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Sample records for nonmycorrhizal plants predominated

  1. Osmotic Adjustment in Leaves of VA Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Rose Plants in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, R M; Schekel, K A; Wample, R L

    1986-11-01

    Osmotic adjustment in Rosa hybrida L. cv Samantha was characterized by the pressure-volume approach in drought-acclimated and unacclimated plants brought to the same level of drought strain, as assayed by stomatal closure. Plants were colonized by either of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss and Menge or G. intraradices Schenck and Smith, or were nonmycorrhizal. Both the acclimation and the mycorrhizal treatments decreased the osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) of leaves at full turgor and at the turgor loss point, with a corresponding increase in pressure potential at full turgor. Mycorrhizae enabled plants to maintain leaf turgor and conductance at greater tissue water deficits, and lower leaf and soil water potentials, when compared with nonmycorrhizal plants. As indicated by the Psi(pi) at the turgor loss point, the active Psi(pi) depression which attended mycorrhizal colonization alone was 0.4 to 0.6 megapascals, and mycorrhizal colonization and acclimation in concert 0.6 to 0.9 megapascals, relative to unacclimated controls without mycorrhizae. Colonization levels and sporulation were higher in plants subjected to acclimation. In unacclimated hosts, leaf water potential, water saturation deficit, and soil water potential at a particular level of drought strain were affected most by G. intraradices. G. deserticola had the greater effect after drought preconditioning.

  2. Competitive interactions between a nonmycorrhizal invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, and a suite of mycorrhizal grassland, old field, and forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Gary T; Maherali, Hafiz

    2015-01-01

    The widespread invasion of the nonmycorrhizal biennial plant, Alliaria petiolata in North America is hypothesized to be facilitated by the production of novel biochemical weapons that suppress the growth of mycorrhizal fungi. As a result, A. petiolata is expected to be a strong competitor against plant species that rely on mycorrhizal fungi for nutrient uptake services. If A. petiolata is also a strong competitor for soil resources, it should deplete nutrients to levels lower than can be tolerated by weaker competitors. Because the negative effect of losing the fungal symbiont for mycorrhizal plants is greatest when nutrients are low, the ability of A. petiolata to simultaneously suppress fungi and efficiently take up soil nutrients should further strengthen its competitive ability against mycorrhizal plants. To test this hypothesis, we grew 27 mycorrhizal tree, forb and grass species that are representative of invaded habitats in the absence or presence of competition with A. petiolata in soils that had previously been experimentally planted with the invader or left as a control. A history of A. petiolata in soil reduced plant available forms of nitrogen by >50% and phosphorus by 17% relative to control soil. Average mycorrhizal colonization of competitor species was reduced by >50% in A. petiolata history versus control soil. Contrary to expectations, competition between A. petiolata and other species was stronger in control than history soil. The invader suppressed the biomass of 70% of competitor species in control soil but only 26% of species in history soil. In addition, A. petiolata biomass was reduced by 56% in history versus control soil, whereas the average biomass of competitor species was reduced by 15%. Thus, our results suggest that the negative effect of nutrient depletion on A. petiolata was stronger than the negative effect of suppressing mycorrhizal colonization on competitor species. These findings indicate that the inhibitory potential of A

  3. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Calonne-Salmon, Maryline; Plouznikoff, Katia; Misson, Coralie; Navarrete-Mier, Micaela; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h) from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h) as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  4. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  5. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine under two fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2015-07-01

    Survival and functioning of mycorrhizal associations at low temperatures are not known well. In an earlier study, ectomycorrhizas did not affect the frost hardiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots, but here we studied whether differential nutrient availability would change the result and additionally, alter frost hardiness aboveground. The aim in this experiment was to compare the frost hardiness of roots and needles of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings raised using two fertilization treatments and two cold-hardening regimes. The fertilization treatments were low (LF) and high (HF) application of a complete nutrient solution. Three hundred mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were cultivated in growth chambers in four blocks for 16 weeks. For the first 9 weeks, the seedlings grew in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) with low fertilization and then they were raised for 3 weeks in LDHT with either low or high fertilization. After this, half of the plants in each treatment combination remained in LDHT, and half were transferred to short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimatize. The frost hardiness of the roots and needles was assessed using controlled freezing tests followed by electrolyte leakage tests (REL). Mycorrhizal roots were slightly more frost hardy than non-mycorrhizal roots, but only in the growing-season conditions (LDHT) in low-nutrient treatment. In LDHT and LF, the frost hardiness of the non-mycorrhizal roots was about -9 °C, and that of the non-mycorrhizal HF roots and the mycorrhizal roots in both fertilization levels was about -11 °C. However, no difference was found in the roots within the SDLT regime, and in needles, there was no difference between mycorrhizal and fertilization treatments. The frost hardiness of needles increased by SDLT treatment, being -8.5 and -14.1 °C in LDHT and SDLT, respectively. The dry mass of roots, stems, and needles was lower in LF than in

  6. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

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    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  7. Drought and Oxidative Load in the Leaves of C3 Plants: a Predominant Role for Photorespiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOCTOR, GRAHAM; VELJOVIC‐JOVANOVIC, SONJA; DRISCOLL, SIMON; NOVITSKAYA, LARISSA; FOYER, CHRISTINE H.

    2002-01-01

    Although active oxygen species are produced at high rates in both the chloroplasts and peroxisomes of the leaves of C3 plants, most attention has focused on the potentially damaging consequences of enhanced chloroplastic production in stress conditions such as drought. This article attempts to provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of the chloroplast electron transport chain and the glycolate oxidase reaction to the oxidative load placed on the photosynthetic leaf cell. Rates of photorespiratory H2O2 production were obtained from photosynthetic and photorespiratory flux rates, derived from steady‐state leaf gas exchange measurements at varying irradiance and ambient CO2. Assuming a 10 % allocation of photosynthetic electron flow to the Mehler reaction, photorespiratory H2O2 production would account for about 70 % of total H2O2 formed at all irradiances measured. When chloroplastic CO2 concentration rates are decreased, photorespiration becomes even more predominant in H2O2 generation. At the increased flux through photorespiration observed at lower ambient CO2, the Mehler reaction would have to account for more than 35 % of the total photosynthetic electron flow in order to match the rate of peroxisomal H2O2 production. The potential signalling role of H2O2 produced in the peroxisomes is emphasized, and it is demonstrated that photorespiratory H2O2 can perturb the redox states of leaf antioxidant pools. We discuss the interactions between oxidants, antioxidants and redox changes leading to modified gene expression, particularly in relation to drought, and call attention to the potential significance of photorespiratory H2O2 in signalling and acclimation. PMID:12102510

  8. Predominance of self-compatibility in hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Saad, Carolina Farias; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Both plant traits and plant-pollinator interactions are thought to influence plant mating systems. For hummingbird-pollinated plants, foraging strategy (territorial or traplining) is also expected to influence plant mating. We hypothesize that the traplining behavior of hermits promotes outcrossing, whereas the behavior of non-hermits favours self-incompatibility. Thus, selection is expected to maintain self-incompatibility in plants pollinated by non-hermits. We explore the incidence of self-incompatibility in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants and its association with hummingbird behavior and plant traits. We conducted a literature review (56 species) and performed hand-pollination experiments in 27 hummingbird-pollinated plants in an Atlantic rainforest. We found that self-incompatibility (measured as hummingbird-pollinated plants. The interaction of hummingbird and habit type affected ISI, as did phylogenetic relationships. Specifically, herbs pollinated by non-hermits had higher ISI than woody plants pollinated by non-hermits, and herbs pollinated by both hermits and non-hermits. For the Atlantic rainforest plant guild, 30 % of the species were self-incompatible. ISI was higher in herbs than in woody species and increased with plant aggregation but was not dependent on foraging behavior, plant density, or floral display. Although hummingbirds differ in their foraging strategies, these behavioral differences seem to have only a minor influence on the incidence of self-incompatibility. Phylogenetic relatedness seems to be the strongest determinant of mating system in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants.

  9. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in predominantly selfing plants with limited seed dispersal: A rule or exception?

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    Sergei Volis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow at a fine scale is still poorly understood despite its recognized importance for plant population demographic and genetic processes. We tested the hypothesis that intensity of gene flow will be lower and strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS will be higher in more peripheral populations because of lower population density. The study was performed on the predominantly selfing Avena sterilis and included: (1 direct measurement of dispersal in a controlled environment; and (2 analyses of SGS in three natural populations, sampled in linear transects at fixed increasing inter-plant distances. We found that in A. sterilis major seed dispersal is by gravity in close (less than 2 m vicinity of the mother plant, with a minor additional effect of wind. Analysis of SGS with six nuclear SSRs revealed a significant autocorrelation for the distance class of 1 m only in the most peripheral desert population, while in the two core populations with Mediterranean conditions, no genetic structure was found. Our results support the hypothesis that intensity of SGS increases from the species core to periphery as a result of decreased within-population gene flow related to low plant density. Our findings also show that predominant self-pollination and highly localized seed dispersal lead to SGS at a very fine scale, but only if plant density is not too high.

  10. Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Joseph, G. Victoria; Wang, Chunlin; Jones, Morris; Fellers, Gary M.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Delwart, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a variety of viruses capable of zoonotic transmissions. Because of increased contact between bats, humans, and other animal species, the possibility exists for further cross-species transmissions and ensuing disease outbreaks. We describe here full and partial viral genomes identified using metagenomics in the guano of bats from California and Texas. A total of 34% and 58% of 390,000 sequence reads from bat guano in California and Texas, respectively, were related to eukaryotic viruses, and the largest proportion of those infect insects, reflecting the diet of these insectivorous bats, including members of the viral families Dicistroviridae, Iflaviridae, Tetraviridae, and Nodaviridae and the subfamily Densovirinae. The second largest proportion of virus-related sequences infects plants and fungi, likely reflecting the diet of ingested insects, including members of the viral families Luteoviridae, Secoviridae, Tymoviridae, and Partitiviridae and the genus Sobemovirus. Bat guano viruses related to those infecting mammals comprised the third largest group, including members of the viral families Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, Adenoviridae, Poxviridae, Astroviridae, and Coronaviridae. No close relative of known human viral pathogens was identified in these bat populations. Phylogenetic analysis was used to clarify the relationship to known viral taxa of novel sequences detected in bat guano samples, showing that some guano viral sequences fall outside existing taxonomic groups. This initial characterization of the bat guano virome, the first metagenomic analysis of viruses in wild mammals using second-generation sequencing, therefore showed the presence of previously unidentified viral species, genera, and possibly families. Viral metagenomics is a useful tool for genetically characterizing viruses present in animals with the known capability of direct or indirect viral zoonosis to humans.

  11. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

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    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  12. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...... fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments...... was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite...

  13. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2013-10-01

    The frost hardiness (FH) of mycorrhizal [ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings was studied to assess whether mycorrhizal symbiosis affected the roots' tolerance of below-zero temperatures. ECM (Hebeloma sp.) and NM seedlings were cultivated in a growth chamber for 18 weeks. After 13 weeks' growth in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) conditions, a half of the ECM and NM seedlings were moved into a chamber with short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimate. After exposures to a range of below-zero temperatures, the FH of the roots was assessed by means of the relative electrolyte leakage test. The FH was determined as the inflection point of the temperature-response curve. No significant difference was found between the FH of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots in LDHT (-8.9 and -9.8 °C) or SDLT (-7.5 and -6.8 °C). The mycorrhizal treatment had no significant effect on the total dry mass, the allocation of dry mass among the roots and needles or nutrient accumulation. The mycorrhizal treatment with Hebeloma sp. did not affect the FH of Scots pine in this experimental setup. More information is needed on the extent to which mycorrhizas tolerate low temperatures, especially with different nutrient contents and different mycorrhiza fungi.

  14. Interactions of NH4+ and L-glutamate with NO3- transport processes of non-mycorrhizal Fagus sylvatica roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuzwieser, J; Herschbach, C; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, P; Vaalburg, W; Rennenberg, H

    The processes of NO3- uptake and transport and the effects of NH4+ or L-glutamate on these processes were investigated with excised non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L,) roots, NO3- net uptake followed uniphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics in a concentration range of 10 mu M to 1 mM with an

  15. Distribution patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant species in Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menzel, A.; Hempel, S.; Manceur, A. M.; Götzenberger, Lars; Moora, M.; Rilling, M.C.; Zobel, M.; Kühn, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, August 2016 (2016), s. 78-88 ISSN 1433-8319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * distribution model * Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.123, year: 2016

  16. Antenna-predominant and male-biased CSP19 of Sesamia inferens is able to bind the female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Yang, Ke; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-02-25

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors (ORs), but this has not been clarified in moths. In this study, we built on our previously reported segment sequence work and cloned the full length CSP19 gene (SinfCSP19) from the antennae of Sesamia inferens by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) assays indicated that the gene was expressed in a unique profile, i.e. predominant in antennae and significantly higher in male than in female. To explore the function, recombinant SinfCSP19 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified by Ni-ion affinity chromatography. Binding affinities of the recombinant SinfCSP19 with 39 plant volatiles, 3 sex pheromone components and 10 pheromone analogs were measured using fluorescent competitive binding assays. The results showed that 6 plant volatiles displayed high binding affinities to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 2.12-8.75 μM), and more interesting, the 3 sex pheromone components and analogs showed even higher binding to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 0.49-1.78 μM). Those results suggest that SinfCSP19 plays a role in reception of female sex pheromones of S. inferens and host plant volatiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential access to phosphorus pools of an Oxisol by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could take up phosphorus (P) from pools that are normally considered unavailable to plants. An aluminum (Al) resistant maize variety, inoculated with three species of Glomus or uninoculated, supplied with nutrient solution without P,

  18. Plant mycorrhizal traits in Europe in relation to climatic and edaphic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Bueno, C.; Gerz, Maret; Zobel, Martin; Moora, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Around 90% of plant species associate with mycorrhizal fungi. The symbiosis is known to provide plants with soil N, P and water, and fungi with plant photosynthesized carbohydrates. However, not all mycorrhizal symbioses are identical. The identity of associated plant and fungal species differs, as does the effect of the symbiosis on nutrient cycling and ecosystems more generally. In this study, we analysed the European distribution of two plant mycorrhizal traits in relation to climatic and edaphic drivers. We used the European distribution of the frequency of mycorrhizal colonization (plant mycorrhizal status); whether mycorrhizal fungi either always (obligately mycorrhizal, OM), or sometimes (facultatively mycorrhizal, FM) colonize plant roots, and the four main plant mycorrhizal types; arbuscular (AM), ecto-(ECM), ericoid (ERM), and non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. We expected AM species to predominate in ecosystems where most soil nutrients occur in inorganic forms (lower latitudes) and those with higher soil pH. By contrast, due to the saprophytic abilities of ECM and ERM fungi, we expected ECM and ERM plants to predominate in ecosystems where nutrients are bound to organic compounds (higher latitudes) and those with lower soil pH. NM plant species are known to be common in disturbed habitats or in extremely phosphorus poor ecosystems, such as the Arctic tundra. Our results showed that the distribution of mycorrhizal types was driven by temperature and soil pH, with increases of NM, ECM and ERM, and decreases of AM, with latitude. FM predominated over OM species and this difference increased with latitude and was dependent on temperature drivers only. These results represent the first evidence at a European scale of plant mycorrhizal distribution patterns linked with climatic and edaphic gradients, supporting the idea of a tight relationship between the mycorrhizal symbiosis and nutrient cycling.

  19. Mycorrhizal status of plants in two successional stages on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia (SW Poland

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    Dorota Kasowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of two plant communities representing an initial stage (1-2 year-old and a 8-9-year-old stage of succession on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia, Poland, was determined. In the initial stage, the mycorrhizal structures were not observed in 39% of the investigated species; they were members of the Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae families. The relative cover of non-mycorrhizal plants exceeded 50% and the major role was played by the Polygonum aviculare population, which predominated the whole community. Mycorrhizal species (arbuscular mycorrhizae contributed to 61 % of the composition of the initial phyto-coenosis. The most numerous taxa were those with 20-40% of the root length colonized, with a small number of arbuscules (0.2-3.1% of the root length containig arbuscules and no vesicles. In the advanced stage of succession, mycorrhizal plants definitely dominated and the major role was played by the Tussilago farfara population. Compared with the initial stage, the later one also harboured more plants with mycorrhizas occupied >40% of the root length, as well as containing numerous arbuscules (>20% of the root length and vesicles. The non-mycorrhizal species, i.e., Equisetum arvense and Poa compressa, represented 11 % o': the community composition and their relative cover amounted to 3%. Despite the relatively frequent occurrence of the arbuscular mycorrhizae in the initial stage of succession, the qualitative properties of the colonization indicated a low effectiveness of symbiosis. This could be caused by the lack of adaptation of the fungal symbiont to the edaphic conditions which were changed after disturbance.

  20. Mycorrhizal symbiosis produces changes in specific flavonoids in leaves of pepper plant (Capsicum annum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, experiments were performed to investigate if mycorrhizal plants grown under optimal growth conditions would improve crop quality compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The results clearly showed that while mycorrhizal plants grown under an optimal nutrient supply did not increase t...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter phosphorus relations of broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, J.C.; Cumming, J.R.

    2001-07-01

    Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.) is a dominant grass revegetating many abandoned coal-mined lands in West Virginia, USA. Residual soils on such sites are often characterized by low pH, low nutrients, and high aluminium. Experiments were conducted to assess the resistance of broomsedge to limited phosphorus (Pi) availability and to investigate the role that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play in aiding plant growth under low Pi conditions. Pregerminated mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in a sand-culture system with nutrient solutions containing Pi concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M for 8 weeks. Non-mycorrhizal plants exhibited severe inhibition of growth under Pi limitation ({lt}60 {mu}M). Colonization by AM fungi greatly enhanced host plant growth at low Pi concentrations, but did not benefit growth when Pi was readily available (100 {mu}M). In comparison to non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants had higher phosphorus use efficiency at low Pi concentrations and maintained nearly constant tissue nutrient concentrations across the gradient of Pi concentrations investigated. Manganese (Mn) and sodium (Na) accumulated in shoots of nonmycorrhizal plants under Pi limitation. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited lower instantaneous Pi uptake rates and significantly lower C-min values compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. These patterns suggest that the symbiotic association between broomsedge roots and AM fungi effectively maintains nutrient homeostasis through changes in physiological properties, including nutrient uptake, allocation and use. The mycorrhizal association is thus a major adaptation that allows broomsedge to become established on infertile mined lands.

  2. Genotypic variation in the response of chickpea to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazghaleh, Navid; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Knight, Joan Diane

    2018-04-01

    Plant roots host symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other fungal endophytes that can impact plant growth and health. The impact of microbial interactions in roots may depend on the genetic properties of the host plant and its interactions with root-associated fungi. We conducted a controlled condition experiment to investigate the effect of several chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes on the efficiency of the symbiosis with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Whereas the AM symbiosis increased the biomass of most of the chickpea cultivars, inoculation with non-AM fungal endophytes had a neutral effect. The chickpea cultivars responded differently to co-inoculation with AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes. Co-inoculation had additive effects on the biomass of some cultivars (CDC Corrine, CDC Anna, and CDC Cory), but non-AM fungal endophytes reduced the positive effect of AM fungi on Amit and CDC Vanguard. This study demonstrated that the response of plant genotypes to an AM symbiosis can be modified by the simultaneous colonization of the roots by non-AM fungal endophytes. Intraspecific variations in the response of chickpea to AM fungi and non-AM fungal endophytes indicate that the selection of suitable genotypes may improve the ability of crop plants to take advantage of soil ecosystem services.

  3. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  4. Reaction of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine fine roots along a deposition gradient of air pollutants in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzenberger, B.; Schminke, B.; Strubelt, F.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) (alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizal, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-site Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs. 14 refs., 4 figs

  5. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

    2004-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions.

  6. Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Y.H.; Carbonnier, D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common believe, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires to take various actions, ranging from a daily basis to a multi-annual prospective standpoint. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary. The coordination systems implemented by EDF aim to control these parameters for the benefit of electricity consumers. (author)

  7. Uptake of pulse injected nitrogen by soil microbes and mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants in a species-diverse subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Jonasson, Sven; Strom, Lena

    2008-01-01

    15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhiza......15N labeled ammonium, glycine or glutamic acid was injected into subarctic heath soil in situ, with the purpose of investigating how the nitrogen added in these pulses was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the acquisition of 15N label in mycorrhizal and non...

  8. Predominant melliferous plants of the western Sudano Guinean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Spontaneous PMP were more represented. Perennial PMP were highly visited by Apis mellifera adansonii. PMP with white colour flower are the most utilized by bees compared to other colours. When seasonal exploitation was considered, the proportion of PMP exploited in the rainy season was higher. Eucalyptus saligna,.

  9. Uptake of 32P from labelled organic matter by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    -32 uptake at all P levels. Specific activity in plants was consistently higher than in corresponding soil. This indicates that the added P-32 never reached an equilibrium with inorganic P in the soil. P mineralized from organic matter thus had a residence time in the soil solution short enough...

  10. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  11. Vertigo as a Predominant Manifestation of Neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim F. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are less common and can include cranial neuropathies and intracranial lesions. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with vertigo and uveitis. Extensive workup including brain imaging revealed enhancing focal lesions. A lacrimal gland biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient was initially treated with prednisone, which did not adequately control his symptoms, and then was switched to methotrexate with moderate symptomatic improvement. Our patient had an atypical presentation with vertigo as the predominant manifestation of sarcoidosis. Patients with neurosarcoidosis typically present with systemic involvement of sarcoidosis followed by neurologic involvement. Vertigo is rarely reported as an initial manifestation. This case highlights the importance of consideration of neurosarcoidosis as an entity even in patients that may not have a typical presentation or systemic involvement of disease.

  12. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.; Khan, S.U.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of bound 14 C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14 C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14 C residues, as measured by 14 C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants from the Mountain Botanical Garden in Zakopane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Zubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of 77 plant species collected from the Mountain Botanical Garden of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Zakopane (southern Poland was surveyed. These plants include rare, endemic and threatened species in the Tatra Mts. (the Western Carpathians and are maintained in the botanical garden in order to develop effective methods of protection and cultivation. Plants belonging to Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Juncaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae and Woodsiaceae families were nonmycorrhizal. 41 species formed AM symbiosis. Spores of nine AMF spccies (Glomeromycota, including Archaeospora trappei, Glomus aggregatum, G. claroideum, G. constrictum, G. deserticola, G. geosponrum, G. microcarpum, G. mosseae and G.rubiforme were isolated for the first time from this region of Poland. In addition, the occurrence of the fine endophyte, G. tenue was detected in roots of 18 species from the study area, although formation of arbuscules by this fungus was observed rarely. AM fungi were sporadically accompanied by dark septate endophytes (DSE. 70% of nonmycorrhizal plant sepcies were devoid of DSE.

  14. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  15. Communication Apprehension among Black Students on Predominantly White Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.; Sims, Anntarie L.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 114 Black undergraduates in two predominantly White midwestern universities demonstrates that communication apprehension (CA) among Blacks appears to be an audience-based phenomenon. Black females scored lower than Black males on the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The higher the CA score, the higher the…

  16. Polaromonas and Hydrogenophaga species are the predominant bacteria cultured from granular activated carbon filters in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Identification of the predominating cultivable bacteria in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in a variety of water treatment plants for selecting representative strains to study the role of bacteria in the removal of dissolved organic matter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates

  17. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae can enhance arsenic tolerance in Medicago truncatula by increasing plant phosphorus status and restricting arsenate uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pengliang; Christie, Peter; Liu Yu; Zhang Junling; Li Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment examined the biomass and As uptake of Medicago truncatula colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae in low-P soil experimentally contaminated with different levels of arsenate. The biomass of G. mosseae external mycelium was unaffected by the highest addition level of As studied (200 mg kg -1 ) but shoot and root biomass declined in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, indicating that the AM fungus was more tolerant than M. truncatula to arsenate. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased shoot and root dry weights by enhancing host plant P nutrition and lowering shoot and root As concentrations compared with uninoculated plants. The AM fungus may have been highly tolerant to As and conferred enhanced tolerance to arsenate on the host plant by enhancing P nutrition and restricting root As uptake. - G. mosseae was more tolerant than M. truncatula to As and may have conferred enhanced host tolerance by restricting root As uptake and enhancing P nutrition

  18. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae can enhance arsenic tolerance in Medicago truncatula by increasing plant phosphorus status and restricting arsenate uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengliang [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Liu Yu [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhang Junling [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: junlingz@cau.edu.cn; Li Xiaolin [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A pot experiment examined the biomass and As uptake of Medicago truncatula colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae in low-P soil experimentally contaminated with different levels of arsenate. The biomass of G. mosseae external mycelium was unaffected by the highest addition level of As studied (200 mg kg{sup -1}) but shoot and root biomass declined in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, indicating that the AM fungus was more tolerant than M. truncatula to arsenate. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased shoot and root dry weights by enhancing host plant P nutrition and lowering shoot and root As concentrations compared with uninoculated plants. The AM fungus may have been highly tolerant to As and conferred enhanced tolerance to arsenate on the host plant by enhancing P nutrition and restricting root As uptake. - G. mosseae was more tolerant than M. truncatula to As and may have conferred enhanced host tolerance by restricting root As uptake and enhancing P nutrition.

  19. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  20. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  1. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-02-01

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.

  2. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANTOSH KUMAR SHARMA

    pericentromeric chromatin during mitosis in monokinetic plants. J. Genet. .... bigger), cytological preparations (easy to difficult) as well as their habitat ... Poaceae. Monocot. Land. 14. Triticum aestivum. Common wheat. Poaceae. Monocot. Land.

  3. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANTOSH KUMAR SHARMA

    packaging of eukaryotic DNA in nucleoprotein complex known as .... The plant material used in the present study has ... materials (root tips/flower buds) were fixed in PHEMES ..... fications that mark active chromatin, while there are no data.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  5. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  6. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  7. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  8. Mycorrhizal association between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum alters plant physiology and fitness to arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Ben Asher, Jiftach; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Kapulnik, Yoram; Sitrit, Yaron

    2011-10-01

    The host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum was inoculated with the mycorrhizal desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin, and the subsequent effects of the ectomycorrhizal relationship on host physiology were determined. Diurnal measurements revealed that mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher rates of photosynthesis (35%), transpiration (18%), and night respiration (49%) than non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Consequently, M plants exhibited higher biomass accumulation, higher shoot-to-root ratios, and improved water use efficiency compared to NM plants. Total chlorophyll content was higher in M plants, and the ratio between chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b was altered in M plants. The increase in chlorophyll b content was significantly higher than the increase in chlorophyll a content (2.58- and 1.52-fold, respectively) compared to control. Calculation of the photosynthetic activation energy indicated lower energy requirements for CO(2) assimilation in M plants than in NM plants (48.62 and 61.56 kJ mol(-1), respectively). Continuous measurements of CO(2) exchange and transpiration in M plants versus NM plants provided a complete picture of the daily physiological differences brought on by the ectomycorrhizal relationships. The enhanced competence of M plants to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of the desert is discussed in view of the mycorrhizal-derived alterations in host physiology. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  9. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  10. Identification of the predominant volatile compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, E; Libbey, L M; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

    1972-11-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH(2)Cl(2), and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth.

  11. Predominantly elastic crack growth under combined creep-fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationalization of the various observed effects of combined creep-fatigue cycling upon predominantly elastic fatigue-crack propagation in austenitic steel is presented. Existing and new evidence is used to show two main groups of behaviour: (i) material and cycling conditions which lead to modest increases (6-8 times) in the rate of crack growth are associated with relaxation-induced changes in the material deformation characteristics, and (ii) material and cycling conditions severe enough to generate internal fracture damage lead to significant (up to a factor of 30) increases in crack growth rate when compared with fast-cycling crack propagation rates at the same temperature. A working hypothesis is presented to show that the boundary between the two groups occurs when the scale of the nucleated creep damage is of the same magnitude as the crack tip opening displacement. This leads to the possibility of unstable crack advance. Creep crack growth rates are shown to provide an upper bound to creep-fatigue crack growth rates when crack advance is unstable. If the deformation properties only are affected by the creep-fatigue cycling then creep crack growth rates provide a lower bound. The role of intergranular oxygen corrosion in very low frequency crack growth tests is also briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubchak, S.; Bondar, O.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization of plants by AM fungus resulted to significant decrease of radiocaesium content in their aboveground parts, while it didn't have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system. AM fungi can restrict or enhance direct root uptake of radiocaesium as well as its root to shoot translocation. Radiocaesium activity concentration was considerably lower in shoots of mycorrhizal plants as compared to nonmycorrhizal ones grown on different soil types. Plant colonization with the G. intraradices resulted in 50 - 100 % decrease of radiocaesium TF from soil to aboveground biomass and 40 - 70% reduction of its translocation from plant roots to shoots. The studied plants could be potentially cultivated within areas with moderate radiocaesium contamination levels and further used in agricultural purposes. The opposite effect was observed in case of H. annuus (sunflower), where AM colonization led to nearly 10-fold increase of 134 Cs activity in roots and shoots. This hyper-accumulating plant could be used in combination with AM fungi for radiocaesium phytoextraction from the soil. (authors)

  13. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  14. Abdominal Pain-predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adolescent Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Ekong; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Meremikwu, Martin; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence, pattern, and predisposing factors of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) in adolescent Nigerians. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 states in the southern part of Nigeria in June 2014. Adolescents of age 10 to 18 years were recruited from 11 secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome III criteria for diagnosing AP-FGIDs and its determinants were filled by the participants in a classroom setting. A total of 874 participants filled the questionnaire. Of this, 818 (93.4%) filled it properly and were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the participants was 14.6 ± 2.0 years with 409 (50.0%) being boys. AP-FGIDs were present in 81 (9.9%) participants. Forty six (5.6%) of the study participants had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 21 (2.6%) functional abdominal pain, 15 (1.8%) abdominal migraine while 3 (0.4%) had functional dyspepsia. The difference in AP-FGIDs between adolescents residing in rural and urban areas was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurred more frequently in those with AP-FGIDs. Nausea was the only symptom independently associated with AP-FGIDs (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed no significant association between stressful life events and AP-FGIDs. AP-FGIDs are a significant health problem in Nigerian adolescents. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, most of the affected children and others also had extraintestinal symptoms. None of the stressful life events evaluated was significantly associated with FGIDs.

  15. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spronck

    Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  16. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  17. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2− compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances

  18. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the Populus trichocarpa-Rhizophagus irregularis Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Regulation of Plant and Fungal Transportomes under Nitrogen Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Silvia; Kohler, Annegret; Niehl, Annette; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Boller, Thomas; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Nutrient transfer is a key feature of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Valuable mineral nutrients are transferred from the AM fungus to the plant, increasing its fitness and productivity, and, in exchange, the AM fungus receives carbohydrates as an energy source from the plant. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of the Populus trichocarpa-Rhizophagus irregularis symbiosis using RNA-sequencing of non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal fine roots, with a focus on the effect of nitrogen (N) starvation. In R. irregularis, we identified 1,015 differentially expressed genes, whereby N starvation led to a general induction of gene expression. Genes of the functional classes of cell growth, membrane biogenesis and cell structural components were highly abundant. Interestingly, N starvation also led to a general induction of fungal transporters, indicating increased nutrient demand upon N starvation. In non-mycorrhizal P. trichocarpa roots, 1,341 genes were differentially expressed under N starvation. Among the 953 down-regulated genes in N starvation, most were involved in metabolic processes including amino acids, carbohydrate and inorganic ion transport, while the 342 up-regulated genes included many defense-related genes. Mycorrhization led to the up-regulation of 549 genes mainly involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and transport; only 24 genes were down-regulated. Mycorrhization specifically induced expression of three ammonium transporters and one phosphate transporter, independently of the N conditions, corroborating the hypothesis that these transporters are important for symbiotic nutrient exchange. In conclusion, our data establish a framework of gene expression in the two symbiotic partners under high-N and low-N conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta, E-mail: elo@mb.au.dk [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Turnau, Katarzyna [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. - Highlights: > The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Ni-hyperaccumulating plant was studied. > Growth of Berkheya coddii was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. > Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased Ni uptake to aboveground part of the plants. > Mycorrhizal colonization affected concentration and uptake of other elements. > Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the techniques of nickel phytomining. - Inoculation of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced plant growth and increased Ni uptake.

  1. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz; Turnau, Katarzyna; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. - Highlights: → The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Ni-hyperaccumulating plant was studied. → Growth of Berkheya coddii was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. → Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased Ni uptake to aboveground part of the plants. → Mycorrhizal colonization affected concentration and uptake of other elements. → Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the techniques of nickel phytomining. - Inoculation of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced plant growth and increased Ni uptake.

  2. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Mårtensson, A.; Ericsson, T.; Rosén, K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of 137 Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with 137 Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a “reference” plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on 137 Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and 137 Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total 137 Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of 137 Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. - Highlights: ► Effect of soil inoculation on 137 Cs uptake by crops was studied in greenhouse. ► 137 Cs uptake by inoculated sunflower plants was most pronounced. ► The higher 137 Cs uptake by inoculated sunflower due to presence of mycorrhiza. ► Studies suggest potential for use of mycorrhiza on contaminated sites.

  4. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on 137Cs uptake by plants grown on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Ericsson, T; Rosén, K

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of mycorrhiza as a bioremediation agent for soils contaminated by radiocesium was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The uptake of (137)Cs by cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower after inoculation with a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) product in soils contaminated with (137)Cs was investigated, with non-mycorrhizal quinoa included as a "reference" plant. The effect of cucumber and ryegrass inoculation with AM fungi on (137)Cs uptake was inconsistent. The effect of AM fungi was most pronounced in sunflower: both plant biomass and (137)Cs uptake increased on loamy sand and loamy soils. The total (137)Cs activity accumulated within AM host sunflower on loamy sand and loamy soils was 2.4 and 3.2-fold higher than in non-inoculated plants. Although the enhanced uptake of (137)Cs by quinoa plants on loamy soil inoculated by the AM fungi was observed, the infection of the fungi to the plants was not confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of nursery preconditioning through mycorrhizal inoculation and drought in Arbutus unedo L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro García, Alejandra; Del Pilar Bañón Árias, Sebastián; Morte, Asunción; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a water deficit treatment and mycorrhizal inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch on the water relations, gas exchange, and plant growth in Arbutus unedo L. plants was studied in order to evaluate the hardening process during the nursery period. The ability to withstand the adverse conditions after transplantation was also studied. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings of A. unedo were pot-grown for 4 months in a greenhouse (nursery period), during which time two irrigation treatments, well watered (100% water holding capacity, leaching 20% of the applied water) and deficit irrigation (50% of the well watered), were applied. Subsequently, the plants were transplanted to the field and well irrigated (transplanting period), after which and until the end of the experiment they received no water (establishment period). At the end of the nursery period, both water deficit and mycorrhizae were seen to have altered the plant morphology. Mycorrhizal plants had lower leaf area and improved leaf color parameters, while the water deficit increased root dry weight and the root/shoot ratio. Mycorrhizal plants had higher leaf water potential values than non-inoculated plants. Mycorrhizae increased stomatal conductance and photosynthesis values, especially in stressed plants. Drought led to an osmotic adjustment and a decrease in the leaf water potential values at turgor loss point in the mycorrhizal plants. Cell wall rigidity, measured as increased bulk modulus of elasticity, was decreased by the mycorrhizae effect. After transplanting, no differences were found in the water relations or gas exchange values between treatments. During the establishment period, the plants that had been exposed to both drought and mycorrhizae showed a better water status (higher leaf water and turgor potential values) and higher gas exchange values. In conclusion, water deficit and mycorrhizal inoculation of A. unedo plants in nursery produced changes in

  7. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengru; Zhao, Chunqiao; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Si, Shengli; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Li, Fengcheng; Yu, Bin; Yi, Zili; Xu, Ning; Peng, Liangcai; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at pnetworks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  8. Effects of genetic modifications to flax (Linum usitatissimum) on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Turnau, Katarzyna; Góralska, Katarzyna; Anielska, Teresa; Szopa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their positive effect on flax growth, the impact of genetic manipulation in this crop on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance was assessed for the first time. Five types of transgenic flax that were generated to improve fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, through increased levels of either phenylpropanoids (W92.40), glycosyltransferase (GT4, GT5), or PR2 beta-1,3-glucanase (B14) or produce polyhydroxybutyrate (M50), were used. Introduced genetic modifications did not change the degree of mycorrhizal colonization as compared to parent cultivars Linola and Nike. Arbuscules were well developed in each tested transgenic type (except M50). In two lines (W92.40 and B14), a higher abundance of arbuscules was observed when compared to control, untransformed flax plants. However, in some cases (W92.40, GT4, GT5, and B14 Md), the mycorrhizal dependency for biomass production of transgenic plants was slightly lower when compared to the original cultivars. No significant influence of mycorrhiza on the photosynthetic activity of transformed lines was found, but in most cases P concentration in mycorrhizal plants remained higher than in nonmycorrhizal ones. The transformed flax lines meet the demands for better quality of fiber and higher resistance to pathogens, without significantly influencing the interaction with AMF.

  9. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at the >97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall

  11. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using plants adapted to western Canadian climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation relies on the use of plants for in-situ treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. It is based on relationships between plants, microorganisms and the environment. The advantages of the process are its low cost and minimal soil disturbance. Phytoremediation has not been widely implemented in Canada because only a few native or non-native plant species have been tested for hydrocarbon tolerance or degradation ability. More studies are needed to fully understand why some plants are more tolerant of hydrocarbons than others, and whether tolerant species increase hydrocarbon degradation. In this study, several field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to examine hydrocarbon tolerance in plants. Hydrocarbon contaminated field plots had higher soil pH, carbon to nitrogen ratio and bare ground, lower total nitrogen, available phosphorous and litter cover. The mean diversity at the uncontaminated sites was 0.52. It was 0.45 at the contaminated sites. Mean species similarity between contaminated and uncontaminated sites was 31.1 per cent and cover similarity was 22.2 per cent. The common plants in the contaminated field included kochia, wild barley, salt grass, bluegrass, and wheatgrass. The plants that formed most plant cover on contaminated plots were non-mycorrhizal, self-pollinating, and large seeded. The species with the highest survival after 5 weeks in hydrocarbon contaminated soils included one native and 4 non-native grasses, 2 native and 3 non-native legumes and 2 native forbs. All plants (with the exception of Indian breadroot) grown in hydrocarbon contaminated potting soil had lower total biomass and lower growth rates compared to the control

  13. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using plants adapted to western Canadian climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, D.B.

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation relies on the use of plants for in-situ treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. It is based on relationships between plants, microorganisms and the environment. The advantages of the process are its low cost and minimal soil disturbance. Phytoremediation has not been widely implemented in Canada because only a few native or non-native plant species have been tested for hydrocarbon tolerance or degradation ability. More studies are needed to fully understand why some plants are more tolerant of hydrocarbons than others, and whether tolerant species increase hydrocarbon degradation. In this study, several field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to examine hydrocarbon tolerance in plants. Hydrocarbon contaminated field plots had higher soil pH, carbon to nitrogen ratio and bare ground, lower total nitrogen, available phosphorous and litter cover. The mean diversity at the uncontaminated sites was 0.52. It was 0.45 at the contaminated sites. Mean species similarity between contaminated and uncontaminated sites was 31.1 per cent and cover similarity was 22.2 per cent. The common plants in the contaminated field included kochia, wild barley, salt grass, bluegrass, and wheatgrass. The plants that formed most plant cover on contaminated plots were non-mycorrhizal, self-pollinating, and large seeded. The species with the highest survival after 5 weeks in hydrocarbon contaminated soils included one native and 4 non-native grasses, 2 native and 3 non-native legumes and 2 native forbs. All plants (with the exception of Indian breadroot) grown in hydrocarbon contaminated potting soil had lower total biomass and lower growth rates compared to the control.

  14. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis in Singapore: predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Chan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: C. neoformans var. grubii, subtype VN I, was the predominant subtype in Singapore, infecting younger, mainly immunocompromised hosts with HIV. C. gattii was uncommon, causing pulmonary manifestations in older, immunocompetent patients and were RFLP type VG II.

  15. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2008-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass.

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  17. Open questions in the management of nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy.

  18. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Eyad M; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t -test. P abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  19. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  20. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  2. Relationship between soft stratum thickness and predominant frequency of ground based on microtremor observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kenny; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-07-01

    Despite categorized as low seismicity group, until being affected by distant earthquake ground motion from Sumatra and the recent 2015 Sabah Earthquake, Malaysia has come to realize that seismic hazard in the country is real and has the potential to threaten the public safety and welfare. The major concern in this paper is to study the effect of local site condition, where it could amplify the magnitude of ground vibration at sites. The aim for this study is to correlate the thickness of soft stratum with the predominant frequency of soil. Single point microtremor measurements were carried out at 24 selected points where the site investigation reports are available. Predominant period and frequency at each site are determined by Nakamura's method. The predominant period varies from 0.22 s to 0.98 s. Generally, the predominant period increases when getting closer to the shoreline which has thicker sediments. As far as the thickness of the soft stratum could influence the amplification of seismic wave, the advancement of micotremor observation to predict the thickness of soft stratum (h) from predominant frequency (fr) is of the concern. Thus an empirical relationship h =54.917 fr-1.314 is developed based on the microtremor observation data. The empirical relationship will be benefited in the prediction of thickness of soft stratum based on microtremor observation for seismic design with minimal cost compared to conventional boring method.

  3. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengru Li

    Full Text Available Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at p<0.05 level in the non-KOH-extractable only, suggesting their tight association to form the minor wall-networks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  4. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ13C, δ15N of leymus chinensis plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiqi; Wang Guoan; Li Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Leymus chinensis, one of dominant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, was selected to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant gas change parameters and stable isotope ratio in pot culture. The plant was inoculated with two mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices and Glomus claroidum, and the uninoculated plant was used as the control check. On the 45th , 60th , 75th days after sowing, gas exchange parameters and stable isotope ratio were measured. The results showed that AM infection promoted phosphoms content, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of Leymus chinensis, reduced host δ 15 N, however, it did not influence host intrinsic water using efficiency and δ 13 C. It was the growth time that significantly affected the gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ 13 C and δ 15 N. And the interaction of inoculation and growth time also influenced on the net photosynthetic rate, δ 13 C and δ 15 N of the host. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate were always changed the same direction by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi causing no significant difference between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant. AMF absorbed nitrogen and accumulated δ 15 N, thus, it transformed less 15 N into the host, and as a result, the mycorrhizal plant had lower δ 15 N. Therefore, the results gave a new way and reference to know of the grass balance of carbon gain and water cost and the nitrogen cycle in grassland. (authors)

  5. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kinkel, Linda; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in plants as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary with plant species, changes in the diversity of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical characteristics. Fusarium communities in soil associated with the roots of two perennial prairie plant species maintained as monocultures or growing within polyculture plant communities were characterized using targeted metagenomics. Amplicon libraries targeting the RPB2 locus were generated from rhizosphere soil DNAs and sequenced using pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and assigned a taxonomy using the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm. Fusarium community composition was differentiated between monoculture and polyculture plant communities, and by plant species in monoculture, but not in polyculture. Taxonomic classification of the Fusarium OTUs showed a predominance of F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum as well of the presence of a clade previously only found in the Southern Hemisphere. Total Fusarium richness was not affected by changes in plant community richness or correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics. However, OTU richness within two predominant phylogenetic lineages within the genus was positively or negatively correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics among samples within each lineage. This work shows that plant species, plant community richness, and soil physiochemical characteristics may all influence the composition and richness of Fusarium communities in soil.

  6. Long-Range Correlation in alpha-Wave Predominant EEG in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Asif; Chyan Lin, Der; Kwan, Hon; Borette, D. S.

    2004-03-01

    The background noise in the alpha-predominant EEG taken from eyes-open and eyes-closed neurophysiological states is studied. Scale-free characteristic is found in both cases using the wavelet approach developed by Simonsen and Nes [1]. The numerical results further show the scaling exponent during eyes-closed is consistently lower than eyes-open. We conjecture the origin of this difference is related to the temporal reconfiguration of the neural network in the brain. To further investigate the scaling structure of the EEG background noise, we extended the second order statistics to higher order moments using the EEG increment process. We found that the background fluctuation in the alpha-predominant EEG is predominantly monofractal. Preliminary results are given to support this finding and its implication in brain functioning is discussed. [1] A.H. Simonsen and O.M. Nes, Physical Review E, 58, 2779¡V2748 (1998).

  7. Neuromuscular-skeletal origins of predominant patterns of coordination in rhythmic two-joint arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rugy, Aymar; Riek, Stephan; Carson, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    The authors tested for predominant patterns of coordination in the combination of rhythmic flexion-extension (FE) and supination- (SP) at the elbow-joint complex. Participants (N=10) spontaneously established in-phase (supination synchronized with flexion) and antiphase (pronation synchronized with flexion) patterns. In addition, the authors used a motorized robot arm to generate involuntary SP movements with different phase relations with respect to voluntary FE. The involuntarily induced in-phase pattern was accentuated and was more consistent than other patterns. The result provides evidence that the predominance of the in-phase pattern originates in the influence of neuromuscular-skeletal constraints rather than in a preference dictated by perceptual-cognitive factors implicated in voluntary control. Neuromuscular-skeletal constraints involved in the predominance of the in-phase and the antiphase patterns are discussed.

  8. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients

  9. Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, K; Sonoda, S; Higashi, K; Kondo, T; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, M; Yamanishi, K

    1989-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-related virus was isolated from CD4+ CD8- and CD3+ CD4+ mature T lymphocytes but could not be isolated from CD4- CD8+, CD4- CD8-, and CD3- T cells in the peripheral blood of exanthem subitum patients. HHV-6-related virus predominantly infected CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8-, and CD3+ CD4+ cells with mature phenotypes and rarely infected CD4- CD8+ cells from cord blood mononuclear cells, which suggested predominant CD4 mature T-lymphocyte tropism of HHV-6-related virus.

  10. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Mullinix, George W R; Ward, Joy K

    2016-10-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO 2 ] gradient (180-1,000 µL L -1 ). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO 2 ] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO 2 ] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (M Bio ) and nonmycorrhizal (NM Bio ) plants (R Bio = [M Bio - NM Bio ]/NM Bio ). We then assessed linkages between R Bio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, R Bio increased with rising [CO 2 ], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L -1 [CO 2 ] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in R Bio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, R Bio increased from 180 to 390 µL L -1 and further increases in [CO 2 ] caused R Bio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO 2 ] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in R Bio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO 2 ] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO 2 ], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO 2 ]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO 2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Latina "Testimonios": A Reflexive, Critical Analysis of a "Latina Space" at a Predominantly White Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Judith; Garcia, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Judith Flores and Silvia Garcia (University of Utah) draw from the work of their mentor, Rina Benmayor and "Telling to live: Latina feminist testimonios" to establish an organization for Latinas who are staff, faculty, students, alumni, and community members at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Critical race feminism (CRF),…

  12. Coloring the Academic Landscape: Faculty of Color Breaking the Silence in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, based on a larger, autoethnographic qualitative research project, focuses on the first-hand experiences of 27 faculty of color teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. The 27 faculty represented a variety of institutions, disciplines, academic titles, and ranks. They identified themselves as African American,…

  13. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  14. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  15. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  16. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  17. Is the Feeling Mutual? Examining Parent-Teacher Relationships in Low-Income, Predominantly Latino Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah; Robinson, Michelle; Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Strong parent-teacher relationships are critical to students' academic success. Mismatches in parents' and teachers' perceptions of each other may negatively affect children's outcomes. Using survey data collected from parents and teachers in 52 low-income, predominantly Latino schools, we explore subgroup variation in parents' and teachers'…

  18. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  19. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag

    2017-01-01

    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  20. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for pyloric stenosis and their influence on the male predominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    whether these factors modified the male predominance. Information on pre- and perinatal factors and pyloric stenosis was obtained from national registers. Poisson regression models were used to estimate rate ratios. Among 1,925,313 children, 3,174 had surgery for pyloric stenosis. The authors found...

  2. Being White in Black Spaces: Teaching and Learning at a Predominately Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Timothy E.; Thomas, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper serves as a beginning conversation of how two White males perspectives' were shaped and how those perspectives evolved while attending and teaching at a Predominately Black Institution (PBI). Their initial understandings of Whiteness are introduced. This is an ethnographic study that utilized personal narratives from a college professor…

  3. A Predominately Female Accounting Profession: Lessons from the Past and Other Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the accounting profession is in the process of transitioning from a male dominated profession to a predominantly female one. Other professions that have undergone this switch experienced declines in the status of the profession and the salaries. So, although women have not yet gained equal access to all levels of the accounting…

  4. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  5. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  6. Perceptions of Financial Aid: Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichavakunda, Antar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides qualitative context for statistics concerning Black college students and financial aid. Using the financial nexus model as a framework, this research draws upon interviews with 29 Black juniors and seniors at a selective, -private, and predominantly White university. The data suggest that students -generally exhibited high…

  7. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  8. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  9. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C; Massa, Helen M; Thornton, Ruth B; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of otopathogens within

  10. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  11. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  12. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal predominance (HMSN-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Joseph V

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal predominance (HMSN-P) is a rare disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Patients present with slowly progressive proximal-predominant weakness, painful muscle cramps, fasciculations, large-fiber sensory loss, and areflexia. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies typically reveal abnormalities consistent with a sensorimotor neuronopathy. A patient with HMSN-P underwent EDX studies, revealing ongoing and chronic neurogenic denervation, motor unit instability, and neuromyotonic discharges, further defining the spectrum of EDX findings in HMSN-P. The clinical, pathological, and genetic features are also reviewed. The appearance of HMSN-P in the United States and elsewhere calls for clinicians in nonendemic regions to be familiar with this rare disorder, which has typically been geographically confined.

  13. Health and Well-being of Women Migrating from Predominantly Muslim Countries to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Pye, Mu; Sin, Kai; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Stoddard, Mary; Frost, Caren J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the health and well-being of women migrating from predominantly Muslim countries to the U.S. Women from predominantly Muslim countries completed a paper survey on the following topics from June to December in 2016 (N=102): depression; physical functioning; self-reported general health; experiences with health care; and demographic characteristics. There were several women's health-related issues: low rates for mammography and Pap smear screening, and preference for female physicians and/or physicians from the same culture. Only one-third of the participants had received a physical exam in the past year, and having done so was related to higher levels of depression and worse physical functioning. The participants who were not in a refugee camp reported higher levels of depression than those who were.

  14. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiotherapy as Alternative Treatment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominance Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Rick L.M.; Girinsky, Theo; Aleman, Berthe; Henry-Amar, Michel; Boer, Jan-Paul de; Jong, Daphne de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, characterized by an indolent clinical course, with sometimes very late relapses occurring in a minority of all patients. Considerable discussion is ongoing on the treatment of primary and relapsed disease. Patients and Methods: A group of 9 patients were irradiated to a dose of 4 Gy on involved areas only. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 6-66), the overall response rate was 89%. Six patients had complete remission (67%), two had partial remission (22%), and one had stable disease (11%). Of 8 patients, 5 developed local relapse 9-57 months after radiotherapy. No toxicity was noted. Conclusion: In nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma, low-dose radiotherapy provided excellent response rates and lasting remissions without significant toxicity.

  15. The Lived Experience of Black Nurse Faculty in Predominantly White Schools of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such; Zoucha, Richard; Alexander, Rumay

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of Black nurse faculty employed in predominantly White schools of nursing. High attrition rates of this group were noted in previous literature. Understanding their experiences is important to increase nurse diversity. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the experiences of 15 Black nurse faculty using interviews. Four themes were extracted as the following: cultural norms of the workplace, coping with improper assets, life as a "Lone Ranger," and surviving the workplace environment. The study provided insight to understand the meaning that Black faculty members give to their experiences working in predominantly White schools of nursing. Findings exemplify the need to improve culturally competent work environments and mentoring programs. Results suggest that better communication and proper respect from students, colleagues, and administrators are necessary. The limited research on this topic illustrates that Black nurse faculty remain under investigated; research is necessary to determine effective change strategies.

  16. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.

  17. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabi...

  18. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, David A.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F.; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J.; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may co...

  19. Predominantly Electronic or Personal Service Delivery? A Case in the Wealth Management Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sunikka, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Financial services have been a recurrent subject of a multichannel inquiry but investigation into the wealth management area is scarce. This paper intends to fill the gap and presents the results of a questionnaire directed at customers of a financial conglomerate. The objective of this research is to examine which variables influence consumers’ channel preferences in the wealth management context,and to find out possible differences between the customers who prefer predominantly electronic s...

  20. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = -0.222, p sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Tuberculosis transmission of predominant genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in northern suburbs of Buenos Aires city region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, N; Zumarraga, M; Imperiale, B; Di Giulio, B; Chirico, C; Kuriger, A; Alito, A; Kremer, K; Cataldi, A

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the incidence of tuberculosis in Argentina showed an increase compared to 2002. The severe national crisis at the end of the 90s has probably strongly contributed to this situation. The goal of this work was to estimate the extent of the spread of the most predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and to assess the spread of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters as determined by spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP. The study involved 590 pulmonary, smear-positive TB cases receiving medical attention at health centers and hospitals in Northern Buenos Aires (NBA) suburbs, from October 2001 to December 2002. From a total of 208 clinical isolates belonging to 6 major clusters, 63 (30.2%) isolates had identical spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP pattern. Only 22.2% were shown to have epidemiological connections with another member of their respective cluster. In these major clusters, 30.2% of the 208 TB cases studied by both molecular techniques and contact tracing could be convincingly attributable to a recently acquired infection. This knowledge may be useful to assess the clonal distribution of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters in Argentina, which may make an impact on TB control strategies.

  2. Is microscopic colitis a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are controversies about the importance of biopsies of normal colon mucosa in the investigation of patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. On the other hand, microscopic colitis may bemissed based on normal colonoscopy and laboratory examination in this group of patients
    • METHODS: The study took place in Alzahra and Noor hospitals and Poursina Hakim Research Institute, from 2002 to 2004. Eligible patients were those suffering from diarrhea for at least 4 weeks. A total of 138 patients were included in the study after meeting Rome criteria (II with normal CBC, ESR, stool examination and no endoscopic abnormality.
    • RESULTS: The histologic findings in 138 patients with diarrhea predominant IBS with mean age of 34.7 years (female 55.1% and male 44.9% were as follows: 10 patients (7.2% had collagenous colitis and 3 patients (2.2% were compatible with lymphocytic colitis. No significant diagnostic histologic findings were seen in the rest of patients. Collagenouscolitis was detected in 13% of right colon biopsies and in 10% of sigmoid and transverse colon biopsies. Nocturnal diarrhea was found in 30% of collagenous colitis patients.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Total colonoscopy and multiple biopsies in diarrhea predominant IBS patients are necessary for earlydiagnosis of microscopic colitis.
    • KEY WORDS: Irritable bowel syndrome, microscopic colitis, colonoscopy, biopsy, diarrhea.

  3. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  4. Counselling by primary care physicians may help patients with heartburn-predominant uninvestigated dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Pierre; Math, Joanna Lee M; Hawes, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether strategies to counsel and empower patients with heartburn-predominant dyspepsia could improve health-related quality of life. METHODS: Using a cluster randomized, parallel group, multicentre design, nine centres were assigned to provide either basic or comprehensive counselling to patients (age range 18 to 50 years) presenting with heartburn-predominant upper gastrointestinal symptoms, who would be considered for drug therapy without further investigation. Patients were treated for four weeks with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily, followed by six months of treatment that was at the physician’s discretion. The primary end point was the baseline change in Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire score. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients from nine centres were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There was a statistically significant baseline improvement in all domains of the QOLRAD questionnaire in both study arms at four and seven months (Pheartburn-predominant uninvestigated dyspepsia. Further investigation is needed to confirm the potential benefits of providing patients with comprehensive counselling regarding disease management. PMID:20352148

  5. Zn pollution counteracts Cd toxicity in metal-tolerant ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plant, Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Wevers, Jan H L; Cloquet, Christophe; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vanhaecke, Frank; Colpaert, Jan V

    2010-08-01

    Adaptive Zn and Cd tolerance have evolved in populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus. When exposed to high concentrations of both metals in vitro, a one-sided antagonism was apparent in the Zn- and Cd-tolerant isolates. Addition of high Zn concentrations restored growth of Cd-stressed isolates, but not vice versa. The antagonistic effect was not detected in a S. luteus isolate from non-contaminated land and in Paxillus involutus. The fungi were inoculated on pine seedlings and subsequently exposed to ecologically relevant Zn and Cd concentrations in single and mixed treatments. The applied doses severely reduced nutrient acquisition of non-mycorrhizal pines and pines inoculated with metal-sensitive S. luteus. Highest translocation of Zn and Cd to shoots occurred in the same plants. Seedlings inoculated with fungi collected from the polluted site reduced metal transfer to their host and maintained nutrient acquisition under high metal exposure. The isolate showing highest tolerance in vitro also offered best protection in symbiosis. The antagonistic effect of high Zn on Cd toxicity was confirmed in the plant experiment. The results indicate that a Zn- and Cd-polluted soil has selected ectomycorrhizal fungi that are able to survive and protect their phytobiont from nutrient starvation and excessive metal uptake. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  7. Alkalinity of Lanzarote soils is a factor shaping rhizobial populations with Sinorhizobium meliloti being the predominant microsymbiont of Lotus lancerottensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Dorta, Paola; Garrido, Ana; Jiménez, Concepción

    2017-04-01

    Lotus lancerottensis is an endemic species that grows widely throughout Lanzarote Island (Canary Is.). Characterization of 48 strains isolated from root nodules of plants growing in soils from eleven locations on the island showed that 38 isolates (79.1%) belonged to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti, whereas only six belonged to Mesorhizobium sp., the more common microsymbionts for the Lotus. Other genotypes containing only one isolate were classified as Pararhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Phyllobacterium sp. and Bradyrhizobium-like. Strains of S. meliloti were distributed along the island and, in most of the localities they were exclusive or major microsymbionts of L. lancerottensis. Phylogeny of the nodulation nodC gene placed the S. meliloti strains within symbiovar lancerottense and the mesorhizobial strains with the symbiovar loti. Although strains from both symbiovars produced effective N 2 -fixing nodules, S. meliloti symbiovar lancerottense was clearly the predominant microsymbiont of L. lancerottensis. This fact correlated with the better adaptation of strains of this species to the alkaline soils of Lanzarote, as in vitro characterization showed that while the mesorhizobial strains were inhibited by alkaline pH, S. meliloti strains grew well at pH 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene expression in mycorrhizal orchid protocorms suggests a friendly plant-fungus relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, Silvia; Rodda, Marco; Benetti, Alex; Sillo, Fabiano; Ercole, Enrico; Rodda, Michele; Girlanda, Mariangela; Murat, Claude; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2014-06-01

    Orchids fully depend on symbiotic interactions with specific soil fungi for seed germination and early development. Germinated seeds give rise to a protocorm, a heterotrophic organ that acquires nutrients, including organic carbon, from the mycorrhizal partner. It has long been debated if this interaction is mutualistic or antagonistic. To investigate the molecular bases of the orchid response to mycorrhizal invasion, we developed a symbiotic in vitro system between Serapias vomeracea, a Mediterranean green meadow orchid, and the rhizoctonia-like fungus Tulasnella calospora. 454 pyrosequencing was used to generate an inventory of plant and fungal genes expressed in mycorrhizal protocorms, and plant genes could be reliably identified with a customized bioinformatic pipeline. A small panel of plant genes was selected and expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal protocorm tissues. Among these genes were some markers of mutualistic (e.g. nodulins) as well as antagonistic (e.g. pathogenesis-related and wound/stress-induced) genes. None of the pathogenesis or wound/stress-related genes were significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues, suggesting that fungal colonization does not trigger strong plant defence responses. In addition, the highest expression fold change in mycorrhizal tissues was found for a nodulin-like gene similar to the plastocyanin domain-containing ENOD55. Another nodulin-like gene significantly more expressed in the symbiotic tissues of mycorrhizal protocorms was similar to a sugar transporter of the SWEET family. Two genes coding for mannose-binding lectins were significantly up-regulated in the presence of the mycorrhizal fungus, but their role in the symbiosis is unclear.

  9. Do forest soil microbes have the potential to resist plant invasion? A case study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (South China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ming; Li, Song; Liao, Hui-Xuan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Successful invaders must overcome biotic resistance, which is defined as the reduction in invasion success caused by the resident community. Soil microbes are an important source of community resistance to plant invasions, and understanding their role in this process requires urgent investigation. Therefore, three forest communities along successional stages and four exotic invasive plant species were selected to test the role of soil microbes of three forest communities in resisting the exotic invasive plant. Our results showed that soil microbes from a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF) (late-successional stage) had the greatest resistance to the invasive plants. Only the invasive species Ipomoea triloba was not sensitive to the three successional forest soils. Mycorrhizal fungi in early successional forest Pinus massonina forest (PMF) or mid-successional forest pine-broadleaf mixed forest (PBMF) soil promoted the growth of Mikania micrantha and Eupatorium catarium, but mycorrhizal fungi in MEBF soil had no significant effects on their growth. Pathogens plus other non-mycorrhizal microbes in MEBF soil inhibited the growth of M. micrantha and E. catarium significantly, and only inhibited root growth of E. catarium when compared with those with mycorrhizal fungi addition. The study suggest that soil mycorrhizal fungi of early-mid-successional forests benefit invasive species M. micrantha and E. catarium, while soil pathogens of late-successional forest may play an important role in resisting M. micrantha and E. catarium. The benefit and resistance of the soil microbes are dependent on invasive species and related to forest succession. The study gives a possible clue to control invasive plants by regulating soil microbes of forest community to resist plant invasion.

  10. Rare Plants of the Redwood Forest and Forest Management Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Sholars; Clare Golec

    2007-01-01

    Coast redwood forests are predominantly a timber managed habitat type, subjected to repeated disturbances and short rotation periods. What does this repeated disturbance mean for rare plants associated with the redwood forests? Rare plant persistence through forest management activities is influenced by many factors. Persistence of rare plants in a managed landscape is...

  11. Medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the species diversity of medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat (Western Rhodopes. 332 species were described, grouped in 75 families. The Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae families were represented by the largest species diversity, perennial herbaceous plants being predominant. There were 72 medicinal plant species of conservation significance, including endemic, rare and protectedspecies.

  12. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  13. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  14. Fault current limiter-predominantly resistive behavior of a BSCCO shielded-core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, M. G.; Tobin, T. J.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the electrical and magnetic characteristics of a superconductor shielded core reactor (SSCR). The results show that a closed-core SSCR is predominantly a resistive device and an open-core SSCR is a hybrid resistive/inductive device. The open-core SSCR appears to dissipate less than the closed-core SSCR. However, the impedance of the open-core SSCR is less than that of the closed-core SSCR. Magnetic and thermal diffusion are believed to be the mechanism that facilitates the penetration of the superconductor tube under fault conditions

  15. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  16. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  17. The Combined Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Lead (Pb) Stress on Pb Accumulation, Plant Growth Parameters, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Jie; Tang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered as a potential biotechnological tool for improving phytostabilization efficiency and plant tolerance to heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the mechanisms through which AMF help to alleviate metal toxicity in plants are still poorly understood. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two AMF species (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on the growth, Pb accumulation, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of a leguminous tree (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) at Pb addition levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 soil. AMF symbiosis decreased Pb concentrations in the leaves and promoted the accumulation of biomass as well as photosynthetic pigment contents. Mycorrhizal plants had higher gas exchange capacity, non-photochemistry efficiency, and photochemistry efficiency compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. The enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidases (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were enhanced, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were reduced in mycorrhizal plants. These findings suggested that AMF symbiosis could protect plants by alleviating cellular oxidative damage in response to Pb stress. Furthermore, mycorrhizal dependency on plants increased with increasing Pb stress levels, indicating that AMF inoculation likely played a more important role in plant Pb tolerance in heavily contaminated soils. Overall, both F. mosseae and R. intraradices were able to maintain efficient symbiosis with R. pseudoacacia in Pb polluted soils. AMF symbiosis can improve photosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capabilities and decrease Pb concentrations in leaves to alleviate Pb toxicity in R. pseudoacacia. Our results suggest that the application of the two AMF species associated with R. pseudoacacia could be a promising strategy for enhancing the phytostabilization efficiency of Pb contaminated

  18. Comparative cross-sectional study of masticatory performance and mastication predominance for patients with missing posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Hayato; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Kori, Hidehiro; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Yamasaki, Yo; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Missing posterior teeth can decrease masticatory function and cause horizontal mastication deviation, i.e., mastication predominance. Mastication predominance may lead to abnormal tooth attrition and temporomandibular disorders. This study evaluated masticatory performance and mastication predominance in patients with missing posterior teeth to investigate effects of missing posterior teeth on masticatory performance and mastication predominance. Thirty volunteers with normal dentition (control group), 30 patients with unilateral missing posterior teeth (unilateral group), and 23 patients with bilateral missing posterior teeth (bilateral group) participated. Gummy jellies were used to evaluate participants' masticatory performance, and electromyography was used to assess the degree of mastication predominance. Chewing gums, gummy jellies, and peanuts were used as foods of various hardnesses for evaluating mastication predominance. Compared with the control group, masticatory performance did not differ in the unilateral group but was significantly decreased in the bilateral group. With chewing gum and gummy jellies, the degree of mastication predominance was significantly increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups than the control group. With peanuts, the degree of mastication predominance was significantly increased in the unilateral group than the control group. Although masticatory performance was not decreased in the unilateral group, the degree of mastication predominance was increased. Decreased masticatory performance was observed in the bilateral group, and for foods with normal hardness and soft foods, the degree of mastication predominance was increased. These results suggested that mastication predominance should be considered in the recovery of masticatory performance in patients with missing posterior teeth. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Showing Vascular Skin Lesions Predominantly on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Korekawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with dark blue papules and nodules on his face. There were multiple soft papules and nodules, dark blue in color, compressive, and ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. A few similar lesions were seen on the patient's right dorsal second toe and right buccal mucosa. There were no skin lesions on his trunk and upper limbs. The patient's past history did not include gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. Histopathological examination showed dilated vascular spaces lined by the normal epithelium extending beneath the dermis and into the subcutaneous fat. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract to check for colon involvement was not performed. X-ray images of the limbs revealed no abnormalities in the bones or joints. Laboratory investigations did not show anemia. Although we failed to confirm a diagnosis by endoscopy, the skin lesions, histopathological findings, lack of abnormal X-ray findings, and the presence of oral lesions as a part of gastrointestinal tract guided the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS. Skin lesions of BRBNS occur predominantly on the trunk and upper limbs. However, the present case showed multiple skin lesions predominantly on the face. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to know about a possible atypical distribution of skin lesions in BRBNS.

  20. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: The SEPD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Vera

    Full Text Available Functional gut disorders, including diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, are highly prevalent conditions worldwide that significantly impact health economy and patient quality of life, yet lacking fully satisfactory therapeutic options. These circumstances fostered research on various molecules with more specific therapeutic targets, including opioid receptors. Eluxadoline (Allergan's Vibercy® in the USA, Truberzi® in Europe is a locally-acting mixed µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist, and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, that was licensed in 2015 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and in 2016 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA for use in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Eluxadoline provides, with advantage over the current standard of care, control of both stool consistency and abdominal pain, good tolerability in most cases, and improved quality of life, hence it deserves consideration when approaching a patient with this disorder. As with any recently approved therapy, adequate pharmacovigilance is to be expected, as well as studies to inform on different scenarios such as on-demand therapy, loss of response assessment, use as rescue therapy for other molecules, and cost-effectiveness, to further characterize and more accurately position eluxadoline within the therapeutic spectrum.

  2. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors That Influence Park Use and Physical Activity in Predominantly Hispanic and Low-Income Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolash, Karry; He, Meizi; Yin, Zenong; Sosa, Erica T

    2015-04-01

    Park features' association with physical activity among predominantly Hispanic communities is not extensively researched. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with park use and physical activity among park users in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Data were collected across 6 parks and included park environmental assessments to evaluate park features, physical activity observations to estimate physical activity energy expenditure as kcal/kg/ minute per person, and park user interviews to assess motivators for park use. Quantitative data analysis included independent t tests and ANOVA. Thematic analysis of park user interviews was conducted collectively and by parks. Parks that were renovated had higher physical activity energy expenditure scores (mean = .086 ± .027) than nonrenovated parks (mean = .077 ± .028; t = -3.804; P motivation to be physically active, using the play spaces in the park, parks as the main place for physical activity, and social support for using parks. Renovations to park amenities, such as increasing basketball courts and trail availability, could potentially increase physical activity among low-socioeconomic-status populations.

  4. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic identification and integrative analysis of novel genes expressed specifically or predominantly in mouse epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hoyong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maturation of spermatozoa, including development of motility and the ability to fertilize the oocyte, occurs during transit through the microenvironment of the epididymis. Comprehensive understanding of sperm maturation requires identification and characterization of unique genes expressed in the epididymis. Results We systematically identified 32 novel genes with epididymis-specific or -predominant expression in the mouse epididymis UniGene library, containing 1505 gene-oriented transcript clusters, by in silico and in vitro analyses. The Northern blot analysis revealed various characteristics of the genes at the transcript level, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. We found that expression of the half of the genes is regulated by androgens. Further expression analyses demonstrated that the novel genes are region-specific and developmentally regulated. Computational analysis showed that 15 of the genes lack human orthologues, suggesting their implication in male reproduction unique to the mouse. A number of the novel genes are putative epididymal protease inhibitors or β-defensins. We also found that six of the genes have secretory activity, indicating that they may interact with sperm and have functional roles in sperm maturation. Conclusion We identified and characterized 32 novel epididymis-specific or -predominant genes by an integrative approach. Our study is unique in the aspect of systematic identification of novel epididymal genes and should be a firm basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying sperm maturation in the epididymis.

  6. Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%, 3 cases (21.4% had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. Thus, CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in most cases of subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

  7. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, George W.R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180–1,000 µL L−1). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO2] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (MBio) and nonmycorrhizal (NMBio) plants (RBio = [MBio − NMBio]/NMBio). We then assessed linkages between RBio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, RBio increased with rising [CO2], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L−1. [CO2] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in RBio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, RBio increased from 180 to 390 µL L−1 and further increases in [CO2] caused RBio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO2] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in RBio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO2] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO2], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO2]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. PMID:27573369

  8. Floral nectar of the obligate outcrossing Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (Fabaceae) contains only one predominant protein, a class III acidic chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X L; Milne, R I; Zhou, H X; Fang, J Y; Zha, H G

    2017-09-01

    Floral nectar can affect the fitness of insect-pollinated plants, through both attraction and manipulation of pollinators. Self-incompatible insect-pollinated plants receive more insect visits than their self-compatible relatives, and the nectar of such species might face increased risk of infestation by pathogens carried by pollinators than self-compatible plants. Proteins in nectar (nectarins) play an important role in protecting the nectar, but little is known regarding nectarins in self-incompatible species. The nectarins from a self-incompatible and insect-pollinated leguminous crop, Canavalia gladiata, were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysed using mass spectrometry. The predominant nectarin gene was cloned and the gene expression pattern investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Chitinolytic activity in the nectar was tested with different substrates. The C. gladiata nectar proteome only has one predominant nectarin, an acidic class III chitinase (CaChi3). The full-length CaChi3 gene was cloned, coding for a protein of 298 amino acids with a predicted signal peptide. CaChi3 is very similar to members of the class III chitinase family, whose evolution is dominated by purifying selection. CaChi3 was expressed in both nectary and leaves. CaChi3 has thermostable chitinolytic activity according to glycol-chitin zymography or a fluorogenic substratem but has no lysozyme activity. Chitinase might be a critical protein component in nectar. The extremely simple nectar proteome in C. gladiata disproves the hypothesis that self-incompatible species always have more complex nectar proteomes. Accessibility of nectar might be a significant determinant of the evolutionary pressure to develop nectar defence mechanisms. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  10. Eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdener AE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Elif Özdener, Anastasia Rivkin School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Eluxadoline is a novel drug approved for the management of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. It has unique pharmacology and works on three different opioid receptors. Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated eluxadoline’s efficacy in reducing symptoms related to IBS-D. Clinical trial results and postmarketing reports show a risk of pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder or those abusing alcohol. This review article will include information on clinical trial results related to IBS-D management as well as eluxadoline’s limitations. Keywords: IBS-D, eluxadoline, diarrhea, gastrointestinal, Viberzi

  11. Observable lepton number violation with predominantly Dirac nature of active neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,Assam-781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, HBNI,Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2017-01-17

    We study a specific version of SU(2){sub R}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub B−L} models extended by discrete symmetries where the new physics sector responsible for tiny neutrino masses at leading order remains decoupled from the new physics sector that can give rise to observable signatures of lepton number violation such as neutrinoless double beta decay. More specifically, the dominant contribution to light neutrino masses comes from a one-loop Dirac mass. At higher loop level, a tiny Majorana mass also appears which remains suppressed by many order of magnitudes in comparison to the Dirac mass. Such a model where the active neutrinos are predominantly of Dirac type, also predicts observable charged lepton flavour violation like μ→3e,μ→eγ and multi-component dark matter.

  12. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Upper motor neuron predominant degeneration with frontal and temporal lobe atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, M; Sakai, M; Matsuoka, Y; Konagaya, Y; Hashizume, Y

    1998-11-01

    The autopsy findings of a 78-year-old man mimicking primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are reported. He showed slowly progressive spasticity, pseudobulbar palsy and character change, and died 32 months after the onset of symptoms. Autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, remarkable neuronal loss and gliosis in the precentral gyrus, left temporal lobe pole and amygdala, mild degeneration of the Ammon's horn, degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and very mild involvement of the lower motor neurons. The anterior horn cells only occasionally demonstrated Bunina body by cystatin-C staining, and skein-like inclusions by ubiquitin staining. This is a peculiar case with concomitant involvement in the motor cortex and temporal lobe in motor neuron disease predominantly affecting the upper motor neuron.

  14. An outcome of nuclear safety research in JAERI. Predominance of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kawashima, Kei; Ito, Keishiro; Katsuki, Chisato

    2010-02-01

    Bibliometric study by means of research papers revealed the followings; (1) Nuclear Safety Research (NSR) performed in Japan is the 2nd highest in the world followed by USA. The share of JAERI for safety paper publication is about 25% in Japan (2) During past 25 years, JAERI is predominant at 39 safety fields out of 97, that is, 40% to the total. This is the fact revealed from comparison of published number of research papers with those of other organizations. (3) JAERI is recently changing its stress point from reactor-oriented accidents to the down stream of nuclear fuel cycling. There existed impact of TMI-2 accident on NSR-JAERI, especially in the field of thermal hydraulics, LOCA, severe accident and risk analysis. (author)

  15. Bose-Einstein atoms in atomic traps with predominantly attractive two-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Vorov, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Perron-Frobenius theorem, we prove that the results by Wilkin, Gunn, and Smith [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2265 (1998)] for the ground states at angular momentum L of N harmonically trapped Bose atoms, interacting via weak attractive δ 2 (r) forces, are valid for a broad class of predominantly attractive interactions V(r), not necessarily attractive for any r. This class is described by sufficient conditions on the two-body matrix elements of the potential V(r). It includes, in particular, the Gaussian attraction of arbitrary radius, -1/r-Coulomb and log(r)-Coulomb forces, as well as all the short-range interactions satisfying inequality ∫d 2 r-vectorV(r)<0. In the precollapse regime, the angular momentum L is concentrated in the collective 'center-of-mass' mode, and there is no condensation at high L

  16. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  17. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing.

  18. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  19. Ice-associated norovirus outbreak predominantly caused by GII.17 in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Hung, Min-Nan; Chen, Wan-Chin; Lo, Yi-Chun; Su, Ying-Shih; Wei, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Meng-Yu; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yen; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wu, Fang-Tzy

    2017-11-07

    On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March. We inspected the environment to identify possible contamination route. We collected stool or vomitus samples from ill students, food handlers and environmental specimens for bacterial culture for common enteropathogens, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rotavirus. Norovirus PCR-positive products were then sequenced and genotyped. Of 267 students enrolled, 144 (54%) met our case definition. Regression analysis revealed elevated risk associated with iced tea, which was made from tea powder mixed with hot water and self-made ice (risk ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.98). Ice used for beverages, water before and after water filter of the ice machine and 16 stool and vomitus samples from ill students were tested positive for norovirus; Multiple genotypes were identified including GI.2, GI.4 and GII.17. GII.17 was the predominant genotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that noroviruses identified in ice, water and human samples were clustered into the same genotypes. Environmental investigation revealed the ice was made by inadequate-filtered and un-boiled water. We identified the ice made by norovirus-contaminated un-boiled water caused the outbreak and the predominant genotype was GII.17. Adequately filtered or boiled water should be strongly recommended for making ice to avoid possible contamination.

  20. Attentional profiles and white matter correlates in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  1. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  2. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

  4. Clinical, physiological and pathological characterisation of the sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sean W; Laughlin, Ruple S; Kumar, Neeraj; Goodman, Brent; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, Peter J; Dyck, P James B

    2017-10-01

    Myelopathy is considered the most common neurological complication of copper deficiency. Concurrent peripheral neuropathy has been recognised in association with copper deficiency but has not been well characterised. To characterise the clinical, physiological and pathological features of copper-deficient peripheral neuropathy. Patients with simultaneous copper deficiency (peripheral neuropathy seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 to 2005 were identified. 34 patients were identified (median age 55 years, range 36-78) including 24 women and 10 men. Myelopathy was found in 21 patients. Median serum copper level was 0.11 μg/mL (range 0-0.58). The most frequent clinical and electrophysiological pattern of neuropathy was a sensory predominant length-dependent peripheral neuropathy (71%). Somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated central slowing supporting myelopathy (96%). Quantitative sensory testing demonstrated both small and large fibre involvement (100%). Autonomic reflex screens (77%) and thermoregulatory sweat test (67%) confirmed sudomotor dysfunction. 14 cutaneous nerve biopsies revealed loss of myelinated nerve fibres (86%), increased regenerative clusters (50%), increased rates of axonal degeneration (91%) and increased numbers of empty nerve strands (73%). 71% of biopsies demonstrated epineurial perivascular inflammation. An axonal, length-dependent sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy causing sensory ataxia is characteristic of copper deficiency usually co-occurring with myelopathy. Neurophysiological testing confirms involvement of large, greater than small fibres. The pathological findings suggest axonal degeneration and repair. Inflammatory infiltrates are common but are small and of doubtful pathological significance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  7. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis in Singapore: predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Monica; Lye, David; Win, Mar Kyaw; Chow, Angela; Barkham, Tim

    2014-09-01

    To describe the clinical features, treatments, outcomes, and subtype prevalence of cryptococcosis in Singapore. All patients with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal infections admitted from 1999 to 2007 to a teaching hospital in Singapore were reviewed retrospectively. Identification and molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans variants and Cryptococcus gattii were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serotypes were inferred with a multiplex PCR method. Of 62 patients with cryptococcosis, C. neoformans var. grubii was the predominant subtype (in 95%), affecting mainly immunocompromised hosts (91%) with HIV infection (80%). Patients with HIV were younger (median age 36.5 vs. 49.5 years, p=0.006) and less likely to present with an altered mental status (14% vs. 50%, p=0.013). In contrast, delayed treatment (median 7 days vs. 2 days, p=0.03), pulmonary involvement (58% vs. 14%, p=0.03), and initial treatment with fluconazole (25% vs. 2%, p=0.02) were more common in HIV-negative patients. C. gattii was uncommon, affecting only three patients, all of whom were immunocompetent and had disseminated disease with pulmonary and neurological involvement. All C. gattii were RFLP type VG II, serotype B and all C. neoformans var. grubii were RFLP type VN I, serotype A, except for one that was RFLP type VN II. C. neoformans var. grubii, subtype VN I, was the predominant subtype in Singapore, infecting younger, mainly immunocompromised hosts with HIV. C. gattii was uncommon, causing pulmonary manifestations in older, immunocompetent patients and were RFLP type VG II. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a unique disease deserving unique management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2017-12-08

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA). In contrast, patients with advanced disease at diagnosis tend to relapse either with NLPHL histology or with histological transformation into aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma despite more aggressive first-line treatment with 6 to 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy. However, even NLPHL patients with multiple relapses successfully respond to salvage therapy in many cases. Salvage therapies range from single-agent anti-CD20 antibody treatment to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Treatment at disease recurrence should be chosen on the basis of various factors, including histology at relapse, time to relapse, extent of disease at relapse, and prior treatment. Because death among NLPHL patients is more often caused by therapy-related late effects than lymphoma-related complications, optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of treatment by decreasing toxicity whenever possible is the major goal of clinical research in this disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals the predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in gut microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654...

  10. Soil and phytosociological characterization of an area with predominance of arnica (Lychnophora pohlii sch. bip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues da Cunha Gianotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lychnophora pohlii Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae, known as "Arnica mineira", is widely used in folk medicine and very abundant in the altitude vegetation of rocky grassland. The aim of this work was to study the density of this species and its relationship with soil parameters in rocky grassland in Diamantina, in the Upper Jequitinhonha region, Minas Gerais. Ten contiguous 20 x 50 m plots were marked (total sampled area 10,000 m² on the campus Juscelino Kubitschek of the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM. The plants in these plots were evaluated for frequency, dominance and density. The relationship between the density of this species with nine soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed by means of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. The highest plant abundance (I of the species Lychnophora pohlii Sch. Bip. was found in the vegetation sampling areas: plot 6 with 255 plants, plot 7 with 173, plot 8 with 189, plot 9 with 159, and plot 1 with 151 plants. In these areas, the floristic soil characteristics were similar, resulting in spatial proximity in the ACC diagrams. The density of Lychnophora pohlii was higher in plots with higher pH, P-rem and base saturation, the variables most strongly correlated with the first axis of canonical correspondence analysis.

  11. Predominant Lactobacillus species types of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women: quantification of the five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Seung Min; Sohn, Yong Hak; Jin, Chan Hee; Yang, Yun Suk; Hwang, In Taek; Oh, Kwan Young

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the predominant Lactobacillus species types (LSTs) of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women by quantifying five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. In all, 168 pregnant Korean women under antenatal care at Eulji University Hospital and local clinics were enrolled in the prospective cohort study during pregnancy (10-14 weeks). Vaginal samples were collected with Eswab for Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and stored in a -80 °C freezer. qPCR was performed for five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. To identify the predominant LSTs, quantifications were analyzed by the Cluster and Tree View programs of Eisen Lab. Also the quantifications were compared among classified groups. L. crispatus and L. iners were most commonly found in pregnant Korean women, followed by L. gasseri and L. jensenii; L. vaginalis was nearly absent. Five types (four predominant LSTs and one predominant anaerobe type without predominant Lactobacillus species) were classified. Five predominant LSTs were identified in vaginal microbiota of pregnant Korean women. L. crispatus and L. iners predominant types comprised a large proportion.

  12. Longitudinal patterns of predominant asthma disease activity in pediatric patients enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A

    2008-08-01

    To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.

  13. Vestibular Dysfunction in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy: Predominant Impairment of the Horizontal Semicircular Canals

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    Seung-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWernicke’s encephalopathy (WE, a metabolic disorder due to thiamine deficiency, manifests with various neurological symptoms and signs. It has been known as a cause of vestibular dysfunction. Preliminary reports have proposed predominant involvement of the horizontal semicircular canals (HSCs.ObjectiveTo better characterize the pattern of vestibular impairment in patients with WE using quantitative video head-impulse testing and to review the literature regarding this topic.MethodFrom January 2014 to December 2016, we retrospectively enrolled five cases of WE that received quantitative video-head-impulse testing (vHIT. We retrieved the clinical features from the medical records and reviewed quantitative head-impulse testing (qHIT and caloric irrigation. Based on the gain and the number of corrective saccades, the function (normal vs. impaired of each semicircular canal was rated. In addition, we conducted a MEDLINE and EMBASE search to identify other published cases of WE that had received qHIT. Neuro-otologic and neuro-ophthalmologic findings and vestibular testing results were extracted.ResultsA total of 17 patients (own series = 5; published cases = 12 aged 54.6 ± 11 years were included. Key neurologic findings were ataxia of stance and gait (13/13, 100%, spontaneous nystagmus (7/14, 50%, gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN (17/17, 100%, positive bedside head-impulse testing for the horizontal canals (16/17, 94%, and memory impairment and mental changes (6/11, 54.5%. Regarding vestibular testing, qHIT (either video based or search-coil based documented selective bilateral horizontal canal dysfunction with normal or minimal vertical canal impairment (14/14, 100%. On caloric irrigation, bilateral horizontal canal paresis was noted in most cases (10/11, 91%.ConclusionIn WE, signs of both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction (i.e., GEN, ataxia of stance and gait, abnormal head-impulse testing were common. Selective or

  14. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

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    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  15. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur; Ruëff, Franziska; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Ollert, Markus; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Müller, Sabine; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Dorn, Britta; Biedermann, Tilo; Lidholm, Jonas; Ruecker, Gerta; Bantleon, Frank; Miehe, Michaela; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-12-01

    Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. We performed a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified as responder (n = 79) or treatment failure (n = 36) on the basis of absence or presence of systemic allergic reactions upon sting challenge. IgE reactivity to a panel of HBV allergens was analyzed in sera obtained before immunotherapy and before sting challenge. No differences were observed between responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10 sIgG 4 induction was observed only in those patients who were treated with HBV in which Api m 10 was detectable. Component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV allergy suggest predominant IgE sensitization to Api m 10 as a risk factor for treatment failure in HBV immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol ablation of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: Evaluation of recurrence rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C.H.; Baek, J.H.; Ha, E.J.; Choi, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.-W.; Kim, T.Y.; Kim, W.B.; Shong, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate recurrence rate and associated risk factors for recurrence after ethanol ablation (EA) in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent for procedures was obtained. From April 2009 to April 2013, 107 consecutive patients with predominantly cystic nodules were treated using EA. Recurrence was defined as nodules showing a residual solid portion with internal vascularity, cosmetic problems remaining, or persistent symptoms, and patients who requested additional therapy to resolve their symptomatic or cosmetic problems. Delayed recurrence was defined as treated nodules that showed no recurrent features at 1 month, but showed newly developed recurrent features during the longer follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used for variables to demonstrate the independent factors related to volume reduction. Results: One month after EA, 18.7% of patients (20/107) showed recurrence. Among 87 patients with non-recurrence, 24.1% (21/87) showed delayed recurrence. The total recurrence rate was 38.3% (41/107). Patients with recurrence (n = 41) were treated using radiofrequency ablation (n = 28), second EA (n = 4), and refused further treatment (n = 9). These patients responded well to repeat EA and radiofrequency ablation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the initial nodule volume (>20 ml; p < 0.036) and vascularity (grade >1; p < 0.049) were independent predictors of volume reduction at last follow-up. Conclusions: The results revealed that although EA seemed to be effective during the initial period, delayed recurrence should be considered during longer-term follow-up. The independent predictors of recurrence were initial volume (>20 ml) and vascularity. - Highlights: • Ethanol ablation showed unsatisfactory results in 18.7% of patient at one month. • Delayed recurrence was observed in 24

  17. Prospects for power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Careful conservation of resources in the enlarged context of the rational utilization of energy, the environment and capital will determine future power plant technology. The mainstays will be the further development of power plant concepts based on fossil (predominantly coal) and nuclear fuels; world-wide, also regenerative and CO 2 -free hydro-electric power will play a role. Rapid conversion of the available potential requires clear, long-term stable and reliable political framework conditions for the release of the necessary entrepreneurial forces. (orig.) [de

  18. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  19. Flow Function of Pharmaceutical Powders Is Predominantly Governed by Cohesion, Not by Friction Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lap Yin; Mao, Chen; Srivastava, Ishan; Du, Ping; Yang, Chia-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the flow function (FFc) of pharmaceutical powders, as measured by rotational shear cell, is predominantly governed by cohesion but not friction coefficients. Driven by an earlier report showing an inverse correlation between FFc and the cohesion divided by the corresponding pre-consolidation stress (Wang et al. 2016. Powder Tech. 294:105-112), we performed analysis on a large data set containing 1130 measurements from a ring shear tester and identified a near-perfect inverse correlation between the FFc and cohesion. Conversely, no correlation was found between FFc and friction angles. We also conducted theoretical analysis and estimated such correlations based on Mohr-Coulomb failure model. We discovered that the correlation between FFc and cohesion can sustain as long as the angle of internal friction at incipient flow is not significantly larger than the angle of internal friction at steady-state flow, a condition covering almost all pharmaceutical powders. The outcome of this study bears significance in pharmaceutical development. Because the cohesion value is strongly influenced by the interparticle cohesive forces, this study effectively shows that it is more efficient to improve the pharmaceutical powder flow by lowering the interparticle cohesive forces than by lowering the interparticle frictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Producing Astaxanthin as the Predominant Carotenoid

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    Qian Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a carotenoid of significant commercial value due to its superior antioxidant potential and wide applications in the aquaculture, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. A higher ratio of astaxanthin to the total carotenoids is required for efficient astaxanthin production. β-Carotene ketolase and hydroxylase play important roles in astaxanthin production. We first compared the conversion efficiency to astaxanthin in several β-carotene ketolases from Brevundimonas sp. SD212, Sphingomonas sp. DC18, Paracoccus sp. PC1, P. sp. N81106 and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the recombinant Escherichia coli cells that synthesize zeaxanthin due to the presence of the Pantoea ananatis crtEBIYZ. The B. sp. SD212 crtW and P. ananatis crtZ genes are the best combination for astaxanthin production. After balancing the activities of β-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, an E. coli ASTA-1 that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was constructed to produce astaxanthin as the predominant carotenoid (96.6% with a specific content of 7.4 ± 0.3 mg/g DCW without an addition of inducer.

  1. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

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    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  2. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Ma Carmen; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables regarding hand laterality. So dental eruption laterality (along with the foot one) would be one of the parameters more related to hand laterality given that dentition variable relationship is greater that the foot one. This suggests that tooth eruption could be more clinically relevant. Crossed laterality hand-foot is significantly more predominant in men (13%) than in women (1,6%). Meanwhile, the relationship between hand and dentition didn't show any influence of sex. Dental eruption order, can be used as a good parameter in the determination of the patient's laterality.

  3. Presenilin 2 is the predominant γ-secretase in microglia and modulates cytokine release.

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    Suman Jayadev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PS1 and Presenilin 2 (PS2 are the enzymatic component of the γ-secretase complex that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP to release amyloid beta (Aβ peptide. PS deficiency in mice results in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the absence of accumulated Aβ. We hypothesize that PS influences neuroinflammation through its γ-secretase action in CNS innate immune cells. We exposed primary murine microglia to a pharmacological γ-secretase inhibitor which resulted in exaggerated release of TNFα and IL-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide. To determine if this response was mediated by PS1, PS2 or both we used shRNA to knockdown each PS in a murine microglia cell line. Knockdown of PS1 did not lead to decreased γ-secretase activity while PS2 knockdown caused markedly decreased γ-secretase activity. Augmented proinflammatory cytokine release was observed after knockdown of PS2 but not PS1. Proinflammatory stimuli increased microglial PS2 gene transcription and protein in vitro. This is the first demonstration that PS2 regulates CNS innate immunity. Taken together, our findings suggest that PS2 is the predominant γ-secretase in microglia and modulates release of proinflammatory cytokines. We propose PS2 may participate in a negative feedback loop regulating inflammatory behavior in microglia.

  4. Primary histiocytic sarcoma arising in the head and neck with predominant spindle cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first case report of Histiocytic Sarcoma (HS with predominant spindle cell component occurring in the head and neck region of a 41-year-old man. The tumor was composed of sheets of large round to oval cells with pleomorphic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Multinucleated forms, numerous mitoses, and tumor necrosis were also noted. Sheets, fascicles, and whorls of spindle cells with spindled to ovoid vesicular nuclei, small to medium-sized distinct nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical staining in the tumor cells was positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme, CD45, and NSE. Focal expression of CD4 and S-100 was also noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated an abundance of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Chromosome study revealed a 57–80 hyperdiploid [7]/46, XY [13] karyotype, including 3 to 4 copies of various chromosomes. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings confirmed the diagnosis of HS.

  5. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  6. Epidemiological and clinical variables related with the predominant polarity on bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Jesús; Álvarez-Fernández, Marisol; Aguado-Bailón, Lidia; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2017-08-14

    Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP. The search is updated to June 2016. Initial search revealed 907 articles, of which 16 met inclusion criteria. Manic PP was found to be associated with manic onset, drug consumption prior to onset and a better response to atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Depressive PP showed an association with depressive onset, more relapses, prolonged acute episodes, a greater suicide risk and a later diagnosis of BD. Depressive PP was also associated with anxiety disorders, mixed symptoms, melancholic symptoms and a wider use of quetiapine and lamotrigine. Few prospective studies. Variability in some results. PP may be useful as a supplement to current BD classifications. We have found consistent data on a great number of studies, but there is also contradictory information regarding PP. Further studies are needed, ideally of a prospective design and with a unified methodology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if

  8. Predominant and common cause of urinary tract infection(s) in sukkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Nine hundred sixty six patients out of 1430 abnormal urine reports (showing significant abnormalities such as protein, pus, red cells) were asked to give second sample. The urine samples were examined by both urine test strip (Combur 10 Test, Roche) and microscopically (wet preparation) followed by culture and sensitivity. The culture sensitivity was done on urine samples of which bacterial numbers were estimated as more than 105CFU. The study was conducted at Safeway Diagnostic and Research Laboratory Sukkur and the Department of Microbiology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh from March 2001 to March 2003. Eight hundred fifty-two (88.2%) showed Escherichia spp followed by Klebsiella spp (6.9%) and proteus spp (4.9%). These showed 95%, 90%, 90% sensitivity to ofloxacin respectively. Ninety percent isolates of Escherichia spp, Proteus spp and Klebsiella spp were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Escherichia spp was found to be major uropathogen and ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were effective antibiotics against these strains isolated from UTI patients of Sukkur city. (author)

  9. First 100 laparoscopic surgeries in a predominantly rural Nigerian population: a template for future growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Christopher N; Nwobe, Ogechukwu

    2014-11-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionized surgery practice. Its proven advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, early return to unrestricted activities, and better cosmesis, have become important drivers for its rapid development. In sub-Saharan Africa this development has been slow. The aim of the current study was to describe the challenges and outcomes of laparoscopic procedures in a public hospital that caters to a predominantly rural population. The first 100 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedure in the Department of Surgery at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria were retrospectively analyzed. Data were retrieved from the medical records department as well as the surgical theater procedure register. The focus of the study was on patient demographics, indication for surgery, procedure performed, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality data. Staff training was done locally and abroad. Altogether, 100 patients had laparoscopic surgery in our general surgery unit from September 2007 through July 2013. The ages of the patients was 5-75 years (median 36.5 years). The three main procedures were cholecystectomy (36 %), diagnostic laparoscopy (29 %), and appendectomy (21 %). The other operations performed included liver abscess drainage (7 %), adhesiolysis (3 %), hernia repair (1 %), and Heller's myotomy (1 %). Four cases were converted to open surgery. There were no deaths. There were 14 grades I and II postoperative complications in nine patients. Our study suggests that basic laparoscopic procedures could be offered safely to our resource-poor rural population. It is a platform on which we can hopefully introduce advanced laparoscopic surgical operations.

  10. Paradoxes of cyberspace: why an e-book exists predominantly on paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Kovač

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the failure of predictions from mid-nineties that an e-book will become more popular than a printed book. The author stresses that the reasons for this failure are predominantly economical and sociological and have much less to do with technological failures of e-book reading devices that it is popularly believed. Thebackbone of the book publishing process is the inseparable link between the contentand its carrier; on this basis, the publishers has become the gatekeepers of intellectualproduction and the authorship has become a profession. In e-publishing, the linkbetween the content and its carrier disintegrated; as a consequence, e-book publishingnever established itself in a form of successful business process. Additionally,throughout the last 500 years, the printed book established itself as the most appropriatemedia for dissemination and storage of the most sophisticated product of humanmind. The paper shows that the e-book lacks the necessary features to substituteprinted book in this role. However, regardless its dominance over e-book, the productionand marketing of printed books have become almost entirely digitized. As a consequence,instead of e-book readers, paper has become the most important carrier ofe-book content

  11. Characteristics and predictors of oral cancer knowledge in a predominantly African American community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Hussaini, Adnan S.; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Ganesh, Rajan N.; Snider, Matthew; Thompson, Devin; Varvares, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To characterize smoking and alcohol use, and to describe predictors of oral cancer knowledge among a predominantly African-American population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September, 2013 among drag racers and fans in East St. Louis. Oral cancer knowledge was derived from combining questionnaire items to form knowledge score. Covariates examined included age, sex, race, marital status, education status, income level, insurance status, tobacco and alcohol use. Adjusted linear regression analysis measured predictors of oral cancer knowledge. Results Three hundred and four participants completed questionnaire; 72.7% were African Americans. Smoking rate was 26.7%, alcohol use was 58.3%, and mean knowledge score was 4.60 ± 2.52 out of 17. In final adjusted regression model, oral cancer knowledge was associated with race and education status. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans were 29% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge (β = -0.71; 95% CI: -1.35, -0.07); and participants with a high school diploma or less were 124% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge compared with college graduates (β = -1.24; 95% CI: -2.44, -0.41). Conclusions There was lower oral cancer knowledge among African Americans and those with low education. The prevalence of smoking was also very high. Understanding predictors of oral cancer knowledge is important in future design of educational interventions specifically targeted towards high-risk group for oral cancer. PMID:28545057

  12. De novo insertions and deletions of predominantly paternal origin are associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Walker, Michael F.; Carriero, Nicholas J.; DiCola, Michael; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Ye, Adam Y.; Waqar, Zainulabedin; Gonzalez, Luis E.; Overton, John D.; Frahm, Stephanie; Keaney, John F.; Teran, Nicole A.; Dea, Jeanselle; Mandell, Jeffrey D.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Sullivan, Catherine A.; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Khalil, Rehab O.; Gockley, Jake; Yuksel, Zafer; Sertel, Sinem M.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Gupta, Abha R.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Sheldon, Michael; Brooks, Andrew I.; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.; Wei, Liping; Sanders, Stephan J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies have demonstrated the contribution of de novo loss-of-function single nucleotide variants to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, challenges in the reliable detection of de novo insertions and deletions (indels) have limited inclusion of these variants in prior analyses. Through the application of a robust indel detection method to WES data from 787 ASD families (2,963 individuals), we demonstrate that de novo frameshift indels contribute to ASD risk (OR=1.6; 95%CI=1.0-2.7; p=0.03), are more common in female probands (p=0.02), are enriched among genes encoding FMRP targets (p=6×10−9), and arise predominantly on the paternal chromosome (p<0.001). Based on mutation rates in probands versus unaffected siblings, de novo frameshift indels contribute to risk in approximately 3.0% of individuals with ASD. Finally, through observing clustering of mutations in unrelated probands, we report two novel ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5), a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release. PMID:25284784

  13. Recipient clinical risk factors predominate in possible transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Pearl; Bacchetti, Peter; Grimes, Barbara; Gajic, Ognjen; Murphy, Edward L; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gropper, Michael A; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Matthay, Michael A; Wilson, Gregory; Koenigsberg, Monique; Lee, Deanna C; Hirschler, Nora V; Lowell, Clifford A; Schuller, Randy M; Gandhi, Manish J; Norris, Philip J; Mair, David C; Sanchez Rosen, Rosa; Looney, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    Possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (pTRALI) cases by definition have a clear temporal relationship to an alternative recipient risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We questioned whether transfusion factors are important for the development of pTRALI. In this nested case-control study, we prospectively identified 145 consecutive patients with pTRALI and randomly selected 163 transfused controls over a 4-year period at the University of California at San Francisco and the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota). For pTRALI, we found evidence against transfusion being important: receipt of plasma from female donors (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-2.3; p = 0.70), total number of units transfused (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.10; p = 0.86), and number of red blood cell and whole blood units transfused (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.03; p = 0.079). In contrast, we found that risk for pTRALI was associated with additional recipient factors: chronic alcohol abuse (OR, 12.5; 95% CI, 2.8-55; p transfusion (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.0-10.7; p transfusion (OR, 1.32/L; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44; p transfusion risk factors predominate in pTRALI. © 2014 AABB.

  14. Effects of a proprietary Bacillus coagulans preparation on symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, B J

    2009-12-01

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a profound impact on quality of life for many patients and current treatments are sometimes unsatisfactory. This controlled pilot study was conducted to evaluate effects of the proprietary GanedenBC(30) (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) probiotic on IBS symptoms, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Patients were randomized to receive either B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 or placebo once a day for 8 weeks. Patients filled out a quality-of-life questionnaire, and self-assessment diaries were provided to record stool count and consistency, symptom severity, and medication consumption. Of the 61 patients enrolled, six did not meet the inclusion criteria and three were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 52 patients with IBS-D, the average number of bowel movements per day was significantly reduced for patients treated with B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 when compared to placebo (P = 0.042). Large variability in baseline scores prevented the assessment of severity scores and quality of life. This small pilot study provides evidence that the proprietary B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 probiotic is safe and effective for reducing daily bowel movements in patients with IBS-D. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Predominant Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Dioxin-induced Neonatal Hydronephrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  16. Novel investigational drugs for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosińska, Paula; Salaga, Maciej; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with an unknown etiology. A number of the drugs tested for IBS-C have also been applied to chronic constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation. Unfortunately, due to severe adverse effects, many drugs envisioned for IBS-C had been withdrawn from the market. Nevertheless, a number of potential new agents for this indication are now under development. The following review describes the most recently developed agents in preclinical as well as Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies. Information was obtained from published literature, abstracts and the latest results found in Clinicaltrial.gov database. The authors put a special interest on glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, bile acid modulators, serotonergic agents, guanylate cyclase C and cannabinoid antagonists. To enter the market, a newly-developed drug has to meet several criteria, such as good bioavailability or the absence of drug-related adverse events. Taking into account constipation and abdominal pain as the main symptoms in IBS-C, a novel successful drug is usually able to improve both at the same time. Four out of fifteen investigational drugs described in this paper belong to the serotonergic family and have a good prognosis to reach the market; still, more long-term clinical studies are warranted.

  17. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  18. Radiofrequency versus ethanol ablation for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules:A randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Choi, Young Jun; Shong, Young Kee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare single-session radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs). This single-blind, randomized trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of two centers and informed consent was obtained from all patients before enrollment. Fifty patients with a single PCTN (cystic portion less than 90% and greater than 50%) were randomly assigned to be treated by either RFA (25 patients) or EA (25 patients) at two hospitals. The primary outcome was the tumor volume reduction ratio (%) at the six-month follow-up and the superiority margin was set at 13% (RFA minus EA). Analysis was performed primarily in an intention-to-treat manner. The secondary outcomes were the therapeutic success rate, improvement of symptomatic and cosmetic problems, and the number of major complications. The mean volume reduction was 87.5 ± 11.5% for RFA (n = 22) and 82.4 ± 28.6% for EA (n = 24) (p = 0.710; mean difference [95% confidence interval], 5.1% [-8.0 to 18.2]), indicating no significant difference. Regarding the secondary outcomes, therapeutic success (p = 0.490), mean symptom (p = 0.205) and cosmetic scores (p = 0.710) showed no difference. There were no major complications in either group (p > 0.99). The therapeutic efficacy of RFA is not superior to that of EA; therefore, EA might be preferable as the first-line treatment for PCTNs.

  19. Identifying a system of predominant negative symptoms: Network analysis of three randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Reasons for the recent mixed success of research into negative symptoms may be informed by conceptualizing negative symptoms as a system that is identifiable from network analysis. We aimed to identify: (I) negative symptom systems; (I) central negative symptoms within each system; and (III) differences between the systems, based on network analysis of negative symptoms for baseline, endpoint and change. Patients with chronic schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms participated in three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60days (n=487). Networks analyses were computed from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores for baseline and endpoint for severity, and estimated change based on mixed models. Central symptoms to each network were identified. The networks were contrasted for connectivity with permutation tests. Network analysis showed that the baseline and endpoint symptom severity systems formed symptom groups of Affect, Poor responsiveness, Lack of interest, and Apathy-inattentiveness. The baseline and endpoint networks did not significantly differ in terms of connectivity, but both significantly (Psymptom group split into three other groups. The most central symptoms were Decreased Spontaneous Movements at baseline and endpoint, and Poverty of Speech for estimated change. Results provide preliminary evidence for: (I) a replicable negative symptom severity system; and (II) symptoms with high centrality (e.g., Decreased Spontaneous Movement), that may be future treatment targets following replication to ensure the curent results generalize to other samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. Methods During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. Results Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. Conclusion The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  1. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. METHODS During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. RESULTS Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. CONCLUSION The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  2. Bacteremias in liver transplant recipients: shift toward gram-negative bacteria as predominant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nina; Wagener, Marilyn M; Obman, Asia; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; de Vera, Michael E; Gayowski, Timothy

    2004-07-01

    During the 1990s, gram-positive bacteria emerged as major pathogens after liver transplantation. We sought to determine whether the pathogens associated with bacteremias in liver transplant recipients have changed. Patients included 233 liver transplant recipients transplanted between 1989 and 2003. The proportion of all infections due to bacteremias increased significantly over time (P gram-negatives increased from 25% in the period of 1989-1993 to 51.8% in 1998-03, that of gram-positive bacteria decreased from 75% in the period of 1989-93 to 48.2% in the period of 1998-2003. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequent pathogens in bacteremic patients. The incidence of bacteremias due to MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has remained unchanged (P gram-negative bacteria, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae has increased (P =.02). Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the current quartile were not clonally related. In conclusion, bacteremias as a proportion of all infections in liver transplant recipients have increased significantly over time, due in part to a decline in infections due to other major pathogens, e.g., fungi, primarily Candida species, and CMV. Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as predominant pathogens in bacteremic liver transplant recipients.

  3. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbing, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator...... (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10...

  4. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  5. The predominant cholecystokinin in human plasma and intestine is cholecystokinin-33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Sun, G; Christensen, T

    2001-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined by chromato......Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined...... by chromatography, enzyme cleavages, and measurements using a library of sequence-specific RIAs. Plasma samples were drawn in the fasting state and at intervals after a meal. The abundance of the larger forms varied with the 8 C-terminal assays in the library, as 2 assays overestimated and 3 underestimated...... the amounts present. One assay, however, measured carboxyamidated and O:-sulfated CCKs with equimolar potency before and after tryptic cleavage. This assay showed that the predominant plasma form is CCK-33, both in the fasting state ( approximately 51%) and postprandially ( approximately 57%), whereas CCK-22...

  6. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  7. Outcomes of combined trabecular micro-bypass and phacoemulsification in a predominantly Hispanic patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Gallardo,1,2 Richard A Supnet,1 Jane Ellen Giamporcaro,3 Dana M Hornbeak3 1El Paso Eye Surgeons, PA, El Paso, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3Division of Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and topical ocular hypotensive medication burden at 12 months postoperatively in a predominantly Hispanic patient population with primary open-angle glaucoma each implanted with one trabecular micro-bypass stent during cataract surgery.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series. The main objective was to assess reduction of IOP and/or medication burden in all eyes at the 12-month postoperative exam. A secondary objective was to assess outcomes in 3 subgroups, distinguished preoperatively by IOP control and by medication burden (suboptimal or maximum therapy and with different treatment goals. Group 1 had medication-controlled IOP and goal to reduce medications while maintaining IOP control (n=65; Group 2 had uncontrolled IOP on ≤2 medications and goal to reduce IOP and maintain/reduce medication burden (n=31; and Group 3 had uncontrolled IOP on ≥3 medications and goal to reduce IOP and avoid filtering surgery (n=38. Evaluations included IOP, medication use, cup-to-disc ratio, visual fields, complications, and interventions. One hundred subjects (134 eyes have been followed for 12 months.Results: Most patients (80% were Hispanic and had moderate or severe glaucoma (87%. At 12 months, mean IOP reduced to 12.9 mmHg vs 16.5 mmHg preoperatively; 92% had an IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months (99% had ≤18 mmHg. Mean medication burden had decreased to 0.9 vs 2.3 preoperatively. At the 12-month time point, 94% of all eyes achieved their predefined treatment goal of reduced IOP and/or medications. Reductions in medication burden for Group 1, and

  8. HK2 Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Synthesize and Secrete Plasma Proteins Predominantly Through the Apical Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Wei; Murray, Elsa J Brochmann; Murray, Samuel S

    2017-04-01

    Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) are known to reabsorb salts and small plasma proteins filtered through Bowman's capsule. Following acute kidney injury, PTECs assume some characteristics of hepatocytes in producing various plasma proteins. We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α 2 -macroglobulin family chaperone, including albumin, transferrin, α 1 -antitrypsin, α 1 -antichymotrypsin, α 2 -HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, C1-inhibitor, secreted phosphoprotein-24, and insulin-like growth factor-1. When grown on transwell inserts, HK2 cells predominantly secrete (∼90%) plasma proteins into the apical side and a smaller fraction into the basolateral side as determined by ELISA assays. When cultured in the presence of exogenous cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, TNFα, BMP2, or TGFβ1, HK2 cell mRNA expressions for plasma proteins were variably affected whereas basolateral secretions were elevated to or in excess of those of the apical level. In addition, HK2 cells produce proTGFβ1 with its intact N-terminal latency associated peptide and latent-TGF-β-binding proteins. The complex cannot be dissociated under conditions of SDS, heating, and electrophoresis. Moreover, HK2 cells maintain their ability to quickly uptake exogenously added serum proteins from the culture medium, as if they are recognized differently by the endocytic receptors. These results provide new insight into the hepatization of PTECs. In addition to their unique uptake of plasma proteins and salts from the filtrate, they are a source of urinary proteins under normal conditions as wells as in chronic and acute kidney diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 924-933, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Tamas [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest (Hungary); Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L. [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Voros, Szilard [Global Genomics Group, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jermendy, Gyoergy [Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Hospital, Medical Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  10. IMPACT OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH DIETARY FIBER ON PATIENTS WITH CONSTIPATION PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M

    2017-03-01

    The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.

  11. Predominant diagnoses, gender, and admission duration in an adult psychiatric inpatient hospital in United Kingdom

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    Carlo Lazzari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to epidemiologically analyse patients presenting at an adult and mixed-gender psychiatric inpatient unit in Essex, Kingswood Centre, UK, to report the predominant diagnoses, gender, and admission duration. Method and material: Meta-analysis and descriptive statistics analysed the year 2016 discharge data on Excel® for 162 patients. ICD-10 codes classified their mental illnesses. Results: Meta-analysis evidenced statistically significant heterogeneity in numbers admissions (I2=95%; p≤0.001, length (I2=78%; p≤0.001, and gender (I2=76%; p≤0.001. The prevailing diagnosis was borderline personality disorder (BPD (rate, 95% CI=0.46 [0.38-0.54]. The longest admission was for schizoaffective disorder (mean duration, 95% CI=53 [22.65-83.34], p=0.001. Gender presented a prevalence of male over female admissions for schizophrenia (OR, 95% CI=0.14 [0.05-0.35], p≤0.001 and BPD with prevalence of female over male admissions (OR, 95% CI=2.79 [1.35-5.76], p=0.05. Conclusion: Female patients with BPD were the most represented category in non-forensic psychiatric inpatient wards in the population studied. Male patients with schizophrenia represented the other gender highly represented. The longest admission was recorded for schizoaffective disorder due to the complexity to treat both mood and psychotic symptoms. It is likely that women with BPD will be the future recipients of psychiatric inpatient and outpatient healthcare services.

  12. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Horvath, Tamas; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, Gyoergy

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David A; Nymon, Amanda B; Ringelberg, Carol S; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may contribute in the development of lung disease. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology and emerging evidence indicates altered microRNA expression modulates respiratory disease processes. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the epigenetic and cellular mechanisms influencing regional differences in lung disease by investigating effect of hypoxia on regional microRNA expression in the lung. All studies were performed using primary alveolar macrophages ( n  = 10) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( n  = 16) isolated from human subjects. MicroRNA was assayed via the NanoString nCounter microRNA assay. Divergent molecular patterns of microRNA expression were observed in alternate lung lobes, specifically noted was disparate expression of miR-93 and miR-4454 in alveolar macrophages along with altered expression of miR-451a and miR-663a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gene ontology was used to identify potential downstream targets of divergent microRNAs. Targets include cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, molecules that could have a significant impact on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our findings show variant regional microRNA expression associated with hypoxia in alveolar macrophages and BAL fluid in the lung-upper vs lower lobe. Future studies should address whether these specific microRNAs may act intracellularly, in a paracrine/endocrine manner to direct the innate immune response or may ultimately be involved in pulmonary host-to-pathogen trans

  14. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

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    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  15. De Novo Insertions and Deletions of Predominantly Paternal Origin Are Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Shan Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Whole-exome sequencing (WES studies have demonstrated the contribution of de novo loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants (SNVs to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, challenges in the reliable detection of de novo insertions and deletions (indels have limited inclusion of these variants in prior analyses. By applying a robust indel detection method to WES data from 787 ASD families (2,963 individuals, we demonstrate that de novo frameshift indels contribute to ASD risk (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0–2.7; p = 0.03, are more common in female probands (p = 0.02, are enriched among genes encoding FMRP targets (p = 6 × 10−9, and arise predominantly on the paternal chromosome (p < 0.001. On the basis of mutation rates in probands versus unaffected siblings, we conclude that de novo frameshift indels contribute to risk in approximately 3% of individuals with ASD. Finally, by observing clustering of mutations in unrelated probands, we uncover two ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5, a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release. : Insertions and deletions (indels have proven especially difficult to detect in exome sequencing data. Dong et al. now identify indels in exome data for 787 autism spectrum disorder (ASD families. They demonstrate association between de novo indels that alter the reading frame and ASD. Furthermore, by observing clustering of indels in unrelated probands, they uncover two additional ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5, a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release.

  16. Irradiated fetal thymus transplantation in a patient with combined immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shigenori; Yanabe, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Akahoshi, Izumi; Migita, Masahiro; Matsuda, Ichiro; Udaka, Keiji.

    1993-01-01

    A 6 month old boy was diagnosed as a case of combined immunodeficiency (with predominant T cell defect by previous classification). His T cell count was decreased, his B cell count in peripheral blood was increased, his serum IgG level was decreased, his serum IgM level was normal and the thymus was not evident on CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging. Administration of the thymus hormone, thymosin, led to a partial recovery of T cell function without normalization of the T cell count. At age 26 months the patient received an irradiated thymus transplantation from a 16 week old female fetus. After the transplantation, the T cell count (mainly CD4 + cells) increased by 50-70%. A mild graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) occurred and several immunosuppressants were prescribed. Chromosome analysis showed that the T cells have both 46 XY and 46 XX karyotypes while the B cells have the 46 XY karyotype alone. His cellular immunity (skin tests, DNA synthesis, mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic activity and natural killer cell function) and his serum IgG level remained low. However, being on regular γ-globulin therapy and oral anti-fungal drugs, he is now living normally with almost no trouble at age 6 years and 3 months. This case showed that irradiated thymus transplantation might be a useful method when an adequate donor for bone marrow transplantation is not available. The unexpected observation that the increased T cells were mainly CD4 may be related to the mild GVHR and the clinical improvement. (author)

  17. Microscopic colitis - a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Cristian; Diculescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation in microscopic colitis (MC) is similar in many cases to that of diarrhea-predominent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The proper differential diagnosis requires total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal-appearing mucosa and a detailed histopathological exam. Specific treatment may improve symptomatology. To evaluate the prevalence of MC in patients with an initial diagnosis of IBS-D, to analyse demographic and clinical features of MC patients and to assess the efficacy of specific treatment. Our retrospective study analyzed patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis in clinic during a three-year period. Diagnosis was established on histological exams of the samples obtained during colonoscopy in patients previously thought to have IBS-D. We evaluated clinical manifestations, time lapsed from their onset to definitive diagnosis, the association of MC with autoimmune diseases or with prior medication and the efficacy of treatment with budesonide or mesalazine. From 247 patients considered to have IBS-D, 15 patients (6.07%) had actually MC (13 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). MC was associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (3 patients), Lansoprazole (2 patients) and autoimmune diseases (6 patients). Watery, non-bloody diarrhea was present in all patients with MC. Other frequent complaints were nocturnal diarrhea (11 patients), abdominal pain (8 patients), abdominal bloating and flatulence (8 patients) and slight weight loss (6 patients). The diagnostic samples were obtained from the right colon in 6 cases and from rectosigmoid or transverse colon in 9 patients. Treatment was initial symptomatic in all patients, but there were 5 patients that required mesalazine and/or Budesonide, with favourable outcome. All the patients thought to have diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis. Symptomatology is almost superimposable, but a few distinct features can be noticed. The proper

  18. Greater stroke severity predominates over all other factors for the worse outcome of cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Kang, Dong-Wha; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Han, Moon-Ku; Cho, Yong-Jin; Song, Pamela; Park, Jong-Moo; Oh, Mi-Sun; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Cardioembolic (CE) strokes are more disabling and more fatal than non-CE strokes. Multiple prognostic factors have been recognized, but the magnitude of their relative contributions has not been well explored. Using a prospective stroke outcome database, we compared the 3-month outcomes of CE and non-CE strokes. We assessed the relative contribution of each prognostic factor of initial stroke severity, poststroke complications, and baseline characteristics with multivariable analyses and model fitness improvement using -2 log-likelihood and Nagelkerke R2. This study included 1233 patients with acute ischemic stroke: 193 CE strokes and 1040 non-CE strokes. Compared with the non-CE group, CE group had less modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 outcomes (47.2% versus 68.5%; odds ratio [95% confidence interval], .41 [.30-.56]), less mRS 0-1 outcomes (33.7% versus 53.5%; .44 [.32-.61]), more mRS 5-6 outcomes (32.1% versus 10.9%; 3.88 [2.71-5.56]), and higher mortality (19.2% versus 5.2%; 4.33 [2.76-6.80]) at 3 months. When adjusting either baseline characteristics or poststroke complications, the outcome differences between the 2 groups remained significant. However, adjusting initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score alone abolished all outcome differences except for mortality. For mRS 0-2 outcomes, the decrement of -2 log-likelihood and the Nagelkerke R2 of the model adjusting initial NIHSS score alone approached 70.2% and 76.7% of the fully adjusting model. Greater stroke severity predominates over all other factors for the worse outcome of CE stroke. Primary prevention and more efficient acute therapy for stroke victims should be given top priorities to reduce the burden of CE strokes. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  20. Increased serum free tryptophan in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, David M; Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Hince, Dana; Davies, Simon J C; Probert, Christopher; Creed, Tom; Smithson, John; Afzal, Muhammad; Nutt, David J; Potokar, John P

    2010-10-01

    Irregularities of serotonin function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be due to changes in the metabolism of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan. Dietary alteration of tryptophan intake may impact upon the mood and bowel symptoms of IBS. We hypothesized that diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (d-IBS) patients would exhibit an increase in plasma tryptophan due to alterations in tryptophan metabolism. We also hypothesized that a diet low in tryptophan would reverse this change and reduce symptoms. Thirteen patients with d-IBS had fasting serum free and total tryptophan, large neutral amino acids, and 6 kynurenine metabolites measured before and after 2 weeks of a strict dairy-free diet. Baseline tryptophan parameters were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Changes in the specific tryptophan parameters before and after dairy-free diet were correlated with symptoms of IBS and mood. Compared with the control group, d-IBS patients at baseline exhibited significantly higher free serum tryptophan (10.5 ± 4.35 vs 4.75 ± 2.43 μmol/L [means ± standard deviation], P = .006) and significantly lower tryptophan dioxygenase and total tryptophan oxidation as measured by the kynurenine to free tryptophan and total kynurenines to free tryptophan ratios (23.37 ± 10.12 vs 55.33 ± 16.02, P < .001 and 49.34 ± 17.84 vs 258.46 ± 98.67, P < .001, respectively). Dairy-free diet did not modulate metabolites of the kynurenine pathway or symptoms. Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway is inhibited in d-IBS, and a dairy-free diet does not alter this. Our findings are consistent with possible enhanced serotonin activity in d-IBS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA-PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME WITH MESALAZINE AND/OR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

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    Mauro BAFUTTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain and altered intestinal habits. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that some IBS patients, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D, display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation and a modified intestinal microflora. The mesalazine has known intestinal anti-inflammatory properties. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for a long time in treatment of diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea. Objective Evaluate the effects of mesalazine alone, combined therapy of mesalazine with liophylised Saccharomyces boulardii or alone on symptoms of IBS-D patients. Methods Based on Rome III criteria, 53 IBS-D patients (18 year or more were included. To exclude organic diseases all patients underwent colonoscopy, stool culture, serum anti-endomisium antibody, lactose tolerance test and ova and parasite exam. Patients were divided in three groups: mesalazine group (MG - 20 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. for 30 days; mesalazine and Saccharomyces boulardii group (MSbG - 21 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. and Saccharomyces boulardii 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days and; Saccharomyces boulardii group (SbG – 12 patients received Sb 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Drugs that might have any effect on intestinal motility or secretion were not allowed. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a 4-point likert scale including: stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol scale, abdominal pain and distension. Paired t test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analyses. Results Compared to baseline, there were statistically significant reduction of symptom score after 30 th day therapy in all three groups: MG (P<0.0001; MSbG (P<0.0001 and in SbG (P = 0.003. There were statistically significant differences in the symptom score at 30 th day

  2. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  3. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  4. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

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    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  5. Delayed Diagnosis and Complications of Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies in a Cohort of Australian Adults

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    Charlotte A. Slade

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPredominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs are the most common type of primary immunodeficiency in adults. PADs frequently pass undetected leading to delayed diagnosis, delayed treatment, and the potential for end-organ damage including bronchiectasis. In addition, PADs are frequently accompanied by comorbid autoimmune disease, and an increased risk of malignancy.ObjectivesTo characterize the diagnostic and clinical features of adult PAD patients in Victoria, Australia.MethodsWe identified adult patients receiving, or having previously received immunoglobulin replacement therapy for a PAD at four hospitals in metropolitan Melbourne, and retrospectively characterized their clinical and diagnostic features.Results179 patients from The Royal Melbourne, Alfred and Austin Hospitals, and Monash Medical Centre were included in the study with a median age of 49.7 years (range: 16–87 years, of whom 98 (54.7% were female. The majority of patients (116; 64.8% met diagnostic criteria for common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, and 21 (11.7% were diagnosed with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG was described in 22 patients (12.3%, IgG subclass deficiency (IGSCD in 12 (6.7%, and specific antibody deficiency (SpAD in 4 individuals (2.2%. The remaining four patients had a diagnosis of Good syndrome (thymoma with immunodeficiency. There was no significant difference between the age at diagnosis of the disorders, with the exception of XLA, with a median age at diagnosis of less than 1 year. The median age of reported symptom onset was 20 years for those with a diagnosis of CVID, with a median age at diagnosis of 35 years. CVID patients experienced significantly more non-infectious complications, such as autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferative disease, than the other antibody deficiency disorders. The presence of non-infectious complications was associated with significantly reduced survival in the

  6. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pimentel

    Full Text Available Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375 were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n=142, subjects with celiac disease (n=121, and healthy controls (n=43 were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001. Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001 compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80 the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68 were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  7. CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are predominant in Colombian hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Natalia Jiménez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports highlight the incursion of community-associated MRSA within healthcare settings. However, knowledge of this phenomenon remains limited in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in three tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008-2010. MRSA infections were classified as either community-associated (CA-MRSA or healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA, with HA-MRSA further classified as hospital-onset (HAHO-MRSA or community-onset (HACO-MRSA according to standard epidemiological definitions established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. RESULTS: Out of 538 total MRSA isolates, 68 (12.6% were defined as CA-MRSA, 243 (45.2% as HACO-MRSA and 227 (42.2% as HAHO-MRSA. The majority harbored SCCmec type IVc (306, 58.7%, followed by SCCmec type I (174, 33.4%. The prevalence of type IVc among CA-, HACO- and HAHO-MRSA isolates was 92.4%, 65.1% and 43.6%, respectively. From 2008 to 2010, the prevalence of type IVc-bearing strains increased significantly, from 50.0% to 68.2% (p = 0.004. Strains harboring SCCmec IVc were mainly associated with spa types t1610, t008 and t024 (MLST clonal complex 8, while PFGE confirmed that the t008 and t1610 strains were closely related to the USA300-0114 CA-MRSA clone. Notably, strains belonging to these three spa types exhibited high levels of tetracycline resistance (45.9%. CONCLUSION: CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are becoming predominant in Medellín hospitals, displacing previously reported CC5 HA-MRSA clones. Based on shared characteristics including SCCmec IVc, absence of the ACME element and tetracycline resistance, the USA300-related isolates in this study are most likely related to USA300-LV, the recently-described 'Latin American variant' of USA300.

  8. Attention benefits after a single dose of metadoxine extended release in adults with predominantly inattentive ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Iris; Rubin, Jonathan; Daniely, Yaron; Adler, Lenard A

    2014-09-01

    To assess the first-dose effectiveness and tolerability of metadoxine extended release (MDX) in adults with predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, adults with ADHD-PI were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of MDX 1400 mg, MDX 700 mg, and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01685281). The primary efficacy end point was the mean change in the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) ADHD score from baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration. Secondary assessments included TOVA subscores, TOVA response rates (defined as an increase of 0.8 points in the TOVA ADHD score), and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery. Safety assessments included adverse events and vital signs. The intention-to-treat population included 36 patients (52.8% men; mean age, 32 years). The efficacy of MDX 1400 mg was demonstrated by a statistically significant difference in the mean (± SD) change in the TOVA ADHD score at baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration compared with placebo (2.0 [4.2]; P = 0.009). The TOVA response time variability subscore was significantly different between MDX 1400 mg and placebo (mean difference, 7.9 [19.2] points; P = 0.022). Significantly more adults responded to single-dose MDX 1400 mg versus placebo (97.1% vs 71.4%, P = 0.006). There were no statistically significant differences between MDX 700 mg and placebo on any measures. Exploratory analyses of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery did not yield significant findings. Fatigue and headache were the 2 most frequently reported adverse events. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory values, vital signs measurements, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale scores, or electrocardiographic parameters. Single-dose MDX 1400 mg significantly improved sustained and selective attention in adults with ADHD-PI as measured by the TOVA

  9. Microscopic Colitis – A Missed Diagnosis in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOICESCU, Adriana; BECHEANU, Gabriel; DUMBRAVA, Mona; GHEORGHE, Cristian; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Clinical presentation in microscopic colitis (MC) is similar in many cases to that of diarrhea-predominent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The proper differential diagnosis requires total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal-appearing mucosa and a detailed histopathological exam. Specific treatment may improve symptomatology. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of MC in patients with an initial diagnosis of IBS-D, to analyse demographic and clinical features of MC patients and to assess the efficacy of specific treatment. Material and methods: Our retrospective study analyzed patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis in clinic during a three-year period. Diagnosis was established on histological exams of the samples obtained during colonoscopy in patients previously thought to have IBS-D. We evaluated clinical manifestations, time lapsed from their onset to definitive diagnosis, the association of MC with autoimmune diseases or with prior medication and the efficacy of treatment with budesonide or mesalazine. Results: From 247 patients considered to have IBS-D, 15 patients (6.07%) had actually MC (13 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). MC was associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (3 patients), Lansoprazole (2 patients) and autoimmune diseases (6 patients). Watery, non-bloody diarrhea was present in all patients with MC. Other frequent complaints were nocturnal diarrhea (11 patients), abdominal pain (8 patients), abdominal bloating and flatulence (8 patients) and slight weight loss (6 patients). The diagnostic samples were obtained from the right colon in 6 cases and from rectosigmoid or transverse colon in 9 patients. Treatment was initial symptomatic in all patients, but there were 5 patients that required mesalazine and/or Budesonide, with favourable outcome. Conclusions: All the patients thought to have diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis. Symptomatology is almost

  10. Triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease in childhood: detection and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvengt, Julie; Boizeau, Priscilla; Chevenne, Didier; Zenaty, Delphine; Paulsen, Anne; Simon, Dominique; Guilmin Crepon, Sophie; Alberti, Corinne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Léger, Juliane

    2015-06-01

    To assess in a pediatric population, the clinical characteristics and management of triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease (T3-P-GD), a rare condition well known in adults, but not previously described in children. We conducted a university hospital-based observational study. All patients with GD followed for more than 1 year between 2003 and 2013 (n=60) were included. T3-P-GD (group I) was defined as high free T3 (fT3) concentration (>8.0 pmol/l) associated with a normal free thyroxine (fT4) concentration and undetectable TSH more than 1 month after the initiation of antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. Group II contained patients with classical GD without T3-P-GD. Eight (13%) of the patients were found to have T3-P-GD, a median of 6.3 (3.0-10.5) months after initial diagnosis (n=4) or 2.8 (2.0-11.9) months after the first relapse after treatment discontinuation (n=4). At GD diagnosis, group I patients were more likely to be younger (6.8 (4.3-11.0) vs 10.7 (7.2-13.7) years) and had more severe disease than group II patients, with higher serum TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) levels: 40 (31-69) vs 17 (8-25) IU/l, P<0.04, and with slightly higher serum fT4 (92 (64-99) vs 63 (44-83) pmol/l) and fT3 (31 (30-46) vs 25 (17-31) pmol/l) concentrations. During the 3 years following T3-P-GD diagnosis, a double dose of ATD was required and median serum fT4:fT3 ratio remained lower in group I than in group II. Severe hyperthyroidism, with particularly high TRAb concentrations at diagnosis, may facilitate the identification of patients requiring regular serum fT3 determinations and potentially needing higher doses of ATD dosage during follow-up. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Regulatory T Cells and Pro-inflammatory Responses Predominate in Children with Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Whittaker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFollowing infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection.ObjectiveTo comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB or healthy controls.MethodsWhole blood was stimulated in vitro with mycobacteria for 24 h or 6 days to induce effector and memory responses. CD4, CD8, γδ, regulatory T cells, and their related cytokines were measured. Samples of children with tuberculosis (TB disease were analyzed both at time of diagnosis and at the end of TB treatment to determine if any differences were due to TB disease or an underlying host phenotype.ResultsSeventy-six children with TB disease (48 with PTB and 28 with EPTB and 83 healthy controls were recruited to the study. The frequency of CD4+CD25+CD39+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and secreted IL10 were significantly higher in children with TB compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-, IL17-, and IL22-producing γδ T cells, IL22-producing CD4+ T cells and secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL1β, and TNFα were significantly lower in children with TB disease compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and Ki67+-proliferating CD4+ T cells, however, were present in equal numbers in both groups. Following treatment, these immune parameters recovered to “healthy” levels or greater in children with PTB, but not those with extrapulmonary TB.ConclusionIn children with TB disease, a predominantly immune regulatory state is present. These immune findings do not distinguish between children with PTB and EPTB at the time of diagnosis. Following treatment, these inflammatory responses recover in PTB, suggesting that the effect is disease

  12. Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Associated With Diverticular Disease: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-kyung; Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A subset of patients with colonic diverticular disease have chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, and some have a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but whether IBS and diverticular disease are linked is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate this association in the community. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted by mailing a valid symptom questionnaire to the eligible residents of Olmsted County, MN, aged 30 –95 years. Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis and diverticulitis) was ascertained through a review of the complete medical history of all responders. Subjects with at least one relevant test (colonoscopy, computed tomography (CT) scan, CT colonography, or barium enema) were included. IBS was defined using Rome II criteria. RESULTS Among 2,267 eligible respondents, there were 1,712 subjects who had undergone colon testing (76%): 919 women (54%); mean (±s.d.) age 65 (±11 years). Colonic diverticular disease was identified in 44.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1–46.8) of the subject. IBS was reported by 8.8% (95% CI 6.9 –11.0) of men and 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 –19.6) of women. After adjusting for age and gender, the presence of IBS was associated with an increased odds for diverticulosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 – 2.4) but not diverticulitis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 –3.2). In those 65 years of age or older, the presence of IBS was associated with a ninefold higher odds for diverticulosis (OR = 9.4, 95% CI 5.8–15.1). Relative to the non-IBS subgroup, diarrhea-predominant IBS and mixed IBS were significantly associated with an increased odds for diverticular disease (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2; OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 –6.4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is a significantly increased odds for colonic diverticulosis in subjects with IBS (relative to those without IBS). These results suggest that IBS and colonic diverticular disease may be connected. PMID:19861955

  13. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  14. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with mesalazine and/or Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafutto, Mauro; Almeida, José Roberto de; Leite, Nayle Vilela; Costa, Michelle Bafutto Gomes; Oliveira, Enio Chaves de; Resende-Filho, Joffre

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain and altered intestinal habits. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that some IBS patients, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation and a modified intestinal microflora. The mesalazine has known intestinal anti-inflammatory properties. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for a long time in treatment of diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea. Evaluate the effects of mesalazine alone, combined therapy of mesalazine with liophylised Saccharomyces boulardii or alone on symptoms of IBS-D patients. Based on Rome III criteria, 53 IBS-D patients (18 year or more) were included. To exclude organic diseases all patients underwent colonoscopy, stool culture, serum anti-endomisium antibody, lactose tolerance test and ova and parasite exam. Patients were divided in three groups: mesalazine group (MG) - 20 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. for 30 days; mesalazine and Saccharomyces boulardii group (MSbG) - 21 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. and Saccharomyces boulardii 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days and; Saccharomyces boulardii group (SbG) - 12 patients received Sb 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Drugs that might have any effect on intestinal motility or secretion were not allowed. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a 4-point likert scale including: stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol scale), abdominal pain and distension. Paired t test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analyses. Compared to baseline, there were statistically significant reduction of symptom score after 30 th day therapy in all three groups: MG (PSaccharomyces boulardii alone or combined treatment with mesalasine and Saccaromyces boulardii improved IBS-D symptoms. The improvement of the symptom score was greater with mesalazine

  15. Hydrogen content and density in nanocrystalline carbon films of a predominant diamond character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.; Heiman, A.; Akhvlediani, R.; Lakin, E.; Zolotoyabko, E.; Cyterman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon films possessing a prevailing diamond or graphite character, depending on substrate temperature, can be deposited from a methane hydrogen mixture by the direct current glow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition method. While at a temperature of ∼880 deg. C, following the formation of a thin precursor graphitic film, diamond nucleation occurs and a nanodiamond film grows, at higher and lower deposition temperatures the films maintain their graphitic character. In this study the hydrogen content, density and nanocrystalline phase composition of films deposited at various temperatures are investigated. We aim to elucidate the role of hydrogen in nanocrystalline films with a predominant diamond character. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a considerable increase of the hydrogen concentration in the films that accompanies the growth of nanodiamond. It correlates with near edge x-ray adsorption spectroscopy measurements, that showed an appearance of spectroscopic features associated with the diamond structure, and with a substantial increase of the film density detected by x-ray reflectivity. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that nanocrystalline diamond films can be deposited from a CH 4 /H 2 mixture with hydrogen concentration in the 80%-95% range. For a deposition temperature of 880 deg. C, the highest diamond character of the films was found for a hydrogen concentration of 91% of H 2 . The deposition temperature plays an important role in diamond formation, strongly influencing the content of adsorbed hydrogen with an optimum at 880 deg. C. It is suggested that diamond nucleation and growth of the nanodiamond phase is driven by densification of the deposited graphitic films which results in high local compressive stresses. Nanodiamond formation is accompanied by an increase of hydrogen concentration in the films. It is suggested that hydrogen retention is critical for stabilization of nanodiamond crystallites. At lower

  16. Drought stress had a predominant effect over heat stress on three tomato cultivars subjected to combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Rong; Yu, Xiaqing; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2017-01-01

    and relative water content of all cultivars significantly decreased under drought and combined stress as compared to control. The net photosynthesis and starch content were significantly lower under drought and combined stress than control in the three cultivars. Stomata and pore length of the three cultivars......BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses due to environmental factors could adversely affect the growth and development of crops. Among the abiotic stresses, drought and heat stress are two critical threats to crop growth and sustainable agriculture worldwide. Considering global climate change, incidence...... of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase. The aim of this study was to shed light on plant growth performance and leaf physiology of three tomatoes cultivars ('Arvento', 'LA1994' and 'LA2093') under control, drought, heat and combined stress. RESULTS: Shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area...

  17. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  18. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  19. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  20. Core Promoter Plasticity Between Maize Tissues and Genotypes Contrasts with Predominance of Sharp Transcription Initiation Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Guerra, María Katherine; Li, Wei; Galeano, Narmer F; Vidal, Mabel; Gray, John; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-12-01

    Core promoters are crucial for gene regulation, providing blueprints for the assembly of transcriptional machinery at transcription start sites (TSSs). Empirically, TSSs define the coordinates of core promoters and other regulatory sequences. Thus, experimental TSS identification provides an essential step in the characterization of promoters and their features. Here, we describe the application of CAGE (cap analysis of gene expression) to identify genome-wide TSSs used in root and shoot tissues of two maize (Zea mays) inbred lines (B73 and Mo17). Our studies indicate that most TSS clusters are sharp in maize, similar to mice, but distinct from Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, or zebra fish, in which a majority of genes have broad-shaped TSS clusters. We established that ∼38% of maize promoters are characterized by a broader TATA-motif consensus, and this motif is significantly enriched in genes with sharp TSSs. A noteworthy plasticity in TSS usage between tissues and inbreds was uncovered, with ∼1500 genes showing significantly different dominant TSSs, sometimes affecting protein sequence by providing alternate translation initiation codons. We experimentally characterized instances in which this differential TSS utilization results in protein isoforms with additional domains or targeted to distinct subcellular compartments. These results provide important insights into TSS selection and gene expression in an agronomically important crop. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Predominant role of water in regulating the tree-growth response to diurnal asymmetric warmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Xia, J.; Cui, E.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of the Northern Hemisphere trees is affected by diurnal asymmetric warming, which is generally considered to touch off carbon assimilation and increment of carbon storage. Asymmetric effects of diurnal warming on vegetation greenness were validated in previous researches, however, the effect of diurnal warming on wood tissue which stores most carbon of a whole plant is still unknown. Here, we combined ring-width index (RWI), remote sensing-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and climate datasets to detect the effects of daytime and night-time warming on vegetation growth, respectively. Our results indicate that daytime warming enhances NDVI but has neutral effect on tree woody growth over the Northern Hemisphere. Response of wood growth to daytime warming is linearly regulated by soil water availability. The underlying mechanism of different response of canopy and wood growth to daytime warming may attribute to the biomass change, that is, allocation to foliage tissues increased at the expense of wood tissue under warming and water-limited conditions. Night-time warming show neutral effects on NDVI and RWI over the Northern Hemisphere, and the neutral Tmin-NDVI correlations result from the non-linear mediation of soil water availability. Our results highlight the current greening trend under daytime warming does not mean higher carbon sink capacity, the warming-drying climate may impair the large carbon sink of global forests.

  2. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus; Debbie Page-Dumroese; Al Harvey; Efren Cazares; Larry F. Bednar

    1996-01-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white...

  3. From Access to Engagement: African American Female Students' Engagement at a Predominantly White University in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a predominantly White university's efforts to improve engagement of African American female students through the lens of organizational theory. This qualitative study consists of 10 semistructured interviews of undergraduate, African American women. Research on psychological presence and its impact on employee…

  4. Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laurent

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating recovery of learning is discussed.

  5. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, B...

  6. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with mothers stopping predominant breastfeeding earlier in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerug, Anne; Sletner, Line; Laake, Petter; Fretheim, Atle; Løland, Beate Fossum; Waage, Christin W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2018-06-01

    It has previously been shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study compared the cessation of predominant breastfeeding in mothers with and without recent GDM in a multi-ethnic population. From May 2008 to May 2010, healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care provided by community health services in Eastern Oslo, Norway were recruited. We included 616 women-58% non-Western-and interviewed and examined them at a mean of 15 and 28 weeks of gestation and 14 weeks' postpartum. Cox regression models examined the association between GDM, as assessed by the 2013 World Health Organization criteria, and breastfeeding cessation. Overall, 190 of the 616 (31%) mothers had GDM and they ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than mothers without GDM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.01-1.77. Mothers of South Asian origin ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than Western European mothers in the adjusted analysis (aHR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25), but Middle Eastern mothers did not. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with earlier cessation of predominant breastfeeding in Western European and non-Western women. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 78 FR 20755 - Definitions of “Predominantly Engaged In Financial Activities” and “Significant” Nonbank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... and Chief Executive Officer, Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, p... role of this rulemaking is to define activities that are financial. This rulemaking does not designate... of ``Predominantly Engaged In Financial Activities'' and ``Significant'' Nonbank Financial Company...

  8. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  9. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  10. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD.

  11. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  12. The Relationship of Assertiveness and the Academic Success of Black Students in Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaights, Ernest; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship among nonacademic factors and retention of Black students at predominantly White universities. Examined assertiveness as measured by the College Self Expression Scale, cumulative grade point average, and retention of 119 Black college students. While nonsignificant findings prevailed when total sample was analyzed, trends…

  13. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  14. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  15. Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…

  16. Negotiating Worlds, Managing Subjectivities, and Redefining Selves: The Lived Experiences of African American Undergraduate Females at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ayana Ma-el

    2010-01-01

    A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…

  17. Competing Values Framework: A useful tool to define the predominant culture in a maternity setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Dawson, Angela; Foureur, Maralyn

    2017-04-01

    To identify the predominant culture of an organisation which could then assess readiness for change. An exploratory design using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) as a self-administered survey tool. The Maternity Unit in one Australian metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. All 120 clinicians (100 midwives and 20 obstetricians) employed in the maternity service were invited to participate; 26% responded. The identification of the predominant culture of an organisation to assess readiness for change prior to the implementation of a new policy. The predominant culture of this maternity unit, as described by those who responded to the survey, was one of hierarchy with a focus on rules and regulations and less focus on innovation, flexibility and teamwork. These results suggest that this unit did not have readiness to change. There is value in undertaking preparatory work to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of an organisation prior to designing and implementing change. This understanding can influence additional preliminary work that may be required to increase the readiness for change and therefore increase the opportunity for successful change. The CVF is a useful tool to identify the predominant culture and characteristics of an organisation that could influence the success of change. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  19. Classroom Management Training for Teachers in Urban Environments Serving Predominately African American Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…

  20. Minority-Serving Institutions, Race-Conscious "Dwelling," and Possible Futures for Basic Writing at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This essay looks to Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) for strategies that can be implemented in order to combat contemporary neoliberal attacks against the programmatic and institutional spaces of basic writing within Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Working from Nedra Reynolds' notion of thirdspace-oriented "dwelling"…

  1. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  2. Diversity and seasonal fluctuation of predominant microbial communities in Bhitarkanika, a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different groups of microorganisms are present in mangrove areas, and they perform complex interactions for nutrient and ecological balances. Since little is known about microbial populations in mangroves, this study analyzed the microbial community structure and function in relation to soil physico-chemical properties in Bhitarkanika, a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India. Spatial and seasonal fluctuations of thirteen important groups of microorganisms were evaluated from the mangrove forest sediments during different seasons, along with soil physico-chemical parameters. The overall microbial load (x10(5cfu/g soil in soil declined in the order of heterotrophic, free living N2 fixing, Gram-negative nitrifying, sulphur oxidizing, Gram-positive, spore forming, denitrifying, anaerobic, phosphate solubilizing, cellulose degrading bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Populations of the heterotrophic, phosphate solubilizing, sulphur oxidizing bacteria and fungi were more represented in the rainy season, while, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, nitrifying, denitrifying, cellulose decomposing bacteria and actinomycetes in the winter season. The pool size of most of other microbes either declined or maintained throughout the season. Soil nutrients such as N, P, K (Kg/ha and total C (% contents were higher in the rainy season and they did not follow any common trend of changes throughout the study period. Soil pH and salinity (mS/cm varied from 6-8 and 6.4-19.5, respectively, and they normally affected the microbial population dynamics. Determination of bacterial diversity in Bhitarkanika mangrove soil by culture method showed the predominance of bacterial genera such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomonas, Methylococcus, Vibrio, Micrococcus, Klebsiella and Azotobacter. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed a correlation among local environmental variables with the sampling locations on the microbial community in the

  3. Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases in children and adolescents: prevalence, symptomatology, and association with emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Mettananda, Sachith; Liyanarachchi, Chathurangi; Nanayakkara, Navoda; Mendis, Niranjala; Perera, Nimnadi; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2011-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD) are common among children, but little is known regarding their prevalence in developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant FGD, in addition to the predisposing factors and symptomatology, in Sri Lankan children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a randomly selected group of 10- to 16-year-olds in 8 randomly selected schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was completed by children independently in an examination setting. FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 2180 questionnaires were distributed and 2163 (99.2%) were included in the analysis (1189 [55%] boys, mean age 13.4 years, standard deviation 1.8 years). Of them, 270 (12.5%) had at least 1 abdominal pain-predominant FGD. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was seen in 107 (4.9%), functional dyspepsia in 54 (2.5%), functional abdominal pain in 96 (4.4%), and abdominal migraine (AM) in 21 (1.0%) (2 had AM and functional dyspepsia, 6 had AM and IBS). Extraintestinal symptoms were more common among affected children (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD were higher in girls and those exposed to stressful events (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD affects 12.5% of children ages 10 to 16 years and constitutes a significant health problem in Sri Lanka. IBS is the most common FGD subtype present. Abdominal pain-predominant FGD are higher in girls and those exposed to emotional stress. Prevalence of FGD decreased with age. Extraintestinal symptoms are more frequent in affected children.

  4. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  5. Plant embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sacco C.; Weijers, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Land plants are called ‘embryophytes’ and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos

  6. Characterization of T cell clones from chagasic patients: predominance of CD8 surface phenotype in clones from patients with pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington R. Cuna

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with pathological processes whose mechanisms are not known. To address this question, T cell lines were developed from chronic chagasic patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and cloned. These T cell clones (TCC were analyzed phenotypically with monoclonal antibodies by the use of a fluorescence microscope. The surface phenotype of the TCC from the asymptomatic patient were predominantly CD4 positive (86%. On the contrary, the surface phenotype CD8 was predominant in the TCC from the patients suffering from cardiomegaly with right bundle branch block (83%, bradycardia with megacolon (75 % and bradycardia (75%. Future studies will be developed in order to identify the antigens eliciting these T cell subpopulations.

  7. "A Fly in the Buttermilk": Descriptions of University Life by Successful Black Undergraduate Students at a Predominately White Southeastern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mitzi; Dias-Bowie, Yvonne; Greenberg, Katherine; Klukken, Gary; Pollio, Howard R.; Thomas, Sandra P.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    "And so a lot of times I felt out of place, because you see all white faces. You know I'm the only fly in the buttermilk, so that took some getting used to ..." These words, shared by a black student during an interview for the present study, poignantly reflect the essence of the experience of being a minority student on a predominately white…

  8. Mixed states with predominant manic or depressive symptoms: baseline characteristics and 24-month outcomes of the EMBLEM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Baraille, Laurent; Gérard, Stéphanie; Bertsch, Jordan; Reed, Catherine; Lukasiewicz, Michael

    2013-04-25

    While factors associated with mixed states have been extensively studied, data are scant regarding the clinical heterogeneity of mixed states. The EMBLEM study was a prospective, observational study on patients with manic and mixed states. We describe and compare baseline characteristics and 24-month clinical course of mixed states with predominant depressive symptoms (MSDS) and mixed states with predominant manic symptoms (MSMS). Adult inpatients/outpatients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within the standard course of care if they initiated or changed oral medication for acute mania or mixed states. A logistic regression was used to identify the baseline factors associated with each polarity. Comparisons with mixed episode without symptom predominance (OMS) were performed for informational purpose only. About 573 mixed patients were analyzed (23.7% of the cohort): 59.5% (n=341) had MSMS, 11.9% (n=68) had MSDS, and 28.6% (n=164) had OMS. At baseline, hallucinations/delusions during the index episode, inpatient status, high CGI-BP overall score, and low education level were more often associated with MSMS versus MSDS. Alcohol abuse or dependence and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or benzodiazepine use at inclusion were significantly more frequent with MSDS. MSDS had a significantly lower 24-month recurrence rate than MSMS; MSMS experienced more switches to mania whereas MSDS switched more to depression. The post hoc dimensional definitions in the study require caution in the interpretation of the results. These results present evidence of clinical heterogeneity within mixed states. Predominant manic or depressive symptoms within mixed episode could influence clinicians' decisions in term of hospitalization, treatment, and perception of bipolar severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells.

  10. Biomass enzymatic saccharification is determined by the non-KOH-extractable wall polymer features that predominately affect cellulose crystallinity in corn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jia

    Full Text Available Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at p<0.05 & 0.01, but hemicelluloses did not show any significant impact on hexoses yields. Comparative analysis of five standard pairs of corn samples indicated that cellulose and lignin should not be the major factors on biomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%-23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at p<0.05, leading to a high biomass digestibility. Hence, this study could suggest an optimal approach for genetic modification of plant cell walls in bioenergy corn.

  11. Biomass Enzymatic Saccharification Is Determined by the Non-KOH-Extractable Wall Polymer Features That Predominately Affect Cellulose Crystallinity in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leiming; Wang, Hongwu; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Ming; Huang, Pengyan; Feng, Shengqiu; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Yonglian; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-01-01

    Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at pbiomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%–23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara) and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at pbiomass digestibility. Hence, this study could suggest an optimal approach for genetic modification of plant cell walls in bioenergy corn. PMID:25251456

  12. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  14. Variability in In Vitro Macrophage Activation by Commercially Diverse Bulk Echinacea Plant Material is Predominantly Due to Bacterial Lipoproteins and Lipopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea and other botanicals depends upon bacterial lipopolysaccharides and Braun-type bacterial lipoproteins. We determined the contribution made by these bacterial components to the overa...

  15. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  16. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  17. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  18. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  19. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  20. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.

  1. Carcass characteristics of steers of different genetic predominance fed diets containing levels of substitution of corn grain by millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the carcass and meat characteristics of European crossbred young bulls or Zebu crossbred young bulls feedlot finished with diets with high percentage of concentrate (80% containing different levels of grounded millet grain as replacement for grounded corn grain (0, 33, 66 and 100%. Forty-five young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus and forty-four young bulls with genotype predominance Nellore with average initial weight of 317.8 and 320.7 kg, respectively, and average age of 21 month, were allocated in 16 collective pens. At the end of the finishing period were slaughtered six animals of each genetic group, chosen according to the body weight and degree of finishing each treatment. The experimental design was the completely randomized design with treatments in a 4x2 factorial arrangement using six replicates. The replacement of corn grain by millet grain did not significantly influence slaughter weight (480.4 kg, hot carcass weight (259.5 kg, carcass yield (54.1% and subcutaneous fat thickness (3.95 mm. Young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus showed significantly higher values for slaughter weight (507.6 vs. 453.3 kg, hot carcass weight (269.6 vs. 249.3 kg and longissimus dorsi area (65.34 vs 56.83 cm2, however, were lower in carcass yield (53.2 vs. 55.00%. Millet grain can be used in substitution to corn grain for finishing steers since it does not change carcass traits of economic interest.

  2. Electrical properties of (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO3 films derived from alkoxide solutions of two concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yiping; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric films with thickness larger than 1 μm integrated on silicon substrates have been receiving considerable attention because of environmental concerns and their potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. We demonstrate that, by chemical solution deposition, it is possible to process (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films on LaNiO 3 /Pt/TiO x /SiO 2 /Si substrates using thinner high-crystallinity columnar BaTiO 3 films as buffer layers. We point out that this kind of buffer layer prepared with a lower concentration solution on the surface of an LaNiO 3 /Pt electrode is effective in enhancing the crystallinity and orientation degree of final BaTiO 3 films prepared with a higher concentration solution. The 1 μm BaTiO 3 films show good dielectric and insulating characteristics against an applied field, and the conduction current shows Schottky emission behavior at modest voltage and space-charge-limited behavior at higher voltage. We also demonstrate that the (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films have excellent piezoelectric properties: piezoelectric coefficients d 33 higher than 50 pm/V have been determined for the bare films using atomic force microscopy, which are comparable to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 films. These results indicate that the (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO 3 films should be promising candidates for microelectromechanical systems applications

  3. Preliminary Study of Intravenous Amantadine Treatment for Ataxia Management in Patients with Probable Multiple System Atrophy with Predominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Youn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is a disabling neurologic disease. However, effective management has not yet been established. We conducted a short-term, open-label preliminary study to assess the benefits of intravenous amantadine treatment in patients with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia. Methods: Twenty patients (10 male, 10 female with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia received 400 mg of amantadine by intravenous per day for 5 days. Ataxia severity was evaluated by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale before and after intravenous amantadine therapy and all subjects reported subjective improvement after intravenous amantadine treatment using a patient global impression scale. We analyzed the total and subscale scores by the ataxia scale and patient global impression scale. Results: The mean age was 57.4 years (range: 47–72 and the mean disease duration was 30.8 months (range: 11–79. The ataxia severity significantly decreased after intravenous amantadine therapy from 42.5 to 37.3 (p < 0.001. The mean patient global impression scale for improvement was 2.9 and there were no side effects of intravenous amantadine treatment observed. When we assessed responders, the duration of intravenous amantadine effect was more than 1 month in 4 subjects of 7 responders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that intravenous amantadine treatment can be a safe management option in cerebellar ataxia, although the mechanism is unclear. Thus, further double-blind, long-term studies with a larger sample size are needed.

  4. Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

    2007-03-20

    A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of

  5. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  6. Predominance of new G9P[8] rotaviruses closely related to Turkish strains in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashina, T A; Morozova, O V; Epifanova, N V; Novikova, N A

    2017-08-01

    Genotype G9P[8] rotaviruses are rare in the territory of Russia. They were found in Nizhny Novgorod only in 2011-2012 for the first time, when their proportion was 25.9%. During the next two seasons, G9P[8] strains were detected in only 1.8% of cases. Their proportion substantially increased again in 2014, and they became predominant in the city by 2016. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of gene VP7 nucleotide sequences showed that this increase was accompanied by the emergence of new strains in the population. These isolates were related to Turkish strains, but not to Russian ones detected earlier.

  7. High fungal spore burden with predominance of Aspergillus in hospital air of a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Rudramurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Such high concentrations of pathogenic fungi in air may predispose individuals to develop disease.

  8. Haeme bioethanol and biogasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Laine, V.; Kautola, H. (HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haemeenlinna (Finland)); Siukola, K.; Naesi, J. (Suomen Biojalostus Oy, Renko (Finland)); Enwald, H. (Insinoeoeritoimisto Valcon Oy, Valkeakoski (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    In Haeme, located in southern part of Finland, local possibilities of bioethanol production have been studied since 2002. The study, initiated by local farmers, was first aimed to find out alternative use of the sugar beet which was unprofitable to utilize in sugar production. Later on, the study extended to cover the use of barley and to find out a sustainable and cost effective solution for the utilization of agro based raw materials in the bioethanol fuel production. The Haeme plant, according to present plans, utilizes barley and sugar beet (optional) as raw materials. The plant has been designed without feed dryers thus achieving considerable savings both in investment and operational (energy) costs compared to conventional grain based bioethanol plant with DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) as a predominant by product. Local markets for wet feed fractions wet distillers grains (DWG) and wet condensed distillers solubles (CDS) - have been found to be ready. The capacity of the plant, around 50-60 000 tons of ethanol per year, has been adjusted for local raw material supply, as well as for the local feed markets. In addition to production of wet feed fractions, another special feature of the plant is the integration with biogasification. A part of the stillage (distillation residue) can be utilized in the production of biogas which in turn is used to increase the energy self sufficiency of the plant. In overall, the Haeme plant has been designed to fit into local circumstances, aiming to improve the energy balance and reduce GHG-emissions of agro based bioethanol production. (orig.)

  9. Real-Time Magnitude Characterization of Large Earthquakes Using the Predominant Period Derived From 1 Hz GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos A.; Houlié, Nicolas; Behr, Yannik

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems' performance is driven by the trade-off between the need for a rapid alert and the accuracy of each solution. A challenge for many EEW systems has been the magnitude saturation for large events (MW > 7) and the resulting underestimation of seismic moment magnitude. In this study, we test the performance of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS, based on seven seismic events, to evaluate whether long-period ground motions can be measured well enough to infer reliably earthquake predominant periods. We show that high-rate GPS data allow the computation of a GPS-based predominant period (τg) to estimate lower bounds for the magnitude of earthquakes and distinguish between large (MW > 7) and great (MW > 8) events and thus extend the capability of EEW systems for larger events. It has also identified the impact of the different values of the smoothing factor α on the τg results and how the sampling rate and the computation process differentiate τg from the commonly used τp.

  10. A study of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention in a predominately African American workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora

    2010-01-01

    The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.

  11. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  12. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A.; Marks, Christopher R.; Stamps, Blake W.; Harriman, Brian H.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O32-, SO42-, and HS-). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation in the primary-care setting: focus on linaclotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar AK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apoorva Krishna Chandar1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, 2Digestive Health Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology. Abdominal pain that may or may not be relieved by defecation is the cardinal symptom of IBS; distension and bloating are other common symptoms. Careful attention should be paid to alarm symptoms before a diagnosis of IBS is made. Pharmacotherapy with linaclotide is recommended for moderate–severe IBS-C, based on high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials. Diarrhea is the major side effect of linaclotide, and limited cost-effectiveness data currently exist. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation, primary care, Rome IV, linaclotide, systematic review 

  14. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D.

  15. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  16. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  17. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments superficial slope failures on coarse grained, vegetation-free slopes are common processes and entail a certain risk for humans and socio-economic structures. Eco-engineering measures can be applied to mitigate slope instabilities. In this regard, limited plant survival and growth can be supported by mycorrhizal inoculation, which was successfully tested in laboratory studies. However, related studies on a field scale are lacking. Furthermore, mycorrhizae are known to enhance soil aggregation, which is linked to soil physics such as shear strength, and hence it is a useful indicator for near-surface soil/slope stability. The overall objective of our contribution was to test whether mycorrhizal inoculation can be used to promote eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments based on a five-year field experiment. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation (i) enhances soil aggregation, (ii) stimulate plant survival and fine root development, (iii) effects plant performance, (iv) the stimulated root development in turn influences aggregate stability, and (v) that climatic variations play a major role in fine-root development. We established mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal treated eco-engineered research plots (hedge layers mainly consisting of Alnus spp. and Salix spp.) on a field experimental scale. The experimental site is in the eastern Swiss Alps at an erosion-prone slope where many environmental conditions can be seen as homogeneous. Soil aggregation, fine root development and plant survival was quantified at the end of four growing seasons (2010, '11, '12, '14). Additionally, growth properties of Alnus spp. and Salix spp. were measured and their biomass estimated. Meteorological conditions, soil temperature and soil water content were recorded. (i) The introduced eco-engineering measures enhanced aggregate stability significantly. In contrast to published greenhouse and laboratory studies, mycorrhizal inoculation delayed soil

  18. Trends in Surface-Water Nitrate-N Concentrations and Loads from Predominantly-Forested Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, K. N.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality monitoring data from streams and rivers provide the "gold standard" by which progress toward achieving real reductions in nutrient loadings to Chesapeake Bay must ultimately be assessed. The most recent trend results posted at the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) website reveal that a substantial percentage of tributaries are now showing long-term declines in flow-adjusted concentrations of nutrients and sediments: 22 sites showed statistically significant (p pollution controls for improved wastewater treatment plants and practices to reduce nutrients on farms and suburban lands, have reduced concentrations of nitrogen." But could this conclusion be pre-mature? I recently undertook a comparable analysis of long-term nitrate-N trends for a different group of watersheds (all located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed with long data records); this group includes nine watersheds that are predominantly (i.e., >75%) forested, plus five other Potomac River subwatersheds added for comparison. Based on comparable data and analytical methods to those used by CBP partners and USGS, 13 of the 14 sites-including both Potomac River stations (Chain Bridge at Washington DC and Hancock, Maryland)-showed statistically significant decreasing linear trends in annual flow-weighted nitrate-N concentration. Only one station-the heavily agricultural Upper Monocacy River-did not show a statistically significant (p RIM station could be entirely explained by commensurate improvements at the upstream (Hancock) station; in fact, no trend in nitrate-N concentration associated with the eastern portion of the basin was found (after subtracting out the influence of the upstream portion). Additional research is needed to understand why nitrogen retention by forested lands may be increasing and thus helping restore water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The results also have obvious implications for meeting local water quality goals as well as the basin-wide goal of the

  19. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  20. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  1. Radiolabeling as a tool to study uptake pathways in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schymura, Stefan; Hildebrand, Heike; Franke, Karsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Fricke, T. [Vita34 BioPlanta, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The identification of major uptake pathways in plants is an important factor when evaluation the fate of manufactured nanoparticles in the environment and the associated risks. Using different radiolabeling techniques we were able to show a predominantly particulate uptake for CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) in contrast to a possible uptake in the form of ionic cerium.

  2. Sustaining Productivity of Planted Forests in the Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Bamett; Allan E. Tiarks; Mary Anne Sword

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the Gulf Coastal Region provide the basis for its economic well-being. Because of the semitropical climate, abundant rainfall and availing topography, the nation's richest plant communities thrive. These forests are predominately privately owned. Millions of private landowners are committed to managing their forests for a broad array of values which...

  3. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF PLANT CHITINASES AND CHITIN-BINDING PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEINTEMA, JJ

    1994-01-01

    Structural features of plant chitinases and chitin-binding proteins are discussed. Many of these proteins consist of multiple domains,of which the chitin-binding hevein domain is a predominant one. X-ray and NMR structures of representatives of the major classes of these proteins are available now,

  4. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqi Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosylation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390, rather than PARP1 (At2g31320, makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosylation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosylation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation.

  5. ELFN1-AS1: A Novel Primate Gene with Possible MicroRNA Function Expressed Predominantly in Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii E. Polev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gene LOC100505644 uncharacterized LOC100505644 [Homo sapiens] (Entrez Gene ID 100505644 is abundantly expressed in tumors but weakly expressed in few normal tissues. Till now the function of this gene remains unknown. Here we identified the chromosomal borders of the transcribed region and the major splice form of the LOC100505644-specific transcript. We characterised the major regulatory motifs of the gene and its splice sites. Analysis of the secondary structure of the major transcript variant revealed a hairpin-like structure characteristic for precursor microRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis of the locus showed that it originated in primates de novo. Taken together, our data indicate that human gene LOC100505644 encodes some non-protein coding RNA, likely a microRNA. It was assigned a gene symbol ELFN1-AS1 (ELFN1 antisense RNA 1 (non-protein coding. This gene combines features of evolutionary novelty and predominant expression in tumors.

  6. Perceptions of African American faculty in kinesiology-based programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W; Harrison, Louis; Hodge, Samuel R

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.

  7. The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is predominant in the human infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchan, J M; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Johnson, E J

    2016-01-01

    α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural...... stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden...... infant death syndrome or other conditions. RRR-α-tocopherol was the predominant stereoisomer in all brain regions (Ptocopherol (5–17 μg/g). Mean RRR-α-tocopherol concentrations in FC, HPC and VC were 10·5, 6·8 and 5·5 μg...

  8. Are lipid disorders involved in the predominance of human T-lymphotropic virus-1 infections in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Debortoli de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION : The human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, a chronic inflammatory disease. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are involved in inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. METHODS : Plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions of HTLV-1-infected individuals of both sexes with different clinical progressions were determined. RESULTS : Elevated levels of triglyceride and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL were exclusively detected in HTLV-1-infected women from asymptomatic and HAM/TSP groups compared with uninfected individuals (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS : Elevated triglyceride and VLDL levels in HTLV-1-infected women may be related to the predominance of HAM/TSP in women.

  9. Childbirths and risk of female predominant and other autoimmune diseases in a population-based Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2012-01-01

    were at a relative risk of 1.04 (1.02-1.06) for any autoimmune diseases, 1.11 (1.08-1.14) for female predominant and 0.97 (0.95-1.00) for other autoimmune diseases. Possibly biologically related associations with parity were found for Hashimoto thyroiditis (1.11; 1.00-1.24), Graves' disease (1.19; 1.......14-1.24), erythema nodosum (1.15; 1.01-1.32), psoriasis (1.08; 1.01-1.15), sarcoidosis (1.17; 1.06-1.28) and systemic lupus erythematosus (0.83; 0.74-0.93). Especially the one-year postpartum period was associated with an increased risk of Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease and sarcoidosis. Overall, parity...

  10. The predominant mechanism of intercellular calcium wave propagation changes during long-term culture of human osteoblast-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Zanne; Hiken, Jeffrey F; Steinberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    cells still responded to addition of ATP, but P2Y desensitization did not inhibit ICW propagation. Our data indicate that the relative role of P2Y-mediated and gap junction-mediated ICW changes during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In less differentiated cells, P2Y-mediated ICW predominate......Intercellular calcium waves (ICW) are calcium transients that spread from cell to cell in response to different stimuli. We previously demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells in culture propagate ICW in response to mechanical stimulation by two mechanisms. One mechanism involves autocrine...... activation of P2Y receptors, and the other requires gap junctional communication. In the current work we ask whether long-term culture of osteoblast-like cells affects the propagation of ICW by these two mechanisms. Human osteoblast-like cells were isolated from bone marrow. Mechanically induced ICW were...

  11. The entry of women in predominantly male professions: when training supports the search of alternative ways of organizing work time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne; Santos, Marta; Cunha, Liliana; Castelhano, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Following a research carried out on the integration of women in professional areas predominantly for men, this paper intends to present and debate the project of a training course which aims the transformation of the organization of work schedules in order to improve the well-being of the workers involved. The conception of training courses with this type of objective involves the confrontation and debate between the "invested skills" of the trainers and the "constituted skills" of the trainees. But will this paradigm remain intact when applied to training courses permeated by the gender dimension? That is what one will try to realize with the effective implementation of a training course, whose reflection will allow, ultimately, to enrich our understanding on gender, work, health and training.

  12. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.

  13. Application of a Heat- and Steam-Generating Sheet Increases Peripheral Blood Flow and Induces Parasympathetic Predominance

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    Yoshinao Nagashima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote the practical application of a Japanese traditional medical treatment, such as hot compresses, we developed a plaster-type warming device consisting of a heat- and steam-generating sheet (HSG sheet. First, we tested its effects when applied to the anterior abdominal wall or lumbar region of women complaining of a tendency towards constipation. Application of the sheet to either region produced a feeling of comfort in the abdomen, as assessed by a survey of the subjects. The significant increases in the total hemoglobin observed in these regions suggested an increase in peripheral blood flow, and significant increases in the HF component on ECG and in the amplitude of gastric motility suggested parasympathetic predominance. We concluded that application of the HSG sheet improves the peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic regulation, induces a feeling of comfort in the abdomen, and provides a beneficial environment for the improvement of gastrointestinal movements.

  14. Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150ms after sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, T; Alho, K; Alku, P; Holi, M; Sinkkonen, J; Virtanen, J; Bertrand, O; Näätänen, R

    1999-04-06

    Hemispheric specialization of human speech processing has been found in brain imaging studies using fMRI and PET. Due to the restricted time resolution, these methods cannot, however, determine the stage of auditory processing at which this specialization first emerges. We used a dense electrode array covering the whole scalp to record the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) automatically elicited by occasional changes in sounds, which ranged from non-phonetic (tones) to phonetic (vowels). MMN can be used to probe auditory central processing on a millisecond scale with no attention-dependent task requirements. Our results indicate that speech processing occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere at the early, pre-attentive level of auditory analysis.

  15. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium......-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L...... to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms....

  16. Hda inactivation of DnaA is the predominant mechanism preventing hyperinitiation of Escherichia coli DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna E; Breier, Adam M; Brendler, Therese; Austin, Stuart; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R; Crooke, Elliott

    2005-08-01

    Initiation of DNA replication from the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin is highly regulated, assuring that replication occurs precisely once per cell cycle. Three mechanisms for regulation of replication initiation have been proposed: titration of free DnaA initiator protein by the datA locus, sequestration of newly replicated origins by SeqA protein and regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA), in which active ATP-DnaA is converted to the inactive ADP-bound form. DNA microarray analyses showed that the level of initiation in rapidly growing cells that lack datA was indistinguishable from that in wild-type cells, and that the absence of SeqA protein caused only a modest increase in initiation, in agreement with flow-cytometry data. In contrast, cells lacking Hda overinitiated replication twofold, implicating RIDA as the predominant mechanism preventing extra initiation events in a cell cycle.

  17. A national retrospective survey of anisakidosis in France (2010-2014: decreasing incidence, female predominance, and emerging allergic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yera Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey was carried out over the years 2010–2014 among all Parasitology laboratories of University hospitals in France (ANOFEL network. The objective was to estimate the incidence of anisakidosis in France as new culinary habits such as the consumption of raw fish (sushi or undercooked fish are increasing. A total of 37 cases of anisakidosis were notified by all French laboratories: 7 proven cases with evidence of a worm, 12 possible cases with abdominal pain after consumption of raw fish with detection of anti-Anisakis precipitins, and 18 allergic cases defined as acute manifestations after consumption of fish, associated with specific IgE for Anisakis. The median age of affected individuals was 42 years (11-69 and there was a significant predominance of women (67%. Compared with previous surveys in France, this study indicates a decrease in clinical cases of anisakidosis and illustrates the emerging allergic potential of anisakids.

  18. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS WITH THE PREDOMINANCE OF INDIVIDUALISTIC / COLLECTIVIST ATTITUDES WHO IS READY TO TAKE RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Gutsunaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of empirical research displaying differences in achievement motivation and willingness to take risks depending on the prevalence of collectivist or individualistic attitudes of a personality. The research may contribute to profound knowledge of influence of the factor of belonging to the culture on individual features. The obtained results indicate that the young people with a predominance of individualistic attitudes are more motivated to achievements and inclined to risk than the young people who are collectivists. However, the results also demonstrate that in some socio-demographic groups collectivists – the representatives of the older generation strive to achievements, although they are more cautious in their behavior. The empirical data can be used in a cross-cultural investigations, the results of the study may be useful in the work of psychologist in predicting behavior and social success of the individual in various spheres of activity.

  19. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  20. Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS, and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI. Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL.

  1. [Predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhisong; Shao, Zongze

    2009-07-01

    In order to identify the predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortia harboring in sea water and surface sediment collected from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge. We employed enrichment method and spread-plate method to isolate cultivable bacteria and PAHs degraders from deep sea samples. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacteria. Then we analyzed the dominant bacteria in the PAHs-degrading consortia by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with DNA sequencing. Altogether 16 cultivable bacteria were obtained, including one PAHs degrader Novosphingobium sp. 4D. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains closely related to Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A (5/16) and Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T (5/16) constituted two biggest groups among the cultivable bacteria. DGGE analysis showed that strain 4L (also 4M and 4N, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, 99.21%), 4D (Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1(T), 97.07%) and 4B (also 4E, 4H and 4K, Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, > 99%) dominated the consortium MC2D. While in consortium MC3CO, the predominant strains were strain 5C (also 5H, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, > 99%), uncultivable strain represented by band 5-8 (Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444T, 99.41%), 5J (Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, 99.52%) and 5F (also 5G, Thalassospira lucentensis DSM 14000T, degrading consortia in sea water and surface sediment of Middle Atlantic Ridge deep sea, with Novosphingobium spp. as their main PAHs degraders.

  2. Peripheral blood CD161+ T cells from asthmatic patients are activated during asthma attack and predominantly produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Y; Pedraza-Sánchez, S; Blandón-Vijil, V; del Río-Navarro, B E; Vaughan, G; Moreno-Lafont, M; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A

    2007-04-01

    In humans, T cells expressing the CD161 molecule NKR-P1A constitute around 20% of the circulating CD3(+) cells and are potentially immunoregulatory in several diseases. Their role in asthma is not well known, but they could participate in asthma attacks. To determinate whether activation of CD161(+) T cells and their cytokine production correlate with clinical status of asthma, we analysed blood samples from asthma attack patients (AAP) and stable asthma patients (SAP) in comparison with healthy non-atopic controls (HC). There was a significant higher baseline expression of CD69 on T cells from AAP and the difference was more notorious on CD161(+) T cells; upregulation of CD69 was observed on both CD161(-) and CD161(+) T cells driven by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract, whereas polyclonal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin predominantly induced IFN-gamma but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD161(+) T cells in all groups; upon polyclonal stimulation, there were more CD161(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma and less CD161(-) T cells producing this cytokine, contrasting with the opposite results observed in SAP and HC groups. Our results indicate that, during asthma attack, CD161(+) T cells are activated and are able to produce predominantly IFN-gamma but no Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that during an asthma attack, IFN-gamma produced by CD161(+) T cells could help to reestablish the Th1/Th2 equilibrium. These observations may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in asthma attacks.

  3. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kristen Hall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro−5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell–cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell–cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties.

  4. Predominant cerebral cytokine release syndrome in CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR T cells targeting CD19 (CART19 have shown therapeutical activities in CD19+ malignancies. However, the etiological nature of neurologic complications remains a conundrum. In our study, the evidence of blood-brain barrier (BBB-penetrating CAR T cells as a culprit was revealed. A patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia developed sustained pyrexia with tremors about 6 h after CART19 infusion, followed by a grade 2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS and neurological symptoms in the next 3 days. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance showed signs of intracranial edema. Lumbar puncture on day 5 showed an over 400-mmH2O cerebrospinal pressure. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contained 20 WBCs/μL with predominant CD3+ T cells. qPCR analysis for CAR constructs showed 3,032,265 copies/μg DNA in CSF and 988,747 copies/μg DNA in blood. Cytokine levels including IFN-γ and IL-6 in CSF were extremely higher than those in the serum. Methyprednisone was administrated and the symptoms relieved gradually. The predominance of CART19 in CSF and the huge discrepancies in cytokine distributions indicated the development of a cerebral CRS, presumably featured as CSF cytokines largely in situ produced by BBB-penetrating CAR T cells. For the first time, we reported the development of cerebral CRS triggered by BBB-penetrating CAR T cells. Trial registration: ChiCTR-OCC-15007008 .

  5. Mouse embryonic stem cells, but not somatic cells, predominantly use homologous recombination to repair double-strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Elisia D; Pillai, Resmi; Deng, Li; Liang, Li; Tischfield, Jay; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Babcock, George F; Stambrook, Peter J

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells give rise to all cell types of an organism. Since mutations at this embryonic stage would affect all cells and be detrimental to the overall health of an organism, robust mechanisms must exist to ensure that genomic integrity is maintained. To test this proposition, we compared the capacity of murine ES cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks with that of differentiated cells. Of the 2 major pathways that repair double-strand breaks, error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) predominated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas the high fidelity homologous recombinational repair (HRR) predominated in ES cells. Microhomology-mediated end joining, an emerging repair pathway, persisted at low levels in all cell types examined. The levels of proteins involved in HRR and microhomology-mediated end joining were highly elevated in ES cells compared with mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas those for NHEJ were quite variable, with DNA Ligase IV expression low in ES cells. The half-life of DNA Ligase IV protein was also low in ES cells. Attempts to increase the abundance of DNA Ligase IV protein by overexpression or inhibition of its degradation, and thereby elevate NHEJ in ES cells, were unsuccessful. When ES cells were induced to differentiate, however, the level of DNA Ligase IV protein increased, as did the capacity to repair by NHEJ. The data suggest that preferential use of HRR rather than NHEJ may lend ES cells an additional layer of genomic protection and that the limited levels of DNA Ligase IV may account for the low level of NHEJ activity.

  6. Adenocarcinoma predominant pattern subtyping and nuclear grading in cytology: Is there a role in prognostication of advanced pulmonary adenocarcinomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambirajan, A; Kaur, H; Jangra, K; Kaur, K; Madan, K; Mathur, S R; Iyer, V K; Jain, D

    2018-04-01

    Primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADs) show varied architectural patterns, and pattern-based subtyping of ADs is currently recommended due to prognostic implications. Predicting AD patterns on cytology is challenging; however, cytological nuclear features appear to correlate with histological grade and survival in early stage lung ADs. The feasibility and value of AD pattern prediction and nuclear grading on cytology in advanced lung ADs is not known. We aimed to predict patterns and analyse nuclear features on cytology and evaluate their role in prognostication. One-hundred patients of Stage III/IV lung AD with available matched cytology and histology samples were included. Cyto-patterns based on cell arrangement patterns (flat sheets vs three-dimensional clusters vs papillae) and cyto-nuclear score based on nuclear features (size, shape, contour), nucleoli (macronucleoli vs prominent vs inconspicuous), and nuclear chromatin were determined, and correlated with predominant histological-pattern observed on the matched small biopsy and outcome. Higher cyto-nuclear scores were observed with high-grade histo-patterns (solid, micropapillary and cribriform), while the predicted cyto-patterns did not correspond to the predominant pattern on histology in 77% cases. Highest cyto-histo agreement was observed for solid pattern (72%). High grade histo-patterns and cyto-nuclear scores > 3 showed a trend towards inferior survival (not significant). Nuclear grade scoring on cytology is simple to perform, and is predictive of high grade patterns. Its inclusion in routine reporting of cytology samples of lung ADs may be valuable. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Toshimi Chiba, Kazunari Yamamoto, Shoko Sato, Kazuyuki Suzuki Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional disease with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms that has been classified into four subtypes. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] plays important physiological roles in the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle. Intraluminal distension of the intestine is known to stimulate the release of endogenous 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, activating 5-HT3 receptors located on primary afferent neurons and leading to increases in intestinal secretions and peristaltic activity. Ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, has been in development for use in patients suffering from diarrhea-predominant IBS. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 418 patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS-D, once-daily 5 µg and 10 µg doses of ramosetron increased the monthly responder rates of IBS symptoms compared to placebo. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial of 539 patients, a positive response to treatment was reported by 47% of a once-daily 5 µg dose of ramosetron-treated individuals compared to 27% of patients receiving placebo (P<0.001. Furthermore, the responder rate was increased in the oral administration of 5 µg of ramosetron for at least 28 weeks (up to 52 weeks, and long-term efficacy for overall improvement of IBS symptoms was also demonstrated. The rate was further increased subsequently. Adverse events were reported by 7% in ramosetron treatment. No serious adverse events, eg, severe constipation or ischemic colitis, were reported for long-term treatment with ramosetron. In conclusion, further studies to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron are warranted in the form of randomized controlled trials. Keywords: long

  8. Lubiprostone: evaluation of the newest medication for the treatment of adult women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha N Lunsford

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tisha N Lunsford, Lucinda A HarrisDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic – School of Medicine, Scottsdale, Arizona, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder that affects primarily female patients and is thought also to afflict approximately 7%–10% of the population of the Western World. Although bowel habits may change over the course of years, patients with IBS are characterized according to their predominant bowel habit, constipation (IBS-C, diarrhea (IBS-D, or mixed type (IBS-M, and treatments are focused toward the predominant symptom. Current treatments for IBS-C have included fiber, antispasmodics, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the now severely limited 5-HT4 agonist tegaserod. No one agent has been universally successful in the treatment of this bothersome syndrome and the search for new agents continues. Lubiprostone (Amitiza®, a novel compound, is a member of a new class of agents called prostones and was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in 2006 at a dose of 24 µg twice daily and then in 2008 for the treatment of IBS-C in women only at a dose of 8 µg twice daily. Its purported mechanism is as a type 2 chloride channel activator, but recent evidence suggests that it may also work at the cystic fibrosis transport receptor. This article will compare the newly proposed mechanism of action of this compound to the purported mechanism and review the structure, pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and tolerability of this new therapeutic option. Clinical trial data leading to the approval of this agent for the treatment of IBS-C and the gender-based understanding of IBS, as well as this agent’s place among existing and emerging therapies, will be examined.Keywords: large intestine, functional bowel disorder, therapy

  9. Hexose transporter mRNAs for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 predominate in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A; Yin, Deling; Howell, Mary E A; Dykes, Rhesa J; Laffan, John J; Ferrando, Arny A

    2006-11-01

    In the past few years, 8 additional members of the facilitative hexose transporter family have been identified, giving a total of 14 members of the SLC2A family of membrane-bound hexose transporters. To determine which of the new hexose transporters were expressed in muscle, mRNA concentrations of 11 glucose transporters (GLUTs) were quantified and compared. RNA from muscle from 10 normal volunteers was subjected to RT-PCR. Primers were designed that amplified 78- to 241-base fragments, and cDNA standards were cloned for GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, GLUT5, GLUT6, GLUT8, GLUT9, GLUT10, GLUT11, GLUT12, and GAPDH. Seven of these eleven hexose transporters were detectable in normal human muscle. The rank order was GLUT4, GLUT5, GLUT12, GLUT8, GLUT11, GLUT3, and GLUT1, with corresponding concentrations of 404 +/- 49, 131 +/- 14, 33 +/- 4, 5.5 +/- 0.5, 4.1 +/- 0.4, 1.2 +/- .0.1, and 0.9 +/- 0.2 copies/ng RNA (means +/- SE), respectively, for the 10 subjects. Concentrations of mRNA for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were much higher than those for the remainder of the GLUTs and together accounted for 98% of the total GLUT isoform mRNA. Immunoblots of muscle homogenates verified that the respective proteins for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were present in normal human muscle. Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that GLUT4 and GLUT12 were predominantly expressed in type I oxidative fibers; however, GLUT5 was expressed predominantly in type II (white) fibers.

  10. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  11. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  12. A survey of medicinal plants used by kavirajes of chalna area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of ...

  13. 76 FR 80280 - Grading and Inspection, General Specifications for Approved Plants and Standards for Grades of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... where there is a risk of sediment contamination. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 58 Dairy products, Food... manufacturing plants. All of the dairy manufacturing plants utilizing the program would be considered small... systems that provide no opportunity for sediment contamination. Because milk production predominantly...

  14. Radiological impact of emissions from reprocessing plants during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Gruendler, D.; Hesel, D.; Muenster, M.; Schmidtlein, P.; Suender, B.

    1977-01-01

    When comparing the expected radiation exposure due to emissions from reprocessing plants with those from nuclear power plants it can be seen that the emissions from reprocessing plants contribute much more to the radiation exposure of the population than those from nuclear power plants. In the vicinity of reprocessing plants the highest contributions to the radiation exposure of the population are delivered by the following radionuclides: T, C 14 , Kr 85 , Sr 90 , Ru 106 , I 129 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Ce 144 as will as the Pu- and Cm-isotopes. Among these nuclides T, C 14 , Kr 85 und I 129 are globally distributed. While for T the contribution to the collective dose due to globally distributed T is small in comparison with the first pass exposure, the global contribution predominates for C 14 and Kr 85 . If an integration time of less than 10 5 years is considered, the contribution due to first pass exposure predominates for I 129 . When taking the radiation protection of the population into consideration, it seems sensible to retain 10% of T, 80 to 90% of C 14 , 90% of Kr 85 and 99,5% of I 129 in reprocessing plants and dispose of this material in a controlled manner. The fraction of the aerosols released should be about 10 -9 . Considering the global effects and the increasing number of nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, an international agreement should be reached on these matters. (orig.) [de

  15. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  16. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" Strains in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the "Ca. Liberibacter" genera.

  17. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the predominant diarrheagenic E. coli pathotype among irrigation water and food sources in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuka, Matthew; Santiago, Araceli E; Girón, Jorge A; Nataro, James P; Buys, Elna M

    2018-08-02

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E. coli strains previously isolated from producer distributor bulk milk (PDBM)(118), irrigation water (48), irrigated lettuce (29) and street vendor coleslaw (10) in South Africa. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were sought. We used PCR and partial gene sequencing for all 205 strains while 46 out of 205 that showed poor resolution were subsequently characterized using cell adherence (HeLa cells). PCR and partial gene sequencing of aatA and/or aaiC genes confirmed EAEC (2%, 5 out of 205) as the only pathotype. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced EAEC strains with E. coli strains in GenBank showing ≥80% nucleotide sequence similarity based on possession of aaiC and aatA generated distinct clusters of strains separated predominantly based on their source of isolation (food source or human stool) suggesting a potential role of virulence genes in source tracking. EAEC 24%, 11 out of 46 strains (PDBM = 15%, irrigation water = 7%, irrigated lettuce = 2%) was similarly the predominant pathotype followed by strains showing invasiveness to HeLa cells, 4%, 2 out of 46 (PDBM = 2%, irrigated lettuce = 2%), among stains characterized using cell adherence. Therefore, EAEC may be the leading cause of DEC associated food and water-borne enteric infection in South Africa. Additionally, solely using molecular based methods targeting virulence

  18. The Genotypic Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients Reveals a Predominance of Euro-American Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Ouafae; Millet, Julie; Chaoui, Imane; Sabouni, Radia; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Akrim, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Rastogi, Nalin; El Aouad, Rajae

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Morocco. Characterization of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages, important to understand the dynamic of the disease, was hereby addressed for the first time at a national level. Methodology/Principal Findings Spoligotyping was performed on a panel of 592 M. tuberculosis complex strains covering a 2-year period (2004–2006). It identified 129 patterns: 105 (n = 568 strains) corresponded to a SIT number in the SITVIT2 database, while 24 patterns were labeled as orphan. A total of 523 (88.3%) strains were clustered vs. 69 or 11.7% unclustered. Classification of strains within 3 large phylogenetical groups was as follows: group 1– ancestral/TbD1+/PGG1 (EAI, Bovis, Africanum), group 2– modern/TbD1−/PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS), group 3– evolutionary recent/TbD1−/PGG2/3 (Haarlem, X, S, T, LAM; alternatively designated as the Euro-American lineage). As opposed to group 3 strains (namely LAM, Haarlem, and T) that predominated (86.5% of all isolates), 6 strains belonged to group 2 (Beijing n = 5, CAS n = 1), and 3 strains (BOV_1 n = 2, BOV_4-CAPRAE) belonged to ancestral group 1 (EAI and AFRI lineage strains were absent). 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing of the Casablanca subgroup (n = 114 strains) identified 71 patterns: 48 MITs and 23 orphan patterns; it allowed to reduce the clustering rate from 72.8% to 29.8% and the recent transmission rate from 64% to 20.2%. Conclusion The M. tuberculosis population structure in Morocco is highly homogeneous, and is characterized by the predominance of the Euro-American lineages, namely LAM, Haarlem, and T, which belong to the “evolutionary recent” TbD1−/PGG2/3 phylogenetic group. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRUs decreased the clustering rate significantly, and should now be systematically applied in larger studies. The methods used in this study appear well suited to monitor the M. tuberculosis population

  19. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Strains in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the “Ca. Liberibacter” genera. PMID:26741827

  20. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kostinek, M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...

  1. Two-year follow-up of an open-label multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and stress-predominant mixed incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Al-Singary, Waleed; Fynes, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This article presents the 2-year follow-up results of a multicenter study of PAHG injections for treating stress and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence....

  2. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  3. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 4 predominantly localizes to an early endosome-related organelle upon heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Verena; Friedrich, Katharina; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent proton-gated amiloride sensitive sodium channels, belonging to the DEG/ENaC gene family. Six different ASICs have been identified (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, ASIC4) that are activated by a drop in extracellular pH, either as homo- or heteromers. An exception is ASIC4, which is not activated by protons as a homomer and which does not contribute to functional heteromeric ASICs. Insensitivity of ASIC4 to protons and its comparatively low sequence identity to other ASICs (45%) raises the question whether ASIC4 may have different functions than other ASICs. In this study, we therefore investigated the subcellular localization of ASIC4 in heterologous cell lines, which revealed a surprising accumulation of the channel in early endosome-related vacuoles. Moreover, we identified an unique amino-terminal motif as important for forward-trafficking from the ER/Golgi to the early endosome-related compartment. Collectively, our results show that heterologously expressed ASIC4 predominantly resides in an intracellular endosomal compartment.

  4. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  5. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The high genetic variation of viruses of the genus Nairovirus reflects the diversity of their predominant tick hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Jessica E.; Osborne, Jane C.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2004-01-01

    The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus

  7. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  8. Recessive variants of MuSK are associated with late onset CMS and predominant limb girdle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David; Töpf, Ana; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Vroling, Bas; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Geraldo, Argemiro; Polavarapu, Kiran; Nashi, Saraswati; Cox, Daniel; Evangelista, Teresinha; Dawson, John; Thompson, Rachel; Senderek, Jan; Laurie, Steven; Beltran, Sergi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Nalini, Atchayaram; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2018-04-28

    Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a heterogeneous disorder that causes fatigable muscle weakness. CMS has been associated with variants in the MuSK gene and, to date, 16 patients have been reported. MuSK-CMS patients present a different phenotypic pattern of limb girdle weakness. Here, we describe four additional patients and discuss the phenotypic and clinical relationship with those previously reported. Two novel damaging missense variants are described: c.1742T > A; p.I581N found in homozygosis, and c.1634T > C; p.L545P found in compound heterozygosis with p.R166*. The reported patients had predominant limb girdle weakness with symptom onset at 12, 17, 18, and 30 years of age, and the majority exhibited a good clinical response to Salbutamol therapy, but not to esterase inhibitors. Meta-analysis including previously reported variants revealed an increased likelihood of a severe, respiratory phenotype with null alleles. Missense variants exclusively affecting the kinase domain, but not the catalytic site, are associated with late onset. These data refine the phenotype associated with MuSK-related CMS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of Serum Cytokine Profile in Predominantly Colonic Inflammatory Bowel Disease to Delineate Ulcerative and Crohn's Colitides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Y. Korolkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background As accessible diagnostic approaches fail to differentiate between ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's colitis (CC in one-third of patients with predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, leading to inappropriate therapy, we aim to investigate the serum cytokine levels in these patients in search of molecular biometric markers delineating UC from CC. Methods We measured 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors using magnetic-bead-based multiplex immunoassay in 25 UC patients, 28 CC patients, and 30 controls. Our results are compared with those from a review of current literature regarding advances in serum cytokine profiles and associated challenges preventing their use for diagnostic/prognostic purposes. Results Univariate analysis showed statistically significant increases of eotaxin, GRO, and TNF-α in UC patients compared to controls (Ctrl; interferon γ, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-7 in CC group compared to Ctrl; and IL-8 in both UC and CC versus Ctrl. No cytokines were found to be different between UC and CC. A generalized linear model identified combinations of cytokines, allowing the identification of UC and CC patients, with area under the curve (AUC = 0.936, as determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Conclusions The current knowledge available about circulating cytokines in IBD is often contradictory. The development of an evidence-based tool using cytokines for diagnostic accuracy is still preliminary.

  10. Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Val

    Full Text Available Chronic Otitis Media (COM is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited.This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses.MEEs were collected from children (n = 49 with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis.109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin.Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions.

  11. Potential mechanism of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-14

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD.

  12. Estimating Fitness by Competition Assays between Drug Susceptible and Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Predominant Lineages in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Chatterjee, Anirvan; D'souza, Desiree; Tolani, Monica; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a threat to global tuberculosis control. A significant fitness cost has been associated with DR strains from specific lineages. Evaluation of the influence of the competing drug susceptible strains on fitness of drug resistant strains may have an important bearing on understanding the spread of MDR TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of MDR TB strains, from a TB endemic region of western India: Mumbai, belonging to 3 predominant lineages namely CAS, Beijing and MANU in the presence of drug susceptible strains from the same lineages. Methodology Drug susceptible strains from a single lineage were mixed with drug resistant strain, bearing particular non synonymous mutation (rpoB D516V; inhA, A16G; katG, S315T1/T2) from the same or different lineages. Fitness of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) strains was evaluated using the difference in growth rates obtained by using the CFU assay system. Conclusion/Significance While MANU were most fit amongst the drug susceptible strains of the 3 lineages, only Beijing MDR strains were found to grow in the presence of any of the competing drug susceptible strains. A disproportionate increase in Beijing MDR could be an alarm for an impending epidemic in this locale. In addition to particular non synonymous substitutions, the competing strains in an environment may impact the fitness of circulating drug resistant strains. PMID:22479407

  13. Performance of FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis in a rare lymphoma: nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grellier, Jean Francois; Weinmann, Pierre [AP-HP- Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Berenger, Nathalie [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Leblanc, Thierry [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' immuno-hematologie, Paris (France); Thieblemont, Catherine [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite - INSERM UMR-S1165, AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France); Briere, Josette [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de pathologie, Paris (France); Brice, Pauline [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare Hodgkin lymphoma distinguished from classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) by the nature of the neoplastic cells which express B-cell markers. We wanted to determine the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT in initial assessment and its therapeutic impact on staging. We retrospectively studied a population of 35 patients with NLPHL (8 previously treated for NLHPL, 27 untreated). All patients underwent an initial staging by pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT. The impact on initial stage or relapse stage was assessed by an independent physician. In a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity of the pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT was 100 %. In a per-site analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT were 100 %, 99 %, 97 %, 100 % and 99 %, respectively. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT led to a change in the initial stage/relapse stage in 12 of the 35 patients (34 %). In contrast to previous results established without FDG PET/CT, 20 % of patient had osteomedullary lesions. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT has excellent performance for initial staging or relapse staging of NLPHL. (orig.)

  14. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  15. A comparison of peer influence measures as predictors of smoking among predominately hispanic/latino high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B

    2013-03-01

    Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Predominant polarity in type-I bipolar patients: Study in an isolated population with a high prevalence of mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Antonio Carlos Toro; García, Ángela María Agudelo; Rodríguez, María Aurora Gallo; Palacio, Tomás Felipe Restrepo; Ontoso, Miguel Soto; Tamayo, Alejandra; Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto López

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the predominant description of polarity has effects upon early detection and the timely beginning of treatment in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BAD). Cross sectional cut and descriptive study in 101 BAD patients coming from a genetically isolated population from the Colombian Region of Antioquia. The study covered a population of 101 patients with type-I BAD diagnosis, out of which 57,4% met the criteria for maniac polarity (MP), 10,1% exhibited depressive polarity (DP) and 25,7% were classified with Indefinite Polarity (IP). In comparison, MP patients have a lower education level and less starting age, including a greater number of single people. The MP group showed the greatest prevalence of suicide and greater use of cannabinoids and cocaine. Within the DP group there was a strong tendency to cigarette and alcohol consumption. With respect to pharmaceutical drugs consumed by the study patients during their lives, antipsychotics were the most widely used group, followed by lithium and anti-convulsivants. There is high percentage of MP patients who have used antidepressants during their lives. The polarity of the first episode of the disease seems to be a valid predictive parameter concerning the polarity of subsequent episodes; therefore, it works indirectly as a valid predictor of the disease's course. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Interregional Macrodynamics: Enhanced Stability and Predominance of Period Doubling under Flexible Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discrete two-regional Kaldorian macrodynamic model with flexible exchange rates and explore numerically the stability of equilibrium and the possibility of generation of business cycles. We use a grid search method in two-dimensional parameter subspaces, and coefficient criteria for the flip and Hopf bifurcation curves, to determine the stability region and its boundary curves in several parameter ranges. The model is characterized by enhanced stability of equilibrium, while its predominant asymptotic behavior when equilibrium is unstable is period doubling. Cycles are scarce and short-lived in parameter space, occurring at large values of the degree of capital movement β. By contrast to the corresponding fixed exchange rates system, for cycles to occur sufficient amount of trade is required together with high levels of capital movement. Rapid changes in exchange rate expectations and decreased government expenditure are factors contributing to the creation of interregional cycles. Examples of bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams illustrating period doubling or cycles, and their development into chaotic attractors, are given. The paper illustrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the numerical approach for dynamical systems of moderately high dimensionality and several parameters.

  18. Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs in Wild Triatoma infestans from Bolivia: Predominance of TcI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Aliaga, Claudia; Waleckx, Etienne; Buitrago, Rosio; Salas, Renata; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Noireau, François

    2012-01-01

    Background The current persistence of Triatoma infestans (one of the main vectors of Chagas disease) in some domestic areas could be related to re-colonization by wild populations which are increasingly reported. However, the infection rate and the genetic characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi strains infecting these populations are very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Of 333 wild Triatoma infestans specimens collected from north to south of a Chagas disease endemic area in Bolivia, we characterized 234 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon multiplex PCR (MMPCR) and sequencing the glucose phosphate isomerase (Gpi) gene. Of the six genetic lineages (“discrete typing units”; DTU) (TcI-VI) presently recognized in T. cruzi, TcI (99.1%) was overdominant on TcIII (0.9%) in wild Andean T. infestans, which presented a 71.7% infection rate as evaluated by microscopy. In the lowlands (Bolivian Chaco), 17 “dark morph” T. infestans were analyzed. None of them were positive for parasites after microscopic examination, although one TcI stock and one TcII stock were identified using MMPCR and sequencing. Conclusions/Significance By exploring large-scale DTUs that infect the wild populations of T. infestans, this study opens the discussion on the origin of TcI and TcV DTUs that are predominant in domestic Bolivian cycles. PMID:22685616

  19. Predominant Dissemination of PVL-Negative CC89 MRSA with SCCmec Type II in Children with Impetigo in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kikuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ratio of CA-MRSA in children with impetigo has been increasing in Japan. Methods. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 136 S. aureus isolates from children with impetigo were studied. Furthermore, molecular epidemiological analysis and virulence gene analysis were performed. Results. Of the 136 S. aureus isolates, 122 (89.7% were MSSA and 14 (10.3% were MRSA. Of the 14 MRSA strains, 11 belonged to CC89 (ST89, ST91, and ST2117 and carried diverse types of SCCmec: type II (IIb: 3 strains; unknown subtype: 4 strains, type IVa (2 strains, and unknown type (2 strains. The remaining three strains exhibited CC8 (ST-8-SCCmec type VIa, CC121 (ST121-SCCmec type V, and CC5 (ST5-nontypeable SCCmec element, respectively. None were lukS-PV-lukF-PV gene positive. Gentamicin- and clarithromycin-resistant strains were frequently found in both MRSA and MSSA. Conclusions. PVL-negative CC89-SCCmec type II strains are the most predominant strains among the CA-MRSA strains circulating in the community in Japan.

  20. From Environment to Mating Competition and Super-K in a Predominantly Urban Sample of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests human life history strategy (LHS may be subsumed by multiple dimensions, including mating competition and Super-K, rather than one. In this study, we test whether a two-dimensional structure best fit data from a predominantly urban sample of young adults ages 18–24. We also test whether latent life history dimensions are associated with environmental harshness and unpredictability as predicted by life history theory. Results provide evidence that a two-dimensional model best fit the data. Furthermore, a moderate inverse residual correlation between mating competition and Super-K was found, consistent with a life history trade-off. Our findings suggest that parental socioeconomic status may enhance investment in mating competition, that harshness might persist into young adulthood as an important correlate of LHS, and that unpredictability may not have significant effects in young adulthood. These findings further support the contention that human LHS is multidimensional and environmental effects on LHS are more complex than previously suggested. The model presented provides a parsimonious explanation of an array of human behaviors and traits and can be used to inform public health initiatives, particularly with respect to the potential impact of environmental interventions.

  1. Characterization and Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Predominant Marine Bacillus spp. Isolated From Sea Water of Orissa Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species are ubiquitous and diverse both in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, predominant Bacillus species from sea water of three different sites of Orissa Coast were isolated and identified. In total, 16 Bacillus species were identified using morpho-physiological and biochemical characterisation. These identified bacterial strains include B. fastidiosus (CMB1, B. alvei (CMB2, B. coagulans (CMB3, B. marinus (CMB5, B. mycoides (CMB8, B. coagulans (PMB1, B. circulans (PMB2, B. cereus (PMB3, B. subtilis (PMB4, B. alcalophilus (GMB1, B. licheniformics (GMB2, B. polymyxa (GMB3 and B. pumilus (GMB4. The isolates CMB4, CMB6 and CMB7 were identified only up to genus level. These isolates were further screened for their salt tolerance and growth under varied temperature and pH conditions. Ability of these strains to produce extracellular enzymes such as protease, amylase, lipase, gelatinase, casein hydrolase, lecithinase, chitinase and pectinase were also screened and found that most of the Bacillus spp. possess extracellular enzymes.

  2. [Relearning vocabulary. A comparative analysis between a case of dementia and Alzheimer's disease with predominant compromise of language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Núria; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Castellví, Magdalena; Rami, Lorena; Molinuevo, José Luis

    Semantic dementia is characterised by a progressive loss of semantic content that initially affects the capacity to name things, and is associated with asymmetric atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) with predominant compromise of language, anomia is also the main symptom. The study examined the capacity to relearn vocabulary of two patients, each exhibiting one of these two forms of degenerative anomia. The two cases presented similar ages, gender, levels of schooling and degree of compromise. Their capacity to name a list of 40 pictures was evaluated at baseline, following 20 sessions of relearning, at one month and at six months. The patient with semantic dementia named 25/40 objects at baseline, 40/40 after relearning, 35/40 at one month and 27/40 at six months. The patient with AD named 29/40 at baseline, 30/40 after relearning, 29/40 at one month and 32/40 at six months. No intrusions were observed following relearning. The patient with semantic dementia was able to relearn all the vocabulary she was shown, even though she lost everything she had acquired after treatment was interrupted. The AD patient did not improve her naming capacity with therapy. These differences suggest that the learning and consolidation circuits are affected in different ways. Subjects with semantic dementia, but not those with AD, could benefit from word relearning strategies with this method.

  3. IL-4 and IL-5 Secretions Predominate in the Airways of Wistar Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Kouadio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe established a Wistar rat model of asthma caused by toluene diisocyanate (TDI exposure, and investigated the relationship between TDI exposure concentrations and respiratory hypersensitivity, airway inflammation, and cytokine secretions in animals, to better understand the mechanism of TDI induced occupational asthma.MethodsWistar rats were exposed to two different concentrations of TDI vapor four hours a day for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was performed, and differential leucocytes from the BAL fluid were analyzed. Lung histopathological examination was carried out to investigate the inflammatory status in the airways. Production of cytokines interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 productions in the BAL fluid in vivo was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.ResultsThe TDI-exposed rats exhibited greater airway hypersensitivity symptoms than the control rats. The BAL differential cell count and lung histopathological examination demonstrated that inflammation reactions were present in both the central and peripheral airways, characterized with marked infiltration of eosinophils in the TDI-exposed rats. The cytokine assay showed that IL-4 and IL-5 were predominantly produced in the BAL fluid in vivo.ConclusionsThese findings imply that TDI exposure concentrations may greatly affect the occurrence and extent of inflammatory events and that Th2 type cytokines may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational respiratory hypersensitivity.

  4. Sphingomyelin synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly at the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futerman, A.H.; Stieger, B.; Hubbard, A.L.; Pagano, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The intracellular site of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis was examined in subcellular fractions from rat liver using a radioactive ceramide analog N-([1-14C]hexanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine. This lipid readily transferred from a complex with bovine serum albumin to liver fractions without disrupting the membranes, and was metabolized to radioactive SM. To prevent degradation of the newly synthesized SM to ceramide, all experiments were performed in the presence of EDTA to minimize neutral sphingomyelinase activity and at neutral pH to minimize acid sphingomyelinase activity. An intact Golgi apparatus fraction gave an 85-98-fold enrichment of SM synthesis and a 58-83-fold enrichment of galactosyltransferase activity. Controlled trypsin digestion demonstrated that SM synthesis was localized to the lumen of intact Golgi apparatus vesicles. Although small amounts of SM synthesis were detected in plasma membrane and rough microsome fractions, after accounting for contamination by Golgi apparatus membranes, their combined activity contributed less than 13% of the total SM synthesis in rat liver. Subfractions of the Golgi apparatus were obtained and characterized by immunoblotting and biochemical assays using cis/medial (mannosidase II) and trans (sialyltransferase and galactosyltransferase) Golgi apparatus markers. The specific activity of SM synthesis was highest in enriched cis and medial fractions but far lower in a trans fraction. We conclude that SM synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly in the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and not at the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum as has been previously suggested

  5. RNAi suppression of Arogenate Dehydratase1 reveals that phenylalanine is synthesized predominantly via the arogenate pathway in petunia petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Shasany, Ajit K; Schnepp, Jennifer; Orlova, Irina; Taguchi, Goro; Cooper, Bruce R; Rhodes, David; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2010-03-01

    l-Phe, a protein building block and precursor of numerous phenolic compounds, is synthesized from prephenate via an arogenate and/or phenylpyruvate route in which arogenate dehydratase (ADT) or prephenate dehydratase, respectively, plays a key role. Here, we used Petunia hybrida flowers, which are rich in Phe-derived volatiles, to determine the biosynthetic routes involved in Phe formation in planta. Of the three identified petunia ADTs, expression of ADT1 was the highest in petunia petals and positively correlated with endogenous Phe levels throughout flower development. ADT1 showed strict substrate specificity toward arogenate, although with the lowest catalytic efficiency among the three ADTs. ADT1 suppression via RNA interference in petunia petals significantly reduced ADT activity, levels of Phe, and downstream phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatiles. Unexpectedly, arogenate levels were unaltered, while shikimate and Trp levels were decreased in transgenic petals. Stable isotope labeling experiments showed that ADT1 suppression led to downregulation of carbon flux toward shikimic acid. However, an exogenous supply of shikimate bypassed this negative regulation and resulted in elevated arogenate accumulation. Feeding with shikimate also led to prephenate and phenylpyruvate accumulation and a partial recovery of the reduced Phe level in transgenic petals, suggesting that the phenylpyruvate route can also operate in planta. These results provide genetic evidence that Phe is synthesized predominantly via arogenate in petunia petals and uncover a novel posttranscriptional regulation of the shikimate pathway.

  6. De Hass-van Alphen and magnetoresistance reveal predominantly single-band transport behavior in PdTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjian; Zhang, Jinglei; Zhu, Wenka; Zou, Youming; Xi, Chuanying; Ma, Long; Han, Tao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jingrong; Xu, Junmin; Zhang, Lei; Pi, Li; Zhang, Changjin; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-08-12

    Research on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has grown rapidly over the past several years, from fundamental studies to the development of next generation technologies. Recently, it has been reported that the MX2-type PdTe2 exhibits superconductivity with topological surface state, making this compound a promising candidate for investigating possible topological superconductivity. However, due to the multi-band feature of most of TMDs, the investigating of magnetoresistance and quantum oscillations of these TMDs proves to be quite complicated. Here we report a combined de Hass-van Alphen effect and magnetoresistance studies on the PdTe2 single crystal. Our high-field de Hass-van Alphen data measured at different temperature and different tilting angle suggest that though these is a well-defined multi-band feature, a predominant oscillation frequency has the largest oscillation magnitude in the fast Fourier transformation spectra, which is at least one order of magnitude larger than other oscillation frequencies. Thus it is likely that the transport behavior in PdTe2 system can be simplified into a single-band model. Meanwhile, the magnetoresistance results of the PdTe2 sample can be well-fitted according to the single-band models. The present results could be important in further investigation of the transport behaviors of two-dimensional TMDs.

  7. A Control Approach and Supplementary Controllers for a Stand-Alone System with Predominance of Wind Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lukasievicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control approach and supplementary controllers for the operation of a hybrid stand-alone system composed of a wind generation unit and a conventional generation unit based on synchronous generator (CGU. The proposed controllers allow the islanded or isolated operation of small power systems with predominance of wind generation. As an advantage and a paradigm shift, the DC-link voltage of the wind unit is controlled by means of a conventional synchronous generator connected to the AC grid of the system. Two supplementary controllers, added to a diesel generator (DIG and to a DC dump load (DL, are proposed to control the DC-link voltage. The wind generation unit operates in V-f control mode and the DIG operates in PQ control mode, which allows the stand-alone system to operate either in wind-diesel (WD mode or in wind-only (WO mode. The strong influence of the wind turbine speed variations in the DC-link voltage is mitigated by a low-pass filter added to the speed control loop of the wind turbine. The proposed control approach does not require the use battery bank and ultra-capacitor to control the DC-link voltage in wind generation units based on fully rated converter.

  8. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  9. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  10. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  11. Structure and dynamics of thylakoids in land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pribil, Mathias; Labs, Mathias; Leister, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Thylakoids of land plants have a bipartite structure, consisting of cylindrical grana stacks, made of membranous discs piled one on top of the other, and stroma lamellae which are helically wound around the cylinders. Protein complexes predominantly located in the stroma lamellae and grana end....... Depending on light conditions, thylakoid membranes undergo dynamic structural changes that involve alterations in granum diameter and height, vertical unstacking of grana, and swelling of the thylakoid lumen. This plasticity is realized predominantly by reorganization of the supramolecular structure...

  12. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  13. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) positively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF) β3 and is essential for mouse palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bill X; Li, Anqi; Lei, Liming; Kaneko, Satoshi; Wallace, Caroline; Li, Xue; Li, Zihai

    2017-11-03

    Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) (encoded by the Lrrc32 gene) plays important roles in cell-surface docking and activation of TGFβ. However, GARP's role in organ development in mammalian systems is unclear. To determine the function of GARP in vivo , we generated a GARP KO mouse model. Unexpectedly, the GARP KO mice died within 24 h after birth and exhibited defective palatogenesis without apparent abnormalities in other major organs. Furthermore, we observed decreased apoptosis and SMAD2 phosphorylation in the medial edge epithelial cells of the palatal shelf of GARP KO embryos at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), indicating a defect in the TGFβ signaling pathway in the GARP-null developing palates. Of note, the failure to develop the secondary palate and concurrent reduction of SMAD phosphorylation without other defects in GARP KO mice phenocopied TGFβ3 KO mice, although GARP has not been suggested previously to interact with TGFβ3. We found that GARP and TGFβ3 co-localize in medial edge epithelial cells at E14.5. In vitro studies confirmed that GARP and TGFβ3 directly interact and that GARP is indispensable for the surface expression of membrane-associated latent TGFβ3. Our findings indicate that GARP is essential for normal morphogenesis of the palate and demonstrate that GARP plays a crucial role in regulating TGFβ3 signaling during embryogenesis. In conclusion, we have uncovered a novel function of GARP in positively regulating TGFβ3 activation and function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Diversity of moxifloxacin resistance during a nosocomial outbreak of a predominantly ribotype ARU 027 Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Robert J; Genheimer, Christopher W; Rafii, Fatemeh; Park, Miseon; Hiltonsmith, Megan F; Lyerly, David M

    2009-12-01

    To characterize the extent and diversity of moxifloxacin resistance among Clostridium difficile isolates recovered during a predominantly Anaerobe Reference Unit (ARU) ribotype 027-associated nosocomial outbreak of antibiotic associated diarrhea we measured the susceptibility of 34 field isolates and 6 laboratory strains of C. difficile to moxifloxacin. We ribotyped the isolates as well as assaying them by PCR for the metabolic gene, gdh, and the virulence genes, tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, cdtA and cdtB. All the laboratory isolates, including the historical ARU 027 isolate Cd196, were susceptible to moxifloxacin (or=16 microg/mL (high resistance). We sequenced the quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA (position 71-460) and gyrB (position 1059-1448) from two susceptible laboratory strains, all five isolates with moderate resistance and two highly resistant isolates. Two highly resistant isolates (Pitt 40, ribotype ARU 027 and Pitt 33, ribotype ARU 001) had the same C245T (Thr(82)Delta Ile) mutation. No other changes were seen. Amplification with primer pairs specific for the C245T mutant gyrA and for the wild type gene respectively confirmed all 16 highly resistant ARU 027 isolates, as well as the highly resistant isolates from other ribotypes, had the C245T mutation and that the mutation was absent from all other isolates. Among the five isolates with moderate resistance we found combinations of mutations within gyrA (T128A, Val(43)Delta Asp and G349T, Ala(117)Delta Ser) and gyrB (G1276A, Arg(426)Delta Asn). The G1396A (Glu(466)Delta Lys) mutation was not associated with increased resistance.

  15. Identification and quantification of predominant metabolites of synthetic cannabinoid MAB-CHMINACA in an authentic human urine specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    An autopsy case in which the cause of death was judged as drug poisoning by two synthetic cannabinoids, including MAB-CHMINACA, was investigated. Although unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be detected from solid tissues, blood and stomach contents in the case, the compound could not be detected from a urine specimen. We obtained six kinds of reference standards of MAB-CHMINACA metabolites from a commercial source. The MAB-CHMINACA metabolites from the urine specimen of the abuser were extracted using a QuEChERS method including dispersive solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with or without hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Among the six MAB-CHMINACA metabolites tested, two predominant metabolites could be identified and quantified in the urine specimen of the deceased. After hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase, an increase of the two metabolites was not observed. The metabolites detected were a 4-monohydroxycyclohexylmethyl metabolite M1 (N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) and a dihydroxyl (4-hydroxycyclohexylmethyl and tert-butylhydroxyl) metabolite M11 (N-(1-amino-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-((4-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide). Their concentrations were 2.17 ± 0.15 and 10.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL (n = 3, each) for M1 and M11, respectively. Although there is one previous in vitro study showing the estimation of metabolism of MAB-CHMINACA using human hepatocytes, this is the first report dealing with in vivo identification and quantification of MAB-CHMINACA metabolites in an authentic human urine specimen. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-07-01

    Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate

  17. Angiogenesis in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis: predominance of the inhibitor endostatin is related to a greater extent and risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Montaner, Joan; Rosell, Anna; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; Ribó, Marc; Sánchez, Esther; Quintana, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis may be beneficial in chronic myocardial and limb ischemia, but its role in intracranial atherosclerosis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic endostatin, and the extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Of a total of 94 consecutive patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoses, 40 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Intracranial stenoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted sequences was conducted. Plasmatic VEGF and endostatin were determined from blood samples obtained 3 months after stroke onset, and patients were followed-up thereafter. A total of 144 intracranial stenoses were confirmed (median number per patient=3). Endostatin/VEGF ratio gradually augmented with the increasing number of intracranial stenoses (r=0.35, P=0.02). Diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.04; CI, 1.1 to 32.2; P=0.03) and a higher endostatin/VEGF ratio (OR, 15.7; CI, 2.2 to 112.3; P=0.006) were independently associated with a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis. During a median follow-up of 13 months, 8 patients (20%) experienced a new cerebral ischemic event. A higher baseline endostatin concentration was an independent predictor of new events (hazard ratio, 7.24; CI, 1.6 to 33.8; P=0.011) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for age, sex, number of stenotic vessels, and risk factors. Patients with a higher endostatin level had a lower survival free of new events (P=0.01, log-rank test). A predominance of the inhibitor endostatin within the endogenous angiogenic response is associated with a greater extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis, suggesting that angiogenesis may be beneficial in this condition.

  18. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion for Relieving Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Ji-Meng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA and moxibustion (Mox on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS. Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC activity in colon of rats. Immunochemistry was used to measure 5-HT and 5-HT4 receptor expression in the colon. Results. AWR scores in all EA (1 mA and 3 mA and Mox (43°C and 46°C treatment groups after colorectal distention (CRD stimulation pressure of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg were significantly lower than those of the model (MC group (P all < 0.01. The MC counts and degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups and the MC group were significantly higher than those of the NC group (P all < 0.01. MC degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups were lower than those of the MC group (P all < 0.05. 5-HT expression in colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the MC group (P all < 0.01, and 5-HT4R expression in colon of both EA groups was significantly higher than that of the MC group (P both < 0.01. Conclusion. EA and Mox treatments may both ameliorate visceral hypersensitivity at different degree in rats with C-IBS, and EA treatment was better than Mox.

  19. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-08-21

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD. This was a cross sectional survey conducted in children aged 13-18 years, in four randomly selected schools in Western province of Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire. It had questions on symptoms, HRQoL and health care consultation. AP-FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 1850 questionnaires were included in the analysis [males 1000 (54.1%), mean age 14.4 years and SD 1.3 years]. Of them, 305 (16.5%) had AP-FGD [irritable bowel syndrome = 91(4.9%), functional dyspepsia = 11 (0.6%), abdominal migraine = 37 (1.9%) and functional abdominal pain = 180 (9.7%)]. Lower HRQoL scores for physical (83.6 vs. 91.4 in controls), social (85.0 vs. 92.7), emotional (73.6 vs. 82.7) and school (75.0 vs. 82.5) functioning domains, and lower overall scores (79.6 vs. 88.0) were seen in children with AP-FGD (p abdominal pain (r = -0.24, p abdominal bloating and vomiting (p < 0.05). Children with AP-FGD have lower quality of life in all 4 domains. Those with severe symptoms have lower HRQoL. Approximately 28% of children with AP-FGD seek healthcare for their symptoms.

  20. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

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    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and

  1. Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

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    Dominique Endres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures.Case presentationHere, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction. She developed rapid onset symptoms, including apathy, verbal depletion up to a stuporous state, severe working memory deficits, evidence of primitive reflexes, disturbed Luria’s three-step test, and micturition disorder. Analysis of her cerebrospinal fluid was normal. The serum analyses showed increased antithyroid (antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. In the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, supratentorial deep and peripheral white matter lesions were found; the electroencephalography showed intermittent slowing, and the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depicted medial and superior dorsolateral frontal hypometabolism. Several different psychopharmacological therapeutic approaches with various neuroleptics, antidepressants, and high doses of lorazepam were unsuccessful. Due to the organic alterations, including increased antithyroid antibodies, HE was suspected. Against expectations, treatment with high-dose corticosteroids proved to be ineffective and was associated with worsening symptoms. However, escalated treatment with plasmapheresis over 5 days led to significant improvement in all reported symptoms and in psychometric testing. The neuropsychological improvement was stable over a 6-month follow-up period, and the FDG-PET normalized.ConclusionThis case report reveals that (1 HE can mimic rapid onset dementia with predominantly frontal dysfunction; (2 this

  2. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task

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    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cedric [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-Francois [Unite IRM, IFR1, CHU Grenoble (France); Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, UMR CNRS 5105, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, BP 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr

    2007-08-15

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ('flip' method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language.

  3. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cedric; Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Baciu, Monica

    2007-01-01

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ('flip' method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language

  4. Control of eight predominant Eimeria spp. involved in economic coccidiosis of broiler chicken by a chemically characterized essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Bragg, R R; Karrouf, G; Iyer, A; Azhar, E; Harakeh, S; Kumosani, T

    2015-03-01

    To control eight most predominant Eimeria spp. involved in the economic disease of coccidiosis in broiler chicken, by a chemically characterized essential oil of eucalyptus and peppermint. The experimental design consisted of 160 day-old-broiler chicks, divided into four equal groups (G1 , G2 , G3 and G4 ), with 40 birds per group. Each group was divided into four equal subgroups. Birds in G1 were deprived of essential oil treatment and of Eimeria challenge. Birds in G2 were unchallenged, and administered the essential oil in drinking water at 0.69 ml kg(-1) body weight. Birds in G3 were untreated with essential oil, and each of its four subgroups was challenged at a different age (14, 21, 28 and 35 days). Birds in G4 were treated with essential oil, and challenged in the same manner as for G3 . Equal number of birds from all subgroups (n = 10) were sacrificed at the sixth day after the time allocated for each challenge. The 6 day incubation period post challenge resulted in respective mean per cent weight increase in G2 and G1 birds equivalent to 57.8 and 53.1% (P essential oil improved the per cent weight increase in challenged birds (54.6%) compared to the challenged-untreated birds (18.6%) (P essential oils of eucalyptus and peppermint to control the most prevalent Eimeria spp. involved in coccidiosis of broiler chicken, helping in improvement of their production, alleviation of lesions and reduction in intestinal oocyst counts. This study provides information about the possibility of using this blend of essential oil as a coccidiostat for the protection of broiler chickens against the prevalent eight Eimeria spp. of coccidiosis. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Low prevalence of HCV infection with predominance of genotype 4 among HIV patients living in Libreville, Gabon.

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    Angélique Ndjoyi-Mbiguino

    Full Text Available Gabon is an endemic area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV and the risk of co-infection is high.Between November 2015 and April 2016, we conducted retrospective study on HCV infection among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA. A total of 491 PLHA were included in this study and tested for the presence of HCV infection. HIV viral loads were obtained using the Generic HIV viral Load® assay and the CD4+ T cells count was performed using BD FACSCount™ CD4 reagents. HCV screening was performed using the MP Diagnostics HCV ELISA 4.0 kit. HCV genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of NS5B and Core regions. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups. Chi-2 test and Fisher's Exact Test were used to compare prevalence.HCV seroprevalence was 2.9% (14/491, (95% confidence interval (CI:1.4-4.3%. The percentage of HCV viremic patients, defined by the detection of HCV RNA in plasma, was 57% (8/14, representing 1.6% of the total population. HCV seroprevalence and replicative infection were not statistically differ with gender. The percentage of co-infection increased with age. No correlation with CD4+ T cells count and HIV viral load level was registered in this study. Identified HCV strains were predominantly of genotype 4 (87.5% including 4k, 4e, 4g, 4p, 4f and 4c subtypes. Only one strain belonged to genotype 2 (subtype 2q. Analysis of the NS5B region did not reveal the presence of resistance-associated substitutions for sofosbuvir.A systematic screening of hepatitis C is therefore strongly recommended as well as genotyping of HCV strains in order to adapt treatments for the specific case of people living with HIV/AIDS in Central Africa.

  6. Novel BICD2 mutation in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Mieko; Morisada, Naoya; Toyoshima, Daisaku; Yoshimura, Hajime; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Tomoko; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2018-04-01

    The most common form of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a recessive disorder caused by SMN1 mutations in 5q13, whereas the genetic etiologies of non-5q SMA are very heterogenous and largely remain to be elucidated. We present a father and son with atrophy and weakness of the lower leg muscles since infancy. Genetic studies in this family revealed a novel BICD2 mutation causing autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant SMA type 2. The proband was the father, aged 30, and the son was aged 3. Both of them were born uneventfully to nonconsanguineous parents. While the father first walked at the age of 19 months, the son was unable to walk at age 3 years. In both, knee and ankle reflexes were absent and sensation was intact. Serum creatine kinase levels were normal. The son showed congenital arthrogryposis and underwent orthopedic corrections for talipes calcaneovalgus. Investigation of the father at the age of 5 years revealed normal results on nerve conduction studies and sural nerve biopsy. Electromyography showed chronic neurogenic change, and muscle biopsy showed features suggestive of denervation. The father was diagnosed clinically with a sporadic distal SMA. Follow-up studies showed very slow progression. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a deleterious mutation in BICD2: c.1667A>G, p.Tyr556Cys, in this family. BICD2 is a cytoplasmic conserved motor-adaptor protein involved in anterograde and retrograde transport along the microtubules. Next-generation sequencing will further clarify the genetic basis of non-5q SMA. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the General Population: Data from the GECCO Study

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    Paul Enck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of constipation in the (German population has been shown to be 14.9% in a telephone survey, but more detailed data are required to characterize the sociographics and clinical characteristics of persons with different types of functional constipation, either constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C or functional constipation with or without meeting Rome criteria. Methods. Of 2239 constipated individuals identified during the telephone interview, 1037 (46.3% were willing to provide a postal address for a questionnaire, of which 589 (56.8% returned the questionnaire, inquiring about sociographic data, clinical symptoms, and health care behavior related to constipation, as well as health-related quality-of-life (SF12. Subgroups of functionally constipated individuals were compared. Results. More than 50% of the respondents reported a somatic comorbid condition and/or regular medication intake that may contribute to constipation. We split the remaining individuals (N=214 into three groups, matching Rome-criteria for IBS (IBS-C, n=64 and for functional constipation (FC-R, n=36 and FC not matching Rome criteria (n=114. Nearly all sociographic and clinical characteristics were equal among them, and all individuals with constipation had similar and lowered QOL on the SF-12 physical health domain, but in IBS-C the scores were also significantly lower in comparison to FC-R and FC, in both the physical health and the mental health domain. Conclusion. Only a fraction of individuals with chronic constipation match Rome criteria for IBS-C or FC, but subgroups do not differ with respect to most other measures except quality-of-life profiles.

  9. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  10. Predominance of community-associated sequence type 59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qifa; Wu, Junhua; Ruan, Peisen

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of molecular types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) according to their community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) source of acquisition, and thus assess the degree to which CA-MRSA has been introduced into the PICU. We implemented an MRSA surveillance in a PICU during 2013-2016 and investigated the genetic diversity of the isolates retrospectively using three genetic typing methods, as well as antibiograms and virulence factor profiles.Results/Key findings. From 2684 specimens, we identified 60 MRSA isolates, 43 of which were ST59 CA-MRSA. These 43 ST59 MRSA isolates could be further subtyped into 2 clusters and 7 sporadic isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 3 spa types, which demonstrated the genetic diversity in ST59 MRSA. Phenotypic diversity was also demonstrated among these ST59 MRSA isolates, with 12 virulence factor profiles and 4 antibiograms being identified. Epidemiological information showed that 43 ST59 MRSA isolates were both community-associated (15 isolates) and hospital-associated (28 isolates) and caused colonization and various types of infections in different age groups of children. Our results show that a predominant ST59 CA-MRSA has been introduced into the PICU to a significant extent. This has caused the ST59 HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA in the PICU to be indistinguishable. Our results also demonstrate that when we are interpreting situations where the causative agents of infections focus on very limited pathogenic clones, combined typing methods and epidemiological information are needed to investigate isolates' genetic and phenotypic diversity to distinguish an outbreak from endemic cases.

  11. Triglycerides produced in the livers of fasting rabbits are predominantly stored as opposed to secreted into the plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L.; Wang, Lijian; Wu, Zhanpin; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Herndon, David N.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The liver plays a central role in regulating fat metabolism; however, it is not clear how the liver distributes the synthesized triglycerides (TGs) to storage and to the plasma. Materials and Methods We have measured the relative distribution of TGs produced in the liver to storage and the plasma by means of U-13C16-palmitate infusion in anesthetized rabbits after an overnight fast. Results The fractional synthesis rates of TGs stored in the liver and secreted into the plasma were not significantly different (Stored vs. Secreted: 31.9 ± 0.8 vs. 27.7 ± 2.6 %•h−1, p > 0.05. However, the absolute synthesis rates of hepatic stored and secreted TGs were 543 ± 158 and 27 ± 7 nmol·kg−1·min−1 respectively, indicating that in fasting rabbits the TGs produced in the liver were predominately stored (92±3%) rather than secreted (8±3%) into the plasma. This large difference was mainly due to the larger pool size of the hepatic TGs which was 21±9-fold that of plasma TGs. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) contributed 47±1% of the FA precursor for hepatic TG synthesis, and the remaining 53±1% was derived from hepatic lipid breakdown and possibly plasma TGs depending on the activity of hepatic lipase. Plasma palmitate concentration significantly correlated with hepatic palmitoyl-CoA and TG synthesis. Conclusion In rabbits, after an overnight fast, the absolute synthesis rate of hepatic stored TGs was significantly higher than that of secreted due to the larger pool size of hepatic TGs. The net synthesis rate of TG was approximately half the absolute rate. Plasma FFA is a major determinant of hepatic TG synthesis, and therefore hepatic TG storage. PMID:25682063

  12. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  13. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  14. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Predominant or complete recipient T-cell chimerism following alemtuzumab-based allogeneic transplantation is reversed by donor lymphocytes and not associated with graft failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedbhai, Sajir G; Edwards, Noha; Morris, Emma C; Mackinnon, Stephen; Thomson, Kirsty J; Peggs, Karl S

    2012-02-01

    The clinical significance of mixed chimerism following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains controversial. Its relevance and incidence are probably influenced by the conditioning regimen and incorporation of T-cell depletion. The presence of recipient chimerism levels >40-50% following T-cell replete reduced intensity transplantation correlates with a high risk of graft rejection, regardless of donor-lymphocyte infusions, but it is unclear whether this finding translates to T-cell depleted transplants. We conducted a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients receiving alemtuzumab-based HSCT. 27/152 (18%) evaluable cases had predominantly recipient T-cell chimerism at 3 months or beyond. By contrast, coincident chimerism in the granulocyte lineage was predominantly of donor origin (median 100%) in all but one patient. Donor lymphocyte infusion effectively converted predominantly recipient T-cell chimerism to ful donor chimerism in all evaluable cases including three cases with no detectable donor T cells. The only graft failure occurred in the patient with predominantly recipient myeloid chimerism in whom rejection occurred rapidly before donor lymphocytes could be administered. We conclude that predominant or complete recipient T-cell chimerism following alemtuzumab-based regimens does not have the same clinical implications as that following T-cell replete transplants and can be effectively converted with donor lymphocytes without the need for lympho-depleting agents or re-conditioning. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  18. Long-term outcomes in patients with early stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek A Solanki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT is commonly used as definitive treatment for early-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL. We evaluated the cause-specific survival (CSS, overall survival (OS, and second malignancy (SM rates in patients with early-stage NLPHL treated with RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with stage I-II NLPHL between 1988 and 2009 who underwent RT were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Univariate analysis (UVA for CSS and Os was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and included age, gender, involved site, year of diagnosis, presence of B-symptoms, and extranodal involvement (ENI. Multivariable analysis (MVA was performed using Cox Proportional Hazards modeling and included the above clinical variables. SM were classified as RT-related or non-RT-related. Freedom from SM and freedom from RT-related SM were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The study cohort included 469 patients. Median age was 37 years. The most common involved sites were the head and neck (36%, axilla/arm (26%, and multiple lymph node regions (18%. Sixty-eight percent had stage I disease, 70% were male, 4% had ENI, and 7% had B-symptoms. Median follow-up was 6 years. Ten-year CSS and Os were 98% and 88%, respectively. On UVA, none of the covariates was associated with CSS. Increasing age (p<0.01 and female gender (p<0.01 were associated with worse Os. On MVA, older age (p<0.01, female gender (p=0.04, multiple regions of involvement (p=0.03, stage I disease (p=0.02, and presence of B-symptoms (p=0.02 were associated with worse Os. Ten-year freedom from SM and freedom from RT-related SM were 89% and 99%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series to evaluate the outcomes of stage I-II NLPHL patients treated with RT and found that this patient population has an excellent long-term prognosis and a low rate of RT-related second malignancies.

  19. Qualitative development of a patient-reported outcome symptom measure in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, P; Lasch, K E; Delgado-Herrera, L; Kothari, S; Lembo, A; Lademacher, C; Spears, G; Nishida, A; Tesler, Waldman L; Piault, E; Rosa, K; Zeiher, B

    2014-06-26

    Despite a documented clinical need, no patient reported outcome (PRO) symptom measure meeting current regulatory requirements for clinically relevant end points is available for the evaluation of treatment benefit in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Patients (N=113) with IBS-D participated in five study phases: (1) eight concept elicitation focus groups (N=34), from which a 17-item IBS-D Daily Symptom Diary and four-item IBS-D Symptom Event Log (Diary and Event Log) were developed; (2) one-on-one cognitive interviews (N=11) to assess the instrument's comprehensiveness, understandability, appropriateness, and readability; (3) four data triangulation focus groups (N=32) to confirm the concepts elicited; (4) two hybrid (concept elicitation and cognitive interview) focus groups (N=16); and (5) two iterative sets of one-on-one cognitive interviews (N=20) to further clarify the symptoms of IBS-D and debrief a revised seven-item Diary and four-item Event Log. Of thirty-six concepts initially identified, 22 were excluded because they were not saturated, not clinically relevant, not critical symptoms of IBS-D, considered upper GI symptoms, or too broad or vaguely defined. The remaining concepts were diarrhea, immediate need (urgency), bloating/pressure, frequency of bowel movements, cramps, abdominal/stomach pain, gas, completely emptied bowels/incomplete evacuation, accidents, bubbling in intestines (bowel sounds), rectal burning, stool consistency, rectal spasm, and pain while wiping. The final instrument included a daily diary with separate items for abdominal and stomach pain and an event log with four items completed after each bowel movement as follows: (1) a record of the bowel movement/event and an assessment of (2) severity of immediacy of need/bowel urgency, (3) incomplete evacuation, and (4) stool consistency (evaluated using the newly developed Astellas Stool Form Scale). Based on rounds of interviews and clinical input, items considered secondary or

  20. Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Bardají, Azucena; dos Santos Campos, Giselane; Fernandes, Silke; Hanson, Kara; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor Ernestina; Menéndez, Clara; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods/Principal Findings Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364) were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14) due to P. vivax infection. Conclusion Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P

  1. Sleep habits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type and associations with comorbid psychopathology symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Pfiffner, Linda J; Stein, Mark A; Burns, G Leonard; McBurnett, Keith

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is currently known about the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on samples of children with ADHD combined type, and no study to date has examined the association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and sleep functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to (1) describe the sleep habits of children diagnosed with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and (2) examine whether comorbid internalizing, oppositional, and/or SCT symptoms are associated with poorer sleep functioning in children with ADHD-I. This study extends the current literature by using a large, clinical sample of children with ADHD-I to examine the association between SCT and other psychopathology symptoms with children's sleep functioning. Participants included 147 children (age: 6-11, 59% male, 55% White) diagnosed with ADHD-I using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Parents completed measures assessing their child's sleep habits as well as comorbid anxiety, depression, oppositionality, and SCT symptoms. Fourteen percent of children with ADHD-I obtain less sleep than recommended and 31% have a sleep onset latency of greater than 20 minutes. The few children taking medication for ADHD had a longer sleep onset latency than those without medication. Twenty-seven percent of parents indicated that it is "difficult" to get their child out of bed on school days and 41% of parents indicated that their child needs to catch-up on sleep on the weekend "at least a little". Regression analyses found anxiety and SCT sleepy/tired symptoms to be the most consistent dimensions of psychopathology associated with sleep functioning, with little support for depression or oppositionality being associated with sleep. A sizeable minority of children with ADHD-I experience impaired sleep. In addition to SCT sleepy/tired symptoms, comorbid anxiety was most consistently associated with poorer sleep

  2. Epidemiology of functional diarrhea and comparison with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based survey in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling design in five cities of China. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire, and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36 was used for assessing health-related quality of life in 20% of the sample. Overall, 248 respondents (1.54% had functional diarrhea and 277 (1.72% had IBS-D. Functional diarrhea was positively associated with increasing age and body mass index (trend test P<0.05. The three most common symptoms for at least 3 weeks in the past months were loose, mushy or watery stools (n = 203, 81.85%, more than three bowel movements a day (n = 100, 40.32% and having to rush to the toilet to have a bowel movement (n = 72, 29.03%. Meaningful impairment was observed in 5 of the 8 SF-36 domains in respondents with functional diarrhea. The demographics are mostly similar between the respondents with functional diarrhea and IBS-D; however, respondents with IBS-D had more frequent symptoms of diarrhea and even lower scores in SF-36 domains than those with functional diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of functional diarrhea in China is substantially lower than that in Western countries and relatively higher than that in other Asian countries. It impaired health-related quality of life, and respondents with IBS-D have even worse quality of life. Further population-based studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and the differences between functional diarrhea and IBS-D.

  3. Sleep Habits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type and Associations with Comorbid Psychopathology Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Pfiffner, Linda J.; Stein, Mark A.; Burns, G. Leonard; McBurnett, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Much of what is currently known about the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on samples of children with ADHD Combined Type, and no study to date has examined the association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and sleep functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to (1) describe the sleep habits of children diagnosed with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I), and (2) examine whether comorbid internalizing, oppositional, and/or sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with poorer sleep functioning in children with ADHD-I. This study extends the current literature by using a large, clinical sample of children with ADHD-I to examine the association between SCT and other psychopathology symptoms with children’s sleep functioning. Methods Participants were 147 children (ages 6–11; 59% male; 55% White) diagnosed with ADHD-I using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Parents completed measures assessing their child’s sleep habits as well as comorbid anxiety, depression, oppositionality, and SCT symptoms. Results Fourteen percent of children obtain less sleep than recommended and 31% have a sleep onset latency of greater than 20 minutes. The few children taking medication for ADHD had a longer sleep onset latency than unmedicated children. Twenty-seven percent of parents indicated that it is “difficult” to get their child out of bed on school days and 41% of parents indicated that their child needs to catch-up on sleep on the weekend “at least a little”. Regression analyses found anxiety and SCT sleepy/tired symptoms to be the most consistent dimensions of psychopathology associated with sleep functioning, with little support for depression or oppositionality being associated with sleep. Conclusions A sizeable minority of children with ADHD-I experience impaired sleep. Comorbid anxiety, in addition to SCT sleepy

  4. Impact of comorbid conditions in COPD patients on health care resource utilization and costs in a predominantly Medicare population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phil Schwab,1 Amol D Dhamane,2 Sari D Hopson,1 Chad Moretz,1 Srinivas Annavarapu,1 Kate Burslem,2 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila2 1Comprehensive Health Insights Inc., Louisville, KY, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, 3Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often have multiple underlying comorbidities, which may lead to increased health care resource utilization (HCRU and costs.Objective: To describe the comorbidity profiles of COPD patients and examine the associations between the presence of comorbidities and HCRU or health care costs.Methods: A retrospective cohort study utilizing data from a large US national health plan with a predominantly Medicare population was conducted. COPD patients aged 40–89 years and continuously enrolled for 12 months prior to and 24 months after the first COPD diagnosis during the period of January 01, 2009, through December 31, 2010, were selected. Eleven comorbidities of interest were identified 12 months prior through 12 months after COPD diagnosis. All-cause and COPD-related hospitalizations and costs were assessed 24 months after diagnosis, and the associations with comorbidities were determined using multivariate statistical models.Results: Ninety-two percent of 52,643 COPD patients identified had at least one of the 11 comorbidities. Congestive heart failure (CHF, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease (CVA had the strongest associations with all-cause hospitalizations (mean ratio: 1.56, 1.32, and 1.30, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined had moderate associations. CHF, anxiety, and sleep apnea had the strongest associations with COPD-related hospitalizations (mean ratio: 2.01, 1.32, and 1.21, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined (except chronic kidney disease [CKD], obesity, and osteoarthritis had moderate associations. All

  5. Timber harvest as the predominant disturbance regime in northeastern U.S. forests: Effects of harvest intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle L.; Canham, Charles D.; Murphy, Lora; Donovan, Therese M.

    2018-01-01

    feedstock supply. Integrating harvest regimes into a disturbance theory framework is critical to understanding the dynamics of forested landscapes, especially given the predominance of logging as a disturbance agent and the increasing pressure to meet renewable energy needs.

  6. Electroacupuncture for patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhea: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Li, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Fang; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zheng, Hua-Bin; Zhu, Wen-Zeng; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Rong, Pei-Jing; Tang, Chun-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Chun; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Shi-Jun; Zhou, Mei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Shun; Zhu, Bing

    2016-06-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and functional diarrhea (FD) are highly prevalent, and the effectiveness of acupuncture for managing IBS-D and FD is still unknown.The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of electroacupuncture with loperamide.It was a prospective, randomized, parallel group controlled trial.A total of 448 participants were randomly assigned to He electroacupuncture group (n = 113), Shu-Mu electroacupuncture group (n = 111), He-Shu-Mu electroacupuncture group (n = 112), or loperamide group (n = 112). Participants in the 3 acupuncture groups received 16 sessions of electroacupuncture during a 4-week treatment phase, whereas participants in the loperamide group received oral loperamide 2 mg thrice daily. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in stool frequency at the end of the 4-weeks treatment. The secondary outcomes were the Bristol scale, the MOS 36-item short form health survey (SF-36), the weekly average number of days with normal defecations and the proportion of adverse events.Stool frequency was significantly reduced at the end of the 4-week treatment in the 4 groups (mean change from baseline, 5.35 times/week). No significant difference was found between the 3 electroacupuncture groups and the loperamide group in the primary outcome (He vs. loperamide group [mean difference 0.6, 95% CI, -1.2 to 2.4]; Shu-Mu vs. loperamide group [0.4, 95% CI, -1.4 to 2.3]; He-Shu-Mu vs. loperamide group [0.0, 95% CI, -1.8 to 1.8]). Both electroacupuncture and loperamide significantly improved the mean score of Bristol scale and increased the weekly average number of days with normal defecations and the mean scores of SF-36; they were equivalent in these outcomes. However, the participants in electroacupuncture groups did not report fewer adverse events than those in the loperamide group. Similar results were found in a subgroup analysis of separating patients with IBS-D and FD patients.Electroacupuncture is

  7. Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bôtto-Menezes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon.Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364 were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14 due to P. vivax infection.Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P. falciparum. The information generated may

  8. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  9. Qualitative Development of a Patient-Reported Outcome Symptom Measure in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, P; Lasch, K E; Delgado-Herrera, L; Kothari, S; Lembo, A; Lademacher, C; Spears, G; Nishida, A; Tesler, Waldman L; Piault, E; Rosa, K; Zeiher, B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite a documented clinical need, no patient reported outcome (PRO) symptom measure meeting current regulatory requirements for clinically relevant end points is available for the evaluation of treatment benefit in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). METHODS: Patients (N=113) with IBS-D participated in five study phases: (1) eight concept elicitation focus groups (N=34), from which a 17-item IBS-D Daily Symptom Diary and four-item IBS-D Symptom Event Log (Diary and Event Log) were developed; (2) one-on-one cognitive interviews (N=11) to assess the instrument's comprehensiveness, understandability, appropriateness, and readability; (3) four data triangulation focus groups (N=32) to confirm the concepts elicited; (4) two hybrid (concept elicitation and cognitive interview) focus groups (N=16); and (5) two iterative sets of one-on-one cognitive interviews (N=20) to further clarify the symptoms of IBS-D and debrief a revised seven-item Diary and four-item Event Log. RESULTS: Of thirty-six concepts initially identified, 22 were excluded because they were not saturated, not clinically relevant, not critical symptoms of IBS-D, considered upper GI symptoms, or too broad or vaguely defined. The remaining concepts were diarrhea, immediate need (urgency), bloating/pressure, frequency of bowel movements, cramps, abdominal/stomach pain, gas, completely emptied bowels/incomplete evacuation, accidents, bubbling in intestines (bowel sounds), rectal burning, stool consistency, rectal spasm, and pain while wiping. The final instrument included a daily diary with separate items for abdominal and stomach pain and an event log with four items completed after each bowel movement as follows: (1) a record of the bowel movement/event and an assessment of (2) severity of immediacy of need/bowel urgency, (3) incomplete evacuation, and (4) stool consistency (evaluated using the newly developed Astellas Stool Form Scale). Based on rounds of interviews and clinical input, items

  10. Interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predominância de Ipomoea hederifolia na cana-soca Interference of a weed community with predominance of Ipomoea hederifolia on sugar cane ratton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.B. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos recentes da flora de plantas daninhas associada à cultura da cana-de-açúcar apontaram Ipomoea hederifolia como uma das espécies mais importantes. Em virtude disso, objetivou-se determinar o potencial de redução da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar e da qualidade do caldo em resposta à interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predomínio de I. hederifolia, bem como o período anterior à interferência (PAI. Foi instalado um experimento em Pitangueiras, SP, em que constituíram tratamentos nove períodos crescentes de convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura (0, 16, 30, 44, 69, 97, 135, 160, 188 e 229 dias após o cultivo e adubação e início da brotação - DAB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cada tratamento em quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que o potencial de redução do número final de colmos e de produtividade foi de 34% e 46%, respectivamente. O PAI foi do início da brotação e se estendeu por 33 dias. Com o aumento do período de convivência com a comunidade infestante, houve antecipação do processo de maturação dos colmos, cujo caldo tendeu a apresentar maior valor de açúcar total recuperável (ATR. Com a redução de produtividade devido à interferência, o valor de ATR ha-1 tendeu a ser negativamente afetado.Recent surveys on weed community associated with sugar cane have pointed Ipomoea hederifolia as one of the most important species. Thus, this work aimed to determine the potential for reducing the productivity and quality of sugar cane in response to weed community interference with a predominance of I. hederifolia, and the period prior to interference (PPI. An assay was installed in Pitangueiras , Brazil, with the treatments consisting of nine periods of coexistence of the weeds with the culture (0, 16, 30, 44, 69,97, 135, 160,188 and 229 days after cultivation and fertilization and days after sprouting. The experiments were arranged in a

  11. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-11-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery.

  12. Iron fertilization with FeEDDHA : the fate and effectiveness of FeEDDHA chelates in soil-plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis is a nutritional disorder in plants which reduces crop yields both quantitatively and qualitatively, and causes large economic losses. It occurs world-wide, predominantly in plants grown on calcareous soils, as a result of a limited bioavailability of iron related to the

  13. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabe, Cristina; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  14. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  15. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of motor fluctuations and non-motor predominance with cerebrospinal τ and Aβ as well as dementia-risk in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreanu, Raluca; Cerquera, Sonia Catalina; Martí, María José; Ríos, José; Sánchez-Gómez, Almudena; Cámara, Ana; Fernández, Manel; Compta, Yaroslau

    2017-02-15

    Experimental, neuropathological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies support τ and amyloid-β (Aβ) relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia. Lesser motor fluctuations (MFs) and non-motor features have also been related to PD-dementia. Yet, little is known about the association of MFs and non-motor symptoms with CSF τ and Aβ in PD. We hypothesized that lesser MFs and non-motor predominance are related to these CSF markers and dementia-risk in PD. We studied 58 PD patients (dementia at baseline, n=21; dementia at 18-months, n=35) in whom CSF Aβ and τ had been determined with ELISA techniques. MFs and a number of non-motor symptoms (apathy, anxiety, irritability, depression, visual hallucinations, spatial disorientation, memory complaints) over disease course were dichotomized as absent-mild vs. moderate-severe by retrospective clinical chart review blind to CSF findings. Non-motor predominance was defined as ≥3 non-motor symptoms (after the cohort-median of non-motor symptoms per patient) with ≥2 being moderate-severe and ≥1 having been present from onset, with all these being more disabling overall than motor features. Cross-sectionally, CSF biomarkers were non-parametrically compared according to dichotomized MFs and non-motor predominance. Longitudinally, dementia was the outcome (dependent variable), CSF markers, MFs and non-motor predominance were the predictors (independent variables), and potential modifiers as age, sex, and memory complaints were the covariates in binary regression models. Absent-mild MFs were associated with higher CSF τ markers and shorter time-to-dementia, while non-motor predominance and decreasing CSF Aβ independently increased longitudinal dementia-risk. In summary, absent-mild MFs, non-motor predominance and CSF τ and Aβ might define endophenotypes related to the timing or risk of dementia in PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different species of aquatic plants was in the range of 3.7 – 37 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 dry weight, which was ca 5.7-370 fold higher than epiphytic CH4 consumption in submerged parts of emergent plants. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of the particulate methane monooxygenase-encoding gene pmoA were variable among the aquatic plants and ranged in the order of 105 to 107 copies⋅g-1 dry weight, which correlated with the observed CH4 consumption activities. Phylogenetic identification of methanotrophs on aquatic plants based on the pmoA sequence analysis revealed a predominance of diverse gammaproteobacterial type-I methanotrophs, including a phylotype of a possible plant-associated methanotroph with the closest identity (86-89% to Methylocaldum gracile.

  17. Traveling the road to success: A discourse on persistence throughout the science pipeline with African American students at a predominantly white institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melody L.; Atwater, Mary M.

    2005-08-01

    This study focuses on 11 African American undergraduate seniors in a biology degree program at a predominantly white research institution in the southeastern United States. These 11 respondents shared their journeys throughout the high school and college science pipeline. Participants described similar precollege factors and experiences that contributed to their academic success and persistence at a predominantly white institution. One of the most critical factors in their academic persistence was participation in advanced science and mathematics courses as part of their high school college preparatory program. Additional factors that had a significant impact on their persistence and academic success were family support, teacher encouragement, intrinsic motivation, and perseverance.

  18. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVANAND BHAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  19. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  20. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  1. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...

  2. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  3. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  4. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and application of a selective pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to detect a recently cultivated Bacillus group predominant in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzeneva, V.A.; Li, Y.; Felske, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Smidt, H.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide presence of a hitherto-nondescribed group of predominant soil microorganisms related to Bacillus benzoevorans was analyzed after development of two sets of selective primers targeting 16S rRNA genes in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The high abundance

  6. Influence of Response Prepotency Strength, General Working Memory Resources, and Specific Working Memory Load on the Ability to Inhibit Predominant Responses: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory…

  7. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  8. To Break Away or Strengthen Ties to Home: A Complex Issue for African American College Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    African American students and former students from a predominantly white institution (PWI) were interviewed to understand their perceptions regarding the impact of their families on their academic achievement and persistence. The characteristics of families that students perceived to support and hinder their academic success at college are…

  9. Science Teacher Educators' Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS), and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI).…

  10. An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

  11. A Focus Group Study of African American Students' Experiences with Classroom Discussions about Race at a Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Jill K.; Hall, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Past research has drawn attention to the unique challenges for students of color attending predominantly white colleges and universities, yet few have focused on the classroom as a micro-context in which race-related discussions often occur. Using a focus group methodology, 22 African American undergraduate students from a variety of academic…

  12. African-American Women's Experiences in Graduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education at a Predominantly White University: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Hermann, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    In this phenomenological investigation we used qualitative research methodology to examine the experiences of 8 African American women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate programs at 1 predominantly White university (PWU) in the South. Much of the current research in this area uses quantitative methods and only…

  13. The Female Predominance of a Vocational and Scientific Education Programme for High School Students in Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix; Braga, Cristiane Nogueira; Frutuoso, Telma de Mello; Ferreira, Cristina Araripe; Vargas, Diego da Silva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how students view their volunteer choices to take part in a specific scientific education programme while they attend high school. This programme is called (Provoc) located at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Brazil. Historically, this programme has been characterised by a significant predominance of…

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  15. Cytokine gene expression profile distinguishes CD4+/CD57+T cells of the nodular lymphocyte predominance type of Hodgkin's lymphoma from their tonsillar counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atayar, Cigdem; Poppema, Sibrand; Visser, Lydia; van den Berg, Anke

    Little is known about the cytokine profile of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) and the significance of the characteristic rosetting CD4(+)/CD57(+) T cells. We analysed the T lymphocyte populations isolated from lymph node suspensions from five patients with NLPHL, two with

  16. Strength That Silences: Learning from the Experiences of Black Female College Students with Mental Health Concerns at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar-Richardson, Nadia Monique

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first person accounts of college experiences provided by Black female college students with mental health concerns at a predominantly White institution. Utilizing the theoretical frameworks of disability studies and critical race feminism to develop the study and analyze the collected data, this study considers the…

  17. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1999-07-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  18. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  19. Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 supplementation in the management of diarrhea predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Ali, Furqan; Pande, Anurag; Majeed, Shaheen; Karri, Suresh Kumar

    2016-02-27

    Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 has been marketed as a dietary ingredient, but its efficacy in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) condition has not been clinically elucidated till date. Thus, a double blind placebo controlled multi-centered trial was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 in diarrhea predominant IBS patients. Thirty six newly diagnosed diarrhea predominant IBS patients were enrolled in three clinical centres. Along with standard care of treatment, 18 patients in group one received placebo while in group two 18 patients received B. coagulans MTCC 5856 tablet containing 2 × 10(9) cfu/day as active for 90 days. Clinical symptoms of IBS were considered as primary end point measures and were evaluated through questionnaires. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for abdominal pain. Physician's global assessment and IBS quality of life were considered as secondary efficacy measures and were monitored through questionnaires. Laboratory parameters, anthropometric and vital signs were within the normal clinical range during the 90 days of supplementation in placebo and B. coagulans MTCC 5856 group. There was a significant decrease in the clinical symptoms like bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and stool frequency in a patient group receiving B. coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group (p coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group. The study concluded that the B. coagulans MTCC 5856 at a dose of 2 × 10(9) cfu/day along with standard care of treatment was found to be safe and effective in diarrhea predominant IBS patients for 90 days of supplementation. Hence, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 could be a potential agent in the management of diarrhea predominant IBS patients.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    crossinhibition, feedback control, and scaffolding. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including stress and hormonal responses, innate immunity, and developmental programs. Genetic analyses have uncovered several predominant MAPK components shared by several of these processes including...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  1. Ethnomedical uses of Zingiberaceous plants of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushar; Basak, Supriyo; Sarma, Gajen C; Rangan, Latha

    2010-10-28

    Family Zingiberaceae consists of large number of medicinal plants and is well known for its use in ethnomedicine. The objective of this study is to systematically analyse and document the traditional knowledge regarding the use of Zingiberaceous plants for the treatment of various human ailments from NE India, adding information to the valuation of biodiversity and, to forward suggestions for its sustainable use, conservation and for future pharmacological studies. A survey on the utilization of medicinal plants belonging to Zingibereceae of North-eastern states was carried out by interviewing herbalists followed by collecting plant specimens and identifying the specimen. Ethnobotanical information on traditional plants was catalogued through structured questionnaires in consultations with traditional healers. A total of 34 species were documented belonging to 9 genera of Zingiberaceae for about 25 types of ailments, 67.6% of which were used in curing multiple disorders. Arunachal Pradesh hosts maximum number of Zingiberaceous plant (88%). Rhizomes were found to be the primary plant material as a source for medication and poultices as the predominant mode of preparation. Gastrointestinal conditions (58%) and chest and lungs (41%) related ailments were the main categories for which these plants are used. The study establishes Zingiberaceae as a medicinal family since 41% of all the available Zingiberaceous plant species in NE were found to possess medicinal value. Some new use of herbs also appeared in this study for the first time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  3. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  4. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  5. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  6. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  7. Flavin-containing monooxygenases in plants: looking beyond detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Nikolaus L

    2007-09-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are known in bacteria, yeast and mammals where they catalyze the transfer of one atom of molecular O(2) to low molecular weight substrates. The predominant physiological function of animal FMOs appears to be detoxification of a vast spectrum of xenobiotics but until recently very little was known about the function of FMOs in plants. In the last two to three years, genetic and biochemical characterization has shown that plant FMOs can catalyze specific steps in the biosynthesis of auxin or in the metabolism of glucosinolates, and, furthermore, have a role in pathogen defence. Thus, plant FMOs hint that further FMO functions might be identified also in non-plant organisms and could stimulate novel research in this area.

  8. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  9. Predominance of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes from lacustrine sediments in Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau: Implications for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yongli [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fang Xiaomin, E-mail: fangxm@itpcas.ac.cn [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Tongwei [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yuanmao; Wu Yingqin; He Daxiang; Wang Youxiao [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} This study reports the first observation of predominant even carbon-numbered n-alkanes of sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. {yields} Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for the special distribution of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. {yields} These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change. {yields} A close correspondence among the low ratio of n-C{sub 27}/n-C{sub 31}, the heavy {delta}{sup 13}C values of TOC and a strong even carbon-number predominance (low OEP{sub 16-20} values) from approximately 6.5 to 4.4 Ma and at approximately 8 Ma in the studied section suggests that n-alkanes with a high predominance of even carbon-numbers may be treated as geochemical proxies for arid climate. - Abstract: This study reports the first observation of predominant even C-numbered n-alkanes from sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. The n-alkanes showed a bimodal distribution that is characterised by a centre at n-C{sub 16}-n-C{sub 20} with maximum values at n-C{sub 18} and n-C{sub 27}-n-C{sub 31} as well as at n-C{sub 29}. The first mode shows a strong even C-number predominance (OEP{sub 16-20} 0.34-0.66). In contrast, the second mode has a strong odd C-number predominance (OEP{sub 27-31} 1.20-2.45). Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for this distribution of even C-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded

  10. Predominance of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes from lacustrine sediments in Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau: Implications for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Fang Xiaomin; Zhang Tongwei; Li Yuanmao; Wu Yingqin; He Daxiang; Wang Youxiao

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This study reports the first observation of predominant even carbon-numbered n-alkanes of sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. → Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for the special distribution of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. → These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change. → A close correspondence among the low ratio of n-C 27 /n-C 31 , the heavy δ 13 C values of TOC and a strong even carbon-number predominance (low OEP 16-20 values) from approximately 6.5 to 4.4 Ma and at approximately 8 Ma in the studied section suggests that n-alkanes with a high predominance of even carbon-numbers may be treated as geochemical proxies for arid climate. - Abstract: This study reports the first observation of predominant even C-numbered n-alkanes from sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. The n-alkanes showed a bimodal distribution that is characterised by a centre at n-C 16 -n-C 20 with maximum values at n-C 18 and n-C 27 -n-C 31 as well as at n-C 29 . The first mode shows a strong even C-number predominance (OEP 16-20 0.34-0.66). In contrast, the second mode has a strong odd C-number predominance (OEP 27-31 1.20-2.45). Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for this distribution of even C-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change.

  11. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  12. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  13. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Bellettiere, John; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Nguyen, Benjamin; Berardi, Vincent; Liles, Sandy; Obayashi, Saori; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Blumberg, Elaine; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2017-01-01

    Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smok...

  14. Long term presence of a single predominant tyrosinase-specific T-cell clone associated with disease control in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Fusi, Alberto; Busse, Antonia; Letsch, Anne; Haase, Doreen; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Keilholz, Ulrich

    2010-05-15

    In an earlier study, we described a patient who developed an anti-tyrosinase T-cell response leading to long-term tumor control. Here we analyzed this response with regard to T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta family usage and clonality in order to further elucidate the nature of the T cell response in this patient. For identification of expanded specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones, tetramer enrichment of tyrosinase reactive T-cells was followed by comparative quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qRT PCR) quantification of all TCR Vbeta-families and sequencing of family Vbeta4 elevated in the enriched fraction. The predominant specific clone was quantified by clonotypic qRT PCR in multiple samples from blood, bone marrow, and tumor tissue. FACS analyses with staining of TYR.A2 and TCR Vbeta4 were performed. Epitope specific enrichment revealed an isolated increase of Vbeta-family 4. FACS analysis showed a shift of specific CTLs to Vbeta-family 4 during tumor regression with a maximum of 80% of all TYR.A2 specific cells belonging to this family. Sequencing revealed a single predominant clone against polyclonal background coding for identical CDR3 loops. The predominant clone was highly expressed in bone marrow and tumor tissue, and was detectable in blood over a period of ten years. Considering the results of previous studies showing a specific effector phenotype in blood and a specific memory compartment in bone marrow of this patient, this data implicate the predominant clone featured all attributes of a sufficient CTL response including homing capacity and memory formation resulting in long term clonal persistence and tumor control.

  15. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  16. Application of a microgrid with renewables for a water treatment plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soshinskaya, Mariya; Crijns - Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; van der Meer, Jos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the techno-economic potential for a predominantly renewable electricity-based microgrid serving an industrial-sized drink water plant in the Netherlands. Grid-connected and stand-alone microgrid scenarios were modeled, utilizing measured wind speed and solar irradiation data,

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  18. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  19. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  20. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  1. Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Susanne K

    2010-06-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

  2. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  3. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  4. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  5. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  6. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  7. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  9. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  10. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  11. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  12. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  13. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  15. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  16. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  17. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  18. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  19. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  20. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  1. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  2. Divergence of the dengue virus type 2 Cosmopolitan genotype associated with two predominant serotype shifts between 1 and 2 in Surabaya, Indonesia, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Tomohiro; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Labiqah, Amaliah; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Kameoka, Masanori; Konishi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the biggest dengue endemic countries, and, thus, is an important place to investigate the evolution of dengue virus (DENV). We have continuously isolated DENV in Surabaya, the second biggest city in Indonesia, since 2008. We previously reported sequential changes in the predominant serotype from DENV type 2 (DENV-2) to DENV type 1 (DENV-1) in November 2008 and from DENV-1 to DENV-2 in July 2013. The predominance of DENV-2 continued in 2014, but not in 2015. We herein phylogenetically investigated DENV-2 transitions in Surabaya between 2008 and 2014 to analyze the divergence and evolution of DENV-2 concomitant with serotype shifts. All DENV-2 isolated in Surabaya were classified into the Cosmopolitan genotype, and further divided into 6 clusters. Clusters 1-3, dominated by Surabaya strains, were defined as the "Surabaya lineage". Clusters 4-6, dominated by strains from Singapore, Malaysia, and many parts of Indonesia, were the "South East Asian lineage". The most recent common ancestor of these strains existed in 1988, coinciding with the time that an Indonesian dengue outbreak took place. Cluster 1 appeared to be unique because no other DENV-2 isolate was included in this cluster. The predominance of DENV-2 in 2008 and 2013-14 were caused by cluster 1, whereas clusters 2 and 3 sporadically emerged in 2011 and 2012. The characteristic amino acids of cluster 1, E-170V and E-282Y, may be responsible for its prevalence in Surabaya. No amino acid difference was observed in the envelope region between strains in 2008 and 2013-14, suggesting that the re-emergence of DENV-2 in Surabaya was due to the loss or decrease of herd immunity in the 5-year period when DENV-2 subsided. The South East Asian lineage primarily emerged in Surabaya in 2014, probably imported from other parts of Indonesia or foreign countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. “Hot cross bun” sign in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia: A comparison between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiko, E-mail: nuun077@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545–8585 (Japan); Kanagaki, Mitsunori, E-mail: mitsuk@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kondo, Takayuki, E-mail: kondotak@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Morimoto, Emiko, E-mail: foresta@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ito, Hidefumi, E-mail: itohid@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryosuke, E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); and others

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whether proton density-weighted imaging can detect the “hot cross bun” sign in the pons in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia significantly better than T2-weighted imaging at 3 T. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients with multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia according to the Consensus Criteria were reviewed. Axial unenhanced proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were obtained using a dual-echo fast spin-echo sequence at 3 T. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated visualisation of the abnormal pontine signal using a 4-point visual grade from Grade 0 (no “hot cross bun” sign) to Grade 3 (prominent “hot cross bun” sign on two or more sequential slices). Differences in grade between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were statistically analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In 11 patients (69%), a higher grade was given for proton density-weighted imaging than T2-weighted imaging. In 1 patient (6%), grades were the same (Grade 3) on both images. In the remaining 4 patients (25%), signal abnormalities were not detected on either image (Grade 0). The “hot cross bun” sign was thus observed significantly better on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The “hot cross bun” sign considered diagnostic for multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is significantly better visualised on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging at 3 T.

  4. SIGNIFICANCE OF GALACTINOL AND RAFFINOSE FAMILY OLIGOSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali eSengupta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress induces differential expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of Raffinose series of Oligosaccharides (RFOs in plants. RFOs are described as the most widespread D-galactose containing oligosaccharides in higher plants. Biosynthesis of RFOs begin with the activity of Galactinol synthase (GolS; EC 2.4.1.123, a GT8 family glycosyltransferase that galactosylates myo-inositol to produce galactinol. Raffinose and the subsequent higher molecular weight RFOs (Stachyose, Verbascose and Ajugose are synthesized from sucrose by the subsequent addition of activated galactose moieties donated by Galactinol. Interestingly, GolS, the key enzyme of this pathway is functional only in the flowering plants. It is thus assumed that RFO synthesis is a specialized metabolic event in higher plants; although it is not known whether lower plant groups synthesize any galactinol or RFOs. In higher plants, several functional importance of RFOs have been reported, e.g. RFOs protect the embryo from maturation associated desiccation, are predominant transport carbohydrate in some plant families, act as signaling molecule following pathogen attack and wounding and accumulate in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. However, the loss-of-function mutants reported so far fail to show any perturbation in those biological functions. The role of RFOs in biotic and abiotic stress is therefore still in debateand their specificity and related components remains to be demonstrated. The present review discusses the biology and stress-linked regulation of this less studied extension of inositol metabolic pathway.

  5. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  6. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Christian M; Morlec, Julia; Tamblyn, Robyn M

    2012-02-29

    Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a) perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b) preferred approach to hypertension management and, c) perceptions about hypertension guidelines. Specifically, physicians had

  7. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochefort Christian M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b preferred approach to hypertension management and, c perceptions about

  8. Identification of Treponema pedis as the predominant Treponema species in porcine skin ulcers by fluorescence in situ hybridization and high-throughput sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Frida; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Skin lesions often seen in pig production are of great animal welfare concern. To study the potential role of Treponema bacteria in porcine skin ulcers, we investigated the presence and distribution of these organisms in decubital shoulder ulcers (n=51) and ear necroses (n=54) by fluorescence...... probes targeting 16S rRNA were used, specific for domain bacterium, Treponema spp. and species T. pedis. Screening showed that two cases each of facial and other ulcers, 35 (69%) of shoulder ulcers and 32 (59%) of ear necroses were positive for Treponema spp. T. pedis was the unequivocally, predominant...

  9. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  10. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  11. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  12. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  13. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  14. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  15. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  16. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  17. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  18. Trace elements and essential oil composition in chemotypes of the aromatic plant Origanum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements, essential oil yield and its percentage composition were determined by neutron activation analysis, hydrodistillation and gas chromatography in two chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. cultivated in the same field. Statistical tests such as analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, t-test, and multiple correlation were applied. The results showed that the samples contain the highest recorded oil yield for aromatic plants. Also, there is a statistically significant difference between the chemotypes of the plant not only in the predominant compound but in a number of other components. Iron, chromium and scandium showed a negative significant correlation with carvacrol and a positive one with thymol. Europium shows characteristic correlations with chromium, cobalt, iron and scandium within each chemotype of the plant. These correlations could make probable a role of this element in the biosynthesis of the predominant compounds. (author)

  19. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

  20. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827