and non-native syntactic processing, paying special attention to the language distance factor. To this end, we compared how native speakers of Basque and highly proficient non-native speakers of Basque who are native speakers of Spanish process certain core aspects of Basque syntax. Our results suggest that…

  19. Native and Nonnative Teachers of L2 Pronunciation: Effects on Learner Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, John M.; Sonsaat, Sinem; Link, Stephanie; Barriuso, Taylor Anne

    2016-01-01

    Both native and nonnative language teachers often find pronunciation a difficult skill to teach because of inadequate training or uncertainty about the effectiveness of instruction. But nonnative language teachers may also see themselves as inadequate models for pronunciation, leading to increased uncertainty about whether they should teach…

  20. Grammatical versus Pragmatic Error: Employer Perceptions of Nonnative and Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…

  1. Chinese Fantasy Novel: Empirical Study on New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bok Check; Soon, Goh Ying

    2014-01-01

    Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. This study seeks to render empirical support on the usefulness of the use of new words in Chinese fantasy novel to enhance vocabulary learning among the non-native learners of Chinese. In general, the students agreed that they like to learn…

  2. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andringa; N. Olsthoorn; C. van Beuningen; R. Schoonen; J. Hulstijn

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation mo

  3. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T;

    2016-01-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative spe...

  4. The Factors Influencing the Motivational Strategy Use of Non-Native English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Motivation can be considered one of the most important factors determining success in language classroom. Therefore, this research aims to determine the variables influencing the motivational strategies used by non-native English teachers in Turkish context. 122 non-native English teachers teaching English at a state-run university prep school…

  5. The Identity (Re)Construction of Nonnative English Teachers Stepping into Native Turkish Teachers' Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Sevcan; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the identity (re)construction of five nonnative English teachers who went to the USA on a prestigious scholarship for one year to teach their native language, Turkish. In that sense, it investigated how this shift from being a nonnative English teacher to a native Turkish teacher influenced their self-image,…

  6. Cognitive and Emotional Evaluation of Two Educational Outdoor Programs Dealing with Non-Native Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael; Buyer, Regine; Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    "Non-native organisms are a major threat to biodiversity". This statement is often made by biologists, but general conclusions cannot be drawn easily because of contradictory evidence. To introduce pupils aged 11-14 years to this topic, we employed an educational program dealing with non-native animals in Central Europe. The pupils took part in a…

  7. Processing Nonnative Consonant Clusters in the Classroom: Perception and Production of Phonetic Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa; Wilson, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that speakers are sensitive to non-contrastive phonetic detail present in nonnative speech (e.g. Escudero et al. 2012; Wilson et al. 2014). Difficulties in interpreting and implementing unfamiliar phonetic variation can lead nonnative speakers to modify second language forms by vowel epenthesis and other changes. These…

  8. The effect of L1 orthography on non-native vowel perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Wanrooij, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that orthography influences the learning and processing of spoken non-native words. In this paper, we examine the effect of L1 orthography on non-native sound perception. In Experiment 1, 204 Spanish learners of Dutch and a control group of 20 native speakers of Dutch

  9. The Effect of L1 Orthography on Non-Native Vowel Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Wanrooij, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that orthography influences the learning and processing of spoken non-native words. In this paper, we examine the effect of L1 orthography on non-native sound perception. In Experiment 1, 204 Spanish learners of Dutch and a control group of 20 native speakers of Dutch were asked to classify Dutch vowel tokens by…

  10. Other-Repair in Japanese Conversation Between Nonnative and Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Looks at conversation in Japanese between native and nonnative speaking peers. Focuses on other-repair, taking the conversation analytic approach to phenomena in nonnative discourse. Identifies a range of speaking practices as well as embodied resources that are understood by recipients as inviting or initiating other repair. (Author/VWL)

  11. Facing Innovation: Preparing Lecturers for English-Medium Instruction in a Non-Native Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, R. G.; De Graaff, E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of training on the teaching staff in an innovation process that is the implementation of English-medium instruction by non-native speaking lecturers to non-native speaking students. The workshop turned out to be the most appropriate professional development for the first two phases in the innovation process. (Contains 13…

  12. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  13. Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

  14. Managing conflicts arising from fisheries enhancements based on non-native fishes in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, B R; Woodford, D J; Weyl, O L F; Cowx, I G

    2014-12-01

    Southern Africa has a long history of non-native fish introductions for the enhancement of recreational and commercial fisheries, due to a perceived lack of suitable native species. This has resulted in some important inland fisheries being based on non-native fishes. Regionally, these introductions are predominantly not benign, and non-native fishes are considered one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity because they affect native biota through predation, competition, habitat alteration, disease transfer and hybridization. To achieve national policy objectives of economic development, food security and poverty eradication, countries are increasingly looking towards inland fisheries as vehicles for development. As a result, conflicts have developed between economic and conservation objectives. In South Africa, as is the case for other invasive biota, the control and management of non-native fishes is included in the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. Implementation measures include import and movement controls and, more recently, non-native fish eradication in conservation priority areas. Management actions are, however, complicated because many non-native fishes are important components in recreational and subsistence fisheries that contribute towards regional economies and food security. In other southern African countries, little attention has focussed on issues and management of non-native fishes, and this is cause for concern. This paper provides an overview of introductions, impacts and fisheries in southern Africa with emphasis on existing and evolving legislation, conflicts, implementation strategies and the sometimes innovative approaches that have been used to prioritize conservation areas and manage non-native fishes.

  15. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  16. STUDENTS’ VIEWS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENGLISH SPEAKING COURSE IN THE SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES YABANCI DİLLER YÜKSEKOKULU ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN İNGİLİZCE KONUŞMA DERSİNİN ETKİLİLİĞİNE İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speaking skill should be given special importance within the four language skills as it is an important aspect of communication. Therefore, the English education given should be in favor of developing the students’ speaking skills, considering all of the process; including the materials used as well as the classroom context. Moreover, the evaluation aspect of speaking skill is another important point to consider. European Language Portfolio is a document which puts the standards for this aspect of education and files individual information in terms of their language experience and knowledge. Moreover, it uses the Common European Framework as a criterion for the language competence. The aim of this study is to determine views of students, who enrolled at English preparatory class at the School of Foreign Languages in İnonü University, towards their English speaking skill competency. The study was conducted on 150 preparatory school students. Data were collected through a questionnaire prepared considering the Common European Framework. Independent samples t-test and one way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. As a result, it was determined that students’ views towards their English speaking skill did not differ in terms of gender and the high school type variables. Students’ views on their speaking skills differed significantly in terms of taking English as compulsory or willingly. Konuşma, iletişimde önemli bir yer tuttuğundan, dört dil becerisi içerisinde üzerinde önemle durulması gereken bir beceridir. İngilizce derslerinin sınıf ortamı, kullanılan materyaller ve bütün süreç dâhil olmak üzere İngilizce konuşma becerisini geliştirici nitelikte olması önemlidir. Bununla birlikte, bu becerinin değerlendirilmesi de önemlidir. Avrupa Dil Portfolyosu bu duruma standart getiren, bireylerin dil öğrenmede deneyim ve bilgilerini kayıt altına alan bir dokümandır. Buna göre, bireylerin dil seviyeleri ortaya

  17. First International Student Obtains His PhD at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Ghulam Rasul, the first international student formally enrolled by the Graduate University of CAS (GUCAS) has received his PhD degree this summer after having passed his dissertation defense on May 21 at the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP).

  18. Supervising the PhD: A Guide to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Parry, Odette

    This handbook is a practical guide for the novice and experienced supervisor of Ph.D. students focusing on the British system. The book is organized to follow the progress of a student from starting out to a career after the viva voce examination. The chapters are: (1) "A Most Persuasive Piece of Argument"; (2) "Caught and Held by a…

  19. Peer Mentorship and Transformational Learning: PhD Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Nsiah, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe our peer mentorship experiences and explain how these experiences fostered transformational learning during our PhD graduate program in educational administration. As a literature backdrop, we discuss characteristics of traditional forms of mentorship and depict how our experiences of peer mentorship was…

  20. Richard Mazurchuk, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Richard Mazurchuk received a BS in Physics and MS and PhD in Biophysics from SUNY Buffalo. His research focused on developing novel multi-modality imaging techniques, contrast (enhancing) agents and methods to assess the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. |

  1. Theo Thole as a PhD ''student''

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDuijnen, PT

    1997-01-01

    Thee Thole's Ph.D. work was the basis for the Direct Reaction Field method for incorporating a semi-classical ''solvent'' in quantum chemical calculations. The early stages of his work and later progress is reviewed and a typical example of his analytical and programming skills, so far unpublished,

  2. How Broad Liberal Arts Training Produces Phd Economists: Carleton's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Jenny; Grawe, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies point to strong performance in economics PhD programs of graduates from liberal arts colleges. While every undergraduate program is unique and the likelihood of selection bias combines with small sample sizes to caution against drawing strong conclusions, the authors reflect on their experience at Carleton College to…

  3. PhD by Publication: A Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kanowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first author's experiences as an Australian doctoral student undertaking a PhD by publication in the arena of the social sciences. She published nine articles in refereed journals and a peer-reviewed book chapter during the course of her PhD. We situate this experience in the context of current discussion about doctoral publication practices, in order to inform both postgraduate students and academics in general. The article discusses recent thinking about PhD by publication and identifies the factors that students should consider prior to adopting this approach, in terms of university requirements, supervisors' attitudes, the research subject matter, intellectual property, capacity and working style, and issues of co-authorship. It then outlines our perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking a PhD by publication. We suggest that, in general, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. We conclude by reflecting on how the first author's experiences relate to current discussions about fostering publications by doctoral students.

  4. Ph.d. report nº1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos

    The following report serves as an introduction to the Ph.d subject "Control system Modeling of the Wave Star Energy's Power Take-O". The device studied belongs to the Wave Energy field, which forms part of the renewable hydro Power generation sector. In Denmark, following the succesful course...

  5. Proceedings of the ICTSS 2012 PhD Workshop - Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Weise, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    , theoretic, and practical challenges of testing software systems, including communication protocols, services, distributed platforms, middleware, embedded systems, and security infrastructures. The aims of the ICTSS Doctoral Workshop is to provide a forum for PhD students to present preliminary results...

  6. PhD thesis: The relationship between expertise and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2015-01-01

    I Ph.d. projektet undersøges sammenhænge mellem ekspertise og kreativitet via et eksperiment, hvor eksperter og novicer laver musik ved computer. Musikken vurderes efterfølgende af en række fokusgrupper. Studiet peger overraskende på, at novicer på linje med eksperter er i stand til at skabe musi...

  7. Ph.D Afhandling: Restaurering verus instaurering og transstaurering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2012-01-01

    Ph.d. afhandlingen udforsker holdningen som arkitektfagligt instrument. Fagudøverens "holdning" til værdisætning af arkitektoniske kulturarvsobjekter og til arkitektonisk intervention heri fungerer aktuelt som et anerkendt og konstituerende beslutningsinstrument i praksisnære processer og sammenh...

  8. Discriminative Phoneme Sequences Extraction for Non-Native Speaker's Origin Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina; Haton, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated method for the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. The origin of non-native speakers could be identified by a human listener based on the detection of typical pronunciations for each nationality. Thus we suppose the existence of several phoneme sequences that might allow the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. Our new method is based on the extraction of discriminative sequences of phonemes from a non-native English speech database. These sequences are used to construct a probabilistic classifier for the speakers' origin. The existence of discriminative phone sequences in non-native speech is a significant result of this work. The system that we have developed achieved a significant correct classification rate of 96.3% and a significant error reduction compared to some other tested techniques.

  9. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  10. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529 di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia centro-settentrionale (X-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Forme del sapere storico dal medioevo alla contemporaneità, Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2004 Domenico Cerami Il "Confine conteso". Uomini, istituzioni, culture a Monteveglio tra VIII-XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2005 Federica Chilà Ostaggi. Uno strumento di pacificazione e governo tra i secoli VIII e XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società, religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2004 Enrico Faini Firenze nei secoli X-XIII: economia e società, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005Alessio FioreStrutture e pratiche del potere signorile in area umbro-marchigiana (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato ricerca in Storia, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2004Giampaolo FrancesconiTra Riforma, vescovo e clientes. Camaldoli e le società locali (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [09/05] Giuseppe Gardoni "Episcopus et potestas". Vescovi e società a Mantova nella prima metà del Duecento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia del Cristianesimo e delle Chiese (antichità, medioevo, età moderna, Università degli Studi di Padova, 2005 Nicola Mancassola La gestione delle campagne tra Langobardia e Romània in età carolingia e post

  11. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    The plight of non-native English-speaking teachers of languages in the teaching ... for teaching and learning the English language because of their shared ..... to be considered such as; age, sex aptitude, charisma, motivation [and] training;.

  12. Oral cavity awareness in nonnative speakers acquiring English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Patricia

    2008-06-01

    This investigation assessed awareness of the oral cavity of nonnative speakers acquiring English. University students (60 men, 60 women) were placed into three equal-size groups. The Less Experienced group lived in the USA less than 6 mo. (M = 3.3 mo., SD = 2.4). The More Experienced group lived in the United States 3 or more years (M = 5.0 yr., SD = 1.9). Native English speakers were the control group. Participants were recruited from undergraduate general education classes and passed a speech screening in English including accurate production of the seven English syllables tested, namely, suh, luh, tuh, kuh, ruh, shuh, and thuh. Participants answered four multiple-choice questions about lingual contact for each of the syllables imitated. Total test mean scores were significantly higher for the More Experienced group. Native speakers performed the task best. Findings support the effects of amount of time speaking the language. Training methods employed to teach English and slight dialectal variations may account for the significant differences seen in the two groups of nonnative speakers. Further study is warranted.

  13. Positive effects of nonnative invasive Phragmites australis on larval bullfrogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Alta Rogalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on native wildlife, a view based primarily on observational results. We took an experimental approach to test this assumption, estimating the effects of nonnative Phragmites australis on a native amphibian. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concurrent common garden and reciprocal transplant field experiments revealed consistently strong positive influences of Phragmites on Rana catesbeiana (North American bullfrog larval performance. Decomposing Phragmites litter appears to contribute to the effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Positive effects of Phragmites merit further research, particularly in regions where both Phragmites and R. catesbeiana are invasive. More broadly, the findings of this study reinforce the importance of experimental evaluations of the effects of biological invasion to make informed conservation and restoration decisions.

  14. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic–phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception.

  15. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  16. Defining the Impact of Non-Native Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Bacher, Sven; Blackburn, Tim M; Dick, Jaimie T A; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hulme, Philip E; Kühn, Ingolf; Mrugała, Agata; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M; Sendek, Agnieszka; VilÀ, Montserrat; Winter, Marten; Kumschick, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define impact. We argue that explicitly defining the impact of non-native species will promote progress toward a better understanding of the implications of changes to biodiversity and ecosystems caused by non-native species; help disentangle which aspects of scientific debates about non-native species are due to disparate definitions and which represent true scientific discord; and improve communication between scientists from different research disciplines and between scientists, managers, and policy makers. For these reasons and based on examples from the literature, we devised seven key questions that fall into 4 categories: directionality, classification and measurement, ecological or socio-economic changes, and scale. These questions should help in formulating clear and practical definitions of impact to suit specific scientific, stakeholder, or legislative contexts. Definiendo el Impacto de las Especies No-Nativas Resumen Las especies no-nativas pueden causar cambios en los ecosistemas donde son introducidas. Estos cambios, o algunos de ellos, usualmente se denominan como impactos; estos pueden ser variados y potencialmente dañinos para los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad. Sin embargo, los impactos de la mayoría de las especies no-nativas están pobremente entendidos y una síntesis de información disponible se ve obstaculizada porque los autores continuamente no definen claramente impacto. Discutimos que definir explícitamente el impacto de las especies no-nativas promoverá el progreso hacia un mejor entendimiento de las implicaciones de los cambios a la biodiversidad y los

  17. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  18. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  19. Early detection of nonnative alleles in fish populations: When sample size actually matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Patrick Della; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Payne, Robert A.; Gresswell, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Reliable detection of nonnative alleles is crucial for the conservation of sensitive native fish populations at risk of introgression. Typically, nonnative alleles in a population are detected through the analysis of genetic markers in a sample of individuals. Here we show that common assumptions associated with such analyses yield substantial overestimates of the likelihood of detecting nonnative alleles. We present a revised equation to estimate the likelihood of detecting nonnative alleles in a population with a given level of admixture. The new equation incorporates the effects of the genotypic structure of the sampled population and shows that conventional methods overestimate the likelihood of detection, especially when nonnative or F-1 hybrid individuals are present. Under such circumstances—which are typical of early stages of introgression and therefore most important for conservation efforts—our results show that improved detection of nonnative alleles arises primarily from increasing the number of individuals sampled rather than increasing the number of genetic markers analyzed. Using the revised equation, we describe a new approach to determining the number of individuals to sample and the number of diagnostic markers to analyze when attempting to monitor the arrival of nonnative alleles in native populations.

  20. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  1. Soybean GmPHD-type transcription regulators improve stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD played a major role in DNA binding. Using a protoplast assay system, we find that GmPHD1 to GmPHD5 had transcriptional suppression activity whereas GmPHD6 did not have. In yeast assay, the GmPHD6 can form homodimer and heterodimer with the other GmPHDs except GmPHD2. The N-terminal plus the variable regions but not the PHD-finger is required for the dimerization. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the GmPHD2 showed salt tolerance when compared with the wild type plants. This tolerance was likely achieved by diminishing the oxidative stress through regulation of downstream genes. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide important clues for soybean stress tolerance through manipulation of PHD-type transcription regulator.

  2. Club of Bologna International Best PhD Prize 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fiala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Club of Bologna, in collaboration with UNACOMA, will be awarding a prize for the best PhD theses on subjects related to agricultural machinery design and development. Up to ten theses will be selected and the best five of these will have the chance of being presented during the annual Club of Bologna meeting that will be held from 9 to 10 November 2012, on occasion of the EIMA. The authors of the best three PhD theses will also receive a cash prize. The winners will be guests in Bologna of UNACOMA who will cover travelling expenses and hotel accommodation for 2 nights. They will also meet farm machinery manufacturers attending the international trade fair. The winners of the Club of Bologna Prize 2012 will be announced here. Application forms and further information can be downloaded from the Club of Bologna website (http://www.clubofbologna.org/.

  3. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  4. Ph.d. om interne sociale medier : Det sociale intranet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2017-01-01

    Det sociale intranet eller interne sociale medier vækker drømme hos virksomheder, som ser en mulighed for at involvere og engagere medarbejderne. Det sociale intranet bliver opfattet som en genvej til mere innovative og effektive virksomheder. En ny ph.d. om medarbejderne som kommunikatører på...... interne sociale medier viser imidlertid, at virksomheder kæmper med at skabe en aktiv og levende kommunikation på det sociale intranet...

  5. Critical issues in PhD training for biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, R L; Oxford, G S

    2001-10-01

    The rapidly changing world of modern biomedical research is raising important new issues for traditional PhD training programs and is creating concern among young PhD scientists about their futures. Specifically, the United States is producing substantially more biomedical PhDs than can be accommodated in professional positions that truly require the PhD as a credential. The "surplus" PhD population is being relegated to poorly paid, unstable, and increasingly unsatisfying jobs. In addition, many current graduate and postdoctoral training programs may not be adequately preparing young scientists for the more complex, more quantitative biological science of the future. Finally, many current graduate training programs are not attracting a sufficient portion of the most talented young people in the nation. To ameliorate these problems in the training and early career paths of basic biomedical scientists, the authors make specific recommendations, such as urging (1) that graduate trainees should be supported exclusively by competitive individual fellowships, training grants, or institutional funds and not by RO1s or similar research awards; (2) that graduate and postdoctoral stipends be increased so that they provide a reasonable living wage; and (3) that research-intensive academic institutions create a career path for biomedical PhDs other than that designed for the traditional tenure-track, grant-funded principal investigator and faculty member. They conclude that it is in the interest of faculty and institutions to make these and other drastic changes because the current system is both inherently unfair and self-destructive.

  6. The multisensor PHD filter: II. Erroneous solution via Poisson magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    The theoretical foundation for the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter is the FISST multitarget differential and integral calculus. The "core" PHD filter presumes a single sensor. Theoretically rigorous formulas for the multisensor PHD filter can be derived using the FISST calculus, but are computationally intractable. A less theoretically desirable solution-the iterated-corrector approximation-must be used instead. Recently, it has been argued that an "elementary" methodology, the "Poisson-intensity approach," renders FISST obsolete. It has further been claimed that the iterated-corrector approximation is suspect, and in its place an allegedly superior "general multisensor intensity filter" has been proposed. In this and a companion paper I demonstrate that it is these claims which are erroneous. The companion paper introduces formulas for the actual "general multisensor intensity filter." In this paper I demonstrate that (1) the "general multisensor intensity filter" fails in important special cases; (2) it will perform badly in even the easiest multitarget tracking problems; and (3) these rather serious missteps suggest that the "Poisson-intensity approach" is inherently faulty.

  7. 2011 Invasive Non-native Plant Inventory dataset : Quivira National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a product of the 2011 invasive non-native plant inventory conducted at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge by Utah State University. This inventory...

  8. Recreational freshwater fishing drives non-native aquatic species richness patterns at a continental scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aim. Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental...

  9. Non-native Chinese Foreign Language (CFL) Teachers: Identity and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Native Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity......-in-discourse, the paper reports on a qualitative study that explores how three Non-native CFL teachers construct their teacher identity as they interact with Danish students while teaching CFL at one Danish university. Data collected from in-depth interviews over a period of two years show that the Non-native CFL...... teachers face tensions and challenges in constructing their identities as CFL teachers, and the tensions and challenges that arose from Danish teaching culture could influence the Non-native CFL teachers' contributions to CFL teaching in their home cultures. The findings further show that in order to cope...

  10. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Houtgast, Tammo; Steeneken, Herman J. M.

    2004-03-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index (STI) is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions for sentence intelligibility in noise, for populations of native and non-native communicators, a correction function for the interpretation of the STI is derived. This function is applied to determine the appropriate STI ranges with qualification labels (``bad''-``excellent''), for specific populations of non-natives. The correction function is derived by relating the non-native psychometric function to the native psychometric function by a single parameter (ν). For listeners, the ν parameter is found to be highly correlated with linguistic entropy. It is shown that the proposed correction function is also valid for conditions featuring bandwidth limiting and reverberation.

  11. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Carlton, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  12. Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern California Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem. PMID:25379790

  13. The Cancer Cell Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Promotes Metastasis via Activation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuchnio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several questions about the role of the oxygen sensor prolyl-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2 in cancer have not been addressed. First, the role of PHD2 in metastasis has not been studied in a spontaneous tumor model. Here, we show that global PHD2 haplodeficiency reduced metastasis without affecting tumor growth. Second, it is unknown whether PHD2 regulates cancer by affecting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. We show that PHD2 haplodeficiency reduced metastasis via two mechanisms: (1 by decreasing CAF activation, matrix production, and contraction by CAFs, an effect that surprisingly relied on PHD2 deletion in cancer cells, but not in CAFs; and (2 by improving tumor vessel normalization. Third, the effect of concomitant PHD2 inhibition in malignant and stromal cells (mimicking PHD2 inhibitor treatment is unknown. We show that global PHD2 haplodeficiency, induced not only before but also after tumor onset, impaired metastasis. These findings warrant investigation of PHD2’s therapeutic potential.

  14. Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native fishes have been known from freshwater ecosystems of Florida since the 1950s, and dozens of species have established self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, no synthesis of data collected on those species in Florida has been published until now. We searched the literature for peer-reviewed publications reporting original data for 42 species of non-native fishes in Florida that are currently established, were established in the past, or are sustained by human intervention. Since the 1950s, the number of non-native fish species increased steadily at a rate of roughly six new species per decade. Studies documented (in decreasing abundance): geographic location/range expansion, life- and natural-history characteristics (e.g., diet, habitat use), ecophysiology, community composition, population structure, behaviour, aquatic-plant management, and fisheries/aquaculture. Although there is a great deal of taxonomic uncertainty and confusion associated with many taxa, very few studies focused on clarifying taxonomic ambiguities of non-native fishes in the State. Most studies were descriptive; only 15 % were manipulative. Risk assessments, population-control studies and evaluations of effects of non-native fishes were rare topics for research, although they are highly valued by natural-resource managers. Though some authors equated lack of data with lack of effects, research is needed to confirm or deny conclusions. Much more is known regarding the effects of lionfish (Pterois spp.) on native fauna, despite its much shorter establishment time. Natural-resource managers need biological and ecological information to make policy decisions regarding non-native fishes. Given the near-absence of empirical data on effects of Florida non-native fishes, and the lengthy time-frames usually needed to collect such information, we provide suggestions for data collection in a manner that may be useful in the evaluation and prediction of non-native fish effects.

  15. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  16. Effects of Nonnative Ungulate Removal on Plant Communities and Soil Biogeochemistry in Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R. J.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Non-native ungulates have substantial impacts on native ecosystems globally, altering both plant communities and soil biogeochemistry. Across tropical and temperate ecosystems, land managers fence and remove non-native ungulates to conserve native biodiversity, a costly management action, yet long-term outcomes are not well quantified. Specifically, knowledge gaps include: (i) the magnitude and time frame of plant community recovery; (ii) the response of non-native invasive plants; and (iii) changes to soil biogeochemistry. In 2010, we established a series of paired ungulate presence vs. removal plots that span a 20 yr. chronosequence in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii to quantify the impacts and temporal legacy of feral pig removal on plant communities and soil biogeochemistry. We also compared soil biogeochemistry in targeted areas of low and high feral pig impact. Our work shows that both native and non-native vegetation respond positively to release from top-down control following removal of feral pigs, but species of high conservation concern recover only if initially present at the time of non-native ungulate removal. Feral pig impacts on soil biogeochemistry appear to last for at least 20 years following ungulate removal. We observed that both soil physical and chemical properties changed with feral pig removal. Soil bulk density and volumetric water content decreased while extractable base cations and inorganic N increased in low vs. high feral pig impact areas. We hypothesize that altered soil biogeochemistry facilitates continued invasions by non-native plants, even decades after non-native ungulate removal. Future work will concentrate on comparisons between wet and dry forest ecosystems and test whether manipulation of soil nutrients can be used to favor native vs. non-native plant establishment.

  17. Trophic consequences of non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus for native pond fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Copp, G. H.; Britton, J R; Guo, Z.; Edmonds-Brown, V; Pegg, Josie; L. VILIZZI; Davison, P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduced non-native fishes can cause considerable adverse impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a North American centrarchid, is one of the most widely distributed non-native fishes in Europe, having established self-sustaining populations in at least 28 countries, including the U.K. where it is predicted to become invasive under warmer climate conditions. To predict the consequences of increased invasiveness, a field experiment was completed over a summer peri...

  18. Overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in the identification of nonnative speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    This investigation explored the generalization of phonetic learning across talkers following training on a nonnative (Hindi dental and retroflex) contrast. Participants were trained in two groups, either in the morning or in the evening. Discrimination and identification performance was assessed in the trained talker and an untrained talker three times over 24 h following training. Results suggest that overnight consolidation promotes generalization across talkers in identification, but not necessarily discrimination, of nonnative speech sounds.

  19. The Effect of Background Noise on the Word Activation Process in Nonnative Spoken-Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenborg, Odette; Coumans, Juul M J; van Hout, Roeland

    2017-08-07

    This article investigates 2 questions: (1) does the presence of background noise lead to a differential increase in the number of simultaneously activated candidate words in native and nonnative listening? And (2) do individual differences in listeners' cognitive and linguistic abilities explain the differential effect of background noise on (non-)native speech recognition? English and Dutch students participated in an English word recognition experiment, in which either a word's onset or offset was masked by noise. The native listeners outperformed the nonnative listeners in all listening conditions. Importantly, however, the effect of noise on the multiple activation process was found to be remarkably similar in native and nonnative listening. The presence of noise increased the set of candidate words considered for recognition in both native and nonnative listening. The results indicate that the observed performance differences between the English and Dutch listeners should not be primarily attributed to a differential effect of noise, but rather to the difference between native and nonnative listening. Additional analyses showed that word-initial information was found to be more important than word-final information during spoken-word recognition. When word-initial information was no longer reliably available word recognition accuracy dropped and word frequency information could no longer be used suggesting that word frequency information is strongly tied to the onset of words and the earliest moments of lexical access. Proficiency and inhibition ability were found to influence nonnative spoken-word recognition in noise, with a higher proficiency in the nonnative language and worse inhibition ability leading to improved recognition performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Applied PhD Research in a Work-Based Environment: An Activity Theory-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, S. N.; Dochy, F.

    2016-01-01

    Activity theory is used to compare PhD undertaken at university, that is, academic PhD, with PhD performed in collaboration with industry, that is, semi-industrial PhD. The research is divided into a literature review and a case study. Semi-industrial and academic PhD are modelled as activity systems, and differences are highlighted in terms of…

  1. Setting Priorities for Monitoring and Managing Non-native Plants: Toward a Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Overbeck, Gerhard E.; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Land managers face the challenge to set priorities in monitoring and managing non-native plant species, as resources are limited and not all non-natives become invasive. Existing frameworks that have been proposed to rank non-native species require extensive information on their distribution, abundance, and impact. This information is difficult to obtain and often not available for many species and regions. National watch or priority lists are helpful, but it is questionable whether they provide sufficient information for environmental management on a regional scale. We therefore propose a decision tree that ranks species based on more simple albeit robust information, but still provides reliable management recommendations. To test the decision tree, we collected and evaluated distribution data from non-native plants in highland grasslands of Southern Brazil. We compared the results with a national list from the Brazilian Invasive Species Database for the state to discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches on a regional scale. Out of 38 non-native species found, only four were also present on the national list. If management would solely rely on this list, many species that were identified as spreading based on the decision tree would go unnoticed. With the suggested scheme, it is possible to assign species to active management, to monitoring, or further evaluation. While national lists are certainly important, management on a regional scale should employ additional tools that adequately consider the actual risk of non-natives to become invasive.

  2. Influence of native and non-native multitalker babble on speech recognition in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess speech recognition in noise using multitalker babble of native and non-native language at two different signal to noise ratios. The speech recognition in noise was assessed on 60 participants (18 to 30 years with normal hearing sensitivity, having Malayalam and Kannada as their native language. For this purpose, 6 and 10 multitalker babble were generated in Kannada and Malayalam language. Speech recognition was assessed for native listeners of both the languages in the presence of native and nonnative multitalker babble. Results showed that the speech recognition in noise was significantly higher for 0 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR compared to -3 dB SNR for both the languages. Performance of Kannada Listeners was significantly higher in the presence of native (Kannada babble compared to non-native babble (Malayalam. However, this was not same with the Malayalam listeners wherein they performed equally well with native (Malayalam as well as non-native babble (Kannada. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using native multitalker babble for Kannada listeners in lieu of non-native babble and, considering the importance of each SNR for estimating speech recognition in noise scores. Further research is needed to assess speech recognition in Malayalam listeners in the presence of other non-native backgrounds of various types.

  3. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  4. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKilman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish and non-native (English speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT conditions including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra-and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native language. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.

  5. Exploring Public Perception of Non-native Species from a Visions of Nature Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; Van den Born, Riyan J. G.; Lenders, H. J. Rob

    2013-12-01

    Not much is known about lay public perceptions of non-native species and their underlying values. Public awareness and engagement, however, are important aspects in invasive species management. In this study, we examined the relations between the lay public's visions of nature, their knowledge about non-native species, and their perceptions of non-native species and invasive species management with a survey administered in the Netherlands. Within this framework, we identified three measures for perception of non-native species: perceived risk, control and engagement. In general, respondents scored moderate values for perceived risk and personal engagement. However, in case of potential ecological or human health risks, control measures were supported. Respondents' images of the human-nature relationship proved to be relevant in engagement in problems caused by invasive species and in recognizing the need for control, while images of nature appeared to be most important in perceiving risks to the environment. We also found that eradication of non-native species was predominantly opposed for species with a high cuddliness factor such as mammals and bird species. We conclude that lay public perceptions of non-native species have to be put in a wider context of visions of nature, and we discuss the implications for public support for invasive species management.

  6. Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, 1920-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckling, Frederick W; Lo Vecchio, Janolyn G; Reckling, JoAnn B

    2004-05-01

    Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, was an orthopaedic surgeon, academician, administrator, laboratory investigator, historian, and mentor. His career spanned nearly six decades, beginning with graduate education at the University of Minnesota (UM) under the auspices of Owen H. Wangensteen, MD, PhD. In addition to obtaining a PhD in physiology in the UM Graduate School, he completed general and orthopaedic surgery residencies and attained board certification in each specialty. He served in the US Army Occupation Force Medical Corps in Germany just after World War II. In 1957, at 37 years old, he assumed the chairmanship of the orthopaedic training program at the University of Kansas. In 1971, he couldn't resist the opportunity to become one of the founding members of the "start-up" University of Arizona College of Medicine, accepting an appointment as chair of the new orthopaedic training program, where he remained until his retirement in 1990. He took clinical problems to the laboratory, and made important scientific contributions, particularly in the area of fat embolism and in using calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris) to fill bone defects. He served on governing boards of national professional organizations and presided over the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma from 1980-1981. Throughout his career, he was fascinated by, and published extensively in, the history of medicine arena. Known fondly as "the professor" to many of his residents and colleagues, he had a pragmatic, honest, upbeat, and often humorous approach to life's challenges, valuing personal integrity above other virtues. He explored various eclectic interests far beyond his professional contributions while maintaining his family as a central priority. With his exemplary productivity and interests in the surgical and laboratory sciences, history of medicine, appreciation of fine arts, and perceptive and effective interactions with family, friends, patients, and colleagues, the memory of Leonard

  7. MS PHD'S Professional Development Program: A Scientific Renaissance in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.; Williamson, V. A.; Griess, C. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    This study is a component of a four-year investigation of MS PHD'S Professional Development Program's virtual community through the lenses of underrepresented minority students in Earth system science and engineering fields. In this presentation, the development, assessment and projected utilization of the ongoing study will be discussed. The overall goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of virtual team building methods and understand how the development of a communal cyberinfrastructure acts as an integral part of the emergence of a Scientific Renaissance. The exemplar, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S), provides professional development experiences to facilitate the advancement of students of color achieving outstanding Earth system careers. Undergraduate and graduate students are supported through access to scientific conferences, mentorship and virtual community building. Framed by critical theory, this ethnographic exploration uses a mixed methods research design to record, observe, and analyze both the processes and products of the website, listserv and synchronous web-based dialogue. First, key findings of the formative evaluation and annual reports of the successfully implemented 2003 MS PHD'S Pilot Project are presented. These findings inform future evaluations of the use of technological resources and illustrate how this public space provides peer support and enriched research opportunities. Quantitative methods such as statistical analysis, academic and professional tracking and evaluative tools for scientific content and competency are complimented by qualitative methods that include observations, heuristic case studies and focus group interviews. The findings of this ongoing investigation will provide insight on how national organizations, higher education practitioners, community-based support systems and underrepresented minorities in the sciences promote diversity by developing

  8. Expanded radio art as PhD practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radio After Radio: Redefining Radio Art in the Light of New Media Technology through Expanded Practice is the title of my PhD practice based research. This paper focuses on the extended boundaries of radio art, considering how radio art might be defined in relation to sound art, music, and media art. Mapping the shifting parameters of radio art in the digital era has prompted a consideration of how radio can be seen to be moving from being a predominantly shared "live" event to one consumed "...

  9. Hrvoje Tomić, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Mastelić Ivić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hrvoje Tomić defended his PhD thesis Geospatial Data Analysis for the Purpose of Real Estate Valuation in Urban Areas at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, on November 15, 2010. His mentor was Prof. Dr. Siniša Mastelić Ivić, and the other two members of the Grading and Defence Committee were Assist. Prof. Dr. Vlado Cetl and Prof. Dr. Goran Poljanec from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb.

  10. Non-Native Pre-Service English Teachers’ Narratives about Their Pronunciation Learning and Implications for Pronunciation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Wen Chien

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes 58 non-native pre-service elementary school English teachers’ narratives about their pronunciation learning and teaching. Two important findings emerge in this study.  First, participants did not have the same attitude toward their roles as non-native English speakers regarding pronunciation learning and teaching. Second, regardless of their attitude or roles as non-native English speakers, participants claimed that when they become language teachers in the future, they wi...

  11. Exploring PHD fingers and H3K4me0 interactions with molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations: AIRE-PHD1, a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Spiliotopoulos

    Full Text Available PHD fingers represent one of the largest families of epigenetic readers capable of decoding post-translationally modified or unmodified histone H3 tails. Because of their direct involvement in human pathologies they are increasingly considered as a potential therapeutic target. Several PHD/histone-peptide structures have been determined, however relatively little information is available on their dynamics. Studies aiming to characterize the dynamic and energetic determinants driving histone peptide recognition by epigenetic readers would strongly benefit from computational studies. Herein we focus on the dynamic and energetic characterization of the PHD finger subclass specialized in the recognition of histone H3 peptides unmodified in position K4 (H3K4me0. As a case study we focused on the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0. PCA analysis of the covariance matrix of free AIRE-PHD1 highlights the presence of a "flapping" movement, which is blocked in an open conformation upon binding to H3K4me0. Moreover, binding free energy calculations obtained through Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA methodology are in good qualitative agreement with experiments and allow dissection of the energetic terms associated with native and alanine mutants of AIRE-PHD1/H3K4me0 complexes. MM/PBSA calculations have also been applied to the energetic analysis of other PHD fingers recognizing H3K4me0. In this case we observe excellent correlation between computed and experimental binding free energies. Overall calculations show that H3K4me0 recognition by PHD fingers relies on compensation of the electrostatic and polar solvation energy terms and is stabilized by non-polar interactions.

  12. AIRE-PHD fingers are structural hubs to maintain the integrity of chromatin-associated interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Massimiliano; Matafora, Vittoria; Saare, Mario; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Mollica, Luca; Quilici, Giacomo; Chignola, Francesca; Mannella, Valeria; Zucchelli, Chiara; Peterson, Pärt; Bachi, Angela; Musco, Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene cause autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE is expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, where it promotes the expression of peripheral-tissue antigens to mediate deletional tolerance, thereby preventing self-reactivity. AIRE contains two plant homeodomains (PHDs) which are sites of pathological mutations. AIRE-PHD fingers are important for AIRE transcriptional activity and presumably play a crucial role in the formation of multimeric protein complexes at chromatin level which ultimately control immunological tolerance. As a step forward the understanding of AIRE-PHD fingers in normal and pathological conditions, we investigated their structure and used a proteomic SILAC approach to assess the impact of patient mutations targeting AIRE-PHD fingers. Importantly, both AIRE-PHD fingers are structurally independent and mutually non-interacting domains. In contrast to D297A and V301M on AIRE-PHD1, the C446G mutation on AIRE-PHD2 destroys the structural fold, thus causing aberrant AIRE localization and reduction of AIRE target genes activation. Moreover, mutations targeting AIRE-PHD1 affect the formation of a multimeric protein complex at chromatin level. Overall our results reveal the importance of AIRE-PHD domains in the interaction with chromatin-associated nuclear partners and gene regulation confirming the role of PHD fingers as versatile protein interaction hubs for multiple binding events.

  13. Emotion and lying in a non-native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Ayçiçeği-Dinn, Ayşe

    2009-03-01

    Bilingual speakers frequently report experiencing greater emotional resonance in their first language compared to their second. In Experiment 1, Turkish university students who had learned English as a foreign language had reduced skin conductance responses (SCRs) when listening to emotional phrases in English compared to Turkish, an effect which was most pronounced for childhood reprimands. A second type of emotional language, reading out loud true and false statements, was studied in Experiment 2. Larger SCRs were elicited by lies compared to true statements, and larger SCRs were evoked by English statements compared to Turkish statements. In contrast, ratings of how strongly participants felt they were lying showed that Turkish lies were more strongly felt than English lies. Results suggest that two factors influence the electrodermal activity elicited when bilingual speakers lie in their two languages: arousal due to emotions associated with lying, and arousal due to anxiety about managing speech production in non-native language. Anxiety and emotionality when speaking a non-naive language need to be better understood to inform practices ranging from bilingual psychotherapy to police interrogation of suspects and witnesses.

  14. Gopherus agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Non-native seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, J.R.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a non-native, highly invasive weed species of southwestern U.S. deserts. Sahara Mustard is a hardy species, which flourishes under many conditions including drought and in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats (West and Nabhan 2002. In B. Tellman [ed.], Invasive Plants: Their Occurrence and Possible Impact on the Central Gulf Coast of Sonora and the Midriff Islands in the Sea of Cortes, pp. 91–111. University of Arizona Press, Tucson). Because of this species’ ability to thrive in these habitats, B. tournefortii has been able to propagate throughout the southwestern United States establishing itself in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Unfortunately, naturally disturbed areas created by native species, such as the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), within these deserts could have facilitated the propagation of B. tournefortii. (Lovich 1998. In R. G. Westbrooks [ed.], Invasive Plants, Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book, p. 77. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds [FICMNEW], Washington, DC). However, Desert Tortoises have never been directly observed dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds. Here we present observations of two Desert Tortoises dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds at the interface between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in California.

  15. Effects of training on learning non-native speech contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Joan M.

    2002-05-01

    An animal psychoacoustic procedure was used to train human listeners to categorize two non-native phonemic distinctions. In Exp 1, Japanese perception of the English liquid contrast /r-l/ was examined. In Exp 2, American-English perception of the Hindi dental-retroflex contrast /d-D/was examined. The training methods were identical in the two studies. The stimuli consisted of 64 CVs produced by four different native talkers (two male, two female) using four different vowels. The procedure involved manually moving a lever to make either a ``go-left'' or ``go-right'' response to categorize the stimuli. Feedback was given for correct and incorrect responses after each trial. After 32 training sessions, lasting about 8 weeks, performance was analyzed using both percent correct and response time as measures. Results showed that the Japanese listeners, as a group, were statistically similar to a group of native listeners in categorizing the liquid contrast. In contrast, the Amercan-English listeners were not nativelike in categorizing the dental-retroflex contrast. Hypotheses for the different results in the two experiments are discussed, including possible subject-related variables. In addition, the use of an animal model is proposed to objectively ``calibrate'' the psychoacoustic salience of various phoneme contrasts used in human speech.

  16. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Huang, Ko-Pu; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Huang, Shou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages) on ecosystem services (ES) based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%), but wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species) due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands. PMID:25860870

  17. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  18. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's highlands and mountain areas.

  19. I-determinants for a successful PhD or postdoctoral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Many resources are invested in research training, but very little literature exists on predictors for a successful PhD and postdoctoral training outcome. A PhD program has two overall objectives: to extend knowledge about a hopefully important health topic and to provide extensive training to improve the PhD student's skills through learning research methods and collaboration. A substantial number of PhD students may run into some kind of problem in the course of their PhD program. In this article, some determinants all starting with an "I" and indicative of a good PhD outcome are reported. The successful PhD student can be described as having an Interest in the PhD program, an Incentive for the program, and an Idea of what he or she wants to investigate, showing Initiative, and having high personal Integrity and good Interpersonal relationships. When these so-called I-determinants are present, the likelihood of success in a PhD program is high. More evidence is available for selection of candidates for postdoctoral appointments since it is known that the postdoctoral candidate has completed a PhD program, published papers in peer-reviewed journals, and received awarded grants. However, other characteristics determine a successful transition of the postdoctoral candidate into a research leader. These determinants are Identity, Independence and Image, Implementation ability in terms of being able to implement decisions and projects, working with Innovative and Important topics, having In-depth knowledge of the research topic, being Interactive and Integrated with the scientific community, and Internationally oriented. In conclusion, regardless of the framework of research, the personal characteristics of a researcher play a very important role in the quality of research. Application of some of the principles mentioned in this article might allow decision to reach a more evidence-based way to recruit PhD students and postdoctorals.

  20. Neural activation in speech production and reading aloud in native and non-native languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Watkins, Kate E; Baum, Shari; Callahan, Megan; Klein, Denise

    2015-05-15

    We used fMRI to investigate neural activation in reading aloud in bilinguals differing in age of acquisition. Three groups were compared: French-English bilinguals who acquired two languages from birth (simultaneous), French-English bilinguals who learned their L2 after the age of 5 years (sequential), and English-speaking monolinguals. While the bilingual groups contrasted in age of acquisition, they were matched for language proficiency, although sequential bilinguals produced speech with a less native-like accent in their L2 than in their L1. Simultaneous bilinguals activated similar brain regions to an equivalent degree when reading in their two languages. In contrast, sequential bilinguals more strongly activated areas related to speech-motor control and orthographic to phonological mapping, the left inferior frontal gyrus, left premotor cortex, and left fusiform gyrus, when reading aloud in L2 compared to L1. In addition, the activity in these regions showed a significant positive correlation with age of acquisition. The results provide evidence for the engagement of overlapping neural substrates for processing two languages when acquired in native context from birth. However, it appears that the maturation of certain brain regions for both speech production and phonological encoding is limited by a sensitive period for L2 acquisition regardless of language proficiency.

  1. Linguistic influences in adult perception of non-native vowel contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, L

    1995-02-01

    Perception of natural productions of two German vowels contrasts, /y/ vs /u/ and /Y/ vs /U/, was examined in monolingual English-speaking adults. Subjects were tested on multiple exemplars of the contrasting vowels produced in a dVt syllable by a native German speaker. Discrimination accuracy in an AXB discrimination task was well above chance for both contrasts. Most of the English adults failed to attain "nativelike" discrimination accuracy for the lax vowel pair /U/ vs /Y/, whereas all subjects showed nativelike performance in discriminating the tense vowel pair /u/ vs /y/. Results of a keyword identification and rating task provided evidence that English listeners' mapping of the German vowel to English vowel categories can be characterized as a category goodness difference assimilation, and that the difference in category goodness was more pronounced for the tense vowel pair than for the lax vowel pair. The results failed to support the hypothesis that the acoustic structure of vowels consistently favors auditory coding. Overall, the findings are compatible with existing data on discrimination of cross-language consonant contrasts in natural speech and suggest that linguistic experience shapes the discrimination of vowels and consonants as phonetic segmental units in similar ways.

  2. Unique structural modulation of a non-native substrate by cochaperone DnaJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Satyam; Kumar, Vignesh; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Maiti, Souvik; Mapa, Koyeli

    2013-02-12

    The role of bacterial DnaJ protein as a cochaperone of DnaK is strongly appreciated. Although DnaJ unaccompanied by DnaK can bind unfolded as well as native substrate proteins, its role as an individual chaperone remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that DnaJ binds a model non-native substrate with a low nanomolar dissociation constant and, more importantly, modulates the structure of its non-native state. The structural modulation achieved by DnaJ is different compared to that achieved by the DnaK-DnaJ complex. The nature of structural modulation exerted by DnaJ is suggestive of a unique unfolding activity on the non-native substrate by the chaperone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zinc binding motif along with the C-terminal substrate binding domain of DnaJ is necessary and sufficient for binding and the subsequent binding-induced structural alterations of the non-native substrate. We hypothesize that this hitherto unknown structural alteration of non-native states by DnaJ might be important for its chaperoning activity by removing kinetic traps of the folding intermediates.

  3. Looking through phonological shape to lexical meaning: the bottleneck of non-native sign language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, R I; Fischer, S D

    1989-11-01

    In two studies, we find that native and non-native acquisition show different effects on sign language processing. Subjects were all born deaf and used sign language for interpersonal communication, but first acquired it at ages ranging from birth to 18. In the first study, deaf signers shadowed (simultaneously watched and reproduced) sign language narratives given in two dialects, American Sign Language (ASL) and Pidgin Sign English (PSE), in both good and poor viewing conditions. In the second study, deaf signers recalled and shadowed grammatical and ungrammatical ASL sentences. In comparison with non-native signers, natives were more accurate, comprehended better, and made different kinds of lexical changes; natives primarily changed signs in relation to sign meaning independent of the phonological characteristics of the stimulus. In contrast, non-native signers primarily changed signs in relation to the phonological characteristics of the stimulus independent of lexical and sentential meaning. Semantic lexical changes were positively correlated to processing accuracy and comprehension, whereas phonological lexical changes were negatively correlated. The effects of non-native acquisition were similar across variations in the sign dialect, viewing condition, and processing task. The results suggest that native signers process lexical structural automatically, such that they can attend to and remember lexical and sentential meaning. In contrast, non-native signers appear to allocate more attention to the task of identifying phonological shape such that they have less attention available for retrieval and memory of lexical meaning.

  4. Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Beyond the PhD Professional Development Program: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Jearld, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Huggans, M.; Ricciardi, L.; Thomas, S. H.; Jansma, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S)® initiative launched its newest activity entitled the MS PHD'S "Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program." This exciting new program was designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. The MS PHD'S B-PhD provides customized support and advocacy for MS PHD'S B-PhD participants in order to facilitate smoother and informed transitions from graduate school, to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In November 2011 the first cohort of MS PHD'S B-PhD participants engaged in intensive sessions on the following topics: "Toolkits for Success for Academia, Business/Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This pilot event, which was hosted by the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science, also provided opportunities for participants to serve as guest lecturers in the UTA's Colleges of Science and Engineering and included one-on-one discussions with MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers who are well established within their individual ESS fields. Insights regarding opportunities, challenges and obstacles commonly faced by URMs within the ESS fields, as well as strategies for success were shared by MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers. Survey results indicate that MS PHD'S B-PhD participants appreciated not only the material covered during this pilot activity, but also appreciated the opportunity to become part of a community of young URM ESS

  5. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  6. Research(er) at Home: Auto/Ethnography of (My) PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benová, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the PhD phase of tertiary higher education (in Slovakia), which is here considered as the specific phase of the academic career. It tries to answer the question: what is the PhD, in the context of research, theoretically and methodologically approached as a critical ethnography of higher education. It is focused on the…

  7. Enhancing the Industrial PhD Programme as a Policy Tool for University-Industry Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roolaht, Tõnu

    2015-01-01

    The changing role of universities in society includes the increasing expectation that academic institutions should engage in collaboration with companies. Industrial PhD programmes are educational tools for building bridges between the academic sector and industry. In these programmes, the PhD student studies and carries out research while being…

  8. Enhancing the Industrial PhD Programme as a Policy Tool for University-Industry Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roolaht, Tõnu

    2015-01-01

    The changing role of universities in society includes the increasing expectation that academic institutions should engage in collaboration with companies. Industrial PhD programmes are educational tools for building bridges between the academic sector and industry. In these programmes, the PhD student studies and carries out research while being…

  9. Intercultural PhD Supervision: Exploring the Hidden Curriculum in a Social Science Faculty Doctoral Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Joanna; Manathunga, Catherine; Cornforth, Sue

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge markets rely heavily on a ready supply of highly mobile doctoral students, many of whom are from the global South, to bring in revenue. The supervision of these PhD students, however, can reproduce neo-colonial knowledge relations, often in subtle ways. In settler nations, international PhD students may find that they are…

  10. Creating Entrepreneurial Networks: Academic Entrepreneurship, Mobility and Collaboration during PhD Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, Dzamila; Klofsten, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Network-building activities of PhD students are an important area of study in furthering our understanding of academic entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on PhD students' participation in network-building activities defined as mobility and collaboration, as well as own interest in and perceived grade of support for commercialisation from various…

  11. Searching for "A Third Space": A Creative Pathway towards International PhD Students' Academic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely Lazarte; Baumfield, Vivienne; Reid, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Undertaking a PhD is a challenging endeavour. Pursuing a doctoral education in a "foreign" context tends to increase the demands of this intellectual venture. The nature of research-based PhD programmes, often characterised by a lack of formal curricula where academic supervision lasts several years, may add another layer of complexity.…

  12. Self-efficacy is related to PhD completion time: possible tool for interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Every two years the University of Groningen evaluates PhD' satisfaction concerning education and working environment. The goal is to create an environment in which PhD's can develop the necessary research skills for their projects as well as finish these projects in time. At Dutch universities most

  13. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists: The Berkeley Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley sends more undergraduate students to economics PhD programs than any other public university. While this fact is surely a function of its size, there may be lessons from the Berkeley experience that others could adopt. To investigate why Berkeley generates so many economics PhD students, the author convened…

  14. The Virtual Observatory Powered PhD Thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The Virtual Observatory has reached sufficient maturity for its routine scientific exploitation by astronomers. To prove this statement, here I present a brief description of the complete VO-powered PhD thesis entitled "Galactic and extragalactic research with modern surveys and the Virtual Observatory" comprising 4 science cases covering various aspects of astrophysical research. These comprize: (1) homogeneous search and measurement of main physical parameters of Galactic open star clusters in huge multi-band photometric surveys; (2) study of optical-to-NIR galaxy colors using a large homogeneous dataset including spectroscopy and photometry from SDSS and UKIDSS; (3) study of faint low-mass X-ray binary population in modern observational archives; (4) search for optical counterparts of unidentified X-ray objects with large positional uncertainties in the Galactic Plane. All these projects make heavy use of the VO technologies and tools and would not be achievable without them. So refereed papers published i...

  15. PHD2: from hypoxia regulation to disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Ana M; Wielockx, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen represents one of the major molecules required for the development and maintenance of life. An adequate response to hypoxia is therefore required for the functioning of the majority of living organisms and relies on the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 (PHD2) has long been recognized as the major regulator of this response, controlling a myriad of outcomes that range from cell death to proliferation. However, this enzyme has been associated with more pathways, making the role of this protein remarkably complex under distinct pathologies. While a protective role seems to exist in physiological conditions such as erythropoiesis; the picture is more complex during pathologies such as cancer. Since the regulation of this enzyme and its closest family members is currently considered as a possible therapy for various diseases, understanding the different particular roles of this protein is essential.

  16. On M. Mueter's Ph.D. Thesis on Cheeger deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ziller, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    These are notes of a talk I gave in a seminar at the University of Pennsylvania summarizing results in the Ph.D. thesis of Michael Mueter obtained under the direction of Wolfgang Meyer at the University of Muenster. His thesis on "Kruemmungserhoehende Deformationen mittels Gruppenaktionen" examines in detail curvature properties of so called Cheeger deformations. Such deformations have been a crucial ingredient in non-negative and positive curvature constructions. His thesis contains a wealth of interesting properties of such deformations, but since it was never published, is only known to a few experts. I have no intention to publish these notes, but post them as a service to the public. A scanned version of his thesis (written in German) is available on my homepage.

  17. PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe Emil

    consists of a collection of 5 peer-reviewed papers, and an extended summary. The project is overall related to the construction of new Danish hospitals, where the design concept healing architecture is intro- duced in a national context, representing the vision of a promoted healing process of hospitalised...... of plastic, vinyl and steel. These materials also dominate the new hospitals, designed and constructed these years, and despite the increased focus on the design concept healing architecture, the rational requirements of ef cient cleaning and maintenance still seems to direct the interior design of hospital...... of this PhD project has been to explore the possibilities and design qualities of using these materials in hospital inte- rior design. Relating to both technical and aesthetic aspects of using functional textiles in hospitals, the project seeks to integrate these aspects, departing from the overall research...

  18. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Jodi Letkiewicz, Ph.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Letkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jodi Letkiewicz, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of finance at York University in Toronto, Ontario. She teaches in the Certified Financial Planner® Core Curriculum program preparing undergraduate students for the Canadian CFP® certification and conducts research in several areas of personal finance and consumer decision-making, including behavioral aspects influencing the decision to seek financial help, how personality traits affect financial decision-making, and the financial state of young adults, including the impact student loans have on overall well-being and financial milestones early in their adult life. Dr. Letkiewicz’s goal is to increase financial well-being in the general public, which she hopes to accomplish through teaching, research, and community outreach.

  19. Attitude of PhD Students Towards Academic Dishonesty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Grincevičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of academic dishonesty. Looking over the results of research done in foreign countries (the USA, Romania, Poland, it is possible to assert that the ethics of a scientist is a topical problem nowadays not only in Lithuania but also all over the world. The results of pilot research show that although in all curricula, textbooks and other sources it is declared that each researcher or a team must keep to certain ethics rules, not everything goes well. Respondents were first year PhD students of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (N=51. Taking into account the results, more attention should be paid to the analysis and correction of the situation.

  20. Analysis list: ph-d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ph-d Cell line,Embryo + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/p...h-d.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ph-d.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/ph-d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ph-d.Cell_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ph-d.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml ...