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Sample records for nonmotorized treadmill exercise

  1. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

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    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to exercise for 5 min at treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  2. The effect of warm-up on high-intensity, intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry.

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    Brown, Peter I; Hughes, Michael G; Tong, Richard J

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of previous warming on high-intensity intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry. Ten male soccer players completed a repeated sprint test (10 x 6-second sprints with 34-second recovery) on a nonmotorized treadmill preceded by an active warm-up (10 minutes of running: 70% VO2max; mean core temperature (Tc) 37.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C), a passive warm-up (hot water submersion: 40.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C until Tc reached that of the active warm-up; 10 minutes +/- 23 seconds), or no warm-up (control). All warm-up conditions were followed by a 10-minute static recovery period with no stretching permitted. After the 10-minute rest period, Tc was higher before exercise in the passive trial (38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) compared to the active (37.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C) and control trials (37.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C; p pre-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration; however, heart rate was greater in the active trial (p 0.05), although both were greater than the control. The percentage of decrement in performance fatigue was similar between all conditions (active, 3.4 +/- 1.3%; passive, 4.0 +/- 2.0%; and control, 3.7 +/- 2.4%). We conclude that there is no difference in high-intensity intermittent running performance when preceded by an active or passive warm-up when matched for post-warm-up Tc. However, repeated sprinting ability is significantly improved after both active and passive warm-ups compared to no warm-up.

  3. Reliability of the Three-minute All-out Test for Non-motorized Treadmill Tethered Running.

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    Gama, M C T; Sousa, F A B; Dos Reis, I G M; Gobatto, C A

    2016-07-13

    The 3-min all-out test was developed and validated on a cycle ergometer using a modification of a linear mathematical equation (1/time vs. power) obtained from the original critical power model. The purpose of this development was to obtain, in a single test, the aerobic and anaerobic capacity parameters and identify the exercise transition moment from heavy to severe intensity. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptation of the all-out 3-min cycle ergometer to a non-motorized treadmill with tethered running. In addition, we tested the reproducibility of this adapted protocol, highlighting the need for mechanical power evaluation using a specific ergometer. Consequently, 10 physically active individuals visited the laboratory 4 times for testing and data collection. The results suggested that the protocol adaptation for the 3-min all-out test for non-motorized treadmill with tethered running was reproducible and feasible. It was also possible to show that the AO3 application in this ergometer ensures the specificity of the sports that involve the running exercise, from assessment of both aerobic and anaerobic parameters, accomplished in a single day of application.

  4. Effect of exercise on motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

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    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Johnson, Eric; Kani, Camellia; Kani, Kayvan; Hadi, Ehsan; Ghamsary, Mark; Pezeshkian, Shant; Chen, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Novel rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated potential benefits for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective. To compare the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Therapy BIG (LSVT BIG therapy) versus a general exercise program (combined treadmill plus seated trunk and limb exercises) on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Methods. Eleven patients with early-mid stage PD participated in the prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Both groups received 16 one-hour supervised training sessions over 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Five patients performed general exercise and six patients performed LSVT BIG therapy. Post-intervention evaluations were conducted at weeks 4, 12 and 24. Results. The combined cohort made improvements at all follow-up evaluations with statistical significance for UPDRS total and motor, BDI, and MFIS (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study demonstrated positive effects of general exercise and LSVT BIG therapy on motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD. Our results suggest that general exercise may be as effective as LSVT BIG therapy on symptoms of PD for patients not able to readily access outpatient LSVT BIG therapy.

  5. Effect of Exercise on Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Khashayar Dashtipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Novel rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated potential benefits for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Objective. To compare the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Therapy BIG (LSVT BIG therapy versus a general exercise program (combined treadmill plus seated trunk and limb exercises on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Methods. Eleven patients with early-mid stage PD participated in the prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Both groups received 16 one-hour supervised training sessions over 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Five patients performed general exercise and six patients performed LSVT BIG therapy. Post-intervention evaluations were conducted at weeks 4, 12 and 24. Results. The combined cohort made improvements at all follow-up evaluations with statistical significance for UPDRS total and motor, BDI, and MFIS (P<0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrated positive effects of general exercise and LSVT BIG therapy on motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD. Our results suggest that general exercise may be as effective as LSVT BIG therapy on symptoms of PD for patients not able to readily access outpatient LSVT BIG therapy.

  6. Reliability of the Woodway Curve(TM) Non-Motorized Treadmill for Assessing Anaerobic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Wells, Adam J; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S; Mangine, Gerald T; McCormack, William P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Emerson, Nadia S; Robinson Iv, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    A curved treadmill offers a practical method of assessing anaerobic power by enabling unrestricted running motion and greater sport specificity. The purpose of this research was to determine reliability of a curved treadmill (cTM) sprint test and to compare performance measures to the traditional Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT) performed on a cycle ergometer. Thirty-two recreationally active men and women (22.4 ± 2.8 yrs; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74. 2 ± 13.2 kg) performed four familiarization trials on cTM, followed by two randomly assigned experimental trials consisting of one 30-second maximum effort on either cTM or WAnT. Each trial was separated by at least 48 hours. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), interclass correlations (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal differences (MD) were used to determine reliability of familiarization trials on cTM, and Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to compare cTM and WAnT. ANOVA results showed significant differences (p sprint test for recreationally active men and women. In addition, there are strong relationships between cTM and WAnT in assessing anaerobic performance. Key pointsThe Woodway Curve 3.0(TM) is a non-motorized treadmill utilizing a curved platform which allows individuals to simulate an unrestricted sprint test in a laboratory setting, offering a practical and sport specific method of assessing anaerobic power.The curved treadmill provides a reliable sprint test for recreationally active men and women.There are strong relationships between the curved treadmill and cycle ergometer in assessing anaerobic performance.

  7. Speed, force, and power values produced from nonmotorized treadmill test are related to sprinting performance.

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    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; McCormack, William P; Robinson, Edward H; Fragala, Maren S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    The relationships between 30-m sprint time and performance on a nonmotorized treadmill (TM) test and a vertical jump test were determined in this investigation. Seventy-eight physically active men and women (22.9 ± 2.7 years; 73.0 ± 14.7 kg; 170.7 ± 10.4 cm) performed a 30-second maximal sprint on the curve nonmotorized TM after 1 familiarization trial. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) moderate to very strong relationships between 30-m sprint time and body mass (r = -0.37), %fat (r = 0.79), peak power (PP) (r = -0.59), relative PP (r = -0.42), time to peak velocity (r = -0.23) and TM sprint times at 10 m (r = 0.48), 20 m (r = 0.59), 30 m (r = 0.67), 40 m (r = 0.71), and 50 m (r = 0.75). Strong relationships between 30-m sprint time and peak (r = -0.479) and mean vertical jump power (r = -0.559) were also observed. Subsequently, stepwise regression was used to produce two 30-m sprint time prediction models from TM performance (TM1: body mass + TM data and TM2: body composition + TM data) in a validation group (n = 39), and then crossvalidated against another group (n = 39). As no significant differences were observed between these groups, data were combined (n = 72) and used to create the final prediction models (TM1: r = 0.75, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.27 seconds; TM2: r = 0.84, SEE = 0.22 seconds). These final movement-specific models seem to be more accurate in predicting 30-m sprint time than derived peak (r = 0.23, SEE = 0.48 seconds) and mean vertical jump power (r = 0.31, SEE = 0.45 seconds) equations. Consequently, sprinting performance on the TM can significantly predict short-distance sprint time. It, therefore, may be used to obtain movement-specific measures of sprinting force, velocity, and power in a controlled environment from a single 30-second maximal sprinting test.

  8. The Reliability of Running Performance in a 5 km Time Trial on a Non-motorized Treadmill.

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    Stevens, C J; Hacene, J; Sculley, D V; Taylor, L; Callister, R; Dascombe, B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability of performance and physiological responses during a self-paced 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill. 17 male runners (age: 32±13 years, height: 177±7 cm, body mass: 71±9 kg, sum of 7 skinfolds: 55±21 mm) performed familiarization then 2 separate maximal 5 km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill. Physiological responses measured included heart rate, oxygen uptake, expired air volume, blood lactate concentration, tissue saturation index and integrated electromyography. Running time (1,522±163 s vs. 1,519±162 s for trials 1 and 2, respectively) demonstrated a low CV of 1.2% and high ICC of 0.99. All physiological variables had CVs of less than 4% and ICCs of >0.92, with the exception of blood lactate concentration (7.0±2 mmol·L(-1) vs. 6.5±1.5 mmol·L(-1) for trials 1 and 2, respectively; CV: 12%, ICC: 0.83) and the electromyography measures (CV: 8-27%, ICC: 0.71-0.91). The data demonstrate that performance time in a 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill is a highly reliable test. Most physiological responses measured across the 5 km run also demonstrated good reliability.

  9. The effects of physical exercise on nonmotor symptoms and on neuroimmune RAGE network in experimental parkinsonism.

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    Viana, Sofia D; Pita, Inês R; Lemos, Cristina; Rial, Daniel; Couceiro, Patrícia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Caramelo, Francisco; Carvalho, Félix; Ali, Syed F; Prediger, Rui D; Fontes Ribeiro, Carlos A; Pereira, Frederico C

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) prodromal stages comprise neuropsychiatric perturbations that critically compromise a patient's quality of life. These nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are associated with exacerbated innate immunity, a hallmark of overt PD. Physical exercise (PE) has the potential to improve neuropsychiatric deficits and to modulate immune network including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in distinct pathological settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that PE 1) alleviates PD NMS and 2) modulates neuroimmune RAGE network in experimental PD. Adult Wistar rats subjected to long-term mild treadmill were administered intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and probed for PD NMS before the onset of motor abnormalities. Twelve days after MPTP, neuroimmune RAGE network transcriptomics (real-time quantitative PCR) was analyzed in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Untrained MPTP animals displayed habit-learning and motivational deficits without gross motor impairments (cued version of water-maze, splash, and open-field tests, respectively). A suppression of RAGE and neuroimmune-related genes was observed in frontal cortex on chemical and physical stressors (untrained MPTP: RAGE, TLR5 and -7, and p22 NADPH oxidase; saline-trained animals: RAGE, TLR1 and -5 to -11, TNF-α, IL-1β, and p22 NADPH oxidase), suggesting the recruitment of compensatory mechanisms to restrain innate inflammation. Notably, trained MPTP animals displayed normal cognitive/motivational performances. Additionally, these animals showed normal RAGE expression and neuroprotective PD-related DJ-1 gene upregulation in frontal cortex when compared with untrained MPTP animals. These findings corroborate PE efficacy in improving PD NMS and newly identify RAGE network as a neural substrate for exercise intervention. Additional research is warranted to unveil functional consequences of PE

  10. SPEED, FORCE AND POWER VALUES PRODUCED FROM A NON-MOTORIZED TREADMILL TEST ARE RELATED TO SPRINTING PERFORMANCE.

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    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; McCormack, William; Robinson, Edward H; Fragala, Maren S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-11-22

    The relationships between 30m sprint time and performance on a non-motorized treadmill test, as well as a vertical jump test were determined in the present investigation. Seventy-eight physically active men and women (22.9±2.7 y; 73.0±14.7 kg; 170.7±10.4 cm) performed a 30-s maximal sprint on the Curve™ non-motorized treadmill (TM) following one familiarization trial. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients produced significant (psprint time and body mass (r= -0.37), %Fat (r=0.79), peak power (r= -0.59), relative peak power (r= -0.42), time to peak velocity (r= -0.23), as well as TM sprint times at 10m (r=0.48), 20m (r=0.59), 30m (r=0.67), 40m (r=0.71), and 50m (r=0.75). Strong relationships between 30m sprint time and peak- (r= -0.479) and mean vertical jump power (r= -0.559) were also observed. Subsequently, stepwise regression was used to produce two 30m sprint time prediction models from TM performance (TM1: body mass+TM-data; and TM2: body composition+TM-data) in a validation group (n=39) and then cross-validated against another group (n=39). As no significant differences were observed between these groups, data was combined (n=72) and used to create the final prediction models (TM1: r=0.75, SEE=0.27s; TM2: r=0.84, SEE=0.22s). These final movement-specific models appear to be more accurate in predicting 30m sprint time than derived peak- (r=0.23, SEE=0.48s) and mean vertical jump power (r=0.31, SEE=0.45s) equations. Consequently, sprinting performance on the TM can significantly predict short-distance sprint time. It therefore, may be used to obtain movement-specific measures of sprinting force, velocity, and power in a controlled environment from a single 30-s maximal sprinting test.

  11. RELIABILITY OF THE WOODWAY CURVETM NON-MOTORIZED TREADMILL FOR ASSESSING ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

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    Adam M. Gonzalez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A curved treadmill offers a practical method of assessing anaerobic power by enabling unrestricted running motion and greater sport specificity. The purpose of this research was to determine reliability of a curved treadmill (cTM sprint test and to compare performance measures to the traditional Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT performed on a cycle ergometer. Thirty-two recreationally active men and women (22.4 ± 2.8 yrs; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74. 2 ± 13.2 kg performed four familiarization trials on cTM, followed by two randomly assigned experimental trials consisting of one 30-second maximum effort on either cTM or WAnT. Each trial was separated by at least 48 hours. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, interclass correlations (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM, and minimal differences (MD were used to determine reliability of familiarization trials on cTM, and Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to compare cTM and WAnT. ANOVA results showed significant differences (p < 0.05 during the four familiarization trials. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences (p < 0. 05 between the first two trials. Familiarization trials 3 and 4 showed a high reliability for each performance variable (distance: ICC2,1 = 0.969, %SEM = 2.645, p = 0.157; mean velocity: ICC2,1 = 0. 969, %SEM = 2.622, p = 0.173; peak velocity: ICC2,1 = 0.966, %SEM = 3.142, p = 0.033; mean power: ICC2,1 = 0.940, %SEM = 4.140, p = 0.093; and peak power: ICC2,1 = 0.887, %SEM = 11.244, p = 0.669. Participants elicited an average peak power of 1050.4 ± 338.5 Watts on cTM and 1031.4 ± 349.8 Watts on WAnT. Pearson product moment coefficients indicated high correlations between peak power, mean power, and peak velocity (r = 0.75, p < 0.001; r = 0.84, p < 0.001; and r = 0.76, p < 0. 001, respectively derived from cTM and WAnT. In conclusion, results suggest that after two familiarization trials, cTM is a reliable sprint test for recreationally active men

  12. Exercise-induced muscle vasodilatation and treadmill exercise test responses in individuals without overt heart disease.

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    Nunes, Rafael Amorim Belo; Giampaoli, Viviana; de Freitas, Humberto Felício Gonçalves; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Araújo, Fernando; Correia, Gustavo Ferreira; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Mansur, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular health may be related to the improvement in several physiologic pathways, including peripheral vascular function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular responses during the treadmill exercise test and exercise-induced muscle vasodilatation in individuals without overt heart disease. The study included 796 asymptomatic subjects (431 females and 365 males) without overt heart disease. We evaluated the heart rate (chronotropic reserve and heart rate recovery), blood pressure (maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as systolic blood pressure recovery) and exercise capacity during symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing. Exercise-induced muscle vasodilatation was studied with venous occlusion plethysmography and estimated by forearm blood flow and vascular conductance responses during a 3-min handgrip maneuver. Forearm blood flow increase during the handgrip exercise was positively associated with heart rate recovery during treadmill exercise testing (p exercise was inversely associated with exercise diastolic blood pressure during exercise treadmill testing (p = 0.038). No significant association was found between exercise capacity and exercise-induced muscle vasodilation. In a sample of individuals without overt heart disease, exercise-induced muscle vasodilatation was associated with heart rate and blood pressure responses during treadmill exercise testing, but was not associated with exercise capacity. These findings suggest that favorable hemodynamic and chronotropic responses are associated with better vasodilator capacity, but exercise capacity does not predict muscle vasodilatation.

  13. Treadmill Exercise Within LBNP as an Integrated Coutermeasure to Microgravity

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    Lee, Stuart; Hargens, A. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated exercise countermeasure for microgravity is needed to protect multiple physiologic systems and save crew time. Such a countermeasure should protect orthostatic tolerance, upright ambulatory capability (including sprinting), aerobic capacity, muscle strength/endurance, and other physiologic parameters relevant to human performance. We developed a novel physiologic countermeasure, treadmill exercise within LBNP, for preventing cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with prolonged bed rest and spaceflight. We evaluated 40 min of daily LBNP treadmill exercise by a battery of physiologic parameters relevant to maintaining exercise performance and health of both women and men during bed-rest (simulated microgravity) studies lasting from 5 to 60 days. For 30 day studies, we employed identical twins with one twin as the control and the other twin as the exerciser to improve comparative power. During the WISE 60-day HDT study, the treadmill exercise within LBNP was performed 3-4 days each week and resistive exercise was performed 2-3 days each week. Our treadmill within LBNP protocol maintained plasma volume and sprint speed (30 day HDT bed-rest studies of identical twins), orthostatic tolerance to a degree, upright exercise capacity, muscle strength and endurance, and some bone parameters during 30 day (twin studies) and 60 day (WISE-2005) bed-rest simulations of microgravity. When combining treadmill exercise within LBNP and resistive exercise (WISE), cardiac mass increased significantly in the exercise (EX) group during bed rest relative to controls (CON). Upright peak VO2, and knee extensor strength and endurance decreased significantly in CON subjects; but these parameters were preserved in the EX group. In the 60 day WISE study, each LBNP exercise session was followed immediately by 10 minutes of static LBNP, and the last such session occurred three days before the end of bed rest. Still, orthostatic tolerance was better maintained

  14. Treadmill Exercise Induces Hippocampal Astroglial Alterations in Rats

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    Caren Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy.

  15. Prognostic value of late heart rate recovery after treadmill exercise.

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    Johnson, Nils P; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-01

    Recovery from exercise can be divided into an early, rapid period and a late, slower period. Although early heart rate (HR) recovery 1 minute after treadmill exercise independently predicts survival, the prognostic value of late HR recovery has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic value of late HR recovery for all-cause mortality. A total of 2,082 patients referred to the nuclear cardiology laboratory of an urban academic medical center for treadmill exercise with imaging from August 1998 to December 2003 were followed for all-cause mortality. During 9.9 ± 1.5 years of follow-up, 196 deaths (9%) occurred. To avoid overlap with early HR recovery or the baseline HR, late HR recovery was defined as the percentage of the cycle length change between rest and peak exercise that had been recovered after 5 minutes. Lower values represent impaired recovery, by analogy with 1-minute HR recovery. Impaired late HR recovery was a significant univariate predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.28 per percentage, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.46, p recovery, with independent prognostic value (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.84, p = 0.004). In conclusion, late HR recovery after treadmill exercise stress adds prognostic value for all-cause mortality to a multivariate model including early, 1-minute HR recovery.

  16. Development and implementation of treadmill exercise testing protocols in COPD

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    Christopher B Cooper

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher B Cooper1, Marlon Abrazado1, Daniel Legg2, Steven Kesten21David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ingelheim, GermanyBackground: Because treadmill exercise testing is more representative of daily activity than cycle testing, we developed treadmill protocols to be used in various clinical settings as part of a two-year, multicenter, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD trial evaluating the effect of tiotropium on exercise.Methods: We enrolled 519 COPD patients aged 64.6 ± 8.3 years with a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 1.25 ± 0.42 L, 44.3% ± 11.9% predicted. The patients performed symptom-limited treadmill tests where work rate (W was increased linearly using speed and grade adjustments every minute. On two subsequent visits, they performed constant W tests to exhaustion at 90% of maximum W from the incremental test.Results: Mean incremental test duration was 522 ± 172 seconds (range 20–890, maximum work rate 66 ± 34 watts. For the first and second constant W tests, both at 61 ± 33 watts, mean endurance times were 317 ± 61 seconds and 341 ± 184 seconds, respectively. The mean of two tests had an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 (P < 0.001. During the second constant W test, 88.2% of subjects stopped exercise because of breathing discomfort; 87.1% for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD Stage II, 88.5% for GOLD Stage III, and 90.2% for GOLD Stage IV.Conclusion: The symptom-limited incremental and constant work treadmill protocol was well tolerated and appeared to be representative of the physiologic limitations of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise testing, endurance, tiotropium

  17. VO2 prediction and cardiorespiratory responses during underwater treadmill exercise.

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    Greene, Nicholas P; Greene, Elizabeth S; Carbuhn, Aaron F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2011-06-01

    We compared cardiorespiratory responses to exercise on an underwater treadmill (UTM) and land treadmill (LTM) and derived an equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) during UTM exercise. Fifty-five men and women completed one LTM and five UTM exercise sessions on separate days. The UTM sessions consisted of chest-deep immersion, with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% water-jet resistance. All session treadmill velocities increased every 3 min from 53.6 to 187.8 m x min(-1). Cardiorespiratory responses were similar between LTM and UTM when jet resistance for UTM was 50%. Using multiple regression analysis, weight-relative VO2 could be estimated as: VO2 (mLO2 c kg(-1) x min(-1)) = 0.19248 x height (cm) + 0.17422 x jet resistance (% max) + 0.14092 x velocity (m x min(-1)) -0.12794 x weight (kg)-27.82849, R2 = .82. Our data indicate that similar LTM and UTM cardiorespiratory responses are achievable, and we provide a reasonable estimate of UTM VO2.

  18. Effects of treadmill exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis in an MPTP /probenecid-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.

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    Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on non-motor function, specifically long-term memory, in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model. [Methods] A mouse model of Parkinson's disease was developed by injecting 20 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 250 mg/kg of probenecid (P). We divided in into four groups: probenecid group, probenecid-exercise group, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group, and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group. Mice in the exercise groups ran on treadmill for 30 min/day, five times per week for 4 weeks. [Results] Latency in the passive avoidance test increased in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group compared with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group. In addition, the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/NeuN-positive cells and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was higher in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-exercise group than that in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid group. These changes were associated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that treadmill exercise may improve long-term memory in Parkinson's disease mice by facilitating neurogenesis via increased expression of neurotrophic factors.

  19. Treadmill exercise represses neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Um, Hyun-Sub; Kang, Eun-Bum; Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Jin-Lee; Kim, Eung-Joon; Yang, Chun-Ho; An, Gil-Young; Cho, In-Ho; Cho, Joon-Yong

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to further investigate the protective effect of treadmill exercise on the hippocampal proteins associated with neuronal cell death in an aged transgenic (Tg) mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address this, Tg mouse model of AD, Tg-NSE/PS2m, which expresses human mutant PS2 in the brain, was chosen. Animals were subjected to treadmill exercise for 12 weeks from 24 months of age. The exercised mice were treadmill run at speed of 12 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week on a 0% gradient for 3 months. Treadmill exercised mice improved cognitive function in water maze test. Treadmill exercised mice significantly reduced the expression of Aβ-42, Cox-2, and caspase-3 in the hippocampus. In parallel, treadmill exercised Tg mice decreased the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38MAPK and tau (Ser404, Ser202, Thr231), and increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, PI3K, Akt and GSK-3α/β. In addition, treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expressions of NGF, BDNF and phospho-CREB, and the expressions of SOD-1, SOD-2 and HSP-70. Treadmill exercised Tg mice up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and down-regulated the expressions of cytochrome c and Bax in the hippocampus. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus in mice was significantly decreased after treadmill exercise. Finally, serum TC, insulin, glucose, and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in the Tg mice after treadmill exercise. As a consequence of such change, Aβ-dependent neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of Tg mice was markedly suppressed following treadmill exercise. These results strongly suggest that treadmill exercise provides a therapeutic potential to inhibit both Aβ-42 and neuronal death pathways. Therefore, treadmill exercise may be beneficial in prevention or treatment of AD.

  20. VO[subscript 2] Prediction and Cardiorespiratory Responses during Underwater Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Greene, Elizabeth S.; Carbuhn, Aaron F.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We compared cardiorespiratory responses to exercise on an underwater treadmill (UTM) and land treadmill (LTM) and derived an equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2]) during UTM exercise. Fifty-five men and women completed one LTM and five UTM exercise sessions on separate days. The UTM sessions consisted of chest-deep immersion,…

  1. Effects of endurance exercise training on the motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Guillaume; Rafferty, Miriam R; Prodoehl, Janey; Kohrt, Wendy M; Comella, Cynthia L; Simuni, Tanya; Corcos, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits of medications and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), these treatments are not without complications and neuroprotective strategies are still lacking. Therefore, there is a need for effective alternative approaches to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. During the last decade, several studies have investigated endurance exercise training as a potential treatment for individuals with PD. This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. First, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor signs of parkinsonism, functional outcomes including gait, balance and mobility, depression and fatigue, quality of life and perceived patient improvement, cardiorespiratory function, neurophysiological measures, and motor control measures in PD. Second we performed a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Then, we focused on several important factors to consider when prescribing endurance exercise training in PD such as intensity, duration, frequency, specificity and type of exercise. In addition, we identified current knowledge gaps regarding endurance exercise training in PD and made suggestions for future research. A total of eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. This systematic review synthesizes evidence that endurance exercise training at a sufficiently high level enhances cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance by improving VO2 max and gait in moderately to mildly affected individuals with PD. However, there is not yet a proven effect of endurance exercise training on specific features of PD such as motor signs of parkinsonism. Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is

  2. Fast tracking of a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kaili; Turk, Basil; Dolores, Louis; Nguyen, Tuan N; Celler, Branko; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of a multi-loop PID controller in an automated treadmill exercise machine. The approach is to design a computer-controlled treadmill control system for the regulation of heart rate (HR) during treadmill exercise. A single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) controller was implemented to fast track a given heart rate profile in treadmill exercise. Two separate single-input and single-output (SISO) PID control systems are initially implemented to modify either the treadmill speed or its angle of inclination in order to achieve a desired HR. The purpose of this paper is to apply a SIMO control system by implementing a control algorithm which includes the two PID controllers working simultaneously to track the desired HR profile. The performance of the SIMO and SISO control systems are compared through the closed loop responses recorded during experimentation. This would also help future development of safe treadmill exercise system.

  3. The effect of treadmill exercise on gait efficiency during overground walking in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, On-Yoo; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Yoon, Young Kwon; Ko, Eu Jeong; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of treadmill walking exercise as a treatment method to improve gait efficiency in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine gait efficiency during overground walking after the treadmill walking exercise. Fourteen adults with CP were recruited in the experimental group of treadmill walking exercise. A control group of 7 adults with CP who attended conventional physical therapy were also recruited. The treadmill walking exercise protocol consisted of 3-5 training sessions per week for 1-2 months (total 20 sessions). Gait distance, velocity, VO2, VCO2, O2 rate (mL/kg·min), and O2 cost (mL/kg·m) were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the treadmill walking exercise. The parameters were measured by KB1-C oximeter. After the treadmill walking exercise, gait distance during overground walking up to 6 minutes significantly increased from 151.29±91.79 to 193.93±79.01 m, and gait velocity increased from 28.09±14.29 to 33.49±12.69 m/min (pexercise. On the other hand, gait velocity and O2 cost during overground walking were not significantly changed in the control group. Treadmill walking exercise improved the gait efficiency by decreased energy expenditure during overground walking in adults with CP. Therefore, treadmill walking exercise can be an important method for gait training in adults with CP who have higher energy expenditure.

  4. Predicting functional capacity during treadmill testing independent of exercise protocol.

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    Foster, C; Crowe, A J; Daines, E; Dumit, M; Green, M A; Lettau, S; Thompson, N N; Weymier, J

    1996-06-01

    Clinically useful estimates of VO2max from treadmill tests (GXT) may be made using protocol-specific equations. In many cases, GXT may proceed more effectively if the clinician is free to adjust speed and grade independent of a specific protocol. We sought to determine whether VO2max could be predicted from the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal exercise stage. Seventy clinically stable individuals performed GXT with direct measurement of VO2. Exercise was incremented each minute to optimize clinical examination. Measured VO2max was compared to the estimated steady-state VO2 of the terminal stage based on ACSM equations. Equations for walking or running were used based on the patient's observed method of ambulation. The measured VO2max was always less than the ACSM estimate, with a regular relationship between measured and estimated VO2max. No handrail support: VO2max = 0.869.ACSM -0.07; R2 = 0.955, SEE = 4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 30). With handrail support: VO2max = 0.694.ACSM + 3.33; R2 = 0.833, SEE = 4.4 ml.min-1.kg-1 (N = 40). The equations were cross-validated with 20 patients. The correlation between predicted and observed values was r = 0.98 and 0.97 without and with handrail support, respectively. The mean absolute prediction error (3.1 and 4.1 ml.min-1.kg-1) were similar to protocol-specific equations. We conclude that VO2max can be predicted independent of treadmill protocol with approximately the same error as protocol-specific equations.

  5. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  6. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation.

  7. MUSIC CUED EXERCISES FOR MOTOR AND NON-MOTOR SIGNS IN PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA: PROTOCOL FOR A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    Yasmine S Gomaa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Movement disorders and non-motor problems such as cognitive decline, anxiety, depression and behavioural problems, are common in people with dementia and can progress over time. Exercise coupled with music is a promising form of therapy designed to improve both the motor and non-motor manifestations of this debilitating neurological condition. Objectives: To present a protocol for a systematic review and critical analysis of the literature to answer the following questions: (i Is music-cued exercise more effective than usual care for the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms of dementia? (ii What are the outcomes of music-cued exercise for people living with dementia? Methods: We provide the protocol for a systematic review and critical analysis of the literature using the PRISMA guidelines. Studies shall be reviewed that use music cued exercises aimed at improving the management of physical and non-physical problems associated with dementia. Eligibility criteria will be applied to the title and abstract of each citation as a first step followed by full text screening. Data extraction and quality appraisal are to be performed by two reviewers. Data sources: This protocol documents the comprehensive search strategy to be performed using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PSYCHINFO, PUBMED, SCOPUS and web of science databases. Science, technology and engineering databases will also be searched. Eligibility criteria: All study designs incorporating data will be included in this review. The following selection criteria shall be applied: • Participants will be people diagnosed with dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, of any stage and severity, all ages, any range of co-morbidities, any medications. • Interventions will use rhythmic music with any physical exercise or rehabilitation program. • Outcomes shall include motor impairments such as gait, postural stability and general mobility. Studies considering non-motor signs such as

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY BUILD AND ENDURANCE ON TREADMILL EXERCISES

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    Hemalathadevi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The type of the body build, efficacy of energy and oxygen supply mechanisms and utilization are the chief determinants of various forms of exertional endurance and achievement in various sporting activities. Therefore, the relationship between these varia bles of physique, fuel supply and aerobic capacity 6 and the endurance on treadmill stress test are chosen for study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two groups (20 each of subjects (18 - 20 years were chosen based on body weight differences 9 60 kg BW for the study. They were further sub grouped based on BMI. DISCUSSION: When the body mass Index (BMI is at the range of 20 - 25, the endurance was better. However, when the BMI increased to very high value like 30, the endurance decreased. Such individual s with disproportionally high body weight could not endure a longer duration of exercise. This perhaps may be explained on the ground that such very high weight individuals (BMI > 30 may have more body fat than muscles. Excess body fat is dead weight that adds directly to the energy cost of running. In both groups of individuals with BMI of 20 or slightly above could run for longer periods than at extreme lower or higher ends of the BMI scale. OBSERVATIONS: The subjects with greater BMI could run for great er length of times, greater distances and achieved greater METs, glucose utilization and oxygen usage (aerobic capacity. The percentage of oxygen saturation (Pulse oxymetry after exercise fell to a greater degree in high body mass (BMI subjects indicati ng better cardio pulmonary function and greater degree of oxygen utilization. Finally, the resting heart rate and magnitude of heart rate rise during exercise are found to be somewhat lower in high body mass index subjects

  9. The Effects of Combined Treatment with Naringin and Treadmill Exercise on Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, FengBo; Ma, Xinlong; MA, JIANXIONG; ZHAO Bin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanjun; Lv, Jianwei; MENG, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and progressive destruction of bone microstructure, resulting in increased the risk of fracture. Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of naringin (NG) or treadmill exercise (EX) on osteoporosis, however, reports about effects of NG plus EX on osteoporosis are limited. This study was designed to investigate the impact of combined treatment with naringin and treadmill exercise on osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three m...

  10. Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline C; Garcia, Priscila C; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2015-10-22

    A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity. However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens. The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains. The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals. The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) - animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) - animals that exercised every day during four weeks. Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups. In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors.

  11. Treadmill exercise alters ecstasy- induced long- term potentiation disruption in the hippocampus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Azam; Amiri, Iraj; Gharebaghi, Alireza; Komaki, Alireza; Asadbeigi, Masoumeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2017-06-13

    3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamine that leads to long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Exercise has been accepted as a treatment for the improvement of neurodegenerative disease. Herein, the effects of exercise on the MDMA- induced neurotoxicity were assessed. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injection of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (Simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). LTP and expression of BDNF were assessed using electrophysiology and western blotting methods, respectively. MDMA attenuated the field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope in comparison with the control group, whereas treadmill exercise increased this parameter when compared to MDMA group. Furthermore, BDNF expression significantly decreased in MDMA group and treadmill exercise could increase that. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that synchronous exercise is able to improve MDMA-induced LTP changes through increase of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of rats.

  12. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

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    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  13. A STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF TREADMILL EXERCISE TRAINING IN GAIT PARAMETERS OF CHRONIC STROKE CASES

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    Abbas Divan Mohaideen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is the leading cause of death and the most common cause of disability. This study determined the effects of Treadmill Aerobic Exercise on spatial and temporal gait parameters among stroke patients. Materials & Methods: In this study, Thirty -nine subjects with hemiparetic stroke underwent Treadmill Aerobic Exercise four times weekly for six months from December 2006 to June 2007. This study has taken place in Department of Physical therapy and Rehabilitation, GSN multi Specialty hospital and research Centre, Hyderabad, India. We measured the spatial and temporal gait parameters of the subjects before and after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise training by the means of 30-foot timed walks, 6 minute distance walks with usual assistive devices and 8metre instrumented walkway without assistive devices. Pre and post training results were compared and contrast. Results: This study results that the Treadmill Aerobic Exercise improved 30-foot walks by 17% and 6 minute walk by 23%. Unassisted walking velocity increased 22%, stride length increased 13% and cadence increased 7%. Paretic and non-paretic step lengths increased significantly, and respective step times increased significantly. Discussion: Large study should be done with treadmill exercise training along with other skills for the better results to improve the gait parameters in chronic stroke cases. Conclusion: This study shows the evidence for positive changes in spatial and temporal gait parameters of subjects with stroke after Treadmill Aerobic Exercise.

  14. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

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    Ballinger Michelle R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed.

  15. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  16. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  17. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

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    Kliszczewicz Brian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  18. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  19. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  20. Paternal treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning and memory related to hippocampus among male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L

    2013-09-15

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.

  1. Stress echocardiography in warmblood horses: comparison of dobutamine/atropine with treadmill exercise as cardiac stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, Heidrun; Marnette, Silke; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of dobutamine and atropine causes cardiac stress equivalent to treadmill exercise. Therefore, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed on 10 warmblood horses before, during, and after different cardiac stress tests. Stressors consisted of a standardized treadmill exercise and combined administration of dobutamine (7.5 microg/kg/min) and atropine (5 microg/kg). Maxima heart rates were achieved during the treadmill exercise (175 +/- 10 bpm). After exercise, a rapid decrease in heart rate was observed. Subsequently, a stress echocardiography for which a heart rate >100 bpm was required could only be performed within 1 minute after exercise. The mean heart rate during echocardiography was 136 +/- 8 bpm after exercise. The combination of dobutamine and atropine also resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, up to 141 +/- 20 bpm. Maxima heart rate was significantly higher during the treadmill exercise, but the decrease in heart rate was significantly slower after dobutamine and atropine administration. Over a period of 7.9 minutes, the mean heart rate was 123 +/- 8 bpm during dobutamine and atropine administration. Consequently, the combination of both drugs offered sufficient time for detailed examinations. Overall, echocardiographic examination identified a decrease in left ventricular (LV) dimensions, an increase in LV wall thickness, and a decrease in stroke volume after the treadmill exercise and during pharmacologic stress testing compared with baseline. Changes in echocardiographic variables generally were more pronounced during dobutamine and atropine administration. Similar to stress echocardiography in humans, in horses the combination of dobutamine and atropine is useful to produce an increase in heart rate comparable with what is achieved with exercise but without the need of increasing dobutamine dosage.

  2. Anabolic responses to acute and chronic resistance exercise are enhanced when combined with aquatic treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brad S; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Riechman, Steven E; Greene, Nicholas P; Cardin, Jessica M; Crouse, Stephen F

    2015-02-01

    Aquatic treadmill (ATM) running may simultaneously promote aerobic fitness and enhance muscle growth when combined with resistance training (RT) compared with land-treadmill (LTM) running. Therefore, we examined acute and chronic physiological responses to RT, concurrent RT-LTM, and concurrent RT-ATM. Forty-seven untrained volunteers (men: n = 23, 37 ± 11 yr, 29.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2); women: n = 24, 38 ± 12 yr, 27.53 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) from the general population were tested for V̇o2max, body composition, and strength before and after training. All groups performed 12 wk of RT (2 wk, 3 × 8-12 sets at 60 to approximately 80% 1-repetition maximum). The RT-LTM and RT-ATM groups also performed 12 wk of LTM or ATM training (2 wk immediately post-RT and 1 wk in isolation, 60-85% V̇o2max, 250-500 kcal/session). Additionally, 25 subjects volunteered for muscle biopsy prior to and 24 h post-acute exercise before and after training. Stable isotope labeling (70% (2)H2O, 3 ml/kg) was utilized to quantify 24 h post-exercise myofibrillar fractional synthesis rates (myoFSR). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RT-ATM but not RT-LTM training produced greater chronic increases in lean mass than RT alone (P exercise elicited higher 24-h myoFSRs compared with RT (+5.68%/day, P exercise and training elicit greater skeletal muscle anabolism than RT alone or RT-LTM.

  3. "Giant R wave" electrocardiogram pattern during exercise treadmill test: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puebla-Rojo Victor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The exercise treadmill test is widely used in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. The typical ischemic response used to be ST-segment depression. Case presentation We describe a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man with an unusual ischemic response during the exercise treadmill test: a "giant R wave" electrocardiogram pattern as a manifestation of hyperacute ischemia that resolved with sublingual nitroglycerin. Coronary catheterization showed a severe stenosis in a proximal dominant circumflex coronary artery. We hypothesize that, in this case, the "giant R wave" pattern was related to severe hyperacute ischemia due to coronary spasm superimposed on the atherosclerotic lesion, which probably caused complete occlusion of the artery. The patient was successfully treated with coronary percutaneous revascularization. Conclusions This is a dramatic and rare ischemic response during the exercise treadmill test, in which, a rapid administration of nitroglycerin can prevent life-threatening events.

  4. Assessment of cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise in normal healthy Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Sushma S; Pande, Santosh R; Dhore, Rajendra B; Daphale, Ajay V; Parate, Vrushali R; Patel, Shishir S; Agrekar, Sushil H

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to assess the cardiovascular response to treadmill exercise test in healthy Indian adolescents. A group of 50 healthy adolescents took part in the study. Cardiovascular response was assessed by using treadmill exercise test as per Bruce protocol. Pulse rate, blood pressure and ECG were recorded before, during and after undertaking the treadmill test. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 18.7 +/- 0.51 yrs. and 21.4 +/- 3.44 kg/m2 respectively. Karl Pearson Correlation analysis showed highly significant negative correlation between BMI and exercise time (r = -0.598, PExercise Time (r = -0.424, Pexercise pulse and SBP rose and DBP fell. SBP rose from mean 122 to 175 (rise by 53 mm of Hg) and DBP fell from mean 78 to 65 (fall by 13 mm of Hg). One min recovery pulse was 156 indicating 22% fall from target heart rate. All the parameters returned to near resting value at 6 min recovery. In 30% students DBP showed exaggerated response i.e. rise during exercise. These students had more BMI and higher resting DBP as compared to other students, which could be the reason for exaggerated response in these participants. In ECG there were no significant ST/T changes during exercise or recovery period. This study provides normal data for small sample of healthy Indian adolescents when subjected to treadmill exercise test.

  5. Treadmill Exercise Promotes Neurogenesis in Ischemic Rat Brains via Caveolin-1/VEGF Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Pang, Qiongyi; Liu, Meixia; Pan, Jingzi; Xiang, Bingwu; Huang, Tingting; Tu, Fengxia; Liu, Chan; Chen, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we have previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra through caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. However, the function of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling in neurogenesis after MCAO has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise. Daidzein (a specific inhibitor of caveolin-1 protein expression, 0.4 mg/kg) was used to confirm the effect of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling on exercise-mediated neurogenesis. We found that the total protein expression of both caveolin-1 and VEGF was increased by exercise and consistent with the improved neurological recovery, decreased infarct volumes and increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the ipsilateral Subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as increased numbers of BrdU/DCX and BrdU/Neun-positive cells in the peri-infarct region. Furthermore, we observed that the treadmill exercise-induced increased VEGF expression, improved neurological recovery, decreased infarct volumes, increased BrdU/DCX and BrdU/Neun-positive cells were significantly inhibited by the caveolin-1 inhibitor. Our results indicate that treadmill exercise improves neurological recovery in ischemic rats, possibly by enhancement of SVZ-derived neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, migration and differentiation in the penumbra. Moreover, caveolin-1/VEGF signaling is involved in exercise-mediated NSC migration and neuronal differentiation.

  6. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebold, Michael J; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J; Barkley, Jacob E

    2015-01-01

    ... (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order...

  7. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia Friis

    2013-01-01

    the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1a, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day......The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1a) are important factors...... of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric...

  8. SOMATOTYPE PROFILES AND CHANGES DEPENDING ON TREADMILL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The postponement of the brain development as a result of brain lesion causes some functional inabilities affecting the whole body of the children with cerebral palsy compared to their peers. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of the treadmill exercise on somatotype profiles and some variables in disabled children diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods. The subjects of the study were 37 children with cerebral palsy whose ages range from 7 to 15 and they were taking regular physical therapy in a private education and rehabilitation center. The experimental group and the control group consists of 20 children (8 girls and 12 boys and 17 children (10 girls and 7 boys, respectively. The subjects of the experimental group were performed treadmill exercise under the supervision of a physical therapist twice a week for three months (totally 24 walking exercises while their treatments in the center were continuing. The initial and final speeds, duration of the exercise, the distance covered and the calories burnt were recorded and the somatotypical characteristics of the subjects were evaluated before and after the study. Results. It was encountered that the initial and final pace of the exercise, the duration of the use of the treadmill, the distance covered and the calories burnt increased significantly. No remarkable changes in the pulse rates were determined before and after the exercise. During the comparison of the experimental and control groups before and after the exercise, some noteworthy variations in ectomorphy and ponderal index were confirmed after the exercise even though no considerable differences in mesomorphy, endomorphy and body fat percentage were determined. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that the treadmill exercise will positively affect the pace of the exercise, the distance covered, the calories burnt by the children with cerebral palsy, moving more freely, controlled walking and body type.

  9. Effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Asadi Rizi; Parham Reisi; Nooshin Naghsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The forced treadmill running can influence the opioid contents of the brain, through both effects of exercise and the effects of stress caused by coercion. Since opioids can cause negative effects on brain functions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups were the control, the exercise, the naloxone, and the naloxone exercise. The exerc...

  10. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  11. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  12. Treadmill exercise ameliorates disturbance of spatial learning ability in scopolamine-induced amnesia rats

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Yu-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Baek, Sang-Bin; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and this disease induces progressive loss of memory function Scopolamine is a non-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and it induces impairment of learning ability. Exercise is known to ameliorate memory deficits induced by various brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cell proliferation in the hippocampus using the sco...

  13. Treadmill Exercise Improves Memory Function Depending on Circadian Rhythm Changes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dong Sup; Kwak, Hyo Bum; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Sung Eun; Jin, Jun Jang; Ji, Eun Sang; Choi, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. Methods The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used t...

  14. NIGARI (DEEP SEAWATER CONCENTRATE) ENHANCES THE TREADMILL EXERCISE PERFORMANCE OF GERBILS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance has been reported by many researchers. In the present study, the effect of nigari, a concentrate of deep seawater containing high magnesium levels, on exercise performance, was examined. Gerbils were given double-distilled water or nigari (18 mg · kg−1, po) orally 30 min before exercise. All animals were subjected to forced exercise on a treadmill for 90 min at three successive speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m · min−1. The r...

  15. Cardiovascular effects of treadmill exercise in physiological and pathological preclinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pironti, Gianluigi; Franzone, Anna; Scudiero, Laura; De Laurentis, Mario; Magliulo, Fabio; Ilardi, Federica; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; Esposito, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Exercise adaptations result from a coordinated response of multiple organ systems, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine-metabolic, immunologic, and skeletal muscle. Among these, the cardiovascular system is the most directly affected by exercise, and it is responsible for many of the important acute changes occurring during physical training. In recent years, the development of animal models of pathological or physiological cardiac overload has allowed researchers to precisely analyze the complex cardiovascular responses to stress in genetically altered murine models of human cardiovascular disease. The intensity-controlled treadmill exercise represents a well-characterized model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy because of its ability to mimic the typical responses to exercise in humans. In this review, we describe cardiovascular adaptations to treadmill exercise in mice and the most important parameters that can be used to quantify such modifications. Moreover, we discuss how treadmill exercise can be used to perform physiological testing in mouse models of disease and to enlighten the role of specific signaling pathways on cardiac function.

  16. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  17. Comparison of exercise tests in French trotters under training track, racetrack and treadmill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroucé, A; Geffroy, O; Barrey, E; Auvinet, B; Rose, R J

    1999-07-01

    Standardised exercise tests were performed at 2 different tracks and on an uninclined treadmill during the same week to determine the influence of exercise surface on different measured variables such as heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume, stride frequency, stride length, gait symmetry and regularity and on different derived physiological variables such as the speed at a HR of 200 beats/min (V200), the speed at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (V4), the speed at a maximal HR (VHRmax). Five French Trotters, age 3 years, in training for 3 months prior to the test, performed 3 exercise tests on a training track (Test 1), a racetrack (Test 2) and an uninclined treadmill (Test 3). Test 1 utilised 3 steps each of 3 min at speeds of 490, 560 and 630 m/min. Tests 2 and 3 utilised the same speeds and a fourth step in which the horse was accelerated for 30 s to speed approaching maximal. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for the physiological and locomotor variables between the 2 tracks. In contrast, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for these variables between the tracks and the treadmill, horses showing lower heart rate and blood lactate response, reduced stride frequency and increased stride length and regularity on the uninclined treadmill. We concluded that this standardised exercise test was repeatable on various tracks even when the surface and geometry vary. In contrast, both physiological and locomotor variables were different when comparing the tracks with the uninclined treadmill.

  18. Carbohydrate mouth rinse enhances time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cindy; Velasques, Bruna; Koch, Alexander J; Machado, Marco; Paulucio, Dailson; Ribeiro, Pedro; Pompeu, Fernando Augusto Monteiro Saboia

    2017-01-01

    Mouth rinsing with a CHO solution has been suggested to improve short (<1 h) endurance performance through central effect. We examined the effects of mouth rinsing with a CHO solution on running time to exhaustion on a treadmill. Six well-trained subjects ran to exhaustion at 85% VO2max , on three separate occasions. Subjects received either an 8% CHO solution or a placebo (PLA) every 15 min to mouth rinse (MR) or a 6% CHO solution to ingest (ING). Treatments were assigned in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion, with the mouth-rinsing treatments double-blinded. Blood samples were taken to assess glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac), as well as the perceived exertion (RPE). Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were collected during all trials. Subjects ran longer (P = 0·038) in both the MR (2583 ± 686 s) and ING (2625 ± 804 s) trials, compared to PLA (1935 ± 809 s), covering a greater distance (MR 9685 ± 3511·62 m; ING 9855 ± 4118·62; PLA 7295 ± 3727 m). RER was significantly higher in both ING and MR versus PLA. No difference among trials was observed for other metabolic or cardiovascular variables (VO2 , Lac, Glu, HR), nor for RPE. Endurance capacity, based on time to exhaustion on a treadmill, was improved when either mouth rinsing or ingesting a CHO solution, compared to PLA.

  19. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Gong-Wu

    2016-03-15

    Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10s, 60s and 300s). Then they got a 30min treadmill exercise for 30days in 4 intensities (control, 0m/min; lower, 15m/min; middle, 20m/min, and higher, 30m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  1. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  2. Effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise on bone mineral density in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ertem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise (daily for 30 min and 60 min on bone mineral density (BMD in young growing rats. Training consisted of treadmill running at 5 days per week during a period of 13 weeks. The rats in 30 min and 60 min exercise groups began to training on day 63 of life and had maintained for at least a week, with a minimal progression as a guide to the rats’ training and adaptation to the treadmill. Running time was gradually increased from 15 min to 30 and 60 min per session for two exercise groups respectively. Control rats were kept in the cages at the same environmental conditions and daily inspected to control their health. At the end of 13 weeks, bone mineral densities of the bilateral tibia of all rats were measured .with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA (QDR 4500/W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results were evaluated. There were significantly increases in BMD of right and left tibia of rats in 30 min exercise group at post-exercise period (p<0.01 for both sides when compared to the control group. BMD of right and left tibia of rats were also correlated with each other (r=0.556 and p=0.003. Otherwise, there is a positive correlation between pre- and post-exercise body weights of rats (r=0.588 and p=0.002. From our results, we concluded that subjects should perform moderate running exercise for development of bone mass and its protection during the lifelong. However, intensity and duration of performing exercise are required to put in order for every ages or actual physical conditions.

  3. Limited value of recovery phase-limited ST segment depression of treadmill exercise test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hongbo; Huang Zheyong; Lou Yi; Shen Yunli; Qian Juying; Ge Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical meaning of recovery phase limited ST segment depression of a treadmill exercise test is controversial.The aim of this study was to re-assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of ST segment depression during the recovery phase with the active phase of a treadmill exercise test in suspected coronary artery disease patients.Methods Clinical,exercise and angiographic data were retrospectively collected from 602 patients in the study.Five hundred and seventy-six patients developed ST segment depression during the active phase of the treadmill exercise test (group 1) and 26 patients developed ST segment depression only during the recovery phase (group 2).Results With similar major clinical features,the prevalence of significant coronary artery stenosis and average Gensini scores were lower in the recovery phase-limited depression patients (group 2 vs.group 1,50.0% vs.66.9%,P=0.031 and group 2 vs.group 1,1.5 vs.8.5,P=0.04).At a median follow up of 50.9 months for 22 group 2 and 34.8 months for 438 group 1 patients,the prevalence of total cardiac events was higher in group 1 than in group 2 patients (RR 1.60,95% Cl 1.00-2.54,P=0.049).Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence that the diagnostic and prognostic value of recovery phaselimited ST segment depression of treadmill exercise test is limited.

  4. Changes in cortico-spinal excitability following uphill versus downhill treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Yoann M; Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Paizis, Christos

    2017-01-15

    An acute bout of aerobic exercise induces neuroplasticity in the motor cortex. Moreover, paired associative stimulation (PAS) is known to induce neuroplasticity in M1. However, the possible influence of the type of exercise on the neuroplastic changes remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of two different modes of muscle contraction produced during locomotor exercise on changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability. Subjects performed two 30-min treadmill exercises at an intensity corresponding to 60% of their maximal heart rate with either a +10% (uphill) or -10% (downhill) slope. These exercises were followed or not by paired associative stimulation method (PAS25) which consisted of 200 paired stimuli (0.25Hz, 15min) of median nerve electrical stimulation followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hand M1 area (ISI 25ms). Motor evoked potentials (MEP), assessed through abductor pollicis brevis (APB) activity were obtained before exercise, at 5min, 15min and 30min after exercise. A significant (P<0.05) increase of the MEP amplitude was observed 30min after both exercises but was not different between the two modes of locomotion. On the contrary, MEP amplitude with PAS25 increased only 30min after downhill exercise. We conclude that sub-maximal treadmill exercise increases CS excitability within a period of 30min. However, the predominant mode of muscle contraction during uphill versus downhill locomotion does not influence CS excitability when assessed using a non-exercised muscle. However, results from PAS25 suggest that specific neuroplastic changes occur likely due to homeostatic mechanisms induced by exercise plus a PAS protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by enhancing neurogenesis in amyloid beta-induced Alzheimer disease rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Bo-Kyun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Baek, Sang-Bin; Ko, Yeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with neurogenesis in the rats with amyloid β25-35 (Aβ25-35)-induced Alzheimer’s disease...

  6. Evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, O; de Bruin, E D; Schindelholz, M; Schuster, C; de Bie, R A; Hunt, K J

    2013-01-01

    Robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) with focus on motor recovery has become popular in early post-stroke rehabilitation but low endurance for exercise is highly prevalent in these individuals. This study aimed to develop an exercise testing method using robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to evaluate aerobic capacity after severe stroke. Constant load testing (CLT) based on body weight support (BWS) control, and incremental exercise testing (IET) based on guidance force (GF) control were implemented during RATE. Analyses focussed on step change, step response kinetics, and peak performance parameters of oxygen uptake. Three subjects with severe motor impairment 16-23 days post-stroke were included. CLT yielded reasonable step change values in oxygen uptake, whereas response kinetics of oxygen uptake showed low goodness of fit. Peak performance parameters were not obtained during IET. Exercise testing in post-stroke individuals with severe motor impairments using a BWS control strategy for CLT is deemed feasible and safe. Our approach yielded reasonable results regarding cardiovascular performance parameters. IET based on GF control does not provoke peak cardiovascular performance due to uncoordinated walking patterns. GF control needs further development to optimally demand active participation during RATE. The findings warrant further research regarding the evaluation of exercise capacity after severe stroke.

  7. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise?

  8. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  9. Acute EPOC response in women to circuit training and treadmill exercise of matched oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W A; Hawthorne, W E; Markofski, M M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of circuit training (CT) and treadmill exercise performed at matched rates of oxygen consumption and exercise duration on elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in untrained women, while controlling for the menstrual cycle. Eight, untrained females (31.3 +/- 9.1 years; 2.04 +/- 0.26 l min(-1) estimated VO2max; BMI=24.6+/-3.9 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study. Testing was performed during the early follicular phase for each subject to minimize hormonal variability between tests. Subjects performed two exercise sessions approximately 28 days apart. Resting, supine energy expenditure was measured for 30 min preceding exercise and for 1 h after completion of exercise. Respiratory gas exchange data were collected continuously during rest and exercise periods via indirect calorimetry. CT consisted of three sets of eight common resistance exercises. Pre-exercise and exercise oxygen consumption was not different between testing days (P>0.05). Thus, exercise conditions were appropriately matched. Analysis of EPOC data revealed that CT resulted in a significantly higher (pEPOC period (pEPOC.

  10. Treadmill running exercise prevents senile osteoporosis and upregulates the Wnt signaling pathway in SAMP6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Lihui; Guo, Jianmin; Zhang, Lingli; Yuan, Yu; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Xu, Jiake; Zou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of different exercise intensities and durations on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) and determined the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in exercise-induced osteogenesis. Three-month-old male SAMP6 mice were randomly assigned to different speeds of treadmill running exercise representing low, medium and high intensity, with the duration of five and nine weeks, respectively. We showed that medium-intensity exercise had positive effects on skeletal health, including BMD and bone strength, and the efficacy was higher than that of low-intensity exercise. Interestingly, high-intensity exercise can maintain or even increase bone strength, despite its negative effects on bone mass. Nine weeks of exercise was superior to 5 weeks of exercise, particularly for low-intensity exercise. Furthermore, these effects of exercise-induced osteogenesis are accompanied by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the positive effects of exercise on osteoporosis prevention are intensity and duration-dependent, and may involve the regulation of Wnt signaling pathways.

  11. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor disturbance through inhibition of apoptosis in the cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Seo, Tae-Beom; Ji, Eun-Sang; Baek, Seong-Soo; Lee, Sam-Jun; Park, Joon-Ki; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-08-01

    Autism is a neurological disorder that occurs during childhood and is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Abnormalities of the cerebellum in autism include Purkinje cell loss and motor disturbance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on motor coordination and balance in correlation with reelin expression and the rate of apoptosis in the cerebellum of autistic rat pups. For the induction of the autism-like animal models, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into rat pups on postnatal day 14. Rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min, once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 28. Motor coordination and balance, as measured using the rotarod test and vertical pole test, were affected by the induction of autism. By contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated motor dysfunction in the autistic rat pups. The expression levels of reelin, GAD67 and cyclin D1 in the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups were decreased, while the expression levels of these molecules were increased in autistic rat pups who engaged in treadmill exercise. In the cerebellum of the autistic rat pups, Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax expression was increased. By contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression. The therapeutic effect of treadmill exercise on motor deficits may be due to the reelin-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

  12. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), p< 0.05. Post-BR orthostatic tolerance time (mean se) decreased significantly less in EX (19.3+/-1.3 to 14.4+/-1.5 min) than in CON (17.5+/-0.1 to 9.1+/- 1.5 min), p=0.03. Post-BR muscle strength decreased significantly in CON, but was preserved in EX. Post-BR bone resorption was greater than pre-BR in both groups (p<0.05). Bone formation markers, were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in EX than in CON. CONCLUSIONS: Supine LBNP treadmill exercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  14. Modulation of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia by treadmill exercise of stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Spasojevic, Natasa; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2012-03-01

    The sympatho-adrenal system represents one of the main systems involved in the response to stressful events because its stress-induced activation results in an increased release of catecholamines. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenal system, adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia being two components of this system. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20-min treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, using TaqMan RT-PCR assay. Chronic psychosocial stress decreased gene expression of the examined enzymes in the adrenal medulla and treadmill exercise did not lead to further modulation of the corresponding gene expression. On the other hand, chronic psychosocial stress produced a significant increase of TH (about 51%) and DBH (about 103%) gene expression in stellate ganglia, while treadmill exercise decreased gene expression of these enzymes to control levels in psychosocially stressed rats. Our data indicate that treadmill exercise leads to a decreased gene transcription of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia and attenuation of cardiac noradrenaline production in stressful situations. Reduction of catecholamine synthesis in stellate ganglia may be linked to the beneficial effects of treadmill exercise on cardiovascular system in stressed animals.

  15. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Pu Yeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2 Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3 Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4 Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running.

  16. Physical and Emotional Benefits of Different Exercise Environments Designed for Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Sarah M.; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Green physical activity promotes physical health and mental wellbeing and interesting questions concern effects of this information on designing indoor exercise environments. This study examined the physical and emotional effects of different nature-based environments designed for indoor treadmill running; (2) Methods: In a counterbalanced experimental design, 30 participants performed three, twenty-minute treadmill runs at a self-selected pace while viewing either a static nature image, a dynamic nature image or self-selected entertainment. Distance ran, heart rate (HR) and five pre-and post-exercise emotional states were measured; (3) Results: Participants ran farther, and with higher HRs, with self-selected entertainment compared to the two nature-based environment designs. Participants attained lowered anger, dejection, anxiety and increased excitement post exercise in all of the designed environments. Happiness increased during the two nature-based environment designs compared with self-selected entertainment; (4) Conclusions: Self-selected entertainment encouraged greater physical performances whereas running in nature-based exercise environments elicited greater happiness immediately after running. PMID:28696384

  17. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), pexercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  18. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), pexercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  19. Treadmill exercise improves motor and memory functions in cerebral palsy rats through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disorder characterized by physical disability and disruption of brain function. We evaluated the effects of treadmill exercise on motor and memory functions in relation with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway using CP rat model. Rota-rod test, step-down avoidance task, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, and western blot for synapsin I, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), PI3K, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were performed. CP was induced by maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injection with sensorimotor restriction. Five weeks after birth, the rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 4 weeks. Motor and memory functions were impaired in the LPS-induced CP rats and tread-mill exercise increased motor and memory functions in the CP rats. Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was suppressed in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise increased hippocampal cell proliferation in the CP rats. Expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, and p-Akt were decreased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise enhanced the expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, p-PI3K, and p-Akt in the CP rats. GSK-3β expression was increased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise suppressed GSK-3β expression in the CP rats. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise might improve motor and memory functions through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway.

  20. Influence of running stride frequency in heart rate variability analysis during treadmill exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Raquel; Garatachea, Nuria; de la Iglesia, Ignacio; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Laguna, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The analysis and interpretation of heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise is challenging not only because of the nonstationary nature of exercise, the time-varying mean heart rate, and the fact that respiratory frequency exceeds 0.4 Hz, but there are also other factors, such as the component centered at the pedaling frequency observed in maximal cycling tests, which may confuse the interpretation of HRV analysis. The objectives of this study are to test the hypothesis that a component centered at the running stride frequency (SF) appears in the HRV of subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing, and to study its influence in the interpretation of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV during exercise. The HRV of 23 subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing is analyzed. The instantaneous power of different HRV components is computed from the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution of the modulating signal assumed to carry information from the autonomic nervous system, which is estimated based on the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation model. Besides the LF and HF components, the appearance is revealed of a component centered at the running SF as well as its aliases. The power associated with the SF component and its aliases represents 22±7% (median±median absolute deviation) of the total HRV power in all the subjects. Normalized LF power decreases as the exercise intensity increases, while normalized HF power increases. The power associated with the SF does not change significantly with exercise intensity. Consideration of the running SF component and its aliases is very important in HRV analysis since stride frequency aliases may overlap with LF and HF components.

  1. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  2. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  3. Comparative effect of treadmill exercise on mature BDNF production in control versus stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Quirié

    Full Text Available Physical exercise constitutes an innovative strategy to treat deficits associated with stroke through the promotion of BDNF-dependent neuroplasticity. However, there is no consensus on the optimal intensity/duration of exercise. In addition, whether previous stroke changes the effect of exercise on the brain is not known. Therefore, the present study compared the effects of a clinically-relevant form of exercise on cerebral BDNF levels and localization in control versus stroke rats. For this purpose, treadmill exercise (0.3 m/s, 30 min/day, for 7 consecutive days was started in rats with a cortical ischemic stroke after complete maturation of the lesion or in control rats. Sedentary rats were run in parallel. Mature and proBDNF levels were measured on the day following the last boot of exercise using Western blotting analysis. Total BDNF levels were simultaneously measured using ELISA tests. As compared to the striatum and the hippocampus, the cortex was the most responsive region to exercise. In this region, exercise resulted in a comparable increase in the production of mature BDNF in intact and stroke rats but increased proBDNF levels only in intact rats. Importantly, levels of mature BDNF and synaptophysin were strongly correlated. These changes in BDNF metabolism coincided with the appearance of intense BDNF labeling in the endothelium of cortical vessels. Notably, ELISA tests failed to detect changes in BDNF forms. Our results suggest that control beings can be used to find conditions of exercise that will result in increased mBDNF levels in stroke beings. They also suggest cerebral endothelium as a potential source of BDNF after exercise and highlight the importance to specifically measure the mature form of BDNF to assess BDNF-dependent plasticity in relation with exercise.

  4. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  5. In search of the false-negative exercise treadmill testing evidence-based use of exercise echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jeffrey; Baker, Larry; Schaefer, Saul

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the role of exercise treadmill testing (ETT) versus exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) as the appropriate initial noninvasive test to risk-stratify patients with chest pain. The majority of studies to date that evaluated these methodologies included patients with poor functional status and baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, potentially limiting the sensitivity of ETT. We examined the hypothesis that given stringent standards of exercise duration and ECG interpretability, the ETT would have a high diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Results of concurrent ETT and ESE in 3,098 patients were examined, and the subset of patients with a negative ETT and positive ESE (-ETT/ + ESE) were reviewed for the presence of CAD as a function of exercise duration ( or = 6 min) and baseline ECG normality. In those patients with a - ETT/ + ESE who exercised > or = 6 min, 54 had a normal baseline ECG, 22 underwent angiography and 6 had CAD (all of whom had either small, grafted or collateralized vessels). Patients with a - ETT/ + ESE who were incapable of exercising 6 min were more frequently older and female. Mortality was significantly greater in the test in patients with chest pain who have a normal baseline ECG and are able to exercise 6 min. Using these criteria, false negative findings are generally seen in patients without critical large vessel epicardial disease. The ESE should be reserved as the initial test for patients with an abnormal baseline ECG or reduced functional capacity. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  6. The metabolic cost of passive walking during robotics-assisted treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, L P; Purcell, M; Allan, D B; Hunt, K J

    2011-01-01

    We are investigating the potential of robotics-assisted treadmill technology as a mode of exercise in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). People with incomplete SCI can actively contribute to this form of exercise, but in the clinical setting they often walk passively in the system. It is not known whether in doing so they are meeting the recommended guidelines for increasing cardiopulmonary fitness. The aims of this study were twofold: to characterise the intensity of passive walking during robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) in incomplete SCI; and to determine if this intensity meets the recommended guidelines for cardiopulmonary training in this population. 10 subjects with incomplete SCI twice performed an exercise test on a robotics-assisted treadmill. The test comprised a period of passive walking and a ramp phase to the limit of tolerance. Oxygen uptake VO(2) heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. VO(2) during passive exercise was on average 1.4 times higher than resting VO(2R), but this was only 29% of peak VO(2) (VO(2 peak))(range 16-43%). Relative to rest, passive VO(2) (VO(2P) was only 12% of VO(2 peak). HR did not increase from rest to passive walking (81 ± 10 bpm to 81 ± 13 bpm respectively). The HR associated with passive walking was on average 50% of peak HR (HR(peak)) (161 ± 13 bpm). Test-retest reliability was moderate for VO(2R) (R=0.62) and resting HR (HR(R)) (R=0.68), high for VO(2P) (R=0.81), passive HR (HR(P)) (R=0.87) and HR(peak) (R=0.88), and very high (R=0.95) for VO(2 peak). Only HR(p) differed significantly between tests (p=0.029). The intensity of passive walking during RATE is low and is insufficient to increase cardiopulmonary fitness in people with SCI. Subjects must actively contribute to the exercise in order to achieve the recommended training intensity.

  7. Treadmill exercise improves behavioral outcomes and spatial learning memory through up-regulation of reelin signaling pathway in autistic rats.

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    Seo, Tae-Beom; Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Ji, Eun-Sang; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2013-04-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disability with impairments of social interaction and communication, and repetitive behavior. Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein that is essential for neuronal migration and brain development. Neuroprotective effects of exercise on various brain insults are well documented, however, the effects of exercise on autism in relation with reelin expression are not clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the functional recovery and on the expressions of reelin and its downstream molecules, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2), using autistic rats. For the induction of autism-like animal model, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into the rats on the postnatal day 14. The rat in the treadmill exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting postnatal day 28. To investigate autism-like behaviors and memory deficit, open field, social interaction, and radial 8-arm maze were performed. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated aggressive tendency and improved correct decision in the spatial learning memory in the autistic rats. Treadmill exercise increased neurogenesis and the expressions of reelin and its down-stream molecules, PI3K, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2, in the hippocampus of the autistic rats. The present study showed that treadmill exercise ameliorated aggressive behavior and improved spatial learning memory through activation of reeling signaling pathway in the valproic acid-induced autistic rats.

  8. Comparison of oxygen consumption in rats during uphill (concentric) and downhill (eccentric) treadmill exercise tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanelle, Vivien; Sirvent, Pascal; Ennequin, Gaël; Caillaud, Kévin; Montaurier, Christophe; Morio, Béatrice; Boisseau, Nathalie; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-09-01

    The study of the physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric (ECC) contraction is based on protocols in which exercise intensities are determined relative to the concentric (CON) reference exercise (as percentage of the CON maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2max). In order to use similar exercise protocols in rats, we compared the VO2 values during uphill (CON) and downhill (ECC) running tests. VO2 was measured in 15 Wistar rats during incremental treadmill running exercises with different slopes: level (0%), positive (+15% incline: CON+15%) and negative (i15% incline: ECC-15%; and 130% incline: ECC-30%). Similar VO2 values were obtained in the ECC-30% and CON+15% running conditions at the three target speeds (15, 25 and 35 cm/sec). Conversely, VO2 values were lower (p < 0.05) in the ECC-15% than in the CON+15% condition (CON+15% VO2/ECC-15% VO2 ratios ranging from 1.86 to 2.05 at the three target speeds). Thus, doubling the downhill slope gradient in ECC condition leads to an oxygen consumption level that is not significantly different as in CON condition. These findings can be useful for designing animal research protocols to study the effects of ECC and CON exercise in ageing population or subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Key PointsVO2 in rats during treadmill race in eccentric and concentric conditions were measured.A novel breath-by-breath device allowing direct access to the animal was used.THREE DIFFERENT SLOPES: +15%, -15% and -30% were used.VO2 values obtained in the -30% eccentric and the +15% concentric conditions were not significantly different.

  9. Comparison of Oxygen Consumption in Rats During Uphill (Concentric) and Downhill (Eccentric) Treadmill Exercise Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanelle, Vivien; Sirvent, Pascal; Ennequin, Gaël; Caillaud, Kévin; Montaurier, Christophe; Morio, Béatrice; Boisseau, Nathalie; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The study of the physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric (ECC) contraction is based on protocols in which exercise intensities are determined relative to the concentric (CON) reference exercise (as percentage of the CON maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2max). In order to use similar exercise protocols in rats, we compared the VO2 values during uphill (CON) and downhill (ECC) running tests. VO2 was measured in 15 Wistar rats during incremental treadmill running exercises with different slopes: level (0%), positive (+15% incline: CON+15%) and negative (i15% incline: ECC-15%; and 130% incline: ECC-30%). Similar VO2 values were obtained in the ECC-30% and CON+15% running conditions at the three target speeds (15, 25 and 35 cm/sec). Conversely, VO2 values were lower (p VO2/ECC-15% VO2 ratios ranging from 1.86 to 2.05 at the three target speeds). Thus, doubling the downhill slope gradient in ECC condition leads to an oxygen consumption level that is not significantly different as in CON condition. These findings can be useful for designing animal research protocols to study the effects of ECC and CON exercise in ageing population or subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Key Points VO2 in rats during treadmill race in eccentric and concentric conditions were measured. A novel breath-by-breath device allowing direct access to the animal was used. Three different slopes: +15%, -15% and -30% were used. VO2 values obtained in the -30% eccentric and the +15% concentric conditions were not significantly different. PMID:25177200

  10. Increased expression of neurotrophin 4 following focal cerebral ischemia in adult rat brain with treadmill exercise.

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    Jin-Young Chung

    Full Text Available Neurotrophin 4 (NT-4 belongs to the family of neurotrophic factors, and it interacts with the tyrosine kinase B (trkB receptor. NT-4 has neuroprotective effects following cerebral ischemia. Its role might be similar to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, because both interact with trkB. Exercise also improves neural function by increasing neurotrophic factors. However, expression profiles of NT-4 in the brain during exercise are unknown. Here, we assessed the expressions of NT-4 and its receptor, trkB, following cerebral ischemia and hypothesized that exercise changes the expressions of NT-4 and trkB. Results showed that in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model, ischemia decreased NT-4 and trkB expression. Immunohistochemistry showed their immunoreactivities around the region of the ischemic area. Treadmill exercise changed the expression of NT-4, which increased in the contralateral hemisphere in rats with ischemic injury. TrkB also showed similar patterns to its neurotophins. The change in NT-4 suggested that exercise might have primed NT4 production so that further injury causes slightly greater increases in NT4 compared with non-exercise controls.

  11. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Ching-Hsia Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72 has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30–60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF-α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  12. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

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    Albená Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  13. Treadmill exercise improves behavioral outcomes and spatial learning memory through up-regulation of reelin signaling pathway in autistic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Tae-Beom; Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; KIM, CHANG-JU; Ji, Eun-Sang; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disability with impairments of social interaction and communication, and repetitive behavior. Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein that is essential for neuronal migration and brain development. Neuroprotective effects of exercise on various brain insults are well documented, however, the effects of exercise on autism in relation with reelin expression are not clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the fu...

  14. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during cycling and

  15. The Effects of Combined Treatment with Naringin and Treadmill Exercise on Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Fengbo; Ma, Xinlong; Ma, Jianxiong; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanjun; Lv, Jianwei; Meng, Xinmin

    2015-08-11

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and progressive destruction of bone microstructure, resulting in increased the risk of fracture. Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of naringin (NG) or treadmill exercise (EX) on osteoporosis, however, reports about effects of NG plus EX on osteoporosis are limited. This study was designed to investigate the impact of combined treatment with naringin and treadmill exercise on osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three months after bilateral ovariectomy, Seventy-five rats were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: OVX, sham-operated (SHAM), NG, EX, or NG plus EX treatment. Treatments were administered for 60 days. Bone metabolism, bone mineral density, trabecular bone parameters, immunohistochemistry, and the bone strength were evaluated. Compared to the OVX groups, all treatments increased bone volume (BV/TV), trabecula number (Tb.N), trabecula thickness (Tb.Th), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength. NG + EX showed the strongest effects on BV/TV, Tb.Th, and biomechanical strength. Additionally, decreased C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-1) and enhanced osteocalcin (OCN) expression were observed in the NG + EX group. The present study demonstrates that the NG + EX may have a therapeutic advantage over each monotherapy for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Effect of treadmill exercise and Ferula gummosa on myocardial HSP72, vascular function, and antioxidant defenses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholitabar, Samira; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of treadmill exercise and Ferula gummosa (FG) on heat shock protein (HSP72), biomarkers related to vascular function, and oxidant/antioxidant system in the heart tissue of spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Fifty adult male Wistar rats are randomly classified into five groups: treadmill exercise, FG, combination of treadmill exercise + FG, L-NAME, and saline. Treadmill exercise was performed between 25 and 64 minutes at the speed of 15-22 m per minute for 8 weeks and five sessions a week. The FG will be fed through gavage with 90 mg/kg dosage. Hypertension was induced by l-NAME (10 mg/kg) for 8 weeks and six sessions a week. Administration of L-NAME for 8 weeks caused significant increase in HSP72, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and protein carbonyl (PC), and significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitric oxide (NO) level, when compared with the saline group. In contrast, both treadmill exercise and/or FG protocols, in particular, the combined protocol, led to the improvement in HSP72 and balance in oxidant/antioxidant process and inhibited vascular dysfunction, when compared with the L-NAME group. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in the HSP72 level between rats in the treadmill exercise and FG groups. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role and a cardioprotective effect of lifestyle related to the health in the attenuation of hypertension-induced cardiotoxicity.

  17. Comparison of Oxygen Consumption in Rats During Uphill (Concentric and Downhill (Eccentric Treadmill Exercise Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Chavanelle, Pascal Sirvent, Gaël Ennequin, Kévin Caillaud, Christophe Montaurier, Béatrice Morio, Nathalie Boisseau, Ruddy Richard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric (ECC contraction is based on protocols in which exercise intensities are determined relative to the concentric (CON reference exercise (as percentage of the CON maximal oxygen consumption, or VO2max. In order to use similar exercise protocols in rats, we compared the VO2 values during uphill (CON and downhill (ECC running tests. VO2 was measured in 15 Wistar rats during incremental treadmill running exercises with different slopes: level (0%, positive (+15% incline: CON+15% and negative (i15% incline: ECC-15%; and 130% incline: ECC-30%. Similar VO2 values were obtained in the ECC-30% and CON+15% running conditions at the three target speeds (15, 25 and 35 cm/sec. Conversely, VO2 values were lower (p < 0.05 in the ECC-15% than in the CON+15% condition (CON+15% VO2/ECC-15% VO2 ratios ranging from 1.86 to 2.05 at the three target speeds. Thus, doubling the downhill slope gradient in ECC condition leads to an oxygen consumption level that is not significantly different as in CON condition. These findings can be useful for designing animal research protocols to study the effects of ECC and CON exercise in ageing population or subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Exponential protocols for cardiopulmonary exercise testing on treadmill and cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J P; Megarry, J; Riley, M

    2010-01-01

    An extended exponential exercise protocol was validated by comparing submaximal and maximal parameters with those obtained by linear protocol. Normal subjects (n = 16, 20-69 years) undertook maximal exercise tests on treadmill and cycle ergometer. The subjects had a wide range of exercise capacity, and all were accommodated by the protocol. Mean oxygen uptake (V(O2)) agreed between protocols at gas exchange anaerobic threshold (theta) (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.06 l min(-1)) and at peak (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.1 l min(-1)). Mean pre-thetaDeltaV(O2)/Deltawork rate (W) slope on the cycle ergometer agreed between protocols (95% CI of the difference -0.9 to +0.25 ml min(-1) W(-1)). Post-thetaDeltaV(O2)/DeltaW slope was steeper than pre-theta, and steeper by linear than by exponential protocol (P = 0.0001). It is concluded that the exponential protocol is valid for the measurement of submaximal and maximal exercise parameters in subjects with a wide range of exercise capacity.

  19. The effect of different intensities of treadmill exercise on cognitive function deficit following a severe controlled cortical impact in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiafeng; Li, Aiping; Zhang, Yuling; Dong, Xiaomin; Shan, Tian; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-10-31

    Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) compared to the control group (p exercise group showed a longer latency and a mild improvement in spatial memory compared to the control group rats in the MWM; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  20. The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Agosti, Fiorenza; Galli, Raffaela; Busti, Carlo; Lazzer, Stefano; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management, but exercise capacity is compromised in obese individuals due to the excessive body mass, impacting on body movement's energetics, and to the dysfunctions of regulatory mechanisms, affecting cardiovascular responses. This study aims to compare the energetics and cardiovascular responses of walking and cycling in obese women, and to formulate recommendations regarding the most suitable type of exercise for obesity. Fifteen obese (OB) and six normal weight (NW) women exercised on treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). During both exercise modalities, metabolic rate was higher in OB than in NW and correlated with measures of body mass. Leg movement metabolic rate during cycling depended upon individual adiposity, and when accounted for, mechanical efficiency was similar in the two groups. When accounting for extra mass, differences in metabolic rate among groups are abolished for CE, indicating no obesity impairment of muscle efficiency, but not for TM, suggesting that differences in biomechanics may explain the higher net cost of transport of OB. In both groups, HR was higher during CE than TM at the same oxygen uptake (VO(2)), but in OB the HR increment over VO(2) was greater for CE than for TM. Therefore, due to different cardiovascular responses to TM and CE in OB, walking is more convenient, enabling OB to attain target energy expenditure at lower HR or in a shorter time.

  1. Inflight Treadmill Exercise Can Serve as Multi-Disciplinary Countermeasure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    support the notion that in-flight treadmill exercise, in addition to providing aerobic exercise and mechanical stimuli to the bone, also has a number of sensorimotor benefits by providing: 1) A balance challenge during locomotion requiring segmental coordination in response to a downward force. 2) Body-support loading during performance of a full-body active motor task. 3) Oscillatory stimulation of the otoliths and synchronized periodic foot impacts that facilitate the coordination of gait motions and tune the full-body gaze control system. 4) Appropriate sensory input (foot tactile input, muscle and tendon stretch input) to spinal locomotor central pattern generators required for the control of locomotion. Forward work will focus on a follow-up bed rest study that incorporates aerobic and resistance exercise with a treadmill balance and gait training system that can serve as an integrated interdisciplinary countermeasure system for future exploration class missions.

  2. Effect of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hong

    2010-09-13

    The cerebellum is one of the brain areas, which is selectively vulnerable to forebrain traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Physical exercise in animals is known to promote cell survival and functional recovery after brain injuries. However, the detailed pathologic and functional alterations by exercise following an indirect cerebellar injury induced by a TBI are largely unknown. We determined the effects of treadmill exercise on survival of Purkinje neurons and on a population of reactive astrocytes in the gyrus of lobules VIII and IX of the cerebellum after TBI. The rats were divided into four groups: the sham-operation group, the sham-operation with exercise group, the TBI-induction group, and the TBI-induction with exercise group. Cell biological changes of Purkinje neurons following indirect cerebellar injury were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. TBI-induced loss of calbindin-stained Purkinje neurons in the posterior region of the cerebellum and TBI also increased formation of reactive astroyctes in both the granular and molecular layers of the cerebellar posterior region. Treadmill exercise for 10 days after TBI increased the number of calbindin-stained Purkinje neurons and suppressed formation of reactive astroyctes. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise may be an important mediator to enhance survival of Purkinje neurons in TBI-induced indirect cerebellar injury.

  3. The Effect of Different Intensities of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Function Deficit Following a Severe Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiafeng Shen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM compared to the control group (p 0.05. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  4. Assessment of maximal lactate steady state during treadmill exercise in SHR

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    Almeida Jeeser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR are one of the main animal models used for studying the effects of exercise on hypertension. Therefore, the determination of adequate intensity has been essential for secure and optimized exercise prescriptions concerning hypertensive subjects. This study aimed to identify the MLSS in SHR by using a treadmill test to improve the protocols and further prescriptions of exercise intensity. Findings In order to carry out this determination, SHR (n = 10 animals (~17.5 weeks; 227.4 ± 29.3 g; 172.4 ± 8.1 mmHg systolic blood pressure were divided into two groups (G1 n = 5; G2 n = 5. Rats underwent a test with three different velocities to determine the MLSS. The MLSS was considered as the highest effort intensity where the blood lactate did not vary more than 1 mmol.L-1 from the 10th to the 25th minute. The MLSS was reached at a velocity of 20 m.min-1 with 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol.L-1 of lactate for G1. Additionally, the results were validated in G2. However, when the test was applied at 25 m.min-1, there was no stabilization of BLC in G1 and G2. Conclusions In this study it was possible to identify the MLSS in SHR rats, which is an excellent evaluation tool to control exercise intensity. These data are of considerable importance in studies using physical exercise as a means of research in hypertension and may lead to the intensity of exercise being prescribed more appropriately.

  5. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

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    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  6. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  7. VO2 Reserve vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Tanner J; Keller, Brad G; Fountaine, Charles J

    VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. During which VO2 and HR were monitored to determine max values. Upon completion of the maximal test, calculations were made to determine the % grade expected to yield approximately 50% of the subjects VO2R. Subjects then returned to complete the submaximal test (50%R) at least two days later. The %VO2R and %HRR were calculated and compared to the predicted value as well as to each other. Statistical analysis revealed that VO2 at 50%R was significantly greater than the actual VO2 achieved, p VO2 could be more accurately predicted than HR during moderate intensity exercise. The weak correlation between VO2R and HRR indicates that caution should be used when relying on a HR to determine VO2.

  8. Forced treadmill exercise can induce stress and increase neuronal damage in a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Svensson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is known to be a beneficial factor by increasing the cellular stress tolerance. In ischemic stroke, physical exercise is suggested to both limit the brain injury and facilitate behavioral recovery. In this study we investigated the effect of physical exercise on brain damage following global cerebral ischemia in mice. We aimed to study the effects of 4.5 weeks of forced treadmill running prior to ischemia on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation and its effect on general stress by measuring corticosterone in feces. We subjected C57bl/6 mice (n = 63 to either treadmill running or a sedentary program prior to induction of global ischemia. Anxious, depressive, and cognitive behaviors were analyzed. Stress levels were analyzed using a corticosterone ELISA. Inflammatory and neurological outcomes were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, multiplex electrochemoluminescence ELISA and Western blot. To our surprise, we found that forced treadmill running induced a stress response, with increased anxiety in the Open Field test and increased levels of corticosterone. In accordance, mice subjected to forced exercise prior to ischemia developed larger neuronal damage in the hippocampus and showed higher cytokine levels in the brain and blood compared to non-exercised mice. The extent of neuronal damage correlated with increased corticosterone levels. To compare forced treadmill with voluntary wheel running, we used a different set of mice that exercised freely on running wheels. These mice did not show any anxiety or increased corticosterone levels. Altogether, our results indicate that exercise pre-conditioning may not be beneficial if the animals are forced to run as it can induce a detrimental stress response.

  9. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  10. Treadmill exercise decreases amyloid-β burden possibly via activation of SIRT-1 signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Eun-Bum; Oh, Yoo-Sung; Yang, Dae-Seung; Cho, Joon-Yong

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits, a main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treadmill exercise reduces Aβ levels, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects are not fully understood. We hypothesize that treadmill exercise decreases Aβ production and alleviates cognitive deficits by activating the non-amyloidogenic pathway via SIRT-1 signaling. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive deficits and alleviated neurotoxicity. Most importantly, treadmill exercise increased SIRT-1 level, which subsequently resulted in increased ADAM-10 level by down-regulation of ROCK-1 and upregulation of RARβ, ultimately facilitating the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Treadmill exercise-induced activation in SIRT-1 level also elevated PGC-1α level and reduced BACE-1 and C-99 level, resulting in inhibition of the amyloidogenic pathway. Treadmill exercise may thus inhibit Aβ production via upregulation of SIRT-1, which biases amyloid precursor protein processing toward the non-amyloidogenic pathway. This study provides novel and valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms possibly by which treadmill exercise reduces Aβ production.

  11. Treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorates post‑traumatic stress disorder‑induced anxiety‑like responses in maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Sam-Jun

    2013-02-01

    Post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by life‑threatening events that cause intense fear. Exercise is known to have protective effects on neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated whether treadmill exercise during pregnancy reduced or alleviated symptoms of PTSD in maternal rats. To induce predator stress in pregnant rats, rats were exposed to a hunting dog in an enclosed room. Exposure time was three 10‑min daily sessions separated by 1 h, starting at week 1 of pregnancy until delivery. Pregnant rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, starting one week following pregnancy until delivery. Rats receiving predator stress during pregnancy exhibited PTSD anxiety‑like behaviors following delivery. Expression of 5‑hydroxytryptamine (5‑HT) and its synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was increased compared with unstressed rats. Expression of c‑Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) in the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus were higher in the rats receiving stress during pregnancy compared with unstressed rats. By contrast, treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorated anxiety‑like behaviors and reduced the expression of 5‑HT, TPH, c‑Fos and nNOS in the PTSD maternal rats. The results of the present study indicate that exercise during pregnancy is suitable for use as a therapeutic strategy to reduce anxiety‑related disorders, including PTSD.

  12. Gender-Specific Neuroimmunoendocrine Response to Treadmill Exercise in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Giménez-Llort

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3xTg-AD mouse develops a progressive Alzheimer's disease- (AD- like brain pathology that causes cognitive- and neuropsychiatric-like symptoms of dementia. Since its neuroimmunoendocrine axis is likewise impaired, this mouse is also useful for modelling complex age-related neurodegeneration. This study analyzed behavioral, physiological, neurochemical, pathological and immunoendocrine alterations in male and female 3xTg-AD mice and assayed the effects of a short therapy of forced physical exercise at the moderate pathology stage of 6 months of age. Gender effects were observed in most AD-related pathology and dysfunctions. Five weeks of treadmill training produced beneficial effects, such as the reduction of brain oxidative stress and GABA-A receptor dysfunction in males and improvement of sensorimotor function in females. In both sexes, exercise decreased the brain amyloid 42/40 ratio levels. The results highlight the importance of analyzing experimental therapies in both mouse model genders in order to improve our understanding of the disease and develop more appropriate therapies.

  13. Stem cells in the adult rat spinal cord: plasticity after injury and treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Ariane; Quertainmont, Renaud; Botman, Olivier; Bouhy, Delphine; Amabili, Philippe; Brook, Gary; Schoenen, Jean; Franzen, Rachelle

    2010-02-01

    Ependymal cells located around the central canal of the adult spinal cord are considered as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) and represent an interesting pool of endogenous stem cells for repair strategies. Physical exercise is known to increase ependymal cell proliferation, while improving functional recovery. In this work, we further characterized those endogenous NSCs within the normal and injured adult rat spinal cord and investigated the effects of treadmill training using immunohistochemical and behavioral studies. In uninjured untrained rats, Sox-2, a NSC marker, was detected in all ependymal cells of the central canal, and also scattered throughout the parenchyma of the spinal cord. Within the lesion, Sox-2 expression increased transiently, while the number of nestin-positive ependymal cells increased with a concomitant enhancement of proliferation, as indicated by the mitotic markers Ki67 and bromo-deoxyuridine. Exercise, which improved functional recovery and autonomous micturition, maintained nestin expression in both injured and uninjured spinal cords, with a positive correlation between locomotor recovery and the number of nestin-positive cells.

  14. EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON DIFFERENTIATED AND UNDIFFERENTIATED RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING CYCLE AND TREADMILL EXERCISE IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND TRAINED WOMEN

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    Melinda R. Bolgar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1 and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1. Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2 and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3 x intensity (3 ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3 within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during

  15. The Effect of Treadmill Training Pre-Exercise on Glutamate Receptor Expression in Rats after Cerebral Ischemia

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    Yang Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate whether pre-ischemic treadmill training could serve as a form of ischemic preconditioning in a rat model undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Thirty-six rats were divided into three groups: a sham control group, a non-exercise with operation group and an exercise with operation group. After treadmill training, ischemia was induced by occluding the MCA for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Half of the rats in each group were sacrificed for mRNA detection of mGluR5 and NR2B 80 min after occlusion. The remaining animals were evaluated for neurological deficits by behavioral scoring and then decapitated to assess the infarct volume. The mRNA expression of mGluR5 and NR2B was detected by real-time PCR. The results suggest that pre-ischemic treadmill training may induce brain ischemic tolerance by reducing the mRNA levels of mGluR5 and NR2B, and thus, the results indicate that physical exercise might be an effective method to establish ischemic preconditioning.

  16. Kinematics of the forefoot in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after aerobic exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Chen, De; Yin, Lu; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure the changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on a treadmill after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load (a fatigue protocol). [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane after physically demanding aerobic exercise load, an 8 ch wireless Motion Recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was utilized. [Results] Forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation in the horizontal plane was significantly associated with increased paces during progressive pace treadmill racewalking. Significant increases in forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation were observed during progressive pace barefoot racewalking on the instrumented treadmill at 8 km/h and 10 km/h after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotation increased during progressive pace barefoot racewalking in the fatigue state after a physically demanding aerobic exercise load, which implies that the kinematic features of the forefoot are changed in the fatigue state.

  17. Treadmill Exercise Prevents Increase of Neuroinflammation Markers Involved in the Dopaminergic Damage of the 6-OHDA Parkinson's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline Cristiano; Garcia, Priscila Crespo; Britto, Luiz R G

    2017-08-11

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which can be correlated to neuroinflammatory changes with the aging of the nervous system. On the other hand, exercise can reduce the deleterious effects promoted by age, but the mechanism involved is still unclear. This study investigated the preventive exercise-induced changes on neuroinflammatory processes in a rat model of PD induced by unilateral striatal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) sedentary (SED) or (2) exercised (EX), animals that did treadmill exercise three times per week, every other day, for 4 weeks prior to 6-OHDA or saline injection. The rats were then divided into four sub-groups: (1) sedentary saline (SED), (2) sedentary 6-OHDA (SED + 6-OHDA), (3) exercised saline (EX), and (4) exercised 6-OHDA (EX + 6-OHDA). Seven and 30 days after surgery, brains were collected for immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting for dopaminergic and neuroinflammatory markers into SN and striatum. The SED + 6-OHDA animals presented an increase in the astrocyte, microglial, and oxidative species activation. On the other hand, EX + 6-OHDA animals did not present neuroinflammatory responses and performed better apormorphine test. Our data suggest that treadmill exercise throughout life can markedly reduce the chances of dopamine decrease, reinforcing studies that showed a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients who were active during life.

  18. Effects of acupuncture, core-stability exercises, and treadmill walking exercises in treating a patient with postsurgical lumbar disc herniation: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiyu, Sokunbi Oluwaleke; Gujba, Kachalla Fatimah

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of acupuncture, core-stability exercises, and treadmill 12-minute walking exercises in treating patients with postsurgical lumbar disc herniation. A 34-year-old woman with a history lumbar disc prolapse who had undergone lumbar disc surgery on two different occasions was treated using acupuncture, core-stability exercises, and treadmill walking exercises three times per week for 12 weeks. The outcome measures used in this study were pain intensity, spinal range of movement, and general health. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient had made improvement in terms of pain, which was reduced from 9/10 to 1/10. In a similar vein, the patient's general health showed improvement of >100% after 12 weeks of treatment. Pre-treatment scores of spinal flexion and left-side flexion, which measured 20 cm and 12 cm, respectively, increased to 25 cm and 16 cm after 12 weeks of treatment. This study showed that acupuncture, core-stability exercises, and treadmill walking exercises were useful in relieving pain, increasing spinal range of movement, and improving the health of a patient with postsurgical lumbar disc herniation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Genetic impairment of AMPK alpha 2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, S.J.; Jorgensen, S.B.; Rose, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    published August 4, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.90653.2008.-Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase ( AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown whether AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake....... Collectively, these findings suggest that AMPK alpha 2 signaling is not essential in regulating glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle during treadmill exercise and that other mechanisms play a central role Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...

  20. Effect of different oils administration on oleic and linoleic serum profile in horses during standardised exercise test on treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Battista Liponi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its energy density, fat is often added to the diet for exercising horses; however, little attention has been given to the effect of dietary fatty acid composition. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of two diets containing different oils on the fatty acids haematic profile during and after an aerobic exercise test on treadmill. Four adult trained gelding Standardbred (mean BW=481±27 kg were used in a two replicated 2x2 Latin Square design. Mixed hay-concentrate diets contained corn oil (CORN or a mix of mono-di and triglycerides of olive oil (MDTO were administrated. The horses received the diets for a period of four weeks. At the end of the adaptation period an aerobic exercise test on treadmill (30-min long was carried on. Blood samples were collected at rest, after 15’ and 30’ of exercise and during recovery period (at 10’, 30’ and 60’. Serum fatty acid concentration was determined. MDTO supplemented horses showed an higher percentage of Oleic acid during and after the exercise test; whereas Linoleic acid showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between groups with the highest value at 10’ and 30’ after exercise in the CORN supplemented group.

  1. Moderate intensity, but not high intensity, treadmill exercise training alters power output properties in myocardium from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Diffee, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on power output properties in permeablized (skinned) myocytes of old rats. Thirty-month-old rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and groups undergoing 11 weeks of treadmill exercise training at moderate intensity (MI) and at high intensity (HI). Peak power output normalized to maximal force was significantly increased in MI but not in HI compared to C with significant increases in atrial myosin light chain 1 in ventricle. These results suggest that MI exercise training is beneficial as a significant increase was seen in the ability of the myocardium to do work, but this effect was not seen with HI training.

  2. A perceptually regulated, graded exercise test predicts peak oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise in active and sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison; Faulkner, James; Lambrick, Danielle; Al-Rahamneh, Harran; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2012-10-01

    The validity of predicting peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) in sedentary participants from a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) is limited to two cycle ergometry studies. We assessed the validity of a treadmill-based PRET. Active (n = 49; 40.7 ± 13.8 years) and sedentary (n = 26; 33.4 ± 13.2 y) participants completed two PRETS (PRET 1 and PRET2), requiring a change in speed or incline corresponding to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 9, 11, 13 and 15. Extrapolation of RPE: [Formula: see text] data to RPE 19 and 20 from the RPE 9-13 and 9-15 ranges were used to estimate [Formula: see text], and compared to [Formula: see text] from a graded exercise test (GXT). The [Formula: see text] :heart rate (HR) data (≥RPE 15) from the GXT were also extrapolated to age-predicted maximal HR (HRmax(pred)) to provide further estimation of [Formula: see text]. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between [Formula: see text] predictions from the RPE 9-15 range for PRET 1 and PRET 2 when extrapolated to RPE 19 in both active (54.3 ± 7.4; 52.9 ± 8.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and sedentary participants (34.1 ± 10.2; 34.2 ± 9.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and no difference between the HRmax(pred) method and measured [Formula: see text] from the GXT for active (53.3 ± 10.0; 53.9 ± 7.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) and sedentary participants (33.6 ± 8.4, 34.4 ± 7.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). A single treadmill-based PRET using RPE 9-15 range extrapolated to RPE 19 is a valid means of predicting [Formula: see text] in young and middle to older-aged individuals of varying activity and fitness levels.

  3. Neuronal BDNF Signaling Is Necessary for the Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Synaptic Stripping of Axotomized Motoneurons

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    Joey Krakowiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of synaptic inputs from the somata and proximal dendrites of spinal motoneurons following peripheral nerve injury could contribute to poor functional recovery. Decreased availability of neurotrophins to afferent terminals on axotomized motoneurons has been implicated as one cause of the withdrawal. No reduction in contacts made by synaptic inputs immunoreactive to the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 is noted on axotomized motoneurons if modest treadmill exercise, which stimulates the production of neurotrophins by spinal motoneurons, is applied after nerve injury. In conditional, neuron-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF knockout mice, a reduction in synaptic contacts onto motoneurons was noted in intact animals which was similar in magnitude to that observed after nerve transection in wild-type controls. No further reduction in coverage was found if nerves were cut in knockout mice. Two weeks of moderate daily treadmill exercise following nerve injury in these BDNF knockout mice did not affect synaptic inputs onto motoneurons. Treadmill exercise has a profound effect on synaptic inputs to motoneurons after peripheral nerve injury which requires BDNF production by those postsynaptic cells.

  4. Treadmill exercise-induced tendon hypertrophy: assessment of tendons with different mechanical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, H L; McLaughlin, L; Smith, R K; Goodship, A E

    1999-07-01

    The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) functions as an energy store during high-speed gaits reducing the energetic cost of locomotion. To enable the SDFT to function effectively, the appropriate mechanical properties are essential. We tested the hypothesis that the SDFT does not undergo gross hypertrophy in response to high-intensity exercise whereas tendons not involved in energy storage undergo adaptive hypertrophy. Two groups (n = 6) of Thoroughbred fillies were trained at high-intensity on a high-speed equine treadmill for 5 months (short-term study) or 18 months (long-term study). Age-matched groups (n = 6) of horses undertook low-intensity exercise only for the same time period. Throughout the short-term study the SDFT and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) were ultrasonograpically scanned at mid-metacarpal level and cross-sectional area (CSA) calculated. At the end of the short-term study (horse age = 2 years) and long-term study (horse age = 3 years) the left SDFT, DDFT, suspensory ligament (SL) and common digital extensor tendon (CDET) were harvested and CSA calculated. Comparison of the DDFT from 2- and 3-year-old horses revealed an age-related increase in CSA which was confirmed by ultrasonographs. Post mortem analysis showed a significant hypertrophy of the CDET with high-intensity training in the short-term study (younger horses). CSA did not differ significantly between training groups for any of the structures following long-term training. These results suggest a structure specific hypertrophic response to the imposed training regime.

  5. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  6. A preliminary study of a running speed based heart rate prediction during an incremental treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae-Geun Jang; Byung-Hoon Ko; Sub Sunoo; Sang-Seok Nam; Hun-Young Park; Sang-Kon Bae

    2016-08-01

    This preliminary study investigates feasibility of a running speed based heart rate (HR) prediction. It is basically motivated from the assumption that there is a significant relationship between HR and the running speed. In order to verify the assumption, HR and running speed data from 217 subjects of varying aerobic capabilities were simultaneously collected during an incremental treadmill exercise. A running speed was defined as a treadmill speed and its corresponding heart rate was calculated by averaging the last one minute HR values of each session. The feasibility was investigated by assessing a correlation between the heart rate and the running speed using inter-subject (between-subject) and intra-subject (within-subject) datasets with regression orders of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Furthermore, HR differences between actual and predicted HRs were also employed to investigate the feasibility of the running speed in predicting heart rate. In the inter-subject analysis, a strong positive correlation and a reasonable HR difference (r = 0.866, 16.55±11.24 bpm @ 1st order; r = 0.871, 15.93±11.49 bpm @ 2nd order; r = 0.897, 13.98±10.80 bpm @ 3rd order; and r = 0.899, 13.93±10.64 bpm @ 4th order) were obtained, and a very high positive correlation and a very low HR difference (r = 0.978, 6.46±3.89 bpm @ 1st order; r = 0.987, 5.14±2.87 bpm @ 2nd order; r = 0.996, 2.61±2.03 bpm @ 3rd order; and r = 0.997, 2.04±1.73 bpm @ 4th order) were obtained in the intra-subject analysis. It can therefore be concluded that 1) heart rate is highly correlated with a running speed; 2) heart rate can be approximately estimated by a running speed with a proper statistical model (e.g., 3rd-order regression); and 3) an individual HR-speed calibration process may improve the prediction accuracy.

  7. Treadmill exercise induces age-related changes in aversive memory, neuroinflammatory and epigenetic processes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Bertoldi, Karine; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe Dos Santos; Vizuete, Adriana; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    It has been described that exercise can modulate both inflammatory response and epigenetic modifications, although the effect of exercise on these parameters during the normal brain aging process yet remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of aging and treadmill exercise on inflammatory and epigenetic parameters specifically pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, activation of NF-kB and histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampus from Wistar rats. Additionally, we evaluated aversive memory through inhibitory avoidance task. Rats of 3 and 20 months of age were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20 min for 2 weeks) groups. The effect of daily forced exercise in the treadmill was assessed. The levels of inflammatory and epigenetic parameters were determined 1h, 18 h, 3 days or 7 days after the last training session of exercise. It was observed an age-related decline on aversive memory, as well as aged rats showed increased hippocampal levels of inflammatory markers, such as TNFα, IL1-β and NF-kB and decreased IL-4 levels, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, lower levels of global histone H4 acetylation were also observed in hippocampi from aged rats. Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between the biochemical markers and the inhibitory avoidance test performance. The forced exercise protocol ameliorated aging-related memory decline, decreased pro-inflammatory markers and increased histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampi 20-months-old rats, while increased acutely IL-4 levels in hippocampi from young adult rats. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance of inflammatory markers might be involved to the aging-related aversive memory impairment. Additionally, our exercise protocol may reverse aging-related memory decline through improving cytokine profile.

  8. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise.

  9. Moderate intensity treadmill exercise alters food preference via dopaminergic plasticity of ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Hai Jun; Shang, Ning Ning; Liu, Jun; Li, Juan; Tang, Dong Hui; Li, Qiong

    2017-02-22

    Obesity has been associated with the excessive intake of palatable food as well as physical inactivity. To investigate the neurobiological mechanism underlying the exercised-induced prevention and treatment of obesity, the present study examined the effect of treadmill exercise on the preference for palatable food in mice. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system were also analysed, as well as levels of dopamine, dopamine transporter, and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group (CG, n=10) and a high-fat diet group (HG, N=30). Mice of the HG group were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks in order to induce a model of obesity, following which the obese mice were randomly divided into an obese control group (OG, n=11) and an obese+exercise group (OEG, n=12). OEG mice received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise intervention. Our results indicate that, relative to animals in the OG group, OEG mice exhibited significant decreases in the preference for high-fat diets and insulin resistance, along with increases in the preference for sucrose and milk, TH and D2 receptor expression, and levels of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system. These results suggest that moderate-intensity treadmill exercise can alter food preference in obese mice, which may be mediated by dopaminergic plasticity of the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of two protocols for treadmill walking exercise testing in ambulating subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, E; Wouda, M F; Strøm, V

    2017-05-23

    This is a comparative study of two exercise testing protocols. The objective of this study was to compare maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and achieved criteria for maximal exercise testing between the Sunnaas Protocol-a newly designed treadmill exercise test protocol-and the Modified Bruce Protocol in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was conducted in Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Norway. Twenty persons (19 men) with incomplete SCI (AIS D) capable of ambulating without assistive devices performed two treadmill walking exercise tests (Sunnaas Protocol and Modified Bruce Protocol) until exhaustion 1-3 days apart. The key differences between the protocols are the smaller increments in speed and shorter duration on each workload in the Sunnaas Protocol. Cardiovascular responses were measured continuously throughout both tests. The subjects exhibited statistically significantly higher VO2 max when using the Sunnaas Protocol (37.1±9.9 vs 35.4±9.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P=0.01), with a mean between-test difference of 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (95% confidence interval: 0.49-3.16). There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate (HR max). Nineteen (95%) subjects achieved at least three of the four criteria for maximal oxygen uptake using the Sunnaas Protocol. Thirteen (65%) subjects achieved at least three of the criteria using a Modified Bruce protocol. The small differences in both VO2 max and achieved criteria in favor of the Sunnaas Protocol suggest that it could be a useful alternative treadmill exercise test protocol for ambulating persons with incomplete SCI.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 23 May 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.34.

  11. Clinical usefulness of carotid ultrasonography in patients with an inconclusive exercise treadmill stress test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay, Can Yucel; Kocabay, Gonenc; Guler, Ahmet; Kalayci, Arzu; Akgun, Taylan; Kirma, Cevat

    2014-07-01

    Although a treadmill exercise stress testing (EST) is often the first-line screening procedure for subjects with an intermediate probability of coronary artery disease (CAD), one limitation of this test is the high rate of inconclusive tests that result from borderline exercise-induced ST changes. The carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) correlates well with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of performing CIMT measurements in patients with an inconclusive EST. Symptomatic patients without history of vascular disease and with inconclusive EST result were included. Inconclusive results were defined as the presence of horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression between 0.5 and 0.9 mm or 1.0 and 1.4 mm upsloping ST-segment depression. After inconclusive EST regarding electrocardiographic changes, the measurements of the CIMT and myocardial perfusion imaging study (MPS) were performed in all patients. The CIMT was measured at the posterior wall of the common carotid artery. The diagnosis of CAD was based on the presence of reversible perfusion defects on exercise MPS. A total of 87 patients (57 men) with a mean age of 58.9 ± 7.2 years were enrolled. The MPS was positive in 18 patients. The CIMT in patients with positive MPS was significantly greater than in patients with negative MPS. The CIMT was 0.82 ± 0.33 mm in patients with positive MPS and 0.63 ± 0.21 mm in patients with negative MPS (p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the greatest specificity was obtained when the cut-off value of CIMT was set at 0.66 mm (sensitivity 39%; specificity 72.5%; positive predictive value 27%; negative predictive value 82%). In patients with inconclusive electrocardiographic changes during EST, CIMT was a useful measurement to prevent alternative more expensive and invasive tests. Additionally, mean CIMT is useful for screening patients with an inconclusive EST result to exclude CAD

  12. Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Ghadi, Arezoo; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats. Methods This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05. Results The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05). Conclusions The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.

  13. Exercise Treadmill Test in Detecting Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Kyoung Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe present study was designed to develop criteria for screening patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD.MethodsA total of 213 patients with T2DM without typical angina or chest pain were studied between 2002 and 2007. We also evaluated 53 patients with T2DM who had reported chest discomfort using an exercise treadmill test (ETT.ResultsThirty-one of the 213 asymptomatic patients had positive ETT results. We performed coronary angiography on 23 of the 31 patients with a positive ETT and found that 11 of them had significant coronary stenosis. The main differences between the patients with significant stenosis and those with a negative ETT were age (63.1±9.4 vs. 53.7±10.1 years, P=0.008 and duration of diabetes (16.0±7.5 vs. 5.5±5.7 years, P<0.001. The positive predictive value (PPV of the ETT was calculated to be 47.8%. The PPV of the ETT increased to 87.5% in elderly patients (≥60 years with a long duration of diabetes (≥10 years. The latter value is similar to that of patients with T2DM who presented with chest discomfort or exertional dyspnea. The PPV of the ETT in symptomatic patients was 76.9%.ConclusionIn the interest of cost-effectiveness, screening for asymptomatic CAD could be limited to elderly patients with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years.

  14. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Park

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  15. Selective improvement of cognitive function in adult and aged APP/PS1 transgenic mice by continuous non-shock treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hsing-Chieh; Huang, Hei-Jen; Liang, Keng-Chen; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei

    2011-07-27

    Exercise may contribute to prevention of the cognitive decline and delay the onset of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the effects of continuous non-shock treadmill exercise in adult and aged male APP/PS1 double mutant transgenic mice. Adult (7-8 month-old) and aged (24 month-old) male APP/PS1 transgenic and wild-type mice were randomly assigned to either sedentary or exercise groups. The exercise program included a one-week treadmill acclimatization to adapt to the novel environment. After acclimation, mice ran on a treadmill 5 days/week until sacrificed for pathological analyses. During exercise training, no tail shock was used in the exercise paradigm; only gentle tail touching was used to induce the mice to run, to minimize the stress otherwise associated with treadmill exercise. We found that the exercise program selectively improved the spatial learning and memory associated with an increase in both cholinergic neurons in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band (VDB) and serotonergic neurons in the raphe nucleus of aged APP/PS1 transgenic mice. In adult APP/PS1 transgenic mice, the exercise paradigm increased exploratory activity and reduced anxiety with an associated increase in numbers of serotonergic neurons in the raphe nucleus. In addition, the exercise paradigm also reduced amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) levels and microglia activation, but not enough to reduce the plaque loading in the hippocampus of the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that there may exist an age-related difference in the effect of continuous non-shock treadmill exercise training on AD.

  16. Treadmill exercise promotes neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury via downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying Zhang,1,* Richard Y Cao,2,* Xinling Jia,3,* Qing Li,1 Lei Qiao,1 Guofeng Yan,4 Jian Yang1 1Department of Rehabilitation, 2Laboratory of Immunology, Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3School of Life sciences, Shanghai University, 4School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which is associated with serious physical deficits that affect daily living and quality of life and produces immense public health and economic burdens. Both clinical and experimental data suggest that early physical training after ischemic brain injury may reduce the extent of motor dysfunction. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroprotection and understand the underlying mechanisms.Materials and methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was conducted to establish a rat model of cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury to mimic ischemic stroke. Experimental animals were divided into the following three groups: sham (n=34, MCAO (n=39, and MCAO plus treadmill exercise (n=28. The effects of aerobic exercise intervention on ischemic brain injury were evaluated using functional scoring, histological analysis, and Bio-Plex Protein Assays.Results: Early aerobic exercise intervention was found to improve motor function, prevent death of neuronal cells, and suppress the activation of microglial cells and astrocytes. Furthermore, it was observed that aerobic exercise downregulated the expression of the cytokine interleukin-1β and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 after transient MCAO in experimental rats.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that treadmill exercise rehabilitation promotes neuroprotection against cerebral

  17. Effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, plasma lactate and stride length responses to intense treadmill exercise in Standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallings, P; Persson, S G B; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-11-01

    Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, on account of their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, are used in both racing and equestrian sport horses, the question has been raised as to whether these drugs affect the physiological responses to exercise and thus performance potential. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and locomotor parameters in horses during intense treadmill exercise. Six Standardbred trotters underwent an incremental treadmill exercise test to fatigue, without drug and then after administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.m.). Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake and stride length were measured and venous blood samples drawn repeatedly during the test. Heart rates were found to be significantly higher at submaximal speeds, while the velocity causing a HR of 200 beats/min was significantly decreased after treatment with flunixin. Maximal HR and plasma lactate concentration 5 min after exercise were unchanged after medication. Flunixin caused higher plasma lactate concentrations at all speeds and the lactate threshold was decreased, compared with baseline values. Oxygen uptake levelled off at the highest velocities and did not change after flunixin treatment. Stride length was increased after treatment, although not at the highest velocities. The increased HR and lactate responses to exercise after flunixin treatment indicate that it does influence physiological responses, but does not improve the performance potential of clinically healthy horses. However, the lengthened stride during submaximal exercise after medication could imply undetected subclinical lameness, masked in some of the horses, i.e. they have performed with a longer stride at the cost of a higher heart rate and an increased lactate concentration. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Treadmill exercise within lower-body negative pressure attenuates simulated spaceflight-induced reductions of balance abilities in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Timothy R; Macias, Brandon R; Lee, Stuart Mc; Boda, Wanda L; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in balance deficiencies on return to a gravitational environment. Treadmill exercise within lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) helps protect physiological function during microgravity as simulated by bed rest. Therefore, we hypothesized that treadmill exercise within LBNP would prevent balance losses in both male and female identical twins during 30 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest. Fifteen (seven female and eight male) identical twin sets participated in this simulation of microgravity. Within each twin pair, one twin was randomly assigned to an exercise group that performed 40 min of supine treadmill exercise within LBNP set to generate 1.0-1.2 body weight, followed by 5 min of static feet-supported LBNP, 6 days per week. Their identical sibling was assigned to a non-exercise control group with all other bed rest conditions equivalent. Before and immediately after bed rest, subjects completed standing and walking rail balance tests with eyes open and eyes closed. In control subjects, standing rail balance times (men: -42%, women: -40%), rail walk distances (men: -44%, women: -32%) and rail walk times (men: -34%, women: -31%) significantly decreased after bed rest. Compared with controls, treadmill exercise within LBNP significantly attenuated losses of standing rail balance time by 63% in men, but the 41% attenuation in women was not significant. Treadmill exercise within LBNP did not affect rail walk abilities in men or women. Treadmill exercise within LBNP during simulated spaceflight attenuates loss of balance control in men but not in women.

  19. Evaluation of the impact of exercise of gait on a treadmill on balance of people who suffered from cerebral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drużbicki, Mariusz; Przysada, Grzegorz; Guzik, Agnieszka; Kwolek, Andrzej; Brzozowska-Magoń, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to define the impact of exercise on a treadmill on static balance and stability of posture in a group of patients after cerebral stroke rehabilitated in a late period, with an application of a treadmill with the function of visual biofeedback. The examination was carried out in a group of 46 people in a late period after ischemic cerebral stroke. The patients examined were randomly put to a group with intervention (n = 23), in which a rehabilitation programme with an application of a treadmill with the visual feedback function was realized and to a control group (n = 23). They evaluated balance in standing on both feet by means of a force plate, symmetry of load of lower limbs and dynamic balance in Up & Go test. A statistically significant change of stabilometric parameters was observed only in the area of postural sways of the centre of pressure (COP). A significant improvement of the symmetry of load of lower limbs in standing (p = 0.0266) was diagnosed in the examined group after the end of the programme. After the end of the programme no significant difference between the group with intervention and the control group as for a change of balance of the examined patients was found. In the examined group in the chronic period after cs no significant improvement of stabilometrically evaluated balance was obtained, but improvement of the symmetry of load of lower limbs as well as improvement of dynamic balance were observed.

  20. Comparison of arbutamine stress and treadmill exercise thallium-201 SPECT: Hemodynamics, safety profile and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiat, H.; Berman, D.S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, California, LA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Full text: Arbutamine (ARB), a new pharmacologic stress agent with enhanced chronotropic property compared to dobutamine, was compared with treadmill (TM) exercise testing (Ex) in a multicenter study using thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT. Of the total of 184 patients who underwent ARB, 69 also had TM stress and quantitative coronary angiography. Fifty-eight patients with a low pretest likelihood of CAD also underwent ARB study for evaluation of test specificity (normalcy rate). Tl scans were scored by a central laboratory using a 20 segment (seg)/scan visual analysis (5 point system: 0=normal, 4-absent uptake). Maximum heart rate (HR) by ARB and Ex was 122 vs 141 bpm (p<0.05). Mean %HR change from baseline was similar (79% vs 82%, respectively, p=ns). Maximum systolic BP for ARB and Ex was 173 vs 175 mmHg, and mean % change from baseline was 24% vs 28% (p=ns). Sensitivity for detecting CAD (270% stenosis) by ARB Tl was 94% and 97% by Ex Tl (p=ns). Stress Tl SPECT segmental agreement for presence of defect between ARB and Ex was 92% (kappa=0.8, p<0.001). Exact segmental stress Tl score (0-4 grading) agreement was 83 % (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). Among 346 segs with stress defects by both ARB and Ex defect reversibility agreement was 86% (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). The normalcy rate for ARB TI-SPECT among patients with a low likelihood of CAD was 90%. Adverse events were mostly mild (tremor: 23%, flushing: 10%, headache: 10%, paraesthesia: 8%, dizziness: 8%, hot flushes: 4%). Arrhythimia of clinical concern occurred in 8% (10/122) of ARB patients who had cardiac catheterisation and in 1.4% (1/69) of patients who had stress Tl. Of all 184 patients with ARB stress, ARB was discontinued due to arrhythmia in 7(5%) and 1 patient had IV Metoprolol for frequent ventricular couplets. Sustained arrhythmias were not observed

  1. Assessment of heart rate response to exercise and recovery during treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Gunduzoz, Meside; Ayturk, Mehmet; Tek Ozturk, Mujgan; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Omer Hinc

    2017-09-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic function via heart rate response to exercise and recovery period of treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers. Sixty-five (65) occupationally arsenic-exposed workers and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood and urinary arsenic levels were analyzed and symptom limited maximal treadmill exercise test were performed. Chronotropic response to exercise including age-predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR), heart rate reserve (HRreserve ), age-predicted HRreserve (APHRreserve ) and adjusted HRreserve and 1st-, 2nd-and 3rd-min heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic parameters, exercise test duration, resting and maximal heart rate, peak exercise capacity, HRreserve , APMHR, APHRreserve , and adjusted HRreserve were found to be similar between groups. HRR1 (22.0 ± 4.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.1 bpm, p = .003) and HRR2 (43.2 ± 6.2 vs. 46.7 ± 6.4 bpm, p = .012) were significantly lower in arsenic-exposed workers compared to controls. Blood and urinary arsenic levels negatively correlated with HRR1 (r = -.477, p < .001 and r = -.438, p < .001, respectively) and HRR2 (r = -.507, p < .001 and r = -.412, p < .001 respectively). Arsenic-exposed workers had lower HRR indices than normal subjects but chronotropic response were similar. Cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be one of the cardiovascular consequences of arsenic exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impact of Stimulant Medication Use on Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise Treadmill Testing in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Arthur N; Nakonezny, Paul A; Adinoff, Bryon; Brown, Edson Sherwood; Halm, Ethan A

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriately decreased heart rate (HR) during peak exercise and delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) has been observed in adult users of stimulant medications who underwent exercise testing, suggesting autonomic adaptation to chronic stimulant exposure. In the general population, this pattern of hemodynamic changes is associated with increased mortality risk. Whether the same pattern of hemodynamic changes might be observed in adolescent stimulant medication users undergoing exercise testing is unknown. Among adolescents (aged 12 to 20 years) that underwent submaximal exercise treadmill testing from 1999 to 2004 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, propensity score matching of stimulant medication users (n = 89) to matched nonusers (n = 267) was conducted. Testing consisted of a 3-minute warm-up period, two 3-minute exercise stages, and three 1-minute recovery periods, with the goal of reaching 75% of the predicted HR maximum. A linear mixed model analysis was used to evaluate the effect of stimulant exposure on each of the exercise outcomes. Stimulant medication users compared to matched nonusers had a lower peak HR in Stage 2 (154.9 vs. 158.3 beats/minute [bpm], p = 0.055) and lower HR at 1-minute recovery (142.2 vs. 146.4 bpm, p = 0.030). However, submaximal HRR at 1 minute did not differ between stimulant users and matched nonusers (13.0 vs. 12.1 bpm, p = 0.38). Duration of stimulant use was not related to these outcomes. Adolescent stimulant medication users compared to matched nonusers demonstrated a trend toward decreased HR during submaximal exercise, which is potential evidence of chronic adaptation with stimulant exposure. There was no evidence for delayed HRR in this study, and thus, no evidence for decreased parasympathetic activity during initial exercise recovery. Exercise testing outcomes may have utility in future research as a method to assess stimulant-associated autonomic nervous system adaptations.

  3. Comparison of two-hand kettlebell exercise and graded treadmill walking: effectiveness as a stimulus for cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James F; Larson, Kurtis L; Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Prevailing interest in the use of kettlebell (KB) exercises for rehabilitation and improvement of muscular strength has led to several recent studies, some suggesting that KB exercise may be useful for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KB exercise would produce similar cardiovascular stress to that of walking and thus provide an additional exercise mode for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. It was hypothesized that a moderate-intensity, continuous KB protocol, would produce similar metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses as a brisk bout of graded treadmill (TM) walking, but greater rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten novice volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a preliminary session to determine body composition and VO2max and to familiarize participants with standardized KB exercise technique. Subsequently, they completed a 30-minute KB session that included 3 continuous 10-minute sets of 10 KB swings followed by 10 sumo deadlifts, with 3-minute rests between 10-minute exercise periods. The third session was a 30-minute TM regimen that began at the walking speed and 4% grade that matched the VO2 from the KB session and included 3-minute rest intervals after 10-minute TM exercise periods. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, kcal·min, and blood pressure were similar for KB and moderate-intensity TM exercise, but RPE and heart rate were greater during KB exercise. Data indicate that a KB routine consisting of 2-hand swings and sumo deadlifts with 3-minute rest periods produces similar metabolic responses to those of a moderate-intensity TM walking protocol designed for the improvement of aerobic fitness.

  4. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of cognitive function by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods for managing obesity, and exercise exerts positive effects on various brain functions. Excessive weight gain is known to be related to the impairment of cognitive function. High-fat diet-induced obesity impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity, which impedes cognitive function, such as learning ability and memory function. In this study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on impairment of cognitive function in relation with hippo...

  5. Gender differences in the variables of exercise treadmill test in type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise capacity, like some other variables of exercise stress test, is a ... Many confounding factors, including gender, have been found to affect exercise capacity. ... Males had faster heart rate recovery (HRR) than females.

  6. Gender differences in the variables of exercise treadmill test in type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males had faster heart rate recovery (HRR) than females. ... maximal workload achieved or maximal oxygen ... Recovery time: Time between end of exercise ..... and elevated exercise SBP and exercise capacity in athletes.[35] However, this ...

  7. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of cognitive function by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2016-06-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods for managing obesity, and exercise exerts positive effects on various brain functions. Excessive weight gain is known to be related to the impairment of cognitive function. High-fat diet-induced obesity impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity, which impedes cognitive function, such as learning ability and memory function. In this study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on impairment of cognitive function in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity using high-fat diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by a 20-week high-fat (60%) diet, treadmill exercise was performed for 12 weeks. In the present results, cognitive function was impaired in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosin kinase B (TrkB) expression and cell proliferation were decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive function through enhancing neuroplasticity, including increased expression of BDNF and TrkB and enhanced cell proliferation. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise enhances hippocampal neuroplasticity, and then potentially plays a protective role against obesity-induced cognitive impairment.

  8. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  9. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, J Y; Li, S C; Sun, Y X; Zhang, X S; Dong, Z Z; Zhong, P; Sun, X R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P memory of the AD mice in the water maze test. Meanwhile, treadmill exercise significantly increased the number of BDNF-positive cells and decreased the ratios of activated microglia in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise did not significantly alleviate the accumulation of β-amyloid in either the cerebral cortex or the hippocampus of the AD mice (P > 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  10. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  11. The effects of in-flight treadmill exercise on postflight orthostatic tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Steven F.; Charles, John B.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight aerobic exercise is thought to decrease the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Two deconditioning characteristics are the decreases in aerobic capacity (maximum O2 uptake) and an increased cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress (supine to standing). Changes in both parameters were examined after Shuttle flights of 8 to 11 days in astronauts who performed no in-flight exercise, a lower than normal volume of exercise, and a near-normal volume of exercise. The exercise regimen was a traditional continuous protocol. Maximum O2 uptake was maintained in astronauts who completed a near-normal exercise volume of in-flight exercise. Cardiovascular responses to stand test were equivocal among the groups. The use of the traditional exercise regimen as a means to maintain adequate orthostatic responses produced equivocal responses. A different exercise prescription may be more effective in maintaining both exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance.

  12. Changes in cardiovascular performance, biochemistry, gastric motility and muscle temperature induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R W; Silva, V L; Rocha, D R; Costa, D S; Turco, S H N; Silva, M T B; Santos, A A; Oliveira, M B L; Pereira, A S R; Palheta-Junior, R C

    2016-12-29

    Changes in physiological parameters that are induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs have not been thoroughly investigated, especially with regard to age. This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on a treadmill on cardiovascular function, biochemical parameters and gastric antral motility in military dogs. Thermography was used to assess variations in superficial hindlimb muscle temperature. Nine healthy dogs were distributed into three groups according to their age (Group I: 25 ± 7 months; Group II: 51 ± 12 months; Group III: 95 ± 10 months) and sequentially subjected to running exercise on a treadmill for 12 min (3.2 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min, 6.4 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min and 6.4 km/h at 10° incline for 4 min). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), gastric motility, haematocrit and biochemical analyses were performed at rest and after each session of treadmill exercise. Infrared thermographic images of muscles in the pelvic member were taken. Exercise decreased DAP in Group I, increased systolic arterial pressure in Groups II and III and increased mean arterial pressure in Group III (all p exercise protocol, plasma creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased only in Group I (p Exercise increased heart rate and decreased the gastric motility of a solid meal at 180 min in all groups (all p Exercise also elevated temperature in the femoral biceps muscles in Group I compared with the older dogs. The results indicate that acute exercise decreased gastric motility in dogs, regardless of age, and caused more pronounced cardiovascular changes in older dogs than in younger dogs. Acute exercise also altered biochemical parameters and superficial hindlimb muscle temperature in younger military dogs.

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing early after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: test-retest reliability and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-10-11

    Exercise capacity is seriously reduced after stroke. While cardiopulmonary assessment and intervention strategies have been validated for the mildly and moderately impaired populations post-stroke, there is a lack of effective concepts for stroke survivors suffering from severe motor limitations. This study investigated the test-retest reliability and repeatability of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) in severely motor impaired individuals early after stroke. 20 subjects (age 44-84 years, stroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulatory Classification 0-2) were selected for consecutive constant load testing (CLT) and incremental exercise testing (IET) within a powered exoskeleton, synchronised with a treadmill and a body weight support system. A manual human-in-the-loop feedback system was used to guide individual work rate levels. Outcome variables focussed on standard cardiopulmonary performance parameters. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Mean difference, limits of agreement, and coefficient of variation (CoV) were estimated to assess repeatability. Peak performance parameters during IET yielded good to excellent relative reliability: absolute peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.82), relative peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.72), peak work rate (ICC =0.91), peak heart rate (ICC =0.80), absolute gas exchange threshold (ICC =0.91), relative gas exchange threshold (ICC =0.88), oxygen cost of work (ICC =0.87), oxygen pulse at peak oxygen uptake (ICC =0.92), ventilation rate versus carbon dioxide output slope (ICC =0.78). For these variables, SEM was 4-13%, MDC 12-36%, and CoV 0.10-0.36. CLT revealed high mean differences and insufficient test-retest reliability for all variables studied. This study presents first evidence on

  14. Comparative Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Mature BDNF Production in Control versus Stroke Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Quirié, Aurore; Hervieu, Marie; Garnier, Philippe; Demougeot, Céline; Mossiat, Claude; Bertrand, Nathalie; Martin, Alain; Marie, Christine; Prigent-Tessier, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise constitutes an innovative strategy to treat deficits associated with stroke through the promotion of BDNF-dependent neuroplasticity. However, there is no consensus on the optimal intensity/duration of exercise. In addition, whether previous stroke changes the effect of exercise on the brain is not known. Therefore, the present study compared the effects of a clinically-relevant form of exercise on cerebral BDNF levels and localization in control versus stroke rats. For this ...

  15. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  16. Mini-Treadmill for Musculoskeletal Health Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc. is developing a novel Miniature Treadmill with resistive exercise capability for use in spaceflight exercise countermeasures and broad...

  17. Mini-Treadmill for Musculoskeletal Health Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc. proposes a novel Miniature Treadmill with resistive exercise capability for use in spaceflight exercise countermeasures and broad terrestrial...

  18. Autonomic control of vasomotion in the porcine coronary circulation during treadmill exercise: evidence for feed-forward beta-adrenergic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); R. Stubenitsky (René); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo date, no studies have investigated coronary vasomotor control of myocardial O2 delivery (MDO2) and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system in the porcine heart during treadmill exercise. We studied 8 chronically instrumented swine under resting

  19. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles.(1) We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (pincrease in TTT (pincrease in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  20. Effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii and treadmill walking exercise on balance and walking for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yo-Soon; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii on balance and walking for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients with stroke were randomly divided into two exercise program groups: virtual reality training (n=20) and treadmill (n=20). The subjects underwent their 40-minute exercise program three times a week for eight weeks. Their balance and walking were measured before and after the complete program. We measured the left/right weight-bearing and the anterior/posterior weight-bearing for balance, as well as stance phase, swing phase, and cadence for walking. [Results] For balance, both groups showed significant differences in the left/right and anterior/posterior weight-bearing, with significant post-program differences between the groups. For walking, there were significant differences in the stance phase, swing phase, and cadence of the virtual reality training group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that virtual reality training providing visual feedback may enable stroke patients to directly adjust their incorrect weight center and shift visually. Virtual reality training may be appropriate for patients who need improved balance and walking ability by inducing their interest for them to perform planned exercises on a consistent basis.

  1. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Il Yong; Son, Yeri; Byeon, Seul Kee; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-07-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of treadmill exercise on 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor and brain derived neurophic factor in rats after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaofang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Wan; Zheng, Zongju; Wu, Yuan; Zeng, Qian; Liu, Shudong; Liu, Ke; Li, Guangqin

    2014-05-01

    It has been well documented that exercise promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with cerebral ischemia. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to discuss the effect of treadmill exercise on expression levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) in rat brains after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). A total of 55 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: pMCAO group, pMCAO and treadmill exercise (pMCAO + Ex) group, and sham-operated group. Rats in pMCAO + Ex group underwent treadmill exercise for 16 days. Neurological function was evaluated by modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS). High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system was used to determine the content of 5-HT in cortex tissues. The protein levels of 5-HT1AR, BDNF and synaptophysin were measured by Western blot. The mNSS in pMCAO + Ex group was lower than that in pMCAO group on day 19 post-MCAO (p exercise (p exercise improves neurologic function, enhances neuronal plasticity and upregulates the levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1AR and BDNF in rats with pMCAO.

  3. Exercise treadmill saline contrast echocardiography for the detection of patent foramen ovale in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Brett E; Freeman, Andrew M; Silveira, Lori; Buckner, J Kern; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Carroll, John D

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder placement improves dyspnea and oxygen requirement in hypoxic patients with PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS). Although saline contrast echocardiography (SCE) in the resting state can identify PFO RTLS, SCE performed with exercise stress testing may provide incremental diagnostic yield compared to rest SCE. We evaluated the ability of exercise SCE to predict PFO presence and size using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as a gold standard in a hypoxic cohort. Thirty-three hypoxic patients with suspected PFO RTLS who underwent rest, Valsalva, and exercise stress SCE prior to ICE were evaluated retrospectively. PFO RTLS was defined by ICE findings including PFO anatomy, RTLS by saline contrast and color Doppler, and probe patency. SCE shunt severity was compared to the presence of ICE-defined PFO RTLS and PFO size. Exercise SCE for the detection of PFO RTLS performed with an area under the curve of 0.77, sensitivity of 73%, and specificity of 86%. Among 26 patients with PFO RTLS, exercise SCE identified four additional patients with PFO that had negative rest SCE and two patients with negative Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE had a stronger correlation with PFO size than resting or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE detects PFO RTLS and predicts PFO size in a hypoxic cohort. In addition, exercise SCE can identify PFO RTLS that is otherwise undetected with rest or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE may be appropriate when a clinical suspicion for PFO RTLS persists despite negative rest and Valsalva SCE.

  4. Cardiovascular rehabilitation soon after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: study protocol of a randomised controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Schindelholz, Matthias; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2013-09-22

    After experiencing a stroke, most individuals also suffer from cardiac disease, are immobile and thus have low endurance for exercise. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in these individuals and does not reach reasonable levels after conventional rehabilitation programmes. Cardiovascular exercise is beneficial for improvement of aerobic capacity in mild to moderate stroke. However, less is known about its impact on aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life in severely impaired individuals. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the clinical efficacy and feasibility of cardiovascular exercise with regard to aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise in non-ambulatory individuals soon after experiencing a stroke. This will be a single-centred single blind, randomised control trial with a pre-post intervention design. Subjects will be recruited early after their first stroke (≤20 weeks) at a neurological rehabilitation clinic and will be randomly allocated to an inpatient cardiovascular exercise programme that uses feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (experimental) or to conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (control). Intervention duration depends on the duration of each subject's inpatient rehabilitation period. Aerobic capacity, as the primary outcome measure, will be assessed using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary outcome measures will include gait speed, walking endurance, standing function, and quality-of-life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, after each 4-week intervention period, and before clinical discharge. Ethical approval has been obtained. Whether cardiovascular exercise in non-ambulatory individuals early after stroke has an impact on aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life is not yet known. Feedback-controlled robotics

  5. Moderate Treadmill Exercise Protects Synaptic Plasticity of the Dentate Gyrus and Related Signaling Cascade in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, An T; Zagaar, Munder A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2015-12-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is known to be more resistant to the effects of various external factors than other hippocampal areas. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of moderate treadmill exercise on early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) and its molecular signaling pathways in the DG of amyloid β rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animals were preconditioned to run on treadmill for 4 weeks and concurrently received ICV infusion of Aβ₁₋₄₂ peptides (250 pmol/day) during the third and fourth weeks of exercise training. We utilized in vivo electrophysiological recordings to assess the effect of exercise and/or AD pathology on basal synaptic transmission and E-LTP magnitude of the perforant pathway synapses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Immunoblotting analysis was used to quantify changes in the levels of learning and memory-related key signaling molecules. The AD-impaired basal synaptic transmission and suppression of E-LTP in the DG were prevented by prior moderate treadmill exercise. In addition, exercise normalized the basal levels of memory and E-LTP-related signaling molecules including Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calcineurin (PP2B), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Exercise also prevented the reduction of phosphorylated CaMKII and aberrant increase of PP2B seen after E-LTP induction in amyloid-infused rats. Our data suggests that by restoring the balance of kinase-phosphatase, 4 weeks of moderate treadmill exercise prevents DG synaptic deficits and deleterious alterations in signaling pathways associated with AD.

  6. The effect of exercise intensity on cognitive performance during short duration treadmill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Mike

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT (p = 0.01, the omission error rate (p = 0.027 and the decision error rate (p = 0.011, with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039 and rest (p = 0.023. Mean ± SE of RT (ms was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003 and rest (p = 0.001. Mean ± SE of omission errors (% was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (% was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise.

  7. The effect of exercise intensity on cognitive performance during short duration treadmill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Mike

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT (p = 0.01, the omission error rate (p = 0.027 and the decision error rate (p = 0.011, with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039 and rest (p = 0.023. Mean ± SE of RT (ms was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003 and rest (p = 0.001. Mean ± SE of omission errors (% was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (% was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise.

  8. Novel mechanistic insights into treadmill exercise based rescue of social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Ansari, Amber; Allam, Farida; Jannise, Brittany; Maturi, Jaganmohan; Salim, Samina

    2014-05-10

    Social defeat (SD) induced stress causes physiological and behavioral deficits in rodents, including depression and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as memory impairment. Anxiolytic and mood elevating effects of physical exercise are also known. However, rescue effect of physical exercise in social defeat-induced anxiety, depression or memory impairment has not been addressed. The role of epigenetic mechanisms that potentially contribute to these rescue or protective effects is also not known. The present study investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behavior and memory function in rats subjected to SD using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (defeat). Changes in histone acetylation and histone-modifying enzymes were examined in hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex which are considered critical for anxiety, depression and cognition. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned in four groups; control, exercised, social defeat, social defeat and exercise. At the end of the SD or control exposure lasting 30 min daily for 7 days, one group of SD rats was subjected to treadmill exercise for 2 weeks, whereas the other SD group was handled without exercise. Anxiety-like behavior tests and radial arm water maze test suggested that moderate treadmill exercise rescued social defeat induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Moreover, exercise normalized SD-induced increase in oxidative stress, most likely by adjusting antioxidant response. Our data suggests involvement of epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation of H3 and modulation of methyl-CpG-binding in the hippocampus that might contribute to the rescue effects of exercise in SD-induced behavioral deficits in rats.

  9. Infrared LED irradiation applied during high-intensity treadmill training improves maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women: a 6-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Corazza, Adalberto Vieira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Reduced aerobic fitness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases among the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LED irradiation (850 nm) applied during treadmill training on the maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women. At the beginning of the study, 45 postmenopausal women were assigned randomly to three groups, and 30 women completed the entire 6 months of the study. The groups were: (1) the LED group (treadmill training associated with phototherapy, n = 10), (2) the exercise group (treadmill training, n = 10), and (3) the sedentary group (neither physical training nor phototherapy, n = 10). The training was performed for 45 min twice a week for 6 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HRmax). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2), 45 min and 108 J/cm(2). The cardiovascular parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 months. As expected, no significant differences were found in the sedentary group (p ≥ 0.05). The maximal time of tolerance (Tlim), metabolic equivalents (METs) and Bruce stage reached significantly higher values in the LED group and the exercise group (p training (delta values) for the Tlim, METs and HR at isotime were greater in the LED group than in the exercise group with a significant intergroup difference (p training can improve maximal performance and post-exercise recovery in postmenopausal women.

  10. Positive Prehabilitative Effect of Intense Treadmill Exercise for Ameliorating Cancer Cachexia Symptoms in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hyunseok; Chang, Ji-Eun; Yang, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the importance of exercise in prehabilitation, we conducted this study to understand the effects of different exercise intensities on cancer-related cachexia. Forty adult male CDF1 mice were randomly divided into a non-cancer control group (N=10, NC), cancer control group (N=10, CC), cancer with moderate exercise group (N=10, ME, 70% maxHR), and cancer with intense exercise group (N=10, SE, 90% maxHR) for obtaining data such as tissue weight and body weight changes, quality of life (QoL) indicators, and levels of cytokines and a muscle homeostasis regulatory protein. We verified that mouse colonic carcinoma cancer cells metastasized based on our observation that the weight of CC group lungs was almost 87% greater than NC group lungs. Survival rates of SE, NC, ME, and CC groups were 100%, 100%, 80%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.01). Other results such as tissue and body weight changes, QoL indicators, and protein analyses also supported our hypothesis that the SE group had improved survival compared to CC and ME groups (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise, especially intense exercise, improves QoL and survival rate and prevents muscle atrophy. These data suggest that exercise is an optimal prehabilitation choice to alleviate the negative impacts of cancer cachexia. PMID:27994677

  11. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals.

  12. Clinical Significance of Abnormal Heart Rate Recovery after Treadmill Exercise Test in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-feng HONG; Hao ZHANG; Ye-xin MA; He-song ZENG; Yuan WEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the values of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after treadmill exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods One hundred and seventy-eight consecutive cases of suspected CAD who underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise test (TET) and coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled and di-vided into normal and abnormal HRR group based on the status of the values of HRR one or two minutes after TET. The clinical characteristics, TET parameters and CAG results of the two groups were compared attempted to assess the value of HRR on patients with CAD. Results (1) The cases of smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM) and ST segment de-viation at rest in abnormal HRR group were more significantly than those in normal HRR group (all P < 0. 05). (2) The subjects of abnormal HRR usually had higher basal heart rate, more cases exhibited ST segment abnormality and or exercise-limited angina during or after TET(P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), but lower level of peak heart rate attained (P<0.05) than those in normal group. The values of metabolism equivalents and duration of TET between the two groups displayed phenomenal difference (P<0.05). There were more samples acquired moderate to high level of Duke test score and chronotropic incompetence in the group of abnormal HRR, compared to the normal HRR group (P<0.01). (3) The cases of negative CAG results in the group of normal and abnormal HRR group were 73 (66.97 % ) and 24 (34.78 %). Cases of significant coronary lesions (at least one major coronary vessel ≥ 50 % stenosis) a-mongst the subgroup of positive CAG were 36 (33.03 % ) and 45 (65.22 %), severe coronary lesions (three-vessel, left main or the equivalents of left main) were 10 (9.17 % ) and 17 (24.64 %) for normal and abnormal HRR respec-tively (P<0.01). Accordingly, the Gensini scores in the subunit of abnormal HRR increased. (4)Linear correlation analysis indicate there was a negative correlation between the values of HRR in

  13. Moderate treadmill exercise rescues anxiety and depression-like behavior as well as memory impairment in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Li, Lumeng; Allam, Farida; Solanki, Naimesh; Dao, An T; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2014-05-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition which can develop from exposure to a severe traumatic event such as those occurring during wars or natural disasters. Benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered the gold standard for PTSD treatment, but their side effects pose a serious problem. While regular physical exercise is regarded as a mood elevator and known to enhance cognitive function, its direct role in rescuing core symptoms of PTSD including anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive impairment is unclear. In the present study using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, and 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure), we examined the beneficial effect of moderate treadmill exercise on SPS-induced behavioral deficits including anxiety and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (sedentary), exercised, SPS (no exercise), or SPS-exercised. Rats were exercised on a rodent treadmill for 14 consecutive days. Rats in all groups were tested for anxiety-like behaviors using open field (OF), light-dark and elevated-plus maze tests. All rats were tested for short-term and long-term memory in the radial arm water maze test. Rats were then sacrificed, blood was collected (for corticosterone levels), and individual organs (spleen, adrenals, and thymus) harvested. Results suggest that moderate physical exercise ameliorates SPS-induced behavioral deficits in rats.

  14. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb.

  15. Test-retest reproducibility of heart rate recovery after treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Ammar, K Afzal; Thomas, Randal; Wollan, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Slowed heart rate recovery (HRR) of less than 12 beats per minute in the first minute after an exercise stress test has been suggested as a useful addition to the criteria currently used to assess exercise stress test results. Although HRR has been tested in large populations, the short-term test-retest stability (reproducibility) of abnormal HRR for an individual has not been assessed. The study was a retrospective comparison of medical record information using a community-practice-based sample of 90 patients undergoing 2 exercise stress tests separated by 18 weeks or less. Concordance of abnormal HRR results on the first and second stress tests were assessed for individual patients using definitions of abnormal HRR from the medical literature. Individual patient's HRR was markedly variable from the first to second stress test. In this sample, no definition of abnormal HRR provided more than 55% concordance between results from the first and second stress tests. These preliminary data suggest that HRR appears to have limited short-term test-retest stability or reproducibility and therefore might not be a reliable addition to current results of exercise stress tests.

  16. Positive Effects of Specific Exercise and Novel Turning-based Treadmill Training on Turning Performance in Individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yu; Yang, Yea-Ru; Chen, Li-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2016-01-01

    Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n = 12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p = 0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p = 0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD. PMID:27628128

  17. Treadmill exercise rehabilitation improves ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macko, Richard F; Ivey, Frederick M; Forrester, Larry W; Hanley, Daniel; Sorkin, John D; Katzel, Leslie I; Silver, Kenneth H; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    .... We investigated whether treadmill aerobic training (T-AEX) is more effective than conventional rehabilitation to improve ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in patients with chronic stroke...

  18. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  19. Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Cláudia; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Odorcyk, Felipe Kawa; Nicola, Fabrício; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-02-16

    Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training. Animals of all ages were assigned to naïve (with no behavioral or exercise training), sedentary (non-exercised, with cognitive training) and exercised (20 min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks and with cognitive training) groups. Cognition was assessed by reference and working memory tasks run in the Morris Water maze; 24 h after last session of behavioral testing, hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrated that: (a) a moderate treadmill running exercise prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in aged rats; (b) training in the Water maze increased both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus of mature and aged rats; (c) aged exercised rats displayed an even further increase of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, (d) enzyme activity correlated with memory performance in aged rats. It is suggested that exercise prevents spatial memory deficits in aged rats probably through the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hippocampus.

  20. Treadmill exercise testing of asymptomatic men and women without evidence of heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of differences in performance including differences in ST-T wave changes between healthy men and women submitted to an exercise stress test. Two hundred (45.4% men and 241 (54.6% women (mean age: 38.7 ± 11.0 years were submitted to an exercise stress test. Physiologic and electrocardiographic variables were compared by the Student t-test and the chi-square test. To test the hypothesis of differences in ST-segment changes, data were ranked with functional models based on weighted least squares. To evaluate the influence of gender and age on the diagnosis of ST-segment abnormality, a logistic model was adjusted; P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Rate-pressure product, duration of exercise and estimated functional capacity were higher in men (P < 0.05. Sixteen (6.7% women and 9 (4.5% men demonstrated ST-segment upslope ≥0.15 mV or downslope ≥0.10 mV; the difference was not statistically significant. Age increase of one year added 4% to the chance of upsloping of segment ST ≥0.15 mV or downsloping of segment ST ≥0.1 mV (P = 0.03; risk ratio = 1.040, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002-1.080. Heart rate recovery was higher in women (P < 0.05. The chance of women showing an increase of systolic blood pressure ≤30 mmHg was 85% higher (P = 0.01; risk ratio = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.1-3.05. No significant difference in the frequency of ST-T wave changes was observed between men and women. Other differences may be related to different physical conditioning.

  1. Treadmill exercise after social isolation increases the levels of NGF, BDNF, and synapsin I to induce survival of neurons in the hippocampus, and improves depression-like behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young-Pyo; Lee, Hyo-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise on nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synapsin I protein expression and on the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-mono-phosphate (BrdU)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in socially isolated rats. Additionally, we examined the effects of exercise on the number of serotonin (5-HT)- and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-positive cells in the raphe nuclei and on depressi...

  2. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg · min (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular

  3. Autonomic Responses to an Acute Bout of High-Intensity Body Weight Resistance Exercise vs. Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian M; Esco, Michael R; Quindry, John C; Blessing, Daniel L; Oliver, Gretchen D; Taylor, Kyle J; Price, Brandi M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postexercise autonomic nervous system (ANS) recovery between a high-intensity training protocol (HITP) and high-intensity treadmill running (TM) in 10 physically fit males. For each trial, ANS activity was measured through the heart rate variability markers of log-transformed square root of the successive R-R differences (lnRMSSD) and high frequency power (lnHF). These markers were analyzed in 5-minute segments at 5-10 minutes of the pre-exercise period (PRE) and during the postexercise period at 15-20 minutes (POST15-20min), 20-25 minutes (POST20-25min), 25-30 minutes (POST25-30min), and 1 hour (POST60min). Plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were also examined at PRE, immediately post exercise (IPE), 1-hour post (1HP), and 2-hour post (2HP). The results of this study demonstrate a significant overall time-dependent decreases in lnRMSSD and lnHF (p = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) in both trials. Trial-dependent differences were also observed in postexercise lnRMSSD and lnHF measures, HITP being significantly lower than TM (p = 0.002 and 0.000, respectively). lnRMSSD at POST60min-HITP remained significantly lower compared to PRE (p ≤ 0.05). lnHF returned to baseline in HIPT and TM (p = 0.081 and 0.065, respectively). A time-dependent increase in E and NE was observed in both trials at time point IPE when compared to PRE (p ≤ 0.05). E at 1HP and 2HP returned to near resting levels (p = 0.62, p = 0.26), whereas NE remained slightly elevated in both groups (p = 0.003, p = 0.021). A trial-dependent increase was observed with the HITP eliciting a greater E response (p = 0.025) and NE response (p = 0.03). The HITP causes a greater disruption of the ANS than intensity-matched TM exercise.

  4. Effects of treadmill exercise training on liver fat accumulation and estrogen receptor alpha expression in intact and ovariectomized rats with or without estrogen replacement treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Like; Wang, Yijing; Duan, Yushuang; Bu, Shumin

    2010-07-01

    To explore the mechanism(s) of exercise training on ovariectomized (OVX)-induced liver lipid disorder, we observed effects of treadmill training on liver fat accumulation and ER alpha expression in intact and ovariectomized rats. Sixty female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Sham sedentary (S-S), Sham exercised (S-EX), ovariectomized sedentary (O-S), ovariectomized exercised (O-EX), ovariectomized injected subcutaneously with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) (O-E(2)), and ovariectomized treated with E(2) and exercise (O-E(2)-EX). Twelve weeks after intervention, OVX resulted in significantly higher body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat mass, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations and ER alpha expression than S-S group, while the relative uterus and liver mass, serum levels of E(2), TAG, and the ratio of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to TC were markedly lower in O-S group. All of these changes were decreased in O-S rats after treatment with E(2) alone with the exception of serum TC and HDL-C levels and liver ER alpha expression. Exercise alone significantly reversed the effect of OVX on serum E(2), the ratio of HDL-C to TC and the liver and intra-abdominal fat accumulation in OVX rats. The addition of E(2) to exercise induced the same uterus and lipid profile as E(2) alone. Moreover, an additive effect of exercise and E(2) was observed on liver ER alpha expression in Sham or OVX rats. In conclusion, treadmill training alone could prevent liver fat accumulation in OVX rats and the regulation of exercise on liver ER alpha expression in both OVX and Sham rats needs the presence of physical estrogen levels.

  5. Treadmill exercise promotes interleukin 15 expression in skeletal muscle and interleukin 15 receptor alpha expression in adipose tissue of high-fat diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Chang, Jinrui; Chen, Wenjia; Zhao, Lei; Qu, Bo; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Zhang, Jing

    2013-06-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a myokine involved in regulating lipid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exercise training on IL-15 content in skeletal muscle and expression of IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) in adipose tissue of obese rats. After 12 weeks of a high-fat diet, obese rats underwent treadmill running at 26 m/min (60 min each, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). High-fat diet induced obesity, with increased body weight, body fat, and lipid profile. The level of IL-15 immunoreactivity (IL-15-ir) in plasma and gastrocnemius muscle was lower in obese than control rats, and the mRNA level of IL-15 in gastrocnemius muscle was markedly decreased. The mRNA and protein levels of IL-15R in adipose tissue were markedly lower in obese rats. Compared with sedentary obese rats, treadmill running showed decreased body weight and elevated mRNA expression of IL-15 in muscle and elevated IL-15-ir level in plasma and muscle. The mRNA and protein level of IL-15R were increased in adipose tissue in treadmill running obese rats. Our results showed that exercise training improve obesity and reversed the downregulation of the IL-15 in muscle and IL-15R in adipose tissue induced by high-fat diet.

  6. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  7. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigou, Pierre-Yves; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Berrigan, Felix; Goulet, Eric D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. PMID:23016126

  8. Effects of treadmill exercise on brain insulin signaling and β-amyloid in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced-memory impairment in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Eun Bum; Cho, Joon Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study is to explore effect of 6 weeks treadmill exercise on brain insulin signaling and β-amyloid(Aβ). [Methods] The rat model of Alzheimer’s disease(AD) used in the present study was induced by the intracerebroventricular(ICV) streptozotocin(STZ). To produce the model of animal with AD, STZ(1.5mg/kg) was injected to a cerebral ventricle of both cerebrums of Sprague-Dawley rat(20 weeks). The experimental animals were divided into ICV-Sham(n=7), ICV-STZ CON(n=7), I...

  9. Involvement of mesolimbic dopaminergic network in neuropathic pain relief by treadmill exercise: A study for specific neural control with Gi-DREADD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaizumi, Kenta; Kondo, Takashige; Hamada, Yusuke; Narita, Michiko; Kawabe, Rui; Narita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Moe; Kato, Shigeki; Senba, Emiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia. In the present study, we developed a protocol of treadmill exercise, which was able to recover pain threshold under partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice, and investigated involvement of the dopaminergic reward network in exercise-induced hypoalgesia. To temporally suppress a neural activation during exercise, a genetically modified inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor, hM4Di, was specifically expressed on dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The chemogenetic-specific neural suppression by Gi-DREADD system dramatically offset the effect of exercise-induced hypoalgesia in transgenic mice with hM4Di expressed on the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Additionally, anti-exercise-induced hypoalgesia effect was significantly observed under the suppression of neurons projecting out of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as well. Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens is involved in the anti-nociception under low-intensity exercise under a neuropathic pain-like state. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Pre-exercise hyperhydration-induced bodyweight gain does not alter prolonged treadmill running time-trial performance in warm ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigou, Pierre-Yves; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Berrigan, Felix; Goulet, Eric D B

    2012-08-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%-30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01) and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH) to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP) (P < 0.01) during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80-90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  11. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  12. Exercise training utilizing body weight-supported treadmill walking with a young adult with cerebral palsy who was non-ambulatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiasio, Paula A; Lewis, Cynthia L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to determine the effects of exercise training using body weight-supported treadmill walking (BWSTW) with an 18-year-old male diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP) who was non-ambulatory and not receiving physical therapy. Outcome measures included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion, 3-minute walk test and physiological cost index (PCI). BWSTW sessions took place twice a week for 6 weeks with a reduction of approximately 40% of the patient's weight. Over-ground 3-minute walk test distance and PCI were essentially unchanged. BWSTW exercise time increased by 67% with a 43% increase in speed while average working HR decreased by 8%. BWSTW PCI decreased by 26%. PedsQL parent report improved in all domains. PedsQL self-report demonstrated a mild decrease. PEDI showed improvements in self-care and mobility. Exercise utilizing BWSTW resulted in a positive training effect for this young adult with CP who was non-ambulatory. Developing effective and efficient protocols for exercise training utilizing BWSTW may aid in the use of this form of exercise and further quantify outcomes. Ensuring that young adults with CP have safe and feasible options to exercise and be physically active on a regular basis is an important role of a physical therapist.

  13. Beneficial effects of exercise training (treadmill on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat fed C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Marques

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice develop signs and symptoms comparable, in part, to the human metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, visceral adiposity, pancreatic islet alterations, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in C57BL/6 mice. Animals were fed one of two diets during an 8-week period: standard (SC, N = 12 or very high-fat (HF, N = 24 chow. An exercise training protocol (treadmill was then established and mice were divided into SC and HF sedentary (SC-Sed, HF-Sed, exercised groups (SC-Ex, HF-Ex, or switched from HF to SC (HF/SC-Sed and HF/SC-Ex. HF/HF-Sed mice had the greatest body mass (65% more than SC/SC-Sed; P < 0.0001, and exercise reduced it by 23% (P < 0.0001. Hepatic enzymes ALP (+80%, ALT (+100% and AST (+70% were higher in HF/HF mice than in matched SC/SC. Plasma insulin was higher in both the HF/HF-Sed and HF/SC-Sed groups than in the matched exercised groups (+85%; P < 0.001. Pancreatic islets, adipocytes and liver structure were greatly affected by HF, ultimately resulting in islet β-cell hypertrophy and severe liver steatosis. The HF group had larger islets than the SC/SC group (+220%; P < 0.0001, and exercise significantly reduced liver steatosis and islet size in HF. Exercise attenuated all the changes due to HF, and the effects were more pronounced in exercised mice switched from an HF to an SC diet. Exercise improved the lipid profile by reducing body weight gain, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, islet alterations, and fatty liver, contributing to obesity and steatohepatitis control.

  14. Randomized controlled trial assessing participation and quality of life in a supported speed treadmill training exercise program vs. a strengthening program for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, P E; Banks, D; Johnston, T E; Campbell, S R; Gaughan, J P; Ross, S A; Engsberg, J R; Tucker, C

    2012-01-01

    A multi-site Randomized-Controlled Trial compared a home-based Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program (SSTTEP) with a strengthening exercise program in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on the following categories; Participation, quality of life (QOL), self-concept, goal attainment, and satisfaction. Twenty-six children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned by site-based block randomization to the SSTTEP (n=14) or strengthening exercise (n=12) group. Both groups participated in a two week clinic-based induction period and continued the intervention at home for ten weeks. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks), and follow-up (16 weeks). Assessments included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Cerebral Palsy Module, and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Evaluators were blinded to group assignment at two sites. Satisfaction and performance on individual goals, participation, and parent-reported QOL improved in both groups with improvement maintained for four weeks post intervention. The hypothesis that the SSTTEP group would have better outcomes than the exercise group was not supported. However, both groups showed that children with CP can make gains in participation, individual goals, and satisfaction following a 12-week intensive exercise intervention, and these findings persisted for four weeks post intervention.

  15. Effects of treadmill running exercise during the adolescent period of life on behavioral deficits in juvenile rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to morphine throughout pregnancy results in an array of prolonged or permanent neurochemical and behavioral deficits, including deficits in learning and memory in children of addicted mothers. This study investigated the effects of forced exercise on behavioral deficits of pups born to mothers addicted to morphine in rats. After mating and ensuring of pregnancy of female Wistar rats, they were divided into morphine or saline groups and in the second half of pregnancy (on days 11-18 of gestation) were injected subcutaneously with morphine or saline, respectively. Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and trained at mild intensity on a treadmill 20 days. On PND 41-47, the behavioral responses were studied. Light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus were used for investigation of anxiety, shuttle box and forced swimming tests were used to assess passive avoidance learning and memory and depression behavior, respectively. The results showed that prenatal morphine exposure caused reductions in time spent in light compartment of L/D box and EPM open arm, while postnatal exercise reversed these effects. We also found that prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in step through latency in passive avoidance memory test and exercise counteracted with this effect. Performance in the forced swimming test did not affected by prenatal morphine exposure or postnatal exercise. Exercise seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits of children born to addicted mothers to morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries.

  17. Chronotropic response in obesity patients undergoing treadmill exercise test%肥胖患者运动试验中的心脏变时性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 胡伟国; 任颖; 张洁; 李冰晓

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察不同体质指数(BMI)的患者行平板运动试验时心脏变时性变化.方法:根据BMI将333例患者分为对照组(BMI<25)224例,肥胖组(BMI≥25)109例.统一行平板运动实验检查,分别比较2组之间心脏变时性的差别.结果:肥胖组患者运动结束后第1分钟心率下降减慢,运动峰值最大代谢当量减小,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:肥胖患者心脏变时性变化异常,提示肥胖患者心脏自主神经功能紊乱.%Objective:To study the chronotropic response (CR) during treadmill exercise test in patients with different body mass index (BMI). Method:Thcrc were 224 patients in control group (BMItreadmill exercise test? And were compared with the chronotropic response. Result;In obesity groups heart rate recovery during the first minute after exercise and the maximum metabolic equivalent of energy reduced significantly (compared to the other groups P

  18. Heart rate dynamics during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Oliveira Carvalho; Guilherme Veiga Guimarães; Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac; Edimar Alcides Bocchi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calculating the maximum heart rate for age is one method to characterize the maximum effort of an individual. Although this method is commonly used, little is known about heart rate dynamics in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate dynamics (basal, peak and % heart rate increase) in optimized beta-blocked heart failure patients compared to sedentary, normal individuals (controls) during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exer...

  19. Cardiac autonomic functions derived from short-term heart rate variability recordings associated with heart rate recovery after treadmill exercise test in young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ju-Yi; Lee, Yungling Leo; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Chen, Po-Sheng; Li, Yi-Heng; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Lin, Li-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) may provide useful information about autonomic nervous control of heart rate recovery. We studied 495 individuals (273 men), age range 19-85 years, submitted to treadmill exercise tests and short-term HRV evaluations over time (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals [RMSSD], the number of interval differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 ms [NN50 count], the proportion derived by dividing NN50 count by the total number of normal-to-normal intervals [pNN50]) and frequency (low-frequency power [LF], high-frequency power [HF], total power) domains. Among 495 patients, 106 patients (68 men) were elderly (age ≥ 65 years). Male gender and hypertension were significantly higher in elderly patients. The young patients had higher HRR after exercise. HRR at 4 min (54 ± 13 vs 60 ± 12 beats/min; P = 0.003) was the most significant predictor for positive exercise test result. In the young group, both time domain measures (SDNN: correlation coefficient 0.34, P exercise test.

  20. Changes in beta-endorphin neuron numbers and serum hormone levels in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomized rats undergoing treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijie Zhang; Xiyi Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The arcuate nucleus, when damaged in young rats, can lead to pathological changes in adults, such as osteoporosis. Ovariectomized rats suffer from osteoporosis at eight weeks following surgery and the number of β -endorphin immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is significantly decreased. OBJECTIVE: To establish a rat model of osteoporosis using ovariectomy and to explore changes in the number of β -endorphin neurons and to correlate any such change with serum hormone levels in response to exercise or rest. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The completely randomized block design, neural morphology study was performed at the Key Laboratory of Physiology, Guangdong Medical College, China between March 2004 and January 2005. MATERIALS: Sixteen healthy female rats were selected for ovariectomy. METHODS: Following model establishment, rats were assigned to either rest or exercise groups and each rat was housed individually. Rats in the exercise group underwent an exercise regimen using a treadmill. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eight weeks following exercise, radioirnmunoassay was performed to detect serum growth hormone, estrogen and osteocalcin levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes in the number of β -endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Changes in bone metabolism were assessed using bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: In the exercise group, the β -endorphin immunoreactive neurons were high in number, darkly stained, and the nucleus was not obvious. In the rest group, the β-endorphin immunoreactive neurons were low in number and lightly stained. The number of β-endorphin immunoreactive neurons in the exercise group was higher compared with the rest group (t = 2.83, P 0.05). Serum osteocalcin and growth hormone levels were significantly higher in the exercise group compared with the rest group (t = 2.78, 2.32, P < 0.05). Compared with the rest group, the percentage of trabecular bone area

  1. Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Keiichi; Kantani, Tomomi; Hayashi, Junichi; Ishida, Nobuhiko; Kaneki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of endurance exercise include insulin-sensitization and reduction of fat mass. Limited knowledge is available about the mechanisms by which endurance exercise exerts the salutary effects. Myokines, cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, have been recognized as a potential mediator. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived interleukin-15 (IL-15) in improvement of fat-lean body mass composition and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. Yet, previous studies have reported that endurance training does not increase production or secretion of IL-15 in skeletal muscle. Here, we show that in opposition to previous findings, 30-min treadmill running at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate resulted in a significant increase in circulating IL-15 level in untrained healthy young men. These findings suggest that IL-15 might play a role in the systemic anti-obesogenic and insulin-sensitizing effects of endurance exercise, not only as a paracrine and autocrine but also as an endocrine factor.

  2. Comparison of measures of physiologic stress during treadmill exercise in a patient with 20% lower extremity burn injuries and healthy matched and nonmatched individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, J L; Giuffrida, C; Petrazzi, A; Schlanser, J; McDowell-Montini, C; Pietrzyk, C; Landry, V L

    2000-01-01

    Patients with burn injuries are referred for rehabilitation within days after the injuries to encourage early ambulation and functional training. Many of these patients are hypermetabolic at rest. Metabolic demands of activity are added to the already hypermetabolic state and elevate total energy requirements and some physiologic measures. Reports on the physiologic stress imposed by therapeutic activities for patients with burn injuries are limited to low levels of metabolic demand (burn injuries. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical measures of myocardial and physiologic stress in a patient with 20% lower extremity total body surface area burns during an exercise challenge equivalent to stair climbing. Physiologic measures were assessed before and during a treadmill activity (5 METS) for a 40-year-old obese man 3 weeks after he had lower extremity burn injuries. These measures were compared with mean values for 62 healthy counterparts and 6 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and fitness level. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and the rating of perceived exertion for the patient with burn injuries were higher at baseline and during exercise than the mean values for the 62 healthy individuals and the 6 matched subjects. The steady state exercise values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and rating of perceived exertion at 6 minutes were 189 beats per minute, 190 mm Hg, 3591, and 17, respectively, for the patient with burn injuries and were 111.3 beats per minute, 149 mm Hg, 1680, and 11.7, respectively, for the 6 matched subjects. Ventilation during exercise also increased for the patient with burn injuries more than for the matched subjects (3/4 vs 1/4). Pain experienced by the patient with burn injuries decreased with activity (9.8 vs 7.3 on a 15-cm scale). Treadmill walking produced near maximal responses for most physiologic measures for this patient who was hypermetabolic at rest

  3. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.

  4. Effect of stage duration on maximal heart rate and post-exercise blood lactate concentration during incremental treadmill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana A; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia P; Peserico, Cecilia S; da Silva, Danilo F; Mezzaroba, Paulo V

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the responses during maximal incremental treadmill tests of 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min stage durations mainly in terms of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak blood lactate concentration (LApeak). Repeated-measures. Thirty-four male, recreational, endurance-trained runners (40±13 years) performed three tests on a motorized treadmill. The tests started at 8kmh(-1) with increments of 1kmh(-1) every 1min for the short-stage protocol, every 2min for the intermediate-stage protocol, and every 3min for the long-stage protocol. LApeak was defined for each subject as the highest value among the lactate concentrations determined at the end of each test and at the third, fifth and seventh minutes after test, during passive recovery. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of the stage duration on the HRmax (p=0.003) and LApeak (p=0.001). The HRmax was higher in the intermediate-stage compared to the short-stage protocol (184.8±12.7 vs. 181.8±12.1beatsmin(-1), p0.05). The LApeak was lower in the long-stage compared to the short-stage and intermediate-stage protocols (7.9±2.2 vs. 9.4±2.2 and 9.2±1.9mmolL(-1), respectively, pblood lactate reached peak concentration at the fifth minute after test for all the protocols. Thus, HRmax and LApeak depend on the stage duration of the incremental test, but the moment at which blood lactate reaches peak concentration is independent of the duration. Further, we suggest 2-min stage duration protocols to determine HRmax. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic impairment of AMPK{alpha}2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2009-01-01

    Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown if AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake during in vivo exercise. We studied this in male...... measured signaling of alternative exercise sensitive pathways which might be compensatorily increased in AMPK-KD muscles. However, increases in phosphorylation of CaMKII, Trisk95, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were not higher in AMPK-KD than in WT muscle. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha2-AMPK...

  6. Accuracy of Heart Rate Measurement Using Smartphones During Treadmill Exercise in Male Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of a smartphone application measuring heart rates (HRs), during an exercise and discussed clinical potential of the smartphone application for cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs. Methods Patients with heart disease (14 with myocardial infarction, 2 with angina pectoris) were recruited. Exercise protocol was comprised of a resting stage, Bruce stage II, Bruce stage III, and a recovery stage. To measure HR, subjects held smartphone in their hands and put the tip of their index finger on the built-in camera for 1 minute at each exercise stage such as resting stage, Bruce stage II, Bruce stage III, and recovery stage. The smartphones recorded photoplethysmography signal and HR was calculated every heart beat. HR data obtained from the smartphone during the exercise protocol was compared with the HR data obtained from a Holter electrocardiography monitor (control). Results In each exercise protocol stage (resting stage, Bruce stage II, Bruce stage III, and the recovery stage), the HR averages obtained from a Holter monitor were 76.40±12.73, 113.09±14.52, 115.64±15.15, and 81.53±13.08 bpm, respectively. The simultaneously measured HR averages obtained from a smartphone were 76.41±12.82, 112.38±15.06, 115.83±15.36, and 81.53±13 bpm, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) was 1.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.99 (0.98–0.99), 0.94 (0.83–0.98), and 1.00 (0.99–1.00) in resting stage, Bruce stage II, Bruce stage III, and recovery stage, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the HRs measured by either device at each stage (p>0.05). Conclusion The accuracy of measured HR from a smartphone was almost overlapped with the measurement from the Holter monitor in resting stage and recovery stage. However, we observed that the measurement error increased as the exercise intensity increased. PMID:28289645

  7. Design of the Park-in-Shape study: A phase II double blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of exercise on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, N.M. van der; Overeem, S.; Vries, N.M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Brouwer, M.A.; Berg, D; Post, B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite optimal medical management, PD still results in a high disability rate and secondary complications and many patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn is also assoc

  8. Design of the Park-in-Shape study: a phase II double blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of exercise on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, N.M. van der; Overeem, S.; Vries, N.M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Donders, R.; Brouwer, M.; Berg, D. van den; Post, B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite optimal medical management, PD still results in a high disability rate and secondary complications and many patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn is also assoc

  9. Exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary heart disease in youth%运动平板试验对青年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the value of exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary heart disease in youth. Methods Exercise treadmill test and coronary angiography were performed on 200 male youth and 200 female youth patients with chest pain respectively, results of which were compared. Results Among the 142 male patients who were found positive for coronary angiography, there were 136 confirmed positive and 6 negative for exercise treadmill test. However, among the 58 male patients who were found negative for coronary angiography, there were 10 cases confirmed positive and 48 negative for exercise treadmill test. For female patients, 90 cases were found positive for coronary angiography, and among whom 84 cases were found positive and 6 negative for exercise treadmill test. Among the 110 female patients who were found negative for coronary angiography, 56 cases were found positive and 54 negative for exercise treadmill test. Specificity and accuracy of exercise treadmill test for diagnosis of coronary artery disease in male youth patients were significantly higher than those in female youth patients (82.8% vs. 46.5% , P<0.01; 93.0% vs. 60.0%, P<0.01). Conclusions Diagnostic accordance rate for coronary artery disease by exercise treadmill test in male youth patients is higher than that in female youth patients.%目的 评估运动平板试验对青年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)患者的诊断意义.方法 选择有典型胸痛症状的青年男、女患者各200例行运动平板试验,择期进行冠状动脉造影,对其结果进行对照分析.结果 男性患者冠状动脉造影结果阳性142例中运动平板试验阳性136例,阴性6例;男性患者冠状动脉造影结果阴性58例中运动平板试验阳性10例,阴性48例.女性患者冠状动脉造影结果阳性90例中运动平板试验阳性84例,阴性6例;女性患者冠状动脉造影结果阴性110例中运动平板试验阳性56例,阴性54例.运动平板试验

  10. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations.

  11. Cause analysis of vasovagal syncope induced by treadmill exercises test%平板运动实验所致血管迷走性晕厥的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭念寅; 司良毅; 赵小兰; 徐强

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the treadmill exercise test on vasovagal syncope and theavoidance steps. METHOD: Examination of treadmill exercise test of 64acults and analyse of the history, pretest heart rate, the maximum heart rate,metabolic equivalent(MET) and tilt table test. RESULTS: Exercise tolerancesin both groups were same with significantly increase of syncope history (43/64,67% in syncope group, while 11/64 or 9% in the controls ) and lower basicheart rate of the subjects(74±11 in the syncope group; 66±10 in the con-trols, with P<0.01 statistically) in the syncope group. HUTT positive sub-jects were significantly more in the syncope group (48/64, 75% ) than in thecontrols(2/64), with P<0.01 statistically. CONCLUSION: The exercisesyncope was based on the pretest heart rate and previous syncopal history ratherthan the exercise tolerance in health adults. It suggested an underlying abnor-mality which my predispose to exercise subjects with vasovagal syncope.

  12. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  13. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and slee

  14. Non-motor features of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Anthony H V; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Jenner, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD. The neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases of non-motor abnormalities in PD remain largely undefined. Here, we discuss recent advances that have helped to establish the presence, severity and effect on the quality of life of non-motor symptoms in PD, and the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved. We also discuss the potential for the non-motor features to define a prodrome that may enable the early diagnosis of PD.

  15. Mini Treadmill for Musculoskeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Because NASA's approach to space exploration calls for long-term extended missions, there is a pressing need to equip astronauts with effective exercise regimens that will maintain musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. ZIN Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative miniature treadmill for use in both zero-gravity and terrestrial environments. The treadmill offers excellent periodic impact exercise to stimulate cardiovascular activity and bone remodeling as well as resistive capability to encourage full-body muscle maintenance. A novel speed-control algorithm allows users to modulate treadmill speed by adjusting stride, and a new subject load device provides a more Earth-like gravity replacement load. This new and compact treadmill offers a unique approach to managing astronaut health while addressing the inherent and stringent challenges of space flight. The innovation also has the potential to offer numerous terrestrial applications, as a real-time daily load stimulus (DLS) measurement feature provides an effective mechanism to combat or manage osteoporosis, a major public health threat for 55 percent of Americans over the age of 50.

  16. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  17. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing early after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: test-retest reliability and repeatability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoller, O.; de Bruin, E.D.; Schindelholz, M.; Schuster-Amft, C.; de Bie, R.A.; Hunt, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise capacity is seriously reduced after stroke. While cardiopulmonary assessment and intervention strategies have been validated for the mildly and moderately impaired populations post-stroke, there is a lack of effective concepts for stroke survivors suffering from severe motor lim

  18. 活动平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值%The diagnosis value on parameters of treadmill exercise test for coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健玲; 郭继鸿; 许原; 李小鹰; 马彩云; 吴丽华; 刘彦伯; 刘倩

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract ]Objective To determine the diagnostic value of treadmill exercise test(TET)in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)by comparing the diagnostic conclusion with coronary angiography(CAG).Methods 445 patients with coronary heart disease(CHD)and suspected CHD underwent treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography (CAG), and the diagnostic conclusions were compared.Results ①The 200 cases had the positive result during treadmill exercise test and 150cases hand been diagnosed CHD by coronary angiography; The 245 cases had the negative result during treadmill exercise test and 39cases hand been diagnosed CHD by coronary angiography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the false positive incidence, the false negative incidence and agreement rate in diagnosis of CHD by treadmill exercise test were 79.36%, 80.40%, 75.00% , 84.08%, 25.00%, 15.92% and 80.00%, respectively. The patients with multi-vessel diseased had a higher positive rate of TET as compared with those with single diseased vessel(P0.05). But, there were statistically significant among TET negative group ,T wave normalization group and TET positive group (P<0.05).Conclusions The treadmill exercise test is valuable in noninvasive diagnosis of CHD, especially for patients with multi-vessel diseased. Ischemic T-wave’s changes in the comprehensive exercise testing can be initially estimated the severity, T wave normalization can be as a new positive indicators of exercise test.%目的总结平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值。方法回顾性总结分析住院接受活动平板运动试验(TET)及冠状动脉造影(CAG)检查患者445例平板运动试验诱发缺血性T波对冠心病的诊断价值。结果①445例中, TET阳性200例,其中CAG阳性150例,CAG阴性50例;TET阴性245例,其中CAG阴性206例,CAG阳性39例。TET检出冠心病的敏感性为79.36%(150/189),特异性为80

  19. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  20. 心电图平板运动试验对女性冠心病的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of the ECG treadmill exercise test in women with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞幼燕; 郑寥寥; 钱赛芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of the ECG treadmill exercise test in women with coronary heart disease.Methods The clinical data of 108 female patients who received the electrocardiogram treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography and suspected coronary heart disease were analyzed.The results of treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography were comparatively analyzed.Results Treadmill exercise test sensitivity was 57.64% (49/85),specificity was 73.46% (36/49),positive predictive value was 79.03% (49/62),negative predictive value was 78.26% (36/46),accuracy was 78.70% (85/108).False-positive group exercise time,ST-segment depression amplitude,duration,number of leads were lower than the true-positive group (t =2.49,6.08,4.68,8.00,all P <0.05).Coronary artery stenosis in patients with ECG treadmill exercise test ECG display the difference was statistically significant.The more serious coronary artery stenosis lesions electrocardiogram showed lack of blood type ST-segment depression appear sooner,the longer the duration,the greater the magnitude of depression.Conclusion Treadmill exercise is an ideal noninvasive method in the diagnosis of women with coronary heart disease.%目的 探讨心电图平板运动试验对女性冠心病的诊断价值.方法 分析行心电图平板试验和冠状动脉造影检查的女性疑似冠心病患者108例临床资料,将平板运动试验与冠状动脉造影结果进行比较分析.结果 平板运动试验敏感性为57.64% (49/85),特异性为73.46%(36/49),阳性预测值为79.03%(49/62),阴性预测值为78.26%(36/46),准确性为78.70%(85/108).假阳性组运动时间、ST段下移幅度、持续时间、导联数均低于真阳性组(t =2.49、6.08、4.68、8.00,均P<0.05).冠状动脉不同狭窄程度患者的心电图平板运动试验差异有统计学意义.冠状动脉狭窄程度病变越严重,心电图显示缺血型ST段压低出现的时间越早

  1. Effect of three breakfast interventions on blood glucose during low-intensity exercise performed on a treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guedes Cocate

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate blood glucose (BG response during a low-intensity activity, preceded by the consumption of three different types of breakfast (BF. Fifteen Physical Education male students of mean age of 22.7 ± 2 years were evaluated. Three BF interventions were carried out on different days :fasting; BF1: cookie, juice, apple, cereal bar or BF2: 400 mL carbohydrate drink 60 minutes before jogging/walking for 1 hour at 50-60% of maximum calculated HR (heart rate. Measurements of BG were taken at 60 and 30 minutes prior to activity and every 20 minutes during exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP and RPE were also monitored. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA with Tukey test and aimed to identify differences both in effect over time and between different BF interventions, to a signifi cance level of P RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta da glicose sangüínea (GS ao longo de uma atividade de baixa intensidade, precedida pelo consumo de diferentes tipos de café da manhã (CM. Foram avaliados 15 estudantes Educação Física, do gênero masculino com idade média de 22,7 ± 2 anos. Os avaliados realizaram, em dias diferenciados, três ações de CM (CM0: jejum; CM1: biscoito, suco, maçã, barra de cereal; ou CM2: 400mL de bebida carboidratada 60 minutos antes de um trote/caminhada a 50 – 60% da FC máxima calculada com duração de uma hora. A mensuração da GS ocorreu 60 e 30 minutos antes da atividade e durante intervalos de 20 minutos no exercício. Foram também monitorizadas a FC, pressão arterial (PA e IPE. O tratamento estatístico correspondeu à ANOVA associada ao teste de Tukey, para determinar a existência de diferenças tanto no efeito tempo como entre as ações de CM, com nível de signifi cância de P < 0,05. Os resultados indicaram ausência de diferença na resposta da FC, PA e IPE entre os três procedimentos. A GS apresentou diferença estatística entre o CM1 e o CM2 no per

  2. High altitude increases alteration in maximal torque but not in rapid torque development in knee extensors after repeated treadmill sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eGIRARD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 x 5-s all-out sprints (passive recovery = 25 s on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%, at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.6% and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3% normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively. Explosive (∼1 s; fast instruction and maximal (∼5 s; hard instruction voluntary isometric contractions (MVC of the knee extensors, with concurrent electromyographic (EMG activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100 and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P>0.05 in all conditions. A larger (P0.05. Irrespectively of condition (P>0.05, peak RTD (-6±11%; P0.05, whereas it increased (P<0.05 for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia.

  3. Effect on treadmill exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and left ventricular function as a result of repeated whole-body periodic acceleration with heparin pretreatment in patients with angina pectoris and mild left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shoichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Inoko, Moriaki; Oba, Muneo; Hosokawa, Ryohei; Haruna, Tetsuya; Izumi, Toshiaki; Saji, Yoshiaki; Nakane, Eisaku; Abe, Tomomi; Ueyama, Koji; Nohara, Ryuji

    2011-01-15

    Whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) has been developed as a passive exercise device capable of improving endothelial function by applying pulsatile shear stress to vascular endothelium. We hypothesized that treatment with WBPA improves exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and left ventricular (LV) function because of increased coronary and peripheral vasodilatory reserves in patients with angina. Twenty-six patients with angina who were not indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention and/or coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned to remain sedentary (sedentary group) or undergo 20 sessions of WBPA with the motion platform for 4 weeks (WBPA group) in addition to conventional medical treatment. WBPA was applied at 2 to 3 Hz and approximately ±2.2 m/s² for 45 minutes. We repeated the symptom-limited treadmill exercise test and adenosine sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy. In the WBPA group, the exercise time until 0.1-mV ST-segment depression increased by 53% (p images at rest, LV end-diastolic volume index decreased by 18% (p exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and LV function.

  4. Does Standing on a Cycle-ergometer, Towards the Conclusion of a Graded Exercise Test, Yield Cardiorespiratory Values Equivalent to Treadmill Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua; Kist, William B; Mears, Kendall; Nalls, Jesse; Ritter, Kyle

    Graded exercise testing (GXT), per a cycle-ergometer (CE), offers safety and monitoring advantages over treadmill (TM) GXT. Unfortunately, CE-VO2max and some other cardiorespiratory (CR) variables are frequently lower than TM-GXT values. It has been difficult to compare TM and CE-GXT values. However, it was hypothesized that standing towards the conclusion of the CE-GXT (Stand-CE) might increase CE values to those equal to TM-GXT. If Stand-CE and TM-GXT CR values were equal, Stand-CE-GXT could become the method of choice for GXT for the general population. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effect of Stand-CE on CR variables. An intentionally diverse sample (N = 34, 24 males and 10 females, aged 18-54 y, with VO2max values 25-76 ml/kg/min) representing the "apparently healthy" general population participated. Volunteers completed two GXT trials, one per TM (Bruce protocol) and the other per a MET-TM-matched CE-GXT where initially seated participants stood and pedaled after their respiratory exchange ratio (RER) reached 1.0. Eighteen participants underwent a third MET-TM-matched trial where they remained seated throughout GXT (Sit-CE). Trials were counter-balanced with at least 48 h between GXT. There were significant statistical differences (p test (N = 34) on the following variables: VEmax (TM = 115 ± 24.4 l/min, Stand-CE = 99.4 ± 28.1), VCO2max (TM = 4.26 ± 0.9 l/min, Stand-CE = 3.56 ± 0.84), VO2max (TM = 44.9 ± 9.1 ml/kg/min, Stand-CE = 39.3 ± 9.0), METSmax (TM = 12.8 ± 2.6 METS, Stand-CE = 11.2 ± 2.5), and HRmax (TM = 175 ± 13 bpm, Stand-CE = 166 ± 12). One-way repeated measures ANOVA (N = 18) demonstrated no statistical differences among all trials: VEmax (TM = 112.8 ± 25.3 l/min, Stand-CE = 102.3 ± 25.2, Sit-CE = 107.3 ± 33.1), VCO2max (TM = 4.17 ± 0.99 l/min, Stand-CE = 3.62 ± 0.80, Sit-CE = 3.55 ± 0.83), VO2max (TM = 47.1 ± 9.8 ml/kg/min, Stand-CE = 42.0 ± 9.0, Sit-CE = 43.3 ± 8.9), METSmax (TM = 13.5 ± 2.8 METS

  5. Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Treadmill and Step Bench in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    umar

    KEY WORDS: Hemiparesis, gait, rehabilitation, treadmill, step-bench. INTRODUCTION. Stroke gait ... important impairment-level goals of stroke rehabilitation. (Mercer et al, 2009). Besides ..... step exercise training program. Journal of Physical ...

  6. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P sprint decrement score and a shorter (P sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P 0.05), whereas it increased (P repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  7. 跑台运动训练对大鼠脑组织抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of treadmill exercises on antioxidant capacity in the brain of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蔚; 陈立军; 张敏; 靳秋月; 谢红; 史娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat treadmill exercises model and to investigate the activity changes of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and hydroxyl free radical(OH' ) in rat brain after treadmill exercises training of different intensity.Method: Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, aerobic exercises group (incremental load exercise), anaerobic exercises group (high-speed intermittent training) and alterntive-training group aerobic and anaerobic alternative training. The activity of T-AOC, CAT and the inhibition ability of OH' were measured after every training period.Result: The inhibition ability of OH' of rat brain in aerobic exercise group was lower than that in the other groups (P<0.05). However,after six-week training, there was no significant difference between four groups. Activity of CAT rat brain in alternative-training group was higher than that in the other three groups (P<0.05), and it was low in anaerobic group (P<0.01). The T-AOC of rat brain in aerobic exercise group was higher compared with normal control group (P<0.01).Conclusion: Oxidative damages of aerobic exercise were heavier than the other groups. But with the extension of training period, the antioxidant capacity increased. It suggested that after moderate aerobic exercises f'or a long term organism's antioxidant activity would be enhanced.%目的:建立大鼠跑台运动模型,观察不同训练负荷对大鼠脑组织总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),过氧化氢酶(CAT),羟自由基(OH')的影响.方法:建立有氧、无氧、有氧和无氧交替运动大鼠跑台运动训练模型,有氧运动时采用递增负荷训练,无氧运动时采用高速间歇训练,并没立正常对照组.各组大鼠训练结束后用机器匀浆法提取大鼠脑组织匀浆介质,紫外分光光度计检测大鼠脑组织T-AOC,CAT活性和OH'抑制能力.结果:有氧组大鼠OH'抑制能力要低于其他各组(P<0.05),但训练6周后,和其

  8. Effectiveness of Trimetazidine on Stable Angina Evaluated by Treadmill Exercise Test%运动平板试验评估曲美他嗪治疗稳定型心绞痛的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红艳; 何涛; 姜陆民; 丁华民

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过运动平板试验(Treadmill Exercise Test,TET)观察曲美他嗪辅助治疗稳定型心绞痛的疗效.方法 选取80例明确诊断为稳定型心绞痛且运动平板试验为阳性患者,在传统药物治疗基础上,分为曲美他嗪治疗组及对照组.记录治疗前后运动平板试验阳性率、运动终止时诱发心绞痛率、运动时间、恢复时间、运动后2min ST段压低≥1.0mm的导联数及其ST段压低总和(∑ST),并进行统计分析.结果 曲美他嗪治疗后运动平板试验阳性率、运动终止时诱发心绞痛率、运动时间、恢复时间、运动后2minST段压低≥1.0mm的导联数及其ST段压低总和(∑ST)较治疗前及对照组均有显著改善,且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在传统药物治疗基础上联用曲美他嗪,可使稳定型心绞痛患者进一步获益.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of trimetazidine on stable angina by treadmill exercise test (TET). Methods 80 TET positive patients with stable angina were divided into 2 groups: the trimetazidine group and the control group. Before and after therapy, the positive rate, exercise-induced angina rate at the termination, exercise time, recovery time, the number of leads with ST-segment depression≥1.0mm 2 minutes after exercise and the sum of ST-segment depression)∑ST) were recorded and analyzed. Results After therapy with Trimetazidine, the positive rate, exercise-induced angina rate at the termination, exercise time, recovery time, the number of leads with ST-segment depression ≥1.0mm 2 minutes after exercise and the sum of ST-segment depression(∑ST) were all improved apparently compared with control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with stable angina could benefit from the combined treatment with Trimetazidine on the basis of the traditional drug therapy.

  9. Exercício em esteira não elevou a temperatura do casco de equinos Exercise on treadmill did not enhance the temperature of the equine hoof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Berkman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar em equino a influência do exercício progressivo e intenso realizado em esteira de alta velocidade sobre a temperatura de regiões da pele, incluindo face, pescoço e quartela, e do casco, incluindo coroa, parede e sola. Utilizaram-se cinco equinos Puro Sangue Árabes, desferrados, com idade média de 8±0,7 anos, sendo duas fêmeas e três machos, com peso corpóreo médio de 420±10kg. A intensidade de esforço foi determinada por meio da quantificação do lactato sanguíneo. As temperaturas foram determinadas com o auxílio de termógrafo, antes, durante e após o exercício. Realizou-se análise de variância seguida pelo teste de Tukey, sendo P≤0,05. A lactacidemia aumentou, principalmente nas velocidades intensas. Houve redução das temperaturas das regiões da face, pescoço e quartela após o exercício e diminuição das temperaturas da parede, coroa e sola do casco durante o exercício, enquanto a temperatura da manta de rolamento da esteira não se alterou em nenhum momento. Constatou-se indiretamente que a perfusão sanguínea do casco diminuiu durante o teste de esforço tanto em sua fase aeróbia como na anaeróbia. Nenhuma das intensidades de esforço foi capaz de alterar a temperatura da manta de rolamento da esteira. A temperatura do casco diminuída como decorrência fisiológica do esforço físico imposto, retornou aos valores normais após o término do exercício.The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of intense and progressive exercise performed on a high speed treadmill on the temperature of the skin of the face, neck, pastern, and hoof, including the crown, sole and wall. Five unshod Arabian horses were used, with a mean age of 8±0.7 years, two females and three males, average body weight of 420±10kg. The exercise intensity was determined by quantification of blood lactate concentrations. Temperatures were determined with thermography before, during and after exercise. The

  10. 中青年肥胖人群平板运动试验结果分析%Analysis of Results of Young and Middle-aged Obese People with Treadmill Exercise Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斓; 谢玮; 胡伟航; 张磊; 单米亚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze and compare related indicators of physical function of young and middle - aged obese people by treadmill exercise test. Methods We selected 195 healthy population volunteers (18-59 years) form physical examination in our hospital medical center. According to the BMI index, the people is divided into normal group and BMI light, moderate and severe groups increased. We chose maximal treadmill exercise test for each subjects with Bruce maximal exercise program. The maximal exercise duration of regression equation can be resulted from the multiple regression analysis of each subject's exercise duration, maximal heart rate, exercise immediate termination of metabolic equivalent values (MET), physical activity score, RPE and other indicators. Results Time to reach maximal result of multiple regression equation; y = 166.947 +45.433 x, -4.087x2 -0. 696x3 -0. 178x4 +0.452 x5, x1 for the METS, x2 for the most amount of RPE, x3 for the BMI, x4 for the maximal systolic blood pressure, x5 for the physical activity score, corrected r1 = 0. 932 , ( P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusion Data show that obese people with normal body function indicators showed significant differences in the control group. The reason lies in the differences of exercise tolerance and the weight.%目的 通过平板运动试验,分析比较中青年肥胖人群身体功能的相关指标.方法 在笔者医院体检中心体检的健康人群中选出195名志愿者(18 ~59岁),根据BMI指数分为正常组和BMI轻、中、重度增高组,用Bruce极量运动方案对每一个受试者进行极量平板运动试验.通过对每一个受试者的运动持续时间、极量心率、运动终止即刻代谢当量值(MET)、身体活动评分、RPE等指标分析,对结果进行多元回归分析,得出极量运动持续时间的回归方程.结果 到达极量运动时间的多元回归方程:y =166.947+ 45.433x1-4.087x2-0.696x3-0.178x4+0.452x5,X1为METS,X2为极量RPE,x3为BMI,x4

  11. Comportamento da hiperinsuflação dinâmica em teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave Dynamic hyperinflation during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Kessar Cordoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a presença, extensão e padrões de hiperinsuflação dinâmica (HD durante teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 30 pacientes não hipoxêmicos (VEF1= 43 ± 14% do previsto submetidos a teste cardiopulmonar de exercício em esteira rolante em velocidade constante (70-80% da velocidade máxima até o limite da tolerância (Tlim. Manobras seriadas de capacidade inspiratória (CI foram utilizadas para avaliação da HD. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 pacientes estudados, 19 (63,3% apresentaram HD (grupo HD+, que apresentaram maior comprometimento funcional em repouso do que os pacientes sem HD (grupo HD-. Nenhuma das variáveis obtidas relacionou-se com a tolerância ao exercício no grupo HD-, enquanto Tlim, CI e percepção de dispneia ao esforço foram significativamente correlacionados no grupo HD+ (p OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presence, extent, and patterns of dynamic hyperinflation (DH during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 non-hypoxemic patients (FEV1= 43 ± 14% of predicted who were submitted to a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill at a constant speed (70-80% of maximum speed to the tolerance limit (Tlim. Serial inspiratory capacity (IC maneuvers were used in order to assess DH. RESULTS: Of the 30 patients studied, 19 (63.3% presented with DH (DH+ group, having greater pulmonary function impairment at rest than did those without DH (DH- group. None of the variables studied correlated with exercise tolerance in the DH- group, whereas Tlim, IC, and perception of dyspnea during exercise did so correlate in the DH+ group (p < 0.05. In the DH+ group, 7 and 12 patients, respectively, presented with a progressive and a stable pattern of DH (ΔIC Tlim,2min = -0.28 ± 0.11 L vs. 0.04 ± 0.10 L; p < 0.01. Patients with a progressive pattern of DH presented with higher

  12. 大鼠膝关节软骨与不同强度跑台运动的影响%Effects of treadmill running exercise with different intensity on articular cartilage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹荔琼; 党娜; 高美钦; 倪国新

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate activities are necessary to maintain the normal structure, histological morphology and physiological function of joints. Excessive exercise and immobility lead to articular cartilage degeneration.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of treadmill running exercise with different intensity on articular cartilage of rat knee joints. METHODS: A total of 18 male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups: sedentary group, low intensity exercise group and high intensity exercise group. Serum samples were collected to measure matrix metalloproteinase 3 content using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, cartilage characteristics were observed by safranin-O staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 and type II collagen were stained by immunohistochemical staining, and were evaluated by Mankin's histological grading system. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 in cartilage was detected by reverse transcription-PCR.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with sedentary group and low intensity exercise group, significant differences were found in high intensity exercise group in terms of Mankin's score, matrix metalloproteinase 3 concentrations in the serum and cartilage (P < 0.05). The contents of matrix glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen in high intensity exercise group were significantly lower than those in the sedentary group and low intensity exercise group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between sedentary group and low intensity exercise group. These results indicate that high intensity exercise can lead to articular cartilage degeneration in rat knees, and exercise-induced cartilage injury may be related to the increasing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3.%背景:适量的运动是维持正常关节组织形态结构及生理功能的必要条件,过度运动或制动均可导致关节软骨退变.目的:观察不同强度跑台运动对大鼠膝关节软骨的影响.方法:将18

  13. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson’s Disease Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of <21/30. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms was determined using the NMSQuest. The severity of nonmotor symptoms and the quality of life were assessed using validated disease-specific questionnaires (PDQ-39 and NMSS. Results. A total of 113 patients consisting of 60 males and 53 females were recruited. The median duration of illness was 5.0 (2.0–8.0 years. The prevalence rate of nonmotor symptoms in our cohort was 97.3%. The most common reported nonmotor symptom in our cohort was gastrointestinal (76.1%. We found that the severity of the nonmotor symptoms was associated with poorer quality of life scores (rs: 0.727, P<0.001. Conclusions. Nonmotor symptoms were highly prevalent in our patients with Parkinson’s disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  14. Potential influences of complementary therapy on motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Evatt, Marian L

    2009-10-01

    Nearly two-thirds of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use vitamins or nutritional supplements, and many more may use other complementary therapies, yet motor and non-motor symptoms. Complementary therapies, such as altered diet, dietary supplements, vitamin therapy, herbal supplements, caffeine, nicotine, exercise, physical therapy, massage therapy, melatonin, bright-light therapy and acupuncture, may all influence the symptoms of PD and/or the effectiveness of dopaminergic therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests complementary therapy also may influence non-motor symptoms of PD, such as respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, mood disorders, sleep and orthostatic hypotension. Whenever possible, clinicians should ensure that complementary therapy is used appropriately in PD patients without reducing the benefits of dopaminergic therapy.

  15. 心理护理干预对心脏神经症患者平板运动试验结果的影响*%Effect of psychological nursing on treadmill exercise tests in patients with cardiacneurosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少枝; 王文会; 庞建平; 伍惠玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of psychological nursing on the treadmill exercise tests(TET)in patients with cardiacneurosis.Methods 86 patients with cardiacneurosis were randomly divided into the treatment group(n=44)and the control group(n=42): both were treated with medication for two weeks and the former with extra treatment of psychological nursing intervention.Then the anxiety and depression among all the participants were assessed using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS).The two groups were compared in terms of anxiety and depression as well as TET.Results The scores on anxiety and depression in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group and the negative rate of TET was significantly higher than that in the control group(all P<0.05).Conclusion The psychological nursing intervention may reduce the anxiety and depression of the patients with cardiacneurosis and improve the accuracy of TET.%  目的探讨心理护理干预对心脏神经症患者平板运动试验(treadmill exercise test,TET)结果的影响。方法将86例心脏神经症患者随机分为治疗组44例和对照组42例,患者均进行药物治疗2周,治疗组患者在以上药物治疗基础上给予心理护理干预,2周后采用焦虑自评量表(self-rating anxiety scale,SAS)和抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)进行调查。比较两组患者干预后焦虑、抑郁状况及TET的检测结果。结果心理护理干预2周后治疗组患者SAS、SDS评分均低于对照组,TET阴性率高于对照组,两组比较,均P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论心理护理干预可降低心脏神经症患者焦虑、抑郁症状,从而提高TET结果准确性,更好地反映TET结果的真实性。

  16. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy expenditure in ... treadmill at 57% of maximum heart rate, as well as for 4 hours post exercise. ... in order to increase energy expenditure as well as enhance the oxidation of fat ...

  17. Comparative study of woman false positive rate in exercise treadmill before or after menopause%女性绝经前后运动平板试验假阳性率的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小鹏; 何大渊; 安光玉; 郑江红; 寇新惠; 胡冬青

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyse the rate of coincidence to suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) patient between positive exercise treadmill testing (TET) and coronary angiography (CAG) test.Method Two hundred and sixty-eight chest pain patients positive in TET were performed CAG test,coronary stenosis exceed 50% was diagnosed CAD. Results One hundred and seventy-six patients (65.67%) was diagnosed by CAG, 105 male and 71 female in them. Ninety-two (34.33%) patients was negative in CAG test. The false positive rate of TET between post-menopause patients (30.12%, 25/83 ) andmale patients (28.08%, 41/146) was no significant difference(P > 0.05 ); the difference of false positive rate between pro-menopause patients (66.67%, 26/39) and male patients (28.08% ,41/146) was statistical significance (P 0.05).结论 胸痛患者在冠状动脉造影前行运动平板试验筛查,阳性者再行冠状动脉造影检查可大大提高冠状动脉造影检查的阳性率.女性绝经前患者运动平板试验假阳性率较男性患者和女性绝经后患者高.

  18. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  19. The effects of acute post exercise consumption of two cocoa-based beverages with varying flavanol content on indices of muscle recovery following downhill treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-12-20

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4±7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p=0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3±160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5±148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p=0.31), or muscle soreness (p=0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  1. 平板运动试验和动态心电图联合检查对评估冠状动脉狭窄程度的预测价值%The Predictive Value in the Assessment of the Degree of Coronary Artery Stenosis through the Joint Inspection of Exercise Treadmill Test and Dynamic Electrocardiogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:为了明确活动平板运动试验和动态心电图联合检测对冠状动脉病变的预测价值。方法:选取冠状动脉造影阳性且造影前3个月内做平板运动试验和动态心电图的患者165例,冠状动脉造影用通用直径法确定冠状动脉狭窄程度,并与平板运动试验和动态心电图的结果进行对比观察。结果:平板运动试验中ST段下移出现越早,ST段下移程度越大,持续时间越长,冠状动脉狭窄程度越重。冠状动脉造影阳性而平板运动试验阴性者,多为单支病变或者病变程度较轻;平板运动试验的敏感性为71.8%,特异性为80.5%,动态心电图的敏感性为63.7%,特异性为78.1%。结论:活动平板运动试验和动态心电图联合检测可提高冠心病诊断的准确性。%To define the predictive value of the joint detection of between exercise treadmill test and dynamic electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of coronary artery lesions.Method:165 patients who were found coronary angiography positive and did treadmill exercise test and dynamic electrocardiogram within 3 months before angiography were selected. Coronary angiography employed the general method of diameter to determine the degree of coronary artery stenosis whose results were compared with the results of exercise treadmill test and dynamic electrocardiogram.Result:In the exercise treadmill test,the sooner ST segment depression appeared ,the greater degree ST segment depression showed,the longer duration of ST segment depression lasted,the more severe coronary artery stenosis was. The patient who was found positive in coronary angiography and negative in exercise treadmill test was mostly single lesions or a lesser degree of lesions. The sensitivity of exercise treadmill test was 71.8%,and its specificity was 80.5%. The sensitivity of the dynamic electrocardiogram was 63.7%,and its specificity was 78.1%. Conclusion:The diagnostic accuracy of coronary heart

  2. Compliance of Children with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability to Treadmill Walking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashdi, E.; Hutzler, Y.; Roth, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of compliance to exercise, including treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of several training conditions on compliance to participation in treadmill walking of children with moderate to severe ID. Method: Criteria for compliance were…

  3. Nonmotor symptoms in a malaysian Parkinson's disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Shahrul; Khairul Anuar, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Hui Jan; Nafisah, Wan Yahya; Raymond, Azman Ali; Hanita, Othman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of Parkinson's disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  4. Clinical observations made in nonheat acclimated horses performing treadmill exercise in cool (20 degrees C/40%RH), hot, dry (30 degrees C/40%RH) or hot, humid (30 degrees C/80%RH) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Marlin, D J; Mills, P C; Roberts, C A; Scott, C M; Harris, R C; Orme, C E; Schroter, R C; Marr, C M; Barrelet, F

    1995-11-01

    Four horses (H, J, N and M) undertook a treadmill competition exercise test (CET), designed to simulate the physiological and metabolic stresses of the Speed and Endurance phase of a 3-day-event, under 3 different environmental conditions: 20 degrees C/40% relative humidity (RH) (cool, dry [CD]: 2 sessions); 30 degrees C/40%RH (hot, dry [HD]) and 30 degrees C/80%RH (hot, humid [HH]) (Marlin et al. 1995). A number of subjective clinical observations were made at designated time points throughout the exercise test and initial recovery period including buccal mucous membrane colouration, capillary refill time, neck and point of shoulder skin pinch recovery time, grade of abdominal sounds; anal sphincter tone as well as the presence or absence of fatigue and ataxia. The aim was to investigate their value in predicting performance in the final canter phase of the CET equivalent to the cross-country or Phase D of a field competition. In addition, the use of a more objective assessment, the cardiac recovery index (CRI), was investigated together with the heart rate, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency at the end of Phase C and at the 8 min point of the 10 Minute Box (8'X). The CRI was calculated according to the formula CRI = P2-P1 where P2 = the heart rate in beats/min at the 8 min point of the '10 Minute Box' (Phase X) of the CET. P1 = the heart rate (beats/min) at the 7 min point just before the horse was made to trot over a distance of 80 m at a speed of 3.7 m/s (at a 3 degrees incline) before returning to a walk. The study suggested that the subjective tests carried out at the 'End-C' and/or '8'X' time points were not useful in predicting subsequent performance in the final canter phase (Phase D) and neither were heart rate, rectal temperature or respiratory frequency. However, the only horse (Horse H) to complete the full CET under HH conditions was the only animal to show a decrease in respiratory frequency between the End-C and 8'X time points. All others

  5. Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Management. ... These include olfactory deficit, sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, constipation and the more recently described ... Article Metrics.

  6. Comparison of linear and nonlinear feedback control of heart rate for treadmill running

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Kenneth J; Maurer, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate can be used to define exercise intensity; feedback control systems for treadmills which automatically adjust speed to track arbitrary heart rate target profiles are therefore of interest...

  7. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrul Azmin; Abdul Manaf Khairul Anuar; Hui Jan Tan; Wan Yahya Nafisah; Azman Ali Raymond; Othman Hanita; Shamsul Azhar Shah; Mohamed Ibrahim Norlinah

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of

  8. Bicycle ergometer versus treadmill on balance and gait parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rasha A. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Conclusion: Aerobic exercise, in the form of treadmill training for children ... body systems (cognitive, sensorimotor, and musculoskeletal ... force development pattern. ... receiving muscle relaxant that affect balance and gait. .... necessity of resistance training for children with hemophilia ... Statistical analysis.

  9. 运动锻炼对局灶性脑缺血大鼠脑皮质RGMa表达的影响%Effects of treadmill exercise on the expression of RGMa in infarcted brain cortex of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振委; 秦新月; 孔渝菡

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the expression of RGMa in infarcted brain cortex of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion ( MCAo ) after experiencing treadmill exercise. Methods: 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:control group, sham-operation group, and 7,14,28 d after ischemia group. Then each group above were randomly divided into four groups:sedentary group, low-intensity,moderate-intensity, high-intensity treadmill exercise group with MCAo. The MCAo/reperfusion model was induced by ligation with nylon monofilament in rats in the study. Results: ①Real-time quantitative PCR ( RT-qPCR ): There are no significant differences between each low-intensity treadmill MCAo group and each sedentary MCAo group for expression of RGMa mRNA ( P>0.05 ). There was down-regulation of it in each moderate-intensity treadmill exercise MCAo group,compared with each sedentary MCAo group ( P<0.05 ). But there was up-regulation in high-intensity treadmill exercise MCAo group ( P<0.05 ) .②The result of immunohistochemistry:There was no significant difference between each sedentary MCAo group and each low-intensity treadmill exercise MCAo group ( P>0.05 ). The expression of R GMa was down-regulated in moderate-intensity treadmill exercise MCAo group,except at 7 d, compared with each sedentary MCAo group ( P<0.05 ). But the opposite result was got in high-intensity treadmill exercise MCAo group ( P<0.05 ). Neurological deficit scores test showed moderate-intensity treadmill exercise improved neurological function in MCAo group ( P<0.05 ).Conclusion: Moderate-intensity treadmill exercise decreased the expression of RGMa in the peri-ischemia cortex after ischemia stroke and the impaired neural function was improved.%目的:探讨运动锻炼对卒中后大鼠缺血侧脑皮质排斥性导向分子A(Repulsive guidance molecule A,RGMa)表达的影响.方法:选用SD大鼠120只,随机分为5组,正常组,假手术组,MCAo模型7、14、28 d组,以上各

  10. 绝经女性平板运动试验Duke评分与冠脉造影相关性研究%Correlation study on Duke score combined with treadmill exercise testing and coronary angiography study of postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云; 渠乐; 蒋华

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究平板运动试验(TET)及Duke评分对绝经后女性冠状动脉疾病辅助诊断的临床应用价值.方法 纳入绝经后女性患者102例,均行TET和冠状动脉造影(CAG)检查,其中TET阳性77例,阴性25例.以CAG为对照比较TET结合Duke评分对绝经后女性冠状动脉疾病诊断的敏感性和特异性.结果 TET与CAG结果的符合率为77.4%.TET的灵敏度为87.5%,特异度为53.3%.二者诊断冠心病的一致性达到中度(Kappa=0.43,P=0.000);Duke评分风险程度分级与CAG病变程度相关(rs=0.784,P=0.000);随着绝经年限的延长,冠脉分支病变加重,二者相关(rs =0.615,P=0.000);随着年龄的增长,Duke评分风险程度加重,二者呈正相关(rs=0.472,P=0.000);随着绝经年限的延长,Duke评分风险程度加重,二者相关(rs =0.511,P=0.000).结论 Duke评分风险程度分级与CAG病变程度相关,随着绝经年限的延长,Duke评分风险程度加重,二者相关.%Objective To study on clinical values of treadmill exercise test(TET) and Duke treadmill score for aided diagnosis of coronary artery disease in post-menopausal women.Methods 102 women who have coronary artery disease in post-menopausal period underwent the examination of TET and coronary angiography(CAG).TET showed 77 cases were positive and25 cases were negative.TET combined with Duke score compared with CAG,the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women were analyzed.Results Coincidence rate of examination of CAG with TET was 77.4%.The sensitivity of TET was 87.5%,;the specificity of TET was 53.3%.The consistency of both the diagnosis of coronary heart disease reached moderate(Kappa=0.43,P =0.000) ;Duke score risk degree and CAG pathological damage were related(rs =0.784,P =0.000).Coronary bifurcation lesions aggravated with prolonging duration of menopause,Coronary bifurcation lesions correlated with duration of menopause(rs =0.615,P =0.000).Duke score

  11. 补充水解胶原蛋白与跑台运动联合作用对生长期大鼠骨密度和组织形态计量学指标的影响%Effects of combination of supplemental hydrolyzed collagen with treadmill exercise on bone mineral density and histomorphometry indexes in growing rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 苏红燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to explore effective ways to promote growth of growing bone from supplement hydrolyzed collagen and treadmill exercise.Methods:Forty-eight male SD rats,4 weeks of age,were randomly divided into six groups and assigned as follows:normal control group (CON),6%HC supplemented group (HC6),12%HC supplemented group (HC12),treadmill ex-ercise group (CON+Ex),6%HC +supplement treadmill exercise group (HC6+Ex)and 12%HC+supplement treadmill exercise group (HC12 +Ex),each group of eight rats.Rats treadmill trained speed is 30m/min,eight weeks of training,training six days a week,60 minutes a day of training.After eight weeks,bone mineral density and morphological indicators of femur and histo-morphometry indexes of tibia cancellous bone in each group were tested.Results:Compared with the corresponding control groups,bone mineral density and morphological indicators of femur and histo-morphometry indexes of tibia cancellous bone in supplemented HC group and the exercise group were significantly increased.Compared with moderate -dose HC supplements group,the difference of these indexes in high-dose HC supplement group were not statistically significant.Compared with simply HC supplement group and simply treadmill training group,these indexes in combined HC supplement with treadmill training group were significantly increased.Conclusion:Supplementary HC and treadmill exercise both can effectively promote growth of growing bone.Moderate doses of HC supplement can better promote growth of growing bone,high -dose supplementation did not play better results.HC supplement with treadmill exercise have a synergistic effect,the effect is better than simply HC supplements and simply treadmill exercise.%目的:从补充水解胶原蛋白(hydrolyzed collagen,HC)和跑台运动两个方面探索促进生长期骨生长的有效途径。方法:4周龄雄性SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组,每组8只:正常对照组(CON)、6%HC补充组(HC6

  12. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... lifelong activity you enjoy. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use inhaled short acting ...

  13. Submaximal Exercise Testing Treadmill and Floor Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Ihas been studied In Patients who have had corrective surgery30 , In hemiplegics 4 .,l paraple&vics 9*19 , amputees4e 17,35 and In patients with...8. Asthma, tuberculosis, bronchitis, emphysema or other disorder of the lungs? I 9. Fainting, convulsions, migraine headache, paralysis, epilepsy or

  14. Sleep and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Antonia; Reichmann, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Beyond the cardinal motor symptoms, bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability, defining the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, there is a big spectrum of non-motor features that patients may suffer from and that may reduce their quality of life. Non-motor symptoms are not only frequent but also often under-reported by patients and caregivers. As they are frequently under-recognized by clinicians, they remain consequently under-treated. This review wants to give a short overview of the importance of non-motor symptoms on patients' quality of life and helpful assessment tools that might facilitate recognition of non-motor features during clinical setting. Given the wide range of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, we concentrate on common issues such as depression and sleep disorders like sleep-onset insomnia or sleep maintenance insomnia and restless legs syndrome. Thereby, we present some recent studies that have investigated the efficacy of dopaminergic drugs, especially dopamine agonists, revealing possible treatment strategies and thus improving disease management.

  15. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusso, Melanie E; Donald, Kenneth J; Khoo, Tien K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts." Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated in PD.

  16. Better economy in field running than on the treadmill: evidence from high-level distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mooses

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the ongoing interest in ways to improve the specificity of testing elite athletes in their natural environment, portable metabolic systems provide an opportunity to assess metabolic demand of exercise in sport-specific settings. Running economy (RE and maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO 2 max were compared between track and treadmill (1% inclination conditions in competitive level European distance runners who were fully habituated to treadmill running (n = 13. All runners performed an exercise test on running track and on treadmill. While ·VO 2 max was similar on the track and on the treadmill (68.5 ± 5.3 vs. 71.4 ± 6.4 ml∙kg -1 ∙min -1 , p = 0.105, respectively, superior RE was found on the track compared to the treadmill (215.4 ± 12.4 vs. 236.8 ± 18.0 O2 ml∙kg -1 ∙km -1 , p < 0.001. RE on the track was strongly correlated with RE on the treadmill (r = 0.719, p = 0.006. The present findings indicate that high-level distance runners have significantly better RE but not ·VO2max on the track compared to treadmill. This difference may be due to biomechanical adjustments. As RE is strongly correlated between the two conditions, it would be reasonable to assume that interventions affecting RE on the treadmill will also affect RE on the track.

  17. Treadmill training improves overground walking economy in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Jose Andres; Bello, Olalla; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Márquez, Gonzalo; Morenilla, Luis; Castro, Xabier; Giraldez, Manolo; Santos-García, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Gait disturbances are one of the principal and most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, walking economy is impaired in PD patients and could contribute to excess fatigue in this population. An important number of studies have shown that treadmill training can improve kinematic parameters in PD patients. However, the effects of treadmill and overground walking on the walking economy remain unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the walking economy changes in response to a treadmill and an overground training program, as well as the differences in the walking economy during treadmill and overground walking. Twenty-two mild PD patients were randomly assigned to a treadmill or overground training group. The training program consisted of 5 weeks (3 sessions/week). We evaluated the energy expenditure of overground walking, before and after each of the training programs. The energy expenditure of treadmill walking (before the program) was also evaluated. The treadmill, but not the overground training program, lead to an improvement in the walking economy (the rate of oxygen consumed per distance during overground walking at a preferred speed) in PD patients. In addition, walking on a treadmill required more energy expenditure compared with overground walking at the same speed. This study provides evidence that in mild PD patients, treadmill training is more beneficial compared with that of walking overground, leading to a greater improvement in the walking economy. This finding is of clinical importance for the therapeutic administration of exercise in PD.

  18. Exercise stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise stress test is used to measure the effect of exercise on your heart. How the Test is Performed This test is ... sensation that may feel tight. Baseline measurements of heart rate and blood pressure will be taken before exercise starts. You will start walking on a treadmill ...

  19. 提出和探讨新变量ST×t作为平板运动试验诊断标准的意义%The diagnostic significance of ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓碧; 郭衡山

    2000-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate "ST × t" as the new detective variable of treadmill exercise test for detection of coronary artery disease. Methods To compare and analyze the results of three kinds of diagnostic criteria of exercise treadmill test in 76 cases by using exercise radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT) as comparison. One of the criteria developed by us is as follows: the detective variable of treadmill is "ST × t", in which ST is the maximal ST segment depression or elevation during the test, t is a coefficient of the con tinual time of ST segment depression or elevation. To take the t as follows: the time < 1 min, t is 0.5; the time ≥ 1 min and < 2 min, t is 1; the time≥2 min, t is 2. The positive is "ST × t" ≥ 1. Results The sensitivity of ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of CHD was 81.4%, the specificity and accuracy were 93.9% and 86.7 %, respectively. Conclusion The new detective variable ST × t used in exercise treadmill test for detection of CHD is better and more convenient than the old criteria.%目的提出新变量ST×t作为平板运动试验诊断冠心病标准并评价其临床意义。方法给76例患者在2周内分别做运动核素心肌显像和平板运动试验检查,依据自身对照设计原理,以三种平板试验阳性判定方法对每一例的平板试验结果进行分析。其中之一是新提出的以变量ST×t作为诊断标准的方法。并以运动核素心肌显像结果做对照, 计算三种评定方法对冠心病诊断的准确率、敏感性和特异性,并加以比较。结果以ST×t作为平板运动试验新的诊断标准,其准确率、敏感性和特异性高于或达到目前普遍使用的方法。结论以ST×t作为平板运动试验新的诊断标准,在操作上更为简便,优于传统的判定方法。

  20. Comparative analysis between results of treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography among patients with coronary heart disease%冠心病患者平板运动试验与冠脉造影结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江媛媛; 储伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过与冠脉造影对比,探讨平板运动试验结果阳性在冠心病诊断中的价值及意义。方法选择128例疑为冠心病患者为研究对象,分别行平板运动试验和冠脉造影,并对比分析两种检查结果。结果平板运动试验对冠心病诊断的敏感性为88.76%,特异性为61.54%;对男性冠心病患者诊断的敏感性为96.92%,特异性为71.43%,均显著高于女性,差异有统计学意义;对冠状动脉多支病变的诊断真阳性率高于单支病变,差异均有统计学意义。结论平板运动试验在冠心病诊断方面有较高的敏感性和特异性,虽然会出现假阳性和假阴性现象,但因其安全、无创、简便、经济等优点,值得临床推广。%Objective To explore the clinical significance of positive results of treadmill exercise test(TET)in diagnosing coronary heart disease,by comparing with those of coronary angiography (CAG).Methods One hundred and twenty-eight patients with suspected coronary heart disease underwent TET and CAG separately.The results of two kinds of testings were comparatively ana-lysed.Results For the diagnosis of coronary heart disease,the sensitivity and specificity of TET was 88.76% and 61 .54%,respectively.For male patients with coronary heart disease,the sensi-tivity and specificity of TET was 96.92% and 71 .43%,respectively,both significantly higher than those of female patients,with statistically significant difference.In diagnosing coronary heart disease patients with multivessel coronary artery lesions,the true positive rate was higher than that of patients with single vessel disease,and the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion Although there might be false positive or false negative results,TET still proves to have relatively high sensi-tivity and specificity in diagnosing coronary heart disease.It worths of being promoted clinically for its safety

  1. Risk of Obesity and Treadmill Exercise Test Diagnosis: Review%肥胖的风险与平板运动心电图诊断(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雯; 孙飙

    2012-01-01

    The literature,practical observation and other research methods on risk factors for obesity and comorbidities,sports risk of obese patients,as well as obesity treatment and prevention.In recent years,the phenomenon of obesity in the world is more generally,as a result of lifestyle and other factors change,a large part of the population is overweight or obese.These populations may occur coronary heart disease,type II diabetes,insulin resistance,hyperinsulinemia,fatty liver and other comorbidities,and may have potentially dangerous in the movement.Treadmill exercise(ECG test) is a simple,effective method in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease,evaluation of cardiac function and exercise tolerance.Through the test may induce cardiac arrhythmias,or exacerbation of cardiovascular disease of certain symptoms,can find motion risk populations,and provide guidance to the load and duration of the movement.Treatment and prevention of obesity requires the family,schools,the workplace,community and other support.%通过文献资料法、实践观察法等研究方法研究了肥胖引起的合并症、肥胖患者在运动中存在的风险、以及肥胖的治疗和预防。研究结果发现,近年来肥胖的现象在全球越来越普遍,由于生活习惯等因素的改变,出现很大一部分超重或者肥胖的人群。这些人群可能出现冠心病、Ⅱ型糖尿病、胰岛素抵抗、高胰岛素血症、脂肪肝等各种合并症,并且在运动中存在潜在危险。平板运动心电图试验是诊断冠心病、评价心功能和运动耐力的简便有效的方法,通过试验可以诱发心律失常状况,或加重心血管疾病的某些症状,从而发现具有运动风险的人群,并对其运动负荷和持续时间提供指导。治疗和预防肥胖需要家庭、学校、工作场所、社区等多方面的支持。

  2. 8周跑台运动干预对雄性肥胖大鼠生殖功能的影响∗%Effect of 8 weeks treadmill exercise intervention on reproductive function in obese male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常波; 赵大林; 康媛; 姚婷婷; 刘冠琪; 韩俊超; 衣雪洁

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this research was to explore the effects of 8 weeks exercise intervention on the reproductive func-tion of obese male rats, and to provide experimental evidence for the improvement of testicular dysfunction caused by obesity. Methods:The SD rats were used in this study. Create the obesity animal model with high fat diet, moderate load treadmill and imposed 8 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention. Then, body weight, weight of celiac fat tissue and testicular, sperm counts and activity, serum testosterone (T), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Estradiol (E2) hormone were observed. Results:① Compared with the normal group, the body weight and fat body ratio of the obese group were significantly increased, the levels of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were significantly decreased in the obese group, the estradiol was significantly increased; the testis index, sperm count and sperm motility Rate was significantly reduced . ② Compared with the obese group, the body weight and fat body ratio of obese ath-letes decreased significantly, the levels of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were signif-icantly increased, estradiol decreased significantly;testis index, sperm count and sperm motility rate were evidently increased. Conclusion:①The long-term high-fat diet not only induces obesity, but also causes the sex hormone disturbances and a de-cline in sperm quality parameters. ②8 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention can effectively reduce the body weight and body fat ratio, improve the quality parameters of sperm, adjust sex hormone disorder and reduce the negative effects of obesity on re-productive function in male rats.%目的::本文旨在探讨8周运动干预对肥胖雄性大鼠生殖功能影响,为运动改善由于肥胖引起的睾丸功能障碍提供实验依据。方法:以SD大鼠为研究对象,通过高

  3. Prodromal non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Clelia; Benincasa, Dario; Pisani, Vincenzo; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Giovannelli, Morena; Pontieri, Francesco E

    2007-01-01

    The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, and tremor depend upon degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Recent neuropathological studies show that the Lewy bodies, the intraneuronal landmark of PD, accumulate in several neuronal cell types in the brain. An ascending gradient of pathological involvement, from the medulla oblongata to neocortical areas has been reported. Thus the original view of PD as a disease characterized by selective damage of the dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon should be updated into the concept of a severe multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. Additionally, the neuropathological alterations outside the substantia nigra are soundly correlated with the non-motor symptoms of PD. As a result of these findings, interest is growing in the identification of prodromal non-motor symptoms of PD. Indeed, data from the literature suggest that autonomic disturbances, olfactory dysfunctions, depression and sleep disorders (in particular REM-sleep behavior disorder) may represent prodromal non-motor symptoms of PD. Several tests are available to detect most of these symptoms. Thus, the identification of prodromal non-motor symptoms may contribute to the precocious diagnosis of PD, and might be useful in the future to test the efficacy of neuroprotective agents. PMID:19300544

  4. The Fitkids Treadmill Test: age- and sex-related normative values in Dutch children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Bongers, B.C.; Winkler, L.M.F.; Takken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. Objective: The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for

  5. Fitkids Treadmill Test : Age- and Sex-Related Normative Values in Dutch Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M W; de Groot, Janke F; Bongers, Bart C; Winkler, Alexander M F; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in healthy children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To provide sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in healthy and ty

  6. The Fitkids Treadmill Test: age- and sex-related normative values in Dutch children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Bongers, B.C.; Winkler, L.M.F.; Takken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. Objective: The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for F

  7. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  8. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  9. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  10. Neuropathology and Neurochemistry of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Isidro Ferrer

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies...

  11. Dopamine-Induced Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD may emerge secondary to the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, while others are recognized side effects of treatment. Inevitably, there is an overlap as the disease advances and patients require higher dosages and more complex medical regimens. The non-motor symptoms that emerge secondary to dopaminergic therapy encompass several domains, including neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sleep. These are detailed in the paper. Neuropsychiatric complications include hallucinations and psychosis. In addition, compulsive behaviors, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, shopping, binge eating, and punding, have been shown to have a clear association with dopaminergic medications. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS is a compulsive behavior that is typically viewed through the lens of addiction, with patients needing escalating dosages of dopamine replacement therapy. Treatment side effects on the autonomic system include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, and constipation. Sleep disturbances include fragmented sleep, nighttime sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. Recognizing the non-motor symptoms that can arise specifically from dopamine therapy is useful to help optimize treatment regimens for this complex disease.

  12. Non-Motor Aspects of Tic Disorders—New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrman, Daphna; Gev, Ella; Benaroya-Milshtein, Noa; Fennig, Silvana; Krispin, Orit; Apter, Alan; Steinberg, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The cardinal characteristics of tic-related disorders are stereotyped motor movements and vocalizations. However, they may be accompanied by non-motor features that appear sequentially during the course of the disorder and can sometimes be more disabling than the tics themselves. This review presents our perspectives on several non-motor aspects of Tourette syndrome based on the long experience of the Neuropsychiatric Tourette Clinic of a tertiary pediatric medical center. The effect of premonitory urges, sensory modulation disorder, tic-related cognitions, and environmental conditions on the expression and intensity of tics is elaborated, with suggestions for treatment approaches to each. We also describe the mediatory effect of parental attachment style on the link between maternal stress and ticcing intensity and the need to adjust psychotherapy interventions to account for the importance of this factor in emotion regulation. This review is intended to direct attention to the non-motor aspects of Tourette syndrome. An in-depth understanding of this complex and debilitating disorder will facilitate the formulation of innovative therapeutic protocols. PMID:28119635

  13. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Conditions Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Balo’s Disease HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Schilder's ... a Muscle, Too: The Relationship Between Exercise and Cognition - telelearning brought to you by the National MS ...

  14. VO2max Measured with a Self-selected Work Rate Protocol on an Automated Treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, Cory M; Devor, Steven T

    2015-10-01

    The use of graded maximal exercise tests for measuring maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is common practice in both cardiopulmonary rehabilitation settings and in sports medicine research. Recent alterations of common testing protocols to allow for self-selected work rates (SPV) have elicited V˙O2max values similar to or higher than more traditional style protocols (TP). Research is lacking in the delivery of the SPV protocol using a treadmill modality. The purpose of the study was to examine the validity of an SPV using an automated treadmill for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. Thirteen experienced endurance runners completed three maximal exercise tests on a treadmill. Oxygen consumption was measured using a computerized system and averaged more than 30-s time periods. SPV was completed using an automated treadmill that consisted of a sonar range finder, microcontroller, and customized computer software. Subject deviations from the middle of the treadmill belt resulted in rapid, graded increases or decreases in speed. TP was completed on the same treadmill without the use of the automated software. A verification phase protocol (VP) was used to verify if VO2 was maximal. Peak work rate achieved during SPV was significantly greater than that achieved during TP by 1.2 METs; P VO2max than TP despite higher work rates.

  15. Two-week Treadmill Exercise Improves Spatial Learning and Memory of Rats%2周跑台训练对大鼠空间学习和记忆能力及海马组蛋白乙酰转移酶和组蛋白去乙酰化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单小忠; 李爱春

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨跑台训练对大鼠空间学习和记忆能力及海马组蛋白乙酰转移酶(HAT)和组蛋白去乙酰化酶(HDAC)活性的影响.方法:3周龄清结级SD雄性大鼠48只,随机分为安静组(n=24)和训练组(n=24),训练组大鼠进行2周每天30 min的跑台训练,速度和时间依次为8m/min×3min,10 m/min×3 min,15 m/min×18 min,10 m/min×3 min,8m/min×3 min.安静组大鼠每天在同一时间段放于跑台上30min,不开动跑台.训练最后三天,采用Morris水迷宫检测所有大鼠学习和记忆行为,指标为大鼠找到放置D象限的平台的潜伏期,120秒内在各象限的游泳时间百分比及穿越原平台相应位置的次数.分别于最后一次训练结束后即刻、1h和6h检测大鼠海马组蛋白乙酰转移酶和组蛋白去乙酰化酶活性.结果:与安静组相比,训练组大鼠潜伏期显著缩短,在D象限的游泳时间百分比显著增加,在120秒穿越原平台位置的次数显著增加.训练组大鼠运动即刻和1h海马HAT活性较安静组显著升高、HDAC活性较安静组显著降低,二者在训练后6h均恢复到基础水平.结论:2周跑台训练显著提高大鼠的空间学习和记忆能力;急性运动可导致大鼠海马组织短时HAT活性升高和HDAC活性降低,2周跑台训练未引起大鼠安静时海马组织HAT和HDAC活性显著变化.%Objective The purpose of this study is to study the effects of treadmill exercise on the spatial learning and memory ability,and hippocampal histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase(HDAC) activities of rats. Methods Forty eight 3-week-old SD male rats were randomly divided into sedentary group (n = 24) and exercise group (re = 24). Rats in exercise group were trained on a treadmill 30min per day for two weeks. The treadmill was set at 8 m/min for 3 min.l0 m/min for 3 min,15 m/min for 18 min,10 m/min for 3 min.and 8 m/min for 3 min. In the last three days of training, water maze was used to detect the learning

  16. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  17. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-21

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  18. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  19. Relações cineantropométricas e fisiológicas durante exercício incremental em esteira rolante Kineanthropometric and physiological relations during incremental treadmill exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Souza-Castelo Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Testes incrementais em esteira rolante são muito utilizados para prescrição de treinamentos, havendo alterações fisiológicas e cinemáticas devido à natureza de incremento da intensidade do exercício. Contudo, a antropometria é um fator que não apresenta consenso na literatura. Neste sentido, os objetivos do presente estudo foram verificar o efeito de exercício incremental na concentração de lactato sanguíneo ([LAC], e glicose ([GLI], como também na frequência (FP e amplitude de passadas (AP. Além disso, correlacionar valores de dados antropométricos (massa, altura, % de gordura com as alterações existentes das [LAC] e [GLI]. Treze voluntários saudáveis realizaram teste incremental em esteira rolante (início a 8km/h, com incrementos de 1km/h a cada 3min até a exaustão. Antes e 3min após a realização do teste incremental foram registrados os valores de [LAC] e [GLI]. Durante cada intensidade do teste incremental foram realizadas avaliações da AP e FP por meio de filmagens no plano sagital. Como resultados, verificou-se que a [LAC] e [GLI] antes do teste incremental (1,94 ± 0,4mmol/L e 94,3 ± 7mg/dL, respectivamente foram significantemente menores que os valores encontrados após o teste incremental (9,51 ± 2,7mmol/L e 126 ± 16mg/dL, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se aumento significante e gradativo da AP e FP ao longo do teste incremental. Correlações inversas e significantes (p Incremental treadmill tests are widely used for prescription of aerobic and anaerobic training. Physiological and kinematics parameters are changed by the progressive nature of this activity. However, there is no consensus on how anthropometric characteristics may affect the incremental test performance. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1 to verify the effects of the incremental treadmill test on the blood lactate concentration ([LAC], glucose concentration ([GLU], step frequency (SF and step length (SL, and (2 to

  20. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusso, Melanie E.; Donald, Kenneth J.; Khoo, Tien K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms “Parkinson’s,” “Parkinson,” and “Parkinsonism” in conjunction with “exercise,” “physical activity,” “physiotherapy,” “occupational therapy,” “physical therapy,” “rehabilitation,” “dance,” and “martial arts.” Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated

  1. Neurochemistry and the non-motor aspects of PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I; López-Gonzalez, I; Carmona, M; Dalfó, E; Pujol, A; Martínez, A

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, in addition to the classical motor symptoms. Many non-motor symptoms appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a relationship, albeit not causal, between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and neurites filled with abnormal α-synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of α-synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. This may apply to complex alterations interfering with olfactory and autonomic nervous systemfunctions, emotions, sleep regulation, and behavioral, cognitive and mental performance. Involvement of the cerebral cortex leading to impaired behavior and cognition is related to several convergent altered factors including: a. dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic cortical innervation; b. synapses; c. cortical metabolism; d. mitochondrial function and energy production; e. oxidative damage; f. transcription; g. protein expression; h. lipid composition; and i. ubiquitin–proteasome system and autophagy, among others. This complex situation indicates that multiple subcellular failure in selected cell populations is difficult to reconcilewith a reductionistic scenario of a single causative cascade of events leading to non-motor symptoms in PD. Furthermore, these alterationsmay appear at early stages of the disease and may precede the appearance of substantial irreversible cell loss by years. These observations have important implications in the design of therapeutic approaches geared to prevention and treatment of PD.

  2. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  3. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, III, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSEArm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity...

  4. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  5. Effects of treadmill exercise training on femur bone mineral density in rat model of type 2 diabetes%跑台运动训练对2型糖尿病大鼠股骨骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志祥; 刘翠鲜; 郑洁皎; 赵剑

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同强度跑台运动训练对2型糖尿病大鼠股骨骨密度的影响,为探讨有氧运动对2型糖尿病骨并发症的防治提供实验依据.方法 选取52只8周龄健康雄性SD大鼠,随机分成正常对照组10只和2型糖尿病造模组42只.造模组大鼠在高糖、高脂和高能量饲料喂养4周后,一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素30 mg/kg,以建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型.取30只造模成功的2型糖尿病大鼠,随机分成糖尿病对照组、小强度运动组和中强度运动组,每组10只.运动组实施8周运动方案.采用固体物理密度仪测定实验大鼠股骨骨密度.结果 与正常对照组相比,糖尿病对照组和小强度运动组的股骨骨密度显著降低(P<0.05),中强度运动组的股骨骨密度显著升高(P<0.05);与糖尿病对照组、小强度运动组相比,中强度运动组股骨骨密度显著升高(P<0.01).结论 ①2型糖尿病大鼠股骨骨密度低于正常,为骨质疏松症高危群体;②跑台运动训练对2型糖尿病大鼠股骨骨密度的影响与运动强度有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of different intensity of treadmill exercise training on femur bone mineral density (BMD) in rat model of type 2 diabetes and to provide experimental basis of aerobic exercise for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Methods 52 sanitized 8 - month - old male SD rats were randomized into the control group ( n = 10) and type 2 diabetes model group ( n =42). The rats of type 2 diabetes model group were fed by food with high glucose, fat and energy for 4 weeks, before streptozotocin at a does of 30 mg/kg was given by a bout of intraperitoneal injection to establish rat model of type 2 diabetes. 30 successful type 2 diabetes model rats were allocated at random into 3 groups: diabetes control, lower and moderate intensity exercise groups (n = 10 each ). The treadmill training protocol of exercise group was in 8 weeks. BMD was measured by using solid

  6. 运动平板试验对男性及绝经前后女性冠心病的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of treadmill exercise testing in male patients and female patients before or after menopause with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余汀

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究运动平板试验(treadmill exercise testing,TET)对男性及绝经前后女性冠心病的诊断价值和特点。方法选择拟诊断冠心病且行 TET 和冠状动脉造影(coronary angi-ography,CAG)的患者162例为研究对象,分为男性组(A 组)、绝经后女性组(B 组)和绝经前女性组(C 组),对比分析行 TET 与 CAG 的结果。结果TET 诊断冠心病的阳性预测值为74.7%,阴性预测值为76.0%,敏感性为78.3%,特异性为72.2%,准确性为75.3%。TET 与CAG 对男性与绝经后女性的诊断率差异无统计学意义,A 组和 B 组的冠心病诊断率均高于 C组,差异有统计学意义。TET 中Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF 导联 ST 段改变者罪犯血管多为右冠状动脉,V1~V6导联 ST 段改变者罪犯血管多为左前降支。结论TET 是诊断冠心病的重要手段且能初步判定罪犯血管的部位,但通过其诊断绝经前女性冠心病要慎重。%Objective To study the diagnostic value and characteristics of treadmill exercise testing (TET)in male patients and female patients before or after menopause with coronary artery disease(CAD). Methods One hundred and sixty-two patients who were proposed to diagnose with coronary artery disease and coronary angiography were performed treadmill exercise testing.Male patients as group A,female pa-tients after menopause as group B,female patients before menopause as group C,analyze and contrast the results of TET and CAG.Results The positive rate of TET for the diagnosis of CAD was 74.7%,the nega-tive rate is 76%,sensitive rate is 78.3%,the specificity rate is 72.2%,the accuracy rate is 75.3%.The difference of diagnosis rate between after-menopause patients and male patients was non-statistical signifi-cance.The diagnosis rate of after-menopause patients and male patients was higher than the diagnosis rate of before-menopause patients.The difference of diagnosis rate between after-menopause patients

  7. International study on the psychometric attributes of the non-motor symptoms scale in Parkinson disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Abe, K.; Bhattacharyya, K.B.; Bloem, B.R.; Carod-Artal, F.J.; Prakash, R.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Falup-Pecurariu, C.; Gallardo, M.; Mir, P.; Naidu, Y.; Nicoletti, A.; Sethi, K.; Tsuboi, Y.; Hilten, J.J. van; Visser, M. de; Zappia, M.; Chaudhuri, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) have a great impact on patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) is an instrument specifically designed for the comprehensive assessment of NMS in patients with PD. NMSS psychometric properties have been tested in this study. METHOD

  8. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  9. Impact of Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have nonmotor symptoms (NMS) that, although poorly considered, have an impact on their quality of life. In contrast, the effect on disability is not systematically evaluated. Adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule.…

  10. Using Pre-Exercise Photobiomodulation Therapy Combining Super-Pulsed Lasers and Light-Emitting Diodes to Improve Performance in Progressive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Grandinetti, Vanessa dos Santos; de Paiva, Paulo Roberto Vicente; Machado, Caroline dos Santos Monteiro; Monteiro, Kadma Karênina Damasceno Soares; Casalechi, Heliodora Leão; de Tarso, Paulo; de Carvalho, Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2016-01-01

    ...) combining superpulsed lasers (low-level laser therapy) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on muscle performance during a progressive cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise test. Crossover study. Laboratory...

  11. Acute Hematological Responses to a Maximal Incremental Treadmill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dinato de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study acute hematologic responses in individuals undergoing a  cardiopulmonary maximum incremental treadmill test without inclination. Were analyzed 23 individuals, 12 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (± 8.4 years, mean weight of 68.1 (± 18.1 kg, mean height of 170.2 (± 9.8 cm, and mean BMI of 23.2 (±3.7 kg/m², physically active, with a minimum practice of 3.5 hours per week of exercise for at least 6 months. The subjects were submitted to a maximal incremental treadmill test, with venous blood collection for analysis before and immediately after completion of the test. Was used Wilcoxon test for analysis of pre and post test variables. Was adopted p < 0.05 as significance level. There was a significant increase in leukocyte count (69.23%; p = 0.005, lymphocytes (17.56%; p = 0.043, monocytes (85.41%; p = 0.012 and granulocytes (28.21%; p = 0.011. It was also observed a significant increase in erythrocytes (3,42%; p = 0,042, hematocrit (5.39%; p = 0.038 and hemoglobin (5.58%; p = 0.013. With this study, was concluded that performing a maximal test of treadmill running can significantly raise blood levels of leukocytes and respective sub-populations, as well as red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  12. Diagnostic value and clinical feature of ST-segment depression limited to the recovery phase of treadmill exercise test%平板运动试验中单纯恢复期 ST 段压低对冠心病的诊断价值及其临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 黄煦航; 郭丹杰; 郭琳; 曹文颖; 汝新; 张文争; 杨军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value and clinical feature of ST-segment depression limited to the recovery phase of a treadmill exercise test, as compared with that of ST-segment depression appearing during exercise. Methods Clinical and angiographic data was compared for 140 consecutive patients who developed ST-segment depression during the exercise phase of an exercise test (exercise group) and for 36 patients who developed ST-segment depression limited to the recovery phase of the exercise test (recovery group). Results There were no differences between the 2 groups in major clinical feature. Significant coronary artery stenosis were found in 78 exercise group patients (55.7%) and in 22 recovery group patients (61.1%, P=0.348). However the involvement rate of LAD was higher in recovery group (100%) than that in exercise group (83.3%, P=0.031). As to treadmill exercise test, compared with exercise group, recovery group patients showed higher peak SBP level (165±23 mmHg vs. 177±17 mmHg, P=0.010), lower rate of premature termination (31.4% vs. 11.1%, P=0.003), shorter duration of exercise [(416±146)s vs. (337±144)s, P=0.003] and shorter duration of ST-segment depression [462 (120-1 114) s vs. 294 (120-831) s, P=0.029]. Conclusion The diagnostic power of ST-segment depression limited to the recovery phase of an exercise test is equal to that of ST-segment depression induced during effort. Involvement rate of LAD was seem to be higher in recovery group than that in exercise group. And the gender and age feathers between 2 groups are similar.%目的:探讨平板运动试验中单纯恢复期 ST 段压低对冠心病的诊断价值及其临床特点。方法回顾性入选176例平板运动试验阳性的患者,根据其 ST 段压低出现时间将其分为运动期 ST 段压低组(n=140)和恢复期 ST 段压低组(n=36),比较其临床资料及冠状动脉造影结果。结果两组患者一般临床特点(如性别、

  13. The impact of non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Kurtis, M.M.; Chaudhuri, K.R.; Bloem, B.R.; Esselink, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms are detrimental to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Parkinson's disease patients. In this study, the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) was used to assess the impact of the non-motor symptoms on HRQoL of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: In a multicenter, in

  14. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Delecroix, Abd Elbasset Abaïdia, Cédric Leduc, Brian Dawson, Grégory Dupont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%: -2.17 to -0.06, the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80 and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32 in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98. This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86. However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  15. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  16. Development of a submaximal treadmill jogging test for fit college-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J D; Vehrs, P R; Allsen, P E; Fellingham, G W; Fisher, A G

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging test for the estimation of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). VO2max was measured in 129 relatively fit individuals (males = 84, females = 45), 18-29 yr, using a maximal treadmill protocol (mean +/- SD; VO2max = 48.3 +/- 6.2 ml.kg-1 x min-1, range = 35.6 to 62.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1). The treadmill test required subjects to sustain a comfortable, submaximal jogging pace (4.3-7.5 mph; level grade) until a steady-state heart rate was achieved (approximately 3 min). To help ensure that a submaximal level of exertion was realized for the treadmill jogging test, treadmill speed and exercise HR criteria were established that restricted treadmill speed to test yielded the following validation (V) model (r(adj) = 0.84, SEE = 3.2 ml.kg-1 x min-1): VO2max = 54.07 + 7.062 * GENDER (0 = female; 1 = male) - 0.1938 * WEIGHT (kg) + 4.47* SPEED (miles.h-1) - 0.1453 * HEART RATE (bpm). Cross-validation (CV) of the treadmill jogging test comparing observed and estimated VO2max (N = 63) resulted in r(adj) = 0.88, SEE = 3.1 ml.kg-1 x min-1. The results indicate that this submaximal single-stage treadmill jogging test based on multiple linear regression provides a valid and convenient method for estimating VO2max.

  17. Effect of different Intensity Exercises in Treadmill on Learning and Memory and The Synaptic Ultrastructure in Hippocampal CA3 Area in Rats%不同强度跑台运动对大鼠学习记忆能力及海马CA3区突触超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚云

    2012-01-01

    Effect of the different intensity treadmill exercise on learning and memory ability and hippocampal CA3 area ultrastructure was studied in rats.40 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups(control group,low-intensity exercise group,medium-intensity exercise group and high-intensity exercise group),after 60d exercise according to their respective intensity,through the one-trial passive avoidance response,the time to step-through lateney(STL) of rats was measured in every exercise group.Then 5 rats were chosen from every group,through normal ultrathin section made method,hippocampal CA3 area was observed under JEM-1230EX transmission electron microscope and photographed.The results showed that: 24 hours of STL period after electrical shock was significantly longer(P0.05) in low-intensity exercise group rats,and the hippocampal CA3 area postsynaptic density material became significantly thicker(P0.01).The curved type of synaptic interface could be divided into positively curved,negatively curved and flat,the flat type was the main.As a result,low-intensity exercise can increase memory capacity,and make the neuron synapse occurring plastic changes in the hippocampal CA3 area.The thickness of postsynaptic density material came into being a positive correlation with the strength of memory.%探讨不同强度跑台运动对大鼠学习记忆能力及海马CA3区超微结构的影响。40只Wister大鼠随机被分为4组(对照组、低强度运动组、中强度运动组、高强度运动组,各10只),按各自强度运动60 d后,通过一次性被动回避反应实验,逐只测量其步入潜伏期的时间(STL);后每组任选5只大鼠,取右侧海马CA3区按常规方法制作超薄切片,60K倍透射电镜观察并拍照,Motic Images Advanced 3.1软件测量相关突触界面结构。结果表明:低强度运动组大鼠,电击后24 h步入潜伏期的时间显著延长(P〈0.05),海马CA3区突触后膜致密

  18. The impact of high intensity physical training on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Bo M; Jensen, Joakim; Bode, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    regarding physical activity. The primary outcomes were the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Subscores (UPDRS) and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). RESULTS: At week 32, the training significantly improved both UPDRS motor subscores (p = 0.045), activities of daily living......BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Several studies have investigated various physical interventions on PD. The effects of a high intensity exercise program with focus on resistance; cardio; equilibrium......; and flexibility training have not been evaluated previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a complex, high intensity physical training program, with a long duration, on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHOD: 24 patients with PD Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 were...

  19. Influencing effect of non-motor symptom clusters on quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; So, Hui Young; Choi, Eunju; Kang, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hye Young; Chung, Sun Ju

    2014-12-15

    The heterogeneity of non-motor symptoms (NMSs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has been well established. We investigated the effects of NMS as a cluster on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with PD. We recruited 180 patients with PD and used a descriptive cross-sectional study design. To determine interrelationships between non-motor symptoms, a principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed based on the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS). Among 180 PD patients, 172 patients (96.6%) had experienced at least 2 domains of concurrent non-motor symptoms. There were two types of non-motor symptom clusters (NMSCs). The first non-motor symptom cluster (NMSC1) consisted of mood, sleep/fatigue, attention/memory, urinary symptoms, and miscellaneous symptoms, while the second non-motor symptom cluster (NMSC2) consisted of perceptual problems, gastrointestinal issues, and cardiovascular symptoms. The elderly PD patients were more often categorized as experiencing NMSC2 than NMSC1. Our subgroup cluster analysis showed that PD patients with higher scoring NMS had significantly poorer QoL in both NMSC1 and NMSC2 subgroups, with subgroup-specific patterns. NMSCs also emerged differently depending on sex and the severity of PD. In conclusion, PD patients with NMS may have a specific cluster pattern of NMSC. Some NMSCs may have a negative impact on QoL. Understanding the clinical implications of NMSC in PD patients may provide better therapeutic interventions.

  20. Characteristics of Nonmotor Symptoms in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwei Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore the clinical correlates of nonmotor symptoms (NMS in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and their differences from healthy controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-seven PSP patients, 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC, and 27 age- and gender-matched PD patients were included for this case-control study. NMS were assessed using the Nonmotor Symptoms Scale (NMSS, including 9 domains. Results. All PSP patients reported NMS. The frequency and severity of “sleep/fatigue,” “mood/apathy,” “attention/memory,” “gastrointestinal,” “sexual dysfunction,” and “miscellaneous” domains in PSP group were significantly higher than those in HC group (P<0.05. The frequency of “mood/apathy,” “attention/memory,” and “sexual dysfunction” domains and the severity of “attention/memory” and “gastrointestinal” domains in PSP group were significantly higher than those in PD group (P<0.05. The “attention/memory” domain in PSP had a significant but weak-to-moderate correlation with age (R=0.387, P=0.046 and onset age (R=0.406, P=0.036. Conclusions. NMS are common in PSP patients. Patients with PSP seem to be subjected to more frequent and severe specific NMS compared to healthy aging subjects and PD patients. Older PSP patients and late-onset patients are likely to be subjected to cognitive decline.

  1. Nonmotor symptoms in patients suffering from motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Günther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The various nonmotor symptoms (NMS in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. Recent evidence, however, suggests disease spreading into nonmotor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND.Methods: We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric and sleep complaints (NMSQuest which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls.Results: In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points in comparison to controls (median: 4 points. Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression.Conclusions: NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression which would fit with the recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis. The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  2. Treadmill training as an augmentation treatment for Alzheimer?s disease: a pilot randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Arcoverde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the effect of aerobic exercise on the cognition and functional capacity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Method Elderly (n=20 with mild dementia (NINCDS-ADRDA/CDR1 were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG on a treadmill (30 minutes, twice a week and moderate intensity of 60% VO2max and control group (GC 10 patients. The primary outcome measure was the cognitive function using Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG. Specifics instruments were also applied to evaluate executive function, memory, attention and concentration, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and functional capacity. Results After 16 weeks, the EG showed improvement in cognition CAMCOG whereas the CG declined. Compared to the CG, the EG presented significant improvement on the functional capacity. The analysis of the effect size has shown a favorable response to the physical exercise in all dependent variables. Conclusion Walking on treadmill may be recommended as an augmentation treatment for patients with AD.

  3. Development of a Non-Motor Fluctuation Assessment Instrument for Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Kleiner-Fisman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson disease are increasingly recognized to suffer from non-motor symptoms in addition to motor symptoms. Many non-motor symptoms fluctuate in parallel with motor symptoms and in relationship to plasma levodopa levels. Though these symptoms are troublesome and result in reduced quality of life to patients and their caregivers, there has not been an objective method of recognizing and quantifying non-motor fluctuations (NMFs. This study sought to develop a patient-based instrument that would accurately capture the experience of patients with NMFs. Patient-based nominal group technique sessions, focus groups, and expert opinion were utilized in developing this questionnaire.

  4. Pre-Ischemic Treadmill Training Induces Tolerance to Brain Ischemia: Involvement of Glutamate and ERK1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Shan Hu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been shown to be beneficial in stroke patients and animal stroke models. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are not yet very clear. The present study investigated whether pre-ischemic treadmill training could induce brain ischemic tolerance (BIT by inhibiting the excessive glutamate release and event-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 activation observed in rats exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 12/group: sham surgery without prior exercise, MCAO without prior exercise and MCAO following three weeks of exercise. Pre-MCAO exercise significantly reduced brain infarct size (103.1 ± 6.7 mm3 relative to MCAO without prior exercise (175.9 ± 13.5 mm3. Similarly, pre-MCAO exercise significantly reduced neurological defects (1.83 ± 0.75 relative to MCAO without exercise (3.00 ± 0.63. As expected, MCAO increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (69 ± 5% relative to sham surgery (40 ± 5%, and phospho-ERK1/2 levels were normalized in rats exposed to pre-ischemic treadmill training (52 ± 6% relative to MCAO without exercise (69% ± 5%. Parallel effects were observed on striatal glutamate overflow. This study suggests that pre-ischemic treadmill training might induce neuroprotection by inhibiting the phospho-ERK1/2 over-activation and reducing excessive glutamate release.

  5. Effect of treadmill training on inspiratory function and its association with improvement of exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%踏车锻炼对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者吸气肺功能的影响及与运动能力改善的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞; 陈功; 毛晓群; 陈新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of treadmill training on inspiratory function and its association with improvement of exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods The 12 moderate to severe COPD patients were allocated to lower-limb exercise training for 12weeks. The routine tests of pulmonary ventilation function, diffusion function,lung volume, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), symptom-limited progressive cycle ergometer exercise tests and constant work rate exercise tests were administered before and after the training program. During the constant work rate exercise tests, tidal breathing flow volume (TBFV) curves were recorded every 1 mir. Results After treadmill training, the exercise duration (T) (t=7. 357, P<0. 001), peak work rate (WRpeak) (t=3. 614, P<0.05), MIP (t=4.754, P<0. 001) and PIF (t=2. 440, P<0. 05) increased significantly. The tidal PIF (t=- 2.747, P<0.05) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) (t = - 4.487, P< 0.05 ) decreased significantly at isotime. Maxium inspiratory flow reserve (△FLOWinsp) (t = 2. 755, P < 0. 05 ) increased significantly at isotime, and maxium expiratory flow reserve (△FLOWexp) (t = 1. 326, P > 0.05)showed no significant changes; The△T were positively correlated with △MIP (r=0. 613, P<0. 05),△PIF (r=0.497, P<0.05) and △FLOWinsp (r=0.592, P<0.05). Conclusions Lower limb exercise training improves inspiratory function of COPD patients. The improvement of exercise endurance in moderate to severe COPD patients after lower limb exercise training is due to increases of inspiratory muscle strength, maxium PIF and inspiratory flow reserve.%目的 探讨踏车锻炼对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者吸气肺功能的影响及与运动能力改善的关系.方法 对12例中、重度COPD患者进行12周的下肢踏车运动训练.在运动训练前后分别进行常规肺通气功能、弥散功能、肺容积、最大用力

  6. Treadmill running improves spatial memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoveida, Reihaneh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem; Reisi, Parham

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and severe neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain including nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) that play an important role in learning and memory. There are few therapeutic regimens that influence the underlying pathogenic phenotypes of AD, however, of the currently available therapies, exercise training is considered to be one of the best strategies for attenuating the pathological phenotypes of AD for people with AD. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of treadmill running on spatial memory in Alzheimer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were split into two groups namely shams (n=7) and lesions with the lesion group subdivided further into the lesion-rest (n=7) and lesion-exercise (n=7). The lesion-exercise and shams were subjected to treadmill running at 17 meters per minute (m/min) for 60 min per day (min/day), 7 days per week (days/wk), for 60 days. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Maze test in the rats after 60 days of Alzheimer induction and the exercise. Our data demonstrated that spatial memory was indeed impaired in the lesion group compared with the shams. However, exercise notably improved spatial memory in the lesion-exercised rats compared to lesion-rested group. The present results suggest that spatial memory is affected under Alzheimer conditions and that treadmill running improves these effects. Our data suggested that treadmill running contributes to the alleviation of the cognitive decline in AD.

  7. 早期跑台训练对中重度颅脑外伤大鼠运动功能的影响%The effect of early treadmill exercise on motor function deficits following moderate or severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱萍; 沈夏锋; 胡永善; 张彭跃; 张宇玲; 濮宏建

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of early rehabilitation on rats' motor performance after moderate or severe experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods After adult Sprague-Dawley rats had received moderate or severe TBI,they were randomly assigned to either a 24 hour exercise group (group A),a 3-day exercise group (group B),a 7-day exercise group (group C) or a control group.Each group was composed of 8 rats.The exercise group endured forced treadmill training on an electric treadmill for 14 consecutive days initiated 24 hours,3 days or 7 days post TBI.The foot-fault and cylinder tests were performed on the 6th,12th,18th,24th and 28th day post injury.On the 28th day the rats were sacrificed and the brains were removed and frozen.The frozen coronal brain sections were stained with cresyl violet (CV) for quantitative evaluation of cortical lesion volume.Results The rats in groups B and C showed significant decreases in the percentage of left forelimb foot faults compared with the control group at the 18th,24th and28th day after injury.In addition,the rats of group C demonstrated significant decreases in the percentage of left forelimb foot-fault at the 12th day after injury.There was no significant difference between group A and the control group in terms of foot fault scores in any of the subsequent test sessions.In the cylinder test the forelimb use asymmetry scores of neither group A nor group B were significantly different from the control group.Group C showed marked locomotor asymmetry improvement at day 28 post-injury.There was no significantly different loss of hemispheric tissue between those groups.Conclusion After treadmill exercise for 14 consecutive days initiated at 3 or 7 days following moderate or severe TBI,rats' motor function improved.The cortical lesion volume was not associated with recovery of motor function.%目的 观察早期跑台训练对中重度颅脑外伤大鼠运动功能的影响.方法 将32只成年SD大鼠制成中重度

  8. A prospective comparison of pedal ergometry with conventional treadmill testing in the investigation of lower extremity pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Investigation of lower extremity pain is compromised by comorbid disorders that may interfere with conventional testing. AIMS: To compare pedal ergometry with conventional treadmill testing. METHODS: A prospective study was performed where patients presenting with a diagnosis of intermittent claudication were assessed by both methods of testing. RESULTS: Of 78 patients studied with both tests, no exercise-induced ankle pressure changes occurred in 26, two were unable to complete either test despite normal pressure measurements, while 24 had exercise-induced pressure drop detected by both tests. Of patients who completed pedal ergometry, 21 were unable to complete the treadmill test, 14 of whom had negative ergometry, while seven had a pressure drop detected by pedal ergometry. Three had pressure changes with pedal ergometry, but not with treadmill testing and two had pressure changes on the treadmill not reproduced by pedal ergometry. CONCLUSIONS: Pedal ergometer is more sensitive than treadmill testing in detecting arterial insufficiency, as indicated by a 20% or greater fall in ankle pressure, and more suitable in a subgroup of patients unable to tolerate conventional treadmill testing.

  9. 平板运动试验致ST段抬高与继发室性心律失常和心肌梗死关系探讨(附29例分析)%Study of the correlations between exercise treadmill test induced ST-segment elevation and secondary ventricular arrhythmia and myocardial infarction by analysis of 29 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万进; 章亚成; 李七一; 王光耀; 史海波; 杨宗美; 唐蜀华

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析无陈旧性心肌梗死患者运动诱发的ST段抬高现象,比较ST段抬高和继发室性心动过速、心肌梗死的关系,找出预警指标.方法:对9900例疑似冠心病者行平板运动试验检查,阳性人数3002例.同时检出ST段抬高者29例,并对其行冠状动脉造影检查,比较ST抬高程度、冠状动脉狭窄、T波顶峰后宽度(TaTe)、T波顶峰后宽度/QT间期(TaTe/QT)、QT离散度(QTd)、修正的QT离散度(QTcd)、室性期前收缩(RONT,室早)和症状之间存在的内在联系.结果:发现9900例检查者中阳性率30.32%;ST段抬高发生率为0.29%.4例并发心肌梗死,5例并发室性心动过速.同时发现,ST段抬高程度、形态、冠状动脉狭窄、伴发的室性心动过速、心肌梗死、TaTe、TaTe/QT、QTd、QTcd、RONT及症状之间存在正向关系,室性心动过速时TaTe/QT与无心律失常组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:无心肌梗死者运动诱发心电图ST段抬高,提示冠状动脉存在严重固定狭窄或/并痉挛,并与心肌梗死、室性心动过速有并行关系,尤其TaTe/QT比值,是最有预警可能发生室速的重要价值.%Objective;To analyze the correlation between exercise-induced ST-segment elevation,secondary ventricular arrhythmia and myocardial infarction( MI) in patients with no previous MI history, and to further identify early warning indicators. Methods: Nine thousand nine hundred suspected coronary heart disease (CHD) patients who were examined with exercise treadmill test(ETT) in our hospital between January 2002 and October 2010 were reviewed. FIT was carried out in Bruce protocol with submaximal exercise, and ST-segment depression of at least 0. 1mV for 0. 08 second after the J point (ST-segment standard) was set positive, positive rate is 30. 32%. Among all the patients, twenty nine cases were found with positive exercise-induced ST elevation. The features of elevated ST-segment were analyzed in relation

  10. Home-based treadmill training improved seminal quality in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Rosety, J M; Fornieles, G; Rosety, M A; Diaz, A J; Rosety, I; Rodríguez-Pareja, A; Rosety, M; Ordonez, F J; Elosegui, S

    2014-11-01

    This was the first study conducted to determine the influence of home-based treadmill training on seminal quality in adults with type 2 diabetes. Sixty sedentary adults with type 2 diabetes volunteered for the current study. Thirty were randomly allocated to the intervention group and performed a a 14-week, home-based, treadmill training program, 3 sessions per week, consisting of a warm-up (10-15min), 40min treadmill exercise at a work intensity of 55-70% of peak heart rate (increasing by 2.5% each two weeks) measured during a maximal treadmill test, and cooling-down (5-10min). The control group included 30, age and BMI matched adults with type 2 diabetes who did not take part in any training program. Seminal quality analysis included semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and normal morphologic features. Furthermore, total antioxidant status (TAS) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity were assessed in seminal plasma. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. The home-based treadmill training significantly increased sperm concentration as well as percentages of total sperm motility and normal spermatozoa. Furthermore, TAS and GPX activity were increased after the completion of the training program. No significant changes in any of the measured variables were found in the control group. Home-based treadmill training improved seminal quality in adults with type 2 diabetes. A secondary finding was that seminal antioxidant defense system was significantly increased after being exercised. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of overground vs treadmill running on plantar pressure: influence of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, José A; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana, Salvador; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The differences produced when running on a treadmill vs overground may call into question the use and validity of the treadmill as a piece of equipment commonly used in research, training, and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to analyze under pre/post fatigue conditions the effect of treadmill vs overground on plantar pressures. Twenty-seven recreational runners (17 men and 10 women) ran on a treadmill and overground at two speeds: S1=3.33 m/s and S2=4.00 m/s, before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a 30-min run at 85% of their individual maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Contact time (CT in seconds), peak pressure (PP in kPa), and relative load (RL in %) were analyzed under nine foot zones of the left foot using an in-shoe plantar pressure device. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that running on a treadmill increases CT (7.70% S1 and 9.91% S2), modifies the pressure distribution and reduces PP (25.98% S1 and 31.76% S2), especially under the heel, medial metatarsals, and hallux, compared to running overground. Moreover, on both surfaces, fatigue (S2) led to a reduced stride frequency (2.78%) and reduced PP on the lateral heel and hallux (15.96% and 16.35%, respectively), and (S1) increased relative load on the medial arch (9.53%). There was no significant interaction between the two factors analyzed (surface and fatigue). Therefore, the aforementioned surface effect, which occurs independently of the fatigue state, should be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies that use the treadmill in their experimental protocols, and when prescribing physical exercise on a treadmill.

  12. Treating non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease with transplantation of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantcheva, Paolina; Reyes, Stephanny; Hoover, Jaclyn; Kaelber, Sussannah; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment-based research has focused on developing therapies for the management of motor symptoms. Non-motor symptoms do not respond to treatments targeting motor deficits, thus necessitating an urgent need to develop new modalities that cater to both motor and non-motor deficits. Stem cell transplantation is potentially therapeutic for PD, but the disease non-motor symptoms have been primarily neglected in such cell therapy regimens. Many types of stem cells are currently available for transplantation therapy, including adult tissue (e.g., bone marrow, placenta)-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells can replace and rescue degenerated dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cells suggests their potential for the treatment of motor as well as non-motor symptoms of PD, which is discussed in this article.

  13. Non-motor symptoms in genetically defined dystonia : Homogenous groups require systematic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peall, K. J.; Kuiper, A.; de Koning, T. J.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dystonia is a movement disorder involving sustained or intermittent muscle contractions resulting in abnormal movements and postures. Identification of disease causing genes has allowed examination of genetically homogenous groups. Unlike the motor symptoms, non-motor characteristics a

  14. Treadmill Desks at LANL - Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Samara Kia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    It is well established that sedentariness is the largest, preventable contributor to premature death, eclipsing smoking in recent years. One approach to reduce sedentariness is by using a treadmill desk to perform office work while walking at a low speed.We found an increased interest level when the treadmill desks were first introduced to LANL, but after a few months interest appeared to drop. It is possible that treadmill desk use was occurring, but subjects did not record their use. The treadmill desks will not be readily available for purchase by employees due to the study outcome. Additionally, conclusive changes in body measurements could not be performed due to lack of follow up by 58% of the participants.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Treadmill Therapy on Neuromuscular Atrophy Induced via Botulinum Toxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Wei Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A is a bacterial zinc-dependent endopeptidase that acts specifically on neuromuscular junctions. BoNT-A blocks the release of acetylcholine, thereby decreasing the ability of a spastic muscle to generate forceful contraction, which results in a temporal local weakness and the atrophy of targeted muscles. BoNT-A-induced temporal muscle weakness has been used to manage skeletal muscle spasticity, such as poststroke spasticity, cerebral palsy, and cervical dystonia. However, the combined effect of treadmill exercise and BoNT-A treatment is not well understood. We previously demonstrated that for rats, following BoNT-A injection in the gastrocnemius muscle, treadmill running improved the recovery of the sciatic functional index (SFI, muscle contraction strength, and compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitude and area. Treadmill training had no influence on gastrocnemius mass that received BoNT-A injection, but it improved the maximal contraction force of the gastrocnemius, and upregulation of GAP-43, IGF-1, Myo-D, Myf-5, myogenin, and acetylcholine receptor (AChR subunits α and β was found following treadmill training. Taken together, these results suggest that the upregulation of genes associated with neurite and AChR regeneration following treadmill training may contribute to enhanced gastrocnemius strength recovery following BoNT-A injection.

  16. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Chifumi Iseki; Taiga Furuta; Masao Suzuki; Shingo Koyama; Keiji Suzuki; Tomoko Suzuki; Akiyo Kaneko; Tadamichi Mitsuma

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson’s disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our departmen...

  17. Nonmotor Features in Parkinson’s Disease: What Are the Most Important Associated Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Kadastik-Eerme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society’s Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39, the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE. Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as “mild” or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients’ mood, daily activities, and quality of life.

  18. TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION IN NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The cardinal clinical features of PD are motor and include bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor with an asymmetric pattern. Apart from these, various nonmotor symptoms (NMS also occur in PD and constitute a major clinical symptoms. NMS can present at any stage of the disease including early and pre-motor phase of PD. Management of PD requires recognition of both motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as an understanding of the relationship between these symptoms and how they can be affected by treatments for PD. Therapy should be individualized for each patient, as treatments for the motor symptoms of PD can improve some nonmotor symptoms while they can worsen others. Some non-motor symptoms, including depression, constipation, pain, genitourinary problems, and sleep disorders, can be improved with antiparkinsonian drugs . Other non-motor symptoms can be more refractory and need the introduction of novel non-dopaminergic drugs in association with rehabilitation programs . In the future, development of treatments that can slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease and its multicentric neurodegeneration are the best hope of ameliorating non-motor symptoms

  19. Técnica para avaliação da pressão arterial pulmonar de equinos durante o exercício progressivo em esteira rolante Technique for pulmonary arterial pressure measurement in horses during the incremental exercise on a treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P.M. Dias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se ilustrar a técnica cirúrgica de implantação de introdutores para cateter de Swan Ganz na veia jugular, bem como o procedimento de canulação da artéria pulmonar de dez equinos adultos sem raça definida (SRD. Realizando medidas através do cateter de Swan Ganz implantado, objetivou-se ainda demonstrar os valores de pressão arterial pulmonar (PAP durante um teste de esforço progressivo de intensidade submáxima realizado em esteira rolante. A técnica cirúrgica de implantação de introdutores para o cateter de Swan Ganz empregada, demonstrou-se de fácil e rápida realização. Os animais não apresentaram complicações frente ao introdutor implantado e o teste ergométrico foi realizado conforme proposto. A PAP se elevou ao longo do exercício seguindo o incremento de velocidade, sendo os maiores valores médios observados nos momentos de maior intensidade do esforço. Os valores médios de PAP aumentaram (pThe aim of this study was to illustrate the surgical implantation of Swan Ganz introducers into the jugular vein, as well as the pulmonary artery cannulation procedure using ten mixed breed (MB adult horses. We also proposed to demonstrate pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP values measured through the implanted Swan Ganz during one incremental submaximal exercise test performed on a treadmill. Surgical implantation of the Swan Ganz introducers has demonstrated to be easy and quick to perform. None of the animals showed signs of discomfort following the surgery and ergometric test was carried out as proposed. PAP increased proportionally with exercise intensity, and the major average values were recorded at the higher effort time points. The PAP average values increased (P<0.05 when treadmill speed reached 7.5m/s (39±3mmHg and 8.5m/s (41±3mmHg, comparing to average values at rest (26±3mmHg. However, the PAP values observed at the maximal effort performed by the MB horses of this trial (41±3mmHg, are under the values

  20. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SUBJECTED TO MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Viviane Martins Mana; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Brandäo, Camila Fernanda Costa Cunha Moraes; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Botelho, And Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. It was a double-blind and crossover study comprising 24 active individuals within the age group 18-30 years. The comparisons were conducted: the effect of exercise (week 1 x 2) and caffeine intake (GC x GP) on thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) variables during pre-exercise time (30 min. after caffeine or placebo intake) and post-exercise (5 min after treadmill test). The comparison between weeks 1 and 2 showed increase in the first week, in the following items: TBARS, IL-6 and IL-10 in the GC and GP groups. The comparison within the same week showed that GC individuals presented lower post-exercise TBARS values in the first and second weeks; IL- 6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group in both weeks. The paired analysis comparing pre- and post-exercise, with and without caffeine showed that IL-6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group. Caffeine used by athletes can decrease oxidative stress. The increased IL-6 suggest that this ergogenic supplement may stimulate muscle hypertrophy, since IL-6 has myokine effect. However, the caffeine effect on IL-6 level and muscle hypertrophy increase should be better investigated in future studies.

  1. Influence of treadmill lower limbs exercise training on sports and the lung breathe function of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者下肢踏车运动训练对运动及吸气肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨下肢踏车运动训练对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者吸气肺功能的影响.方法 选择本科收治的COPD患者40例,随机分为研究组与对照组各20例.两组均给予常规内科治疗,对照组患者进行低强度日常活动训练,研究组患者进行3个月的下肢踏车运动训练,比较两组运动前后肺通气功能、弥散功能、肺容积、最大吸气峰值流速,最大吸气压,比较研究组患者下肢运动训练前后运动持续时间和峰值运动功率.结果研究组患者训练后,运动持续时间及最大运动功率均较之前明显升高,最大吸气压、最大吸气峰值流速较之前明显增加,前后比较差异有统计学意义(P 0.05); and there were no statistically significant differences of lung ventilation, diffusion index conventional index, capacity index between two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Lower limbs treadmill exercise training can effectively improve sports ability and lung breathe function of COPD patients.

  2. Nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erro R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Erro,1,2 Gabriella Santangelo,3,4 Paolo Barone,5 Carmine Vitale4,6 1Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e del Movimento, Università di Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy; 4IDC Hermitage – Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; 5University of Salerno, Center for Neurodegenerative diseases – CEMAND, Salerno, Italy; 6University of Naples "Parthenope," Department of Motor Sciences, Naples, Italy Abstract: Despite the emphasis on the motor phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD, it has been increasingly recognized that PD patients experience several nonmotor symptoms (NMS, which have even greater significance when assessed by quality-of-life measures and institutionalization rates. The burden of NMS tends to increase with age and disease severity and, in the very advanced stage of disease, NMS such as urinary problems, drooling, somnolence, psychosis, and dementia dominate the clinical phenotype. Moreover, the dopaminergic treatment used for the motor symptoms of PD can arise or worsen a number of NMS, including orthostatic hypotension, nausea, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, or impulsive compulsive behaviors. Here we review the most common NMS of PD with a focus on their pharmacological management. Keywords: disease management, PD, NMS

  3. The nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology and management advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Heinz; Brandt, Moritz D; Klingelhoefer, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    In recent years progress has been made in the detection and evaluation of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology is better understood and new treatment is available, which will be discussed in this review. The most intriguing recent finding is the fact that Parkinson's disease may be a spreading disease. From the environment a toxin, bacteria, or virus may start in genetically susceptible patients a cascade of α-synuclein aggregation which reaches via the olfactory and the enteric system of the gut the brain where further spreading causes symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, motor impairment, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. New treatment should address the abnormal α-synuclein folding. If this would be achieved premotor signs, such as hyposmia, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder, constipation, or depression may be a kind of biomarkers which allow together with other diagnostic tools, such as parenchymal sonography, iodobenzamide-scintigraphy and dopamine transporter scans the prediction whether somebody might be under way to develop the full-blown Parkinson's disease syndrome. Parkinson's disease seems to be a spreading disease which causes not only a dopaminergic deficit as major cause for the movement disorder but also impairs function of many other brain centers which leads to a multitransmitter malfunction.

  4. Neuropathology and neurochemistry of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro

    2011-02-17

    Parkinson disease (PD) is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and neurites filled with abnormal α-synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of α-synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. Involvement of the cerebral cortex that may lead to altered behaviour and cognition are related to several convergent factors such as (a) abnormal α-synuclein and other proteins at the synapses, rather than LBs and neurites, (b) impaired dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic cortical innervation, and (c) altered neuronal function resulting from reduced energy production and increased energy demands. These alterations appear at early stages of the disease and may precede by years the appearance of cell loss and cortical atrophy.

  5. Neuropathology and Neurochemistry of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ferrer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs and neurites filled with abnormal -synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of -synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. Involvement of the cerebral cortex that may lead to altered behaviour and cognition are related to several convergent factors such as (a abnormal -synuclein and other proteins at the synapses, rather than LBs and neurites, (b impaired dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic cortical innervation, and (c altered neuronal function resulting from reduced energy production and increased energy demands. These alterations appear at early stages of the disease and may precede by years the appearance of cell loss and cortical atrophy.

  6. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    1996-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power freque

  7. Submaximal treadmill test predicts VO2max in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Blaise A; Carrel, Aaron L; Eickhoff, Jens; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Allen, David B

    2009-05-01

    To demonstrate the ability of a submaximal test to predict VO(2max) in overweight children. A total of 130 children, 11 to 14 years old, with body mass index >85 percentile for age and sex performed a submaximal walking test. VO(2max) was measured by using open circuit spirometry during a graded exercise test to volitional fatigue. An equation to predict VO(2max) was modeled by using the variables of sex, weight (kg), height (cm), heart rate (HR) after 4 minutes during the submaximal test (4minHR), HR difference (4minHR - resting HR), and submaximal treadmill speed (miles per hour [mph]) in 75% of the subjects. Validation was performed by using the remaining 25% of subjects. A total of 113 subjects achieved a maximal effort and was used in the statistical analysis. Development and validation groups were similar in all aspects. On validation, the mean square error was 241.06 with the predicted VO(2max) within 10% of the observed value in 67% of subjects. VO(2max) was accurately predicted in this cohort of overweight children by using a submaximal, treadmill-based testing protocol.

  8. Beta blockers and the sensitivity of the thallium treadmill test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.J.; Henkin, R.E.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The effect beta blockers (BB) may have on the sensitivity of the thallium treadmill test (Th-TMT) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that BB decrease the sensitivity of the Th-TMT. Two hundred three patients over a two-year period were identified who satisfied the following criteria. All had symptom-limited upright treadmill exercise tests with stress and redistribution thallium imaging, as well as coronary angiography within two months of the Th-TMT. Of 58 patients with CAD not on BB, 52 had an abnormal Th-TMT scan (sensitivity 90 percent). In comparison, the sensitivity of the Th-TMT scan in the 88 patients with CAD receiving BB was 76 percent (p less than 0.05). We conclude that BB may significantly decrease the sensitivity of the Th-TMT. Physicians should fully appreciate the higher false negative rate (24 vs 10 percent) for patients on BB and consider cautious withdrawal prior to diagnostic studies.

  9. Quantitative assessment of non-motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease using the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Alexander; Schneider, Christine B; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Odin, Per; Fuchs, Gerd; Jost, Wolfgang H; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Koch, Rainer; Reichmann, Heinz; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Ebersbach, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Data on frequency, severity and correlations of NMS with motor complications are only available for a limited number of NMS. The NMS Scale (NMSS) is a validated tool to assess a broad range of NMS, which has not been used in NMS fluctuations. We assessed fluctuations of a broad range of non-motor symptom (NMS) for a 1-month time period in fluctuating Parkinson's disease (PD) in a multicenter cross-sectional study using the NMSS assessing NMS in motor On (NMSSOn) and Off state (NMSSOff) combined with clinical NMS and motor function scoring in 100 fluctuating PD patients. ΔNMSSOn/Off was defined as the differences of NMSS scores between On and Off. Complete NMSS datasets were available from 73 patients (53 % men; age: 68.2 ± 9.7 years) with mean total NMSS score in On state of 41.5 ± 37.6 and in Off state of 75.6 ± 42.3 (P motor oscillations. NMSSOn, NMSSOff and ΔNMSSOn/Off showed weak to moderate correlations with demographics, indicators of motor symptom severity as well as with other measures of NMS, depression and quality of life. Correlations of NMSS items/domains with independent measures of related constructs were weak to moderate. In conclusion, when assessed with the NMSS, a broad range of NMS fluctuate with motor oscillations, but these fluctuations do neither correlate with motor function nor with measures of disease progression.

  10. 负重爬梯与负重跑台运动对大鼠股骨微结构及力学特性的影响%The influence of weight-bearing treadmill running and climbing-ladder exercise on micro-structure and biomechanical properties of rats femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐量; 高小航; 赵新娟; 张静; 孙丽君

    2015-01-01

    观察负重爬梯运动与负重跑台运动对大鼠股骨微结构及生物力学的影响,分别评价两种运动对股骨的作用效果。将28只16周 SD 雄性大鼠随机分为3个组:负重跑台运动组(WR),负重爬梯运动组(LC)以及对照组(CON)。WR 组在晚上进行每周6次持续8周无坡度15 m/min 的负重跑台运动,每组运动2 min,间歇2 min,共10组,周日休息;LC 组在晚上同期进行负重爬梯训练3组,每组10次,每次间歇2 min;CON 组不施加干预。实验8周后,戊巴比妥钠麻醉处死,并按解剖位置截取大鼠左右股骨分别用来进行 Micro-CT 扫描和三点弯曲实验,对其微结构及生物力学参数进行分析。Micro-CT 定量分析显示,与 CON 组对比,WR 组与 CL 组的骨小梁数量(Tb. N)和骨体积分数(BV/TV)均出现显著性增加,骨小梁分离度(Tb.Sp)和结构模型指数(SMI)均呈现显著性降低;三点实验显示,与 WR 组和 CON 组对比,CL 组的弹性模量(MOE)呈现出显著性增加;与 CON 组对比,WR 组与 CL 组的最大载荷(ML)均出现显著性增加,WR 组的刚度出现显著性增加。以上结果表明,经过8周的负重训练,两种训练方式均能在不同程度上改变骨的微结构及生物力学特性,负重爬梯训练的效果优于负重跑台训练。%The aim of the study was to investigate the micro-structure and biomechanical proper-ties of femur of rats that treated with weight-bearing treadmill running and climb ladder,and e-valuating the meaning of two exercise to the femur.Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:weight-bearing treadmill group (WR),weight-bearing climbing ladder group (CL),control group (CON).WR group were trained,running on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 15 m/min (0 incline)bearing with 35% their body-weight mass added,two minutes running and two minutes intervals

  11. Vection in depth during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, April; Palmisano, Stephen; Apthorp, Deborah; Allison, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    Vection has typically been induced in stationary observers (ie conditions providing visual-only information about self-motion). Two recent studies have examined vection during active treadmill walking--one reported that treadmill walking in the same direction as the visually simulated self-motion impaired vection (Onimaru et al, 2010 Journal of Vision 10(7):860), the other reported that it enhanced vection (Seno et al, 2011 Perception 40 747-750; Seno et al, 2011 Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73 1467-1476). Our study expands on these earlier investigations of vection during observer active movement. In experiment 1 we presented radially expanding optic flow and compared the vection produced in stationary observers with that produced during walking forward on a treadmill at a 'matched' speed. Experiment 2 compared the vection induced by forward treadmill walking while viewing expanding or contracting optic flow with that induced by viewing playbacks of these same displays while stationary. In both experiments subjects' tracked head movements were either incorporated into the self-motion displays (as simulated viewpoint jitter) or simply ignored. We found that treadmill walking always reduced vection (compared with stationary viewing conditions) and that simulated viewpoint jitter always increased vection (compared with constant velocity displays). These findings suggest that while consistent visual-vestibular information about self-acceleration increases vection, biomechanical self-motion information reduces this experience (irrespective of whether it is consistent or not with the visual input).

  12. Physiological changes following a 12 week gym based stair-climbing, elliptical trainer and treadmill running program in females

    OpenAIRE

    EGANA, MIKEL

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Despite the growing popularity of the elliptical trainer aerobic exercise modality the physiological changes induced following a training program using elliptical trainers remains unknown. Donne investigates the metabolic and cardiorespiratory improvements following a 12-week aerobic training program using elliptical trainer, treadmill or stair-climbing modalities. Findings reveal that in moderately active females similar physiological improvements were observed using stair-climb...

  13. Preventive and therapeutic effect of treadmill running on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Previous results indicated that stress impairs learning and memory. In this research, the effects of preventive, therapeutic and regular continually running activity on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats were investigated. 70 male rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: Control, Sham, Stress-Rest, Rest-Stress, Stress-Exercise, Exercise-Stress and Exercise-Stress & Exercise groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21days and treadmill running 1 h/day. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The results revealed that running activities had therapeutic effect on mid and long-term memory deficit and preventive effects on short and mid-term memory deficit in stressed rats. Regular continually running activity improved mid and long-term memory compared to Exercise-Stress group. The beneficial effects of exercise were time-dependent in stress conditions. Finally, data corresponded to the possibility that treadmill running had a more important role on treatment rather than on prevention on memory impairment induced by stress.

  14. The Gut and Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Reichmann, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells. Bidirectional interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) via a brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis have been reported. As well as there is evidence out of animal, autopsy, and epidemiological studies that α-synuclein spreads via rostrocranial transmission by transsynaptic cell-to-cell transfer via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system to the CNS causing the typical neuropathological changes of PD. Recognition of GI NMS as prodromal markers of PD as well as a better understanding of the brain-gut connection offers new insights in the pathophysiology of PD and might provide the opportunity of PD diagnosis before CNS involvement. Hereby the opportunity for development of neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapeutics, respectively, seem to be promising. This chapter covers the variety of GI NMS and its consequences in PD as well as the important role of the gut as part of the pathological process in PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychophysical and ergogenic effects of synchronous music during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Mouzourides, Denis A; Priest, David-Lee; Sasso, Tariq A; Morrish, Daley J; Walley, Carolyn J

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N=30; mean age=20.5 years, SD=1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition ? Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (pmusic when compared with control throughout the trial (p.05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (etap2=.09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.

  16. A new proposal to guide velocity and inclination in the ramp protocol for the treadmill ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo; Sobral Filho, Dário C

    2003-07-01

    To suggest criteria to guide protocol prescription in ramp treadmill testing, according to sex and age, based on velocity, inclination, and max VO2 reached by the population studied. Prospective study describing heart rate (HR), time, velocity, inclination, and VO2 estimated at maximum effort of 1840 individuals from 4 to 79 years old, who performed a treadmill test (TT) according to the ramp protocol. A paired Student t test was used to assess the difference between predicted and reached max VO2, calculated according to the formulas of the "American College of Sports Medicine". Submaximal HR was surpassed in 90.1% of the examinations, with a mean time of 10.0 2.0 minute. Initial and peak inclination velocity of the exercise and max VO2 were inversely proportional to age and were greater in male patients. Predicted Max VO2 was significantly lower than that reached in all patients, except for female children and adolescents (age VO2 actually reached, as a criterion in prescribing the ramp protocol may help in the performance of exercise in treadmill testing. The ramp protocol was well accepted in all age groups and sexes with exercise time within the programmed 8 to 12 minutes.

  17. A new proposal to guide velocity and inclination in the ramp protocol for the treadmill ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odwaldo Barbosa e Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To suggest criteria to guide protocol prescription in ramp treadmill testing, according to sex and age, based on velocity, inclination, and max VO2 reached by the population studied. METHODS: Prospective study describing heart rate (HR, time, velocity, inclination, and VO2 estimated at maximum effort of 1840 individuals from 4 to 79 years old, who performed a treadmill test (TT according to the ramp protocol. A paired Student t test was used to assess the difference between predicted and reached max VO2, calculated according to the formulas of the "American College of Sports Medicine". RESULTS: Submaximal HR was surpassed in 90.1% of the examinations, with a mean time of 10.0±2.0 minute. Initial and peak inclination velocity of the exercise and max VO2 were inversely proportional to age and were greater in male patients. Predicted Max VO2 was significantly lower than that reached in all patients, except for female children and adolescents (age < 20 years old. CONCLUSION: Use of velocity, inclination, and maximum VO2 actually reached, as a criterion in prescribing the ramp protocol may help in the performance of exercise in treadmill testing. The ramp protocol was well accepted in all age groups and sexes with exercise time within the programmed 8 to 12 minutes.

  18. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.

  19. Validation of the MDS-UPDRS Part I for nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, David A; Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The UPDRS has been the main outcome measure in studies of PD. Modifications have been made to improve scale properties and represent the breadth of manifestations of PD, particularly nonmotor symptoms (NMS), resulting in the Movement Disorder Society's revision of the UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS). This study was undertaken to determine the validity of MDS-UPDRS Part I (nonmotor experiences of daily living). The MDS-UPDRS and a number of validated scales for the NMS in PD were used in 94 patients with PD from Hoehn and Yahr stage I to V. We assessed reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and correlations with validated scales for the nonmotor symptoms of PD. MDS-UPDRS Part I showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.85), small floor and ceiling effects (2% floor and 0% ceiling effect), and good concurrent validity (correlation with the original UPDRS Part I: r = 0.81, P UPDRS Part I score demonstrated high convergent validity with the composite z-score of nonmotor scales (r = 0.89, P UPDRS Part I total score has a strong relationship with a composite score of validated scales for the nonmotor aspects of PD.

  20. Non-motor symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease in Northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Bellmann, Ingrid; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Calderon-Hernandez, Hector J; Rocha-Anaya, Jonathan J; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder, and besides the classical motor symptoms it is now known that patients also suffer from a variety of non-motor symptoms that adversely affect quality of life (QOL). Since data on Hispanic populations on this issue are scarce, our aim was to study the association of non-motor symptoms and QOL in patients with PD. This study is a cross-sectional observational study involving patients with PD using the following instruments: Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS part III), and Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS). We included 52 patients, with a median age of 64 years. Sleep/fatigue and mood/cognitive domains were the most common non-motor symptoms. Only sleep/fatigue, mood/cognition and gastrointestinal domains were associated with worse PDQ-8 scores. After adjusting for confounding variables, NMSS scores were significantly associated with a high PDQ-8 score. Higher NMSS scores were associated with and predicted higher PDQ-8 scores. The focus of management in PD should shift to a comprehensive strategy that incorporates care of non-motor symptoms and improves QOL.

  1. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  2. Correlation analysis between different leads of ST segment depression and position of coronary lesions in treadmill exercise test%运动试验中不同导联ST段压低与冠脉病变特点的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴龙梅; 王晓明; 李俊峡

    2014-01-01

    目的观察平板运动试验(TET)诱发不同导联ST段压低患者的冠状动脉病变部位及病变数目,探讨其相关性。方法选取TET阳性同时经冠脉造影检查明确诊断为冠心病患者56例为研究对象,分析临床资料、TET参数,探讨不同导联ST段压低与冠状动脉病变部位及病变数目的相关性。结果冠脉造影阳性同时TET阳性患者大多存在冠心病危险因素及典型心绞痛症状(94.6%)。经Logistic回归分析发现V4~V6导联,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF+V4~V6导联及Ⅱ、Ⅲ、aVF+Ⅰ、aVL或V2、V3导联ST段压低患者发生前降支病变的风险较高,但是并未发现不同导联ST段压低与冠脉病变部位及病变数目存在相关性(P>0.05)。结论 TET诱发不同导联ST段压低与冠脉病变部位及病变数目无相关性。%Objective To explore the correlation between different leads of ST segment depression and position of coronary lesions in patients with exercise-induced ST segment depression.Methods A total of 56 patients who showed ST segment depression in treadmill exercise test(TET) and diagnosed significant coronary stenosis by coronary angiography in this study.Clinical characteristics and TET parameters were recorded.Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the correlation between different leads of ST segment depression and position of coronary lesions.Results Risk factors(age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking, obesity) and typical chest pain (94.6%) were present in most patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that ST segment depression in Ⅱ,Ⅲ,aVF+V4~V6, Ⅱ,Ⅲ,aVF+Ⅰ,aVL or V2,V3, had a high risk to predict left anterior descedding artery,but hardly reflected the position or pathological amout of coronary artery(P>0.05).Conclusion Exercise-induced ST segment depression in different leads hardly reflects the position or pathological amout of coronary artery.

  3. 踏车锻炼对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者运动耐力和中枢驱动的影响%Effect of treadmill training on exercise tolerance and central drive in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新; 陈瑞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨踏车锻炼对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者运动耐力和中枢驱动的影响.方法 选择南方医科大学珠江医院呼吸内科自2009年10月至2010年10月收治的中、重度COPD缓解期COPD患者22例,其中康复组(12例)接受12周中等强度踏车运动训练,对照组(10例)不接受训练.在训练前后分别进行常规肺通气功能、弥散功能和肺容量测定以及运动心肺功能测试及高强度持续恒定功率运动试验,监测运动过程中呼吸流量、容量和膈肌肌电的变化.比较患者试验前后运动耐力和呼吸困难评分的变化.结果 康复组患者锻炼后运动时间比锻炼前延长,峰运动功率增加,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);等时间点呼吸频率(RR)、分钟通气量(VE)、平均吸气流速(VT/Ti)、膈肌电电压的均方根(RMS)、Borg评分较锻炼前下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05); COPD患者△Borg分别与△VE、△VT/Ti、△RMS呈正相关关系(P<0.05).结论 下肢运动训练可显著改善COPD患者的运动耐力,降低COPD患者在相同运动强度下的通气需求和中枢驱动,改变了COPD患者的呼吸应答方式,从而减轻了COPD患者呼吸困难的主观感觉.%Objective To evaluate the effect of treadmill training on exercise tolerance and central drive in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods Twenty-two patients with moderate/severe COPD under paracmasis,admitted to our hospital from October 2009 to October 2010,were chosen in our study; treatment group(n=12)undertook a middle-intensity cycle ergometer exercise training program for 12 weeks; while control group(n=10)did not undertake this training program.Before and after the training program,the patients were performed pulmonary ventilation function,pulmonary diffusion function and pulmonary capacity measurements and constant work rate capacity test; the changes of diaphragmatic electromyogram(EMGdi),respiratory flow and

  4. The non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease - what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnik, Magdalena; Thor, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic Parkinson's disease is a widespread human disease that has never been reported in non-human vertebrates. The etiopathogenesis of the non-motor symptoms in the disease is not well understood and it is difficult to interpret the roles of affected neurotransmitters in currently available animal models. Most of the non-motor symptoms do not correlate with the stage of motor deficits and precede the development of motor symptoms by many years, before the permanent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the advantages and limitations of the well-recognized mammalian animal models with special regard to the non-motor complications of the prodromal and early stage Parkinson's disease.

  5. Identifying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and their connection with motor symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poverennova I.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim: the identification of patterns of formation and course of non-motor fluctuations in this disease and theirs connection with motor symptoms. Materials and Method, for realization of a research objective at 54 patients with Parkinson's disease were used special diagnostic methods, for assess the credibility — methods of mathematical statistics. Results. It was established, that with increasing duration of disease degree of severity of non-motor symptoms grow up; it is noted a direct correlation between results in scales for exploration Parkinson's disease. Conclusion. In the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease necessary consider the non-motor fluctuations. There are a lot of scales for exploration this disturbance, but they are subjective and for their conduction need a lot of time. So, question of creation new, objective and quick in carrying out scales are open.

  6. The effect of treadmill running on memory before and after the NBM-lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Radahmadi, Maryam

    2013-10-01

    Some studies have shown the effects of exercise training in retarding onset and progression of memory deficit in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this research, we investigated the effect of treadmill running on memory function; before, after, and continually (before and after) the nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesions. 66 male rats were randomly divided into six groups, including control, sham operation, the NBM-lesion, exercise before the NBM-lesion, exercise after the NBM-lesion, and exercise before and after the NBM-lesion. Lesion was induced by 5 μg/μl bilateral injection of Ibotenic acid. Memory function was assessed by using the passive avoidance learning test. Our results showed that treadmill running delays cognitive decline in the NBM-lesion rats, prevented memory deficit, and has advantageous effects on short-term, intermediate and long-term memory. Exercising on a regular basis may impede memory loss significantly, which may be attributed to specific molecular pathways in the brain.

  7. Non-motor and motor features in LRRK2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Bichler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models. OBJECTIVE: Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction, and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls. CONCLUSIONS: LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

  8. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-11

    Aug 11, 2008 ... fold thickness (Harpenden caliper, British Indicators, West Sussex,. England) were ... age body fat (%BF) was estimated using the Siri formula described by .... Table II displays the differences in exercise time, peak treadmill.

  9. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

    2014-08-01

    Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA.

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of T2 Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Everett, Meghan; Newby, Nathaniel; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Crewmembers regularly perform treadmill exercise on the ISS. With the implementation of T2 on ISS, there is now the capacity to obtain ground reaction force (GRF) data GRF data combined with video motion data allows biomechanical analyses to occur that generate joint torque estimates from exercise conditions. Knowledge of how speed and load influence joint torque will provide quantitative information on which exercise prescriptions can be based. The objective is to determine the joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, and joint kinetics associated with treadmill exercise on the ISS. This study will: 1) Determine if specific exercise speed and harness load combinations are superior to others in exercise benefit; and 2) Aid in the design of exercise prescriptions that will be most beneficial in maintaining crewmember health.

  11. Study on the Regulatory Mechanism of Automatic Nerve on the Rest Heart Rate in Treadmill Exercise and Obese Rats%运动和肥胖诱导下大鼠植物神经对安静心率调节作用的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨月琴; 赵岩; 谢敏豪; 夏志

    2015-01-01

    Objective :This study seted up a treadmill exercise obese rats modal by being fed with high fat and sugar food and following the fitness test .The aim was going to find the effects of exercise and obesity on the rest heart rate (HR) regulation of the automatic nerve in rats .It is going to find a sensitive index for evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease .Methods :Four weeks old male rats were divided into two groups randomly :Control group (C Group) was fed with control food ;the left rats were fed with high fat and sugar food .After 8 weeks ,the obese rats were separated from the rats with high fat and sugar food as F Group and subdivided into three groups :FC Group rats did no exercise ;FM Group rats did Mid‐intensity exercise ;and FH Groups did High‐intensity exercise .The obese rats did 2 weeks adaptive running and then were trained for other 8 weeks .HR and the change of HR after blocking the automatic nerve were tested respectively .Elisa and RT‐PCR were used to test the concentration of M 2 recep‐tor ,RGS6 and Kir3 .4 .Results :1)After 8 weeks ,HR of F group was significantly lower than the rats in C Group(P< 0 .05) .2)HR of C Group at 18 weeks was significantly lower than at 8 weeks ( P< 0 .05 ) ,but it did not happen in FC Group .And there was no significant differ‐ence in HR at 18 weeks between C Group and FC Group .3)The change of HR was not signif‐icant different between C group and FC Group and among the obese groups .4 )Kir3 .4 in FC Group was significant more than in C Group(P< 0 .05) .5)M2 receptor mRNA in FC Group was less than in C Group ,but RGS6 mRNA in FC Group was more than in C Group .6)M2 re‐ceptor mRNA in both FM Group and FH Group was less than in FC Group .Conclusion :Dur‐ing the development of the obese ,the main effect of automatic nerve on the rest heart rate reg‐ulation changed from vagal nerve to sympathetic nerve .8 weeks exercise had no effect on the rest heart rate regulation of automatic nerve .%目的

  12. 高脂膳食和跑台运动构建模型大鼠腓肠肌葡萄糖转运体4和 cAMP反应元件结合蛋白的变化%Effects of high-fat diet and treadmill exercise on glucose transporter 4 and cAMP response element binding protein in rat gastrocnemius muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云丽; 蔡明; 李静静; 辛磊; 娄淑杰

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Some studies indicate that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is associated with the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the function of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in skeletal muscle. However, it is stil unclear whether PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has the effects on CREB and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle of the rats with high-fat diet and treadmil exercise. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has the effects on CREB and GLUT4 in gastrocnemius muscle of the rats with high-fat diet and treadmil exercise. METHODS:A total of 70 rats were fed with normal diet for 2 weeks, and randomly divided into common feed group (n=20) and high-fat feed group (n=50). Rats in both groups were respectively fed with common feed and high-fat feed for 8 weeks. The rats in the common feed group were equaly assigned to common feed quiet group and common feed exercise group. 20 rats from the high-fat feed group whose body weight was 1.4 times of common rats were randomly and equaly assigned to obese quiet group and obese exercise group. Rats in the quiet groups did not do exercises. Rats in the exercise groups received adaptive sports for 1 week and medium-intensity treadmil exercise for 8 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) Impairments of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway appeared in obese rats, however, the quantity of GLUT4 expression did not change obviously in gastrocnemius muscles of obese rats. The reasons for the decrease of the nuclear protein CREB level of gastrocnemius muscles of obese rats might be related to the decrease of pAkt-Ser473 level. (2) The increase of the quantity of GLUT4 expression was accompanied by significantly up-regulated pAkt-Ser473 level by exercise intervention in gastrocnemius muscles of obese rats. Exercise intervention significantly increased the expression of nuclear protein CREB in gastrocnemius muscles of chow-fed rats and obese rats, which was consistent with the changes of pAkt-Ser473. These findings suggest

  13. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  14. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  15. 跑台运动对轻度脑外伤大鼠空间学习记忆能力及海马脑源性神经营养因子表达的影响%Effects of treadmill exercise on spatial learning, memory and expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor of rats after mild traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范杰诚; 曾西; 王留根; 李和平

    2014-01-01

    .25±1.28,5.00±0.93和5.88±0.99)较对照组(1.50±0.54,2.13±1.25和3.00±0.54)增多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);③免疫组化结果显示,至运动第四周运动组大鼠海马BDNF阳性细胞数(128.56±7.93)分别较对照组(96.38±5.71)和假手术组(94.81±5.49)表达数量增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),假手术组与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 跑台运动能够提高轻度脑外伤大鼠的学习和记忆能力,推测其机制可能与海马内BDNF的表达上调有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on spatial learning,memory and the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in rats after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into group T (n =10,undergoing TBI modelling operation and 4 weeks' treadmill exercise training beginning at 48 h after the operation),group C (n =10,undergoing TBI modelling operation and no exercise training) and group N (n =10,undergoing sham operation and no exercise training).Morris water maze(MWM)was used to test rats' abilities of spatial learning and memory.The number of BDNF-positive cells in the hippocampus was measured with immunohistochemistry.Results In the orientational navigation test,the escape latency period was gradually shortened for rats in all groups.At the second training week,the average time of group T(88.54 ±5.73 s) became shorter than that in group C (91.45 ± 8.91 s).At the fourth week,however,the difference [(55.33 ± 6.77 s) vs (74.53 ± 6.85 s)] was significant(P < 0.01).Group N (88.44 ±7.79 s,79.52 ± 8.02 s,69.54 ± 10.14 s and 62.49 ± 7.22 s respectively) also improved significantly more than group C (98.99 ± 6.84 s,91.45 ± 8.91 s,79.65 ± 12.47 s and 74.53 ± 6.85 s respectively) from week 1 to 4 (P < 0.01).The average number of times of passing through the platform area of group N in four weeks (3.00 ± 0.54,3.38 ± 0.74,4.38 ± 1.06 and

  16. Freqüência cardíaca máxima em testes de exercício em esteira rolante e em cicloergômetro de membros inferiores Maximal heart rate in exercise tests on treadmill and in a cycloergometer of lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar, retrospectivamente, os valores de freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCM e o descenso da freqüência cardíaca no primeiro minuto da recuperação (dFC, obtidos em teste de exercício (TE realizados em dois ergômetros e momentos distintos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta indivíduos (29 a 80 anos de idade, submetidos a TE cardiopulmonar em ciclo de membros inferiores (CMI em nosso laboratório e que possuíam TE prévio (até 36 meses em esteira (EST em outros laboratórios, nas condições idênticas de medicações de ação cronotrópica negativa. RESULTADOS: FCM foi semelhante no CMI: 156±3 e EST: 154±2 bpm (p=0,125, enquanto o dFC foi maior em CMI: 33±2, EST: 26±3 bpm (média ± erro padrão da média (pOBJECTIVE: To compare, retrospectively, the values of maximum heart rate (MHR and the decrease of the heart rate at the first minute of recovery, which were obtained in an exercise test (ET performed in two different ergometers and at different moments. METHODS: Sixty individuals (from 29 to 80 years old, submitted to cardiopulmonary ET in a cycle of lower limbs (CLL in our laboratory and who had previous ET (up to 36 months in a treadmill (TRM in other laboratories, under identical conditions of medications of negative chronotropic action. RESULTS: MHR was similar in CLL: 156±3 and TRM: 154±2 bpm (p=0.125, whereas dHR was higher in CLL: 33±2, EST: 26±3 bpm (mean ± standard error of the mean (p<0.001. In hemodynamic variables studied, the systolic blood pressure and the double product were higher in the ET-CLL (p<0.001. The electrocardiogram (ECG was similar in both ETs, except due to more frequent supraventricular arrhythmias in CLL. CONCLUSION: a With some diligence from the examiner and previous knowledge of MHR in a previous ET it is possible to obtain high levels of MHR in an ET-CLL; b interrupting the MHR-based ET forecast through equations tends to lead to sub-maximum efforts; c dHR differs in active and passive

  17. Nonmotor Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents with Parkinson's Disease : Prevalence and Effect on Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, Nico J.; Tissingh, Gerrit; Poels, Petra J. E.; Zuidema, Systse U.; Munneke, Marten; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in nursing home (NH) residents with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to establish the association with quality of life. DesignCross-sectional. SettingNursing homes in the southeast of the Netherlands. ParticipantsNursing home residents wit

  18. Nonmotor symptoms in nursing home residents with Parkinson's disease: prevalence and effect on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Tissingh, G.; Poels, P.J.P.; Zuidema, S.U.; Munneke, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in nursing home (NH) residents with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to establish the association with quality of life. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nursing homes in the southeast of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home resid

  19. Study of an integrated non-motor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; XIAO Zhi-ying; LI Jia-zhen; YUAN Jing; LIU Yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the validity of non-motor symptoms screening questionnaire (NMSQuest) for Parkinson's disease has been verified in several recent researches, the specificity of the questionnaire is still in doubt. This study aimed to compare the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with a medically ill control group.Methods In this study, the first comprehensive clinic-based NMS screening questionnaire for PD developed by the Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Group (PDNMG) was used. Data from 90 PD patients and 270 sex-and age-matched control subjects, including stroke (n=90), heart disease (n=90) and diabetes (n=90) were analyzed.Results Compared with control group, NMS was more common in PD; on an average, most PD patients reported more than 12 non-motor items. There was a correlation of total NMS score in PD patients with Hoehn & Yahr Staging, but not with age, sex distribution, disease duration, or age at disease onset. Additionally, depression, constipation and impaired olfaction which occurred prior to the motor symptoms of PD were reported in this study.Conclusions NMS are more common in PD patients. There are some NMS that occurred at the preclinical stage of PD and might predict the onset of motor symptoms of PD patients.

  20. Non-motorized voluntary running does not affect experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental metastasis of B16BL/6 melanoma and spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice. After 9 weeks of running, mice (n = 30 per group) received an intravenous injection of B16BL/6 c...

  1. Recuperação da freqüência cardíaca após teste de esforço em esteira ergométrica e variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca em 24 horas em indivíduos sadios Heart rate recovery after treadmill electrocardiographic exercise stress test and 24-hour heart rate variability in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Antelmi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A recuperação da freqüência cardíaca após o eletrocardiograma de esforço em esteira ergométrica é modulada pelo sistema nervoso autônomo. A análise da variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca (VFC pode fornecer informações valiosas sobre o controle do sistema nervoso autônomo sobre o sistema cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de associação entre a recuperação da freqüência cardíaca após teste de esforço em esteira ergométrica e a variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Foram estudamos 485 indivíduos sem evidência de cardiopatia com média de idade de 42± 12,1 (faixa etária de 15 a 82 anos, 281 (57.9% dos quais do sexo feminino, submetidos a um teste de esforço em esteira ergométrica e avaliação da VFC nos domínios do tempo (SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD e pNN50 e da freqüência (LF, HF, VLF e razão LF/HF durante monitoramento eletrocardiográfico ambulatorial de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: A recuperação da freqüência cardíaca foi de 30 ± 12 batimentos no 1º minuto e 52± 13 batimentos no 2º minuto após o exercício. Os indivíduos mais jovens de recuperaram mais rápido do 2º ao 5º minuto após o exercício (r = 0,19-0,35, P BACKGROUND: Heart rate recovery after treadmill electrocardiographic exercise stress test is modulated by the autonomic nervous system. Analysis of heart rate variability can provide useful information about autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis of association between heart recovery after treadmill electrocardiographic exercise test and heart rate variability. METHODS: We studied 485 healthy individuals aged 42± 12.1 (range 15-82 years, 281(57.9% women, submitted to treadmill electrocardiographic exercise stress tests and heart rate variability evaluations over time (SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, pNN50 and frequency (LF, HF, VLF, LF/HF ratio domains in 24-hour

  2. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, K; Zahra, JC; Stensel, DJ

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake ...

  3. Guest Editorial: Underwater treadmill training in adults with incomplete spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stevens, MS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravity. We spend our lives fighting it. One day it will win, as it always does. Until then, much of what we call "quality of life" is based on our ability to resist the effects of gravity and to be functionally mobile at home, at school, at work, and in our community. For those with physical disabilities, the challenge is greater and the stakes are higher. To counter the loss of mobility, strength, and endurance that often accompanies a disabling condition, a variety of interventions have been studied to improve physical fitness and reduce the weight-bearing challenges associated with walking. Several of these systems involve supporting a portion of a person's body weight with a harness during overground walking or land-based treadmill exercise [1]. This editorial describes an innovative method to unload body weight that allows a person with a gait impairment to walk on a treadmill submerged in a water tank.

  4. Increased lactate threshold after five weeks of treadmill aerobic training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Vieira, W H; Halsberghe, M J E; Schwantes, M L B; Perez, S E A; Baldissera, V; Prestes, J; Prestes, P; Farias, D L; Parizotto, N A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the lactate threshold (LT) changes in rats submitted to an aerobic treadmill-training programme. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group (CG), and a trained group (TG) submitted to an aerobic training during 5 weeks. All the animals were submitted to an incremental treadmill exercise test in order to determine LT. There was an increase in the maximum running speed in the TG (from 32.25 ± 1.27 to 47.75 ± 3.13 m.min-1 - p = 0.001), and running speed at LT (from 26.21 ± 1.15 to 35.30 ± 2.24 m.min-1 - p = 0.004), a part from the reduction in blood lactate at LT. LT can be determined in rats, and aerobic training induced positive oxidative physiological adaptations in the animals.

  5. "Anti-Gravity" Treadmills Speed Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A former Ames Research Center engineer, Dr. Robert Whalen, invented a treadmill that he licensed to a Menlo Park, California company, Alter-G Inc. The company s G-Trainer is an enclosed treadmill that uses air pressure to help patients feel up to 80 percent lighter, easing discomfort during rehabilitation. A patient desiring more weightlessness during a workout can simply press a button and the air pressure increases, lifting the body and reducing strain and impact. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared the G-Trainer for medical use in January 2008, and researchers are now assessing the G-Trainer s effectiveness in aiding patients with various neurological or musculoskeletal conditions.

  6. Neural substrates of motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a resting FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsun Yoo

    Full Text Available Recently, non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD have been considered crucial factors in determining a patient's quality of life and have been proposed as the predominant features of the premotor phase. Researchers have investigated the relationship between non-motor symptoms and the motor laterality; however, this relationship remains disputed. This study investigated the neural connectivity correlates of non-motor and motor symptoms of PD with respect to motor laterality.Eight-seven patients with PD were recruited and classified into left-more-affected PD (n = 44 and right-more affected PD (n = 37 based on their MDS-UPDRS (Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor examination scores. The patients underwent MRI scanning, which included resting fMRI. Brain regions were labeled as ipsilateral and contralateral to the more-affected body side. Correlation analysis between the functional connectivity across brain regions and the scores of various symptoms was performed to identify the neural connectivity correlates of each symptom.The resting functional connectivity centered on the ipsilateral inferior orbito-frontal area was negatively correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms, and the connectivity of the contralateral inferior parietal area was positively correlated with the severity of motor symptoms (p 0.3.These results suggest that the inferior orbito-frontal area may play a crucial role in non-motor dysfunctions, and that the connectivity information may be utilized as a neuroimaging biomarker for the early diagnosis of PD.

  7. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women Análise clínica e metabólica comparativa entre o teste de caminhada de seis minutos e o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar em mulheres obesas e eutróficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A reduzida tolerância ao exercício está relacionada à diminuída capacidade funcional consequente da obesidade. Objetivos

  8. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women Análise clínica e metabólica comparativa entre o teste de caminhada de seis minutos e o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar em mulheres obesas e eutróficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A reduzida tolerância ao exercício está relacionada à diminuída capacidade funcional consequente da obesidade. Objetivos

  9. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...

  10. DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Mikaela da Silva; Gelaleti, Rafael Bottaro; Bento, Giovana Fernanda; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Peraçoli, José Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (pprotocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise.

  11. Conversion table for running on lower body positive pressure treadmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John R; Raab, Scot; Coast, J Richard; Bounds, Roger G; McNeill, David K P; de Heer, Hendrik D

    2015-03-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) or antigravity treadmills are becoming increasingly popular in sports and rehabilitation settings. Running at a decreased body weight (BW) reduces metabolic cost, which can be offset by running at faster speeds. To date, however, little is known about how much faster someone must run to offset the reduced metabolic cost. This study aimed to develop a user-friendly conversion table showing the speeds required on an LBPP treadmill to match the equivalent metabolic output on a regular, non-LBPP, treadmill across a range of body weight supports. A total of 20 recreational runners (11 males, 9 females) ran multiple 3-minute intervals on a regular treadmill and then on an LBPP treadmill at 6 different BWs (50-100%, 10% increments). Metabolic outputs were recorded and matched between the regular and LBPP treadmill sessions. Using regression analyses, a conversion table was successfully created for the speeds from 6.4 to 16.1 km·h (4 to 10 mph) in 0.8 km·h (0.5 mph) increments on the regular treadmill and BW proportions of 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% on an LBPP treadmill. The table showed that a greater increase in speed on the LBPP treadmill was needed with more support (p < 0.001) but that the proportion increase was smaller at higher speeds (p < 0.001). This research has implications for coaches or practitioners using or prescribing training on an LBPP treadmill.

  12. Non-motor symptoms in an Indian cohort of Parkinson′s disease patients and correlation of progression of non-motor symptoms with motor worsening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Ravan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion and Results: This was a cross-sectional, single-center, open-label, one point in time evaluation study conducted from 2009 to 2011. It validated the NMSS scale in an Indian population. The study has profiled the prevalence and pattern of NMS in an Indian cohort of PD patients. Comparison of NMS scale scores with the Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores demonstrated a correlation between non-motor and motor symptoms in the disease progression, particularly of manifestations related to the cognitive decline, memory disturbances, urinary incontinence and smell.

  13. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shahandeh; Valiollah Dabidi Roshan; Somayeh Hosseinzadeh; Soleiman Mahjoub; Vaginak Sarkisian

    2013-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15–22 m/min, 25–64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects.

  14. Determinação de eletrólitos, gases sanguíneos, osmolalidade, hematócrito, hemoglobina, base titulável e anion gap no sangue venoso de equinos destreinados submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante Determination of electrolytes, hemogasometry, osmalility, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in detrained equines submitted a maximum and submaximum exercise on treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações nos eletrólitos, nos gases sanguíneos, na osmolalidade, no hematócrito, na hemoglobina, nas bases tituláveis e no anion gap no sangue venoso de 11 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe, destreinados, submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante. Esses animais passaram por período de três dias de adaptação à esteira rolante e posteriormente realizaram dois exercícios testes, um de curta e outro de longa duração. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue venoso antes, imediatamente após e 30 minutos após o término dos exercícios. Após a realização do exercício máximo, observou-se diminuição significativa no pHv, na PvCO2, no HCO3, na cBase além de elevação no AG. Detectou-se também aumento do K+, do Ht e da Hb. Ao final do exercício submáximo, constatou-se somente aumento significativo no pHv, na cBase, na SatvO2 e na PvO2. Conclui-se que os equinos submetidos a exercício máximo desenvolveram acidose metabólica e alcalose respiratória compensatória, hipercalemia e aumento nos valores de hematócrito e hemoglobina. No exercício submáximo, os animais apresentaram alcalose metabólica hipoclorêmica e não ocorreram alterações no equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico.Changes in electrolytes, blood gas, osmolality, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in 11 detrained Arabian horses during exercise on a high-speed treadmill were investigated. After a period of three days of adaptation on the rolling mat, the animals were submitted to two exercises: one of short (maximum and other of long duration (submaximum. Venous blood samples were obtained right before, and 30 minutes after the exercise. After the maximum exercise, it was observed a significative decrease in pHv, PvCO2, HCO3, and cBase and an increase in AG. It was also observed hypercalemia and increase in Ht and Hb. At the final of the submaximum exercise, it was observed significative increase in pH, c

  15. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson Disease: A Descriptive Review on Social Cognition Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Rosanna; Lo Buono, Viviana; Corallo, Francesco; Foti, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations. From initial 260 articles, only 18 met search criteria. A total of 496 patients were compared with 514 health controls, through 16 different tests that assessed some subcomponents of social cognition, such as theory of mind, decision-making, and emotional face recognition. Studies on cognitive function in patients with PD have focused on executive function. Patients with PD showed impairment in social cognition from the earliest stages of disease. This ability seems to not be significantly associated with other cognitive functions.

  16. Exercise-induced pulmonary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M

    1994-03-01

    When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for EIB in athletes at risk and confirm the diagnosis with a treadmill exercise challenge test. Initial pharmacologic management should consist of a trial of albuterol inhaler use 15 minutes before exercise. Early identification and treatment of EIB may enhance sports performance as well as enjoyment.

  17. Discriminative power of different nonmotor signs in early Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Nico J; Pieri, Vannina; Hipp, Géraldine; Rufra, Olivier; Blyth, Sara; Vaillant, Michel

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the discriminative power of different nonmotor signs for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty patients with PD with controls. Six deficit domains (DD) were defined: hyposmia, sleep abnormalities, dysautonomia, visual deficits, executive dysfunction, and depression. Plotting of Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and exact conditional logistic modeling, followed by manual stepwise descending procedure were used to identify a model for nonmotor signs that detects early PD. Patients with PD and controls did not differ in terms of age, gender, and educational level. Several DD discriminated patients with PD from healthy controls. Visual deficits showed the largest area under the ROC curve (0.83), followed by hyposmia (0.81) and dysautonomia (0.80). When combining the DD visual deficits and dysautonomia, the best residual model was obtained; it maximized both sensitivity and specificity for PD at a level of 0.77. At an early disease stage, several nonmotor domains were already able to discriminate patients with PD from healthy controls. Visual deficits had the best discriminatory power. Being brief and inexpensive, visual tests should be further investigated in larger cohorts as potential screening tool for early PD.

  18. Nonmotor and extracerebellar features in Machado-Joseph disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, José Luiz; França, Marcondes C; Braga-Neto, Pedro; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Saute, Jonas A; Teive, Hélio A; Caramelli, Paulo; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani P

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease is the most common spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide, and the high frequency of nonmotor manifestations in Machado-Joseph disease demonstrates how variable is the clinical expression of this single genetic entity. Anatomical, physiological, clinical, and functional neuroimaging data reinforce the idea of a degenerative process involving extracerebellar regions of the nervous system in Machado-Joseph disease. Brain imaging and neuropathologic studies have revealed atrophy of the pons, basal ganglia, midbrain, medulla oblongata, multiple cranial nerve nuclei, and thalamus and of the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and limbic lobes. This review provides relevant information about nonmotor manifestations and extracerebellar symptoms in Machado-Joseph disease. The main nonmotor manifestations of Machado-Joseph disease described in previous data and discussed in this article are: sleep disorders, cognitive and affective disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, olfactory dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, pain, cramps, fatigue, nutritional problems, and dysautonomia. In addition, we conducted a brief discussion of noncerebellar motor manifestations, highlighting movement disorders. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Acupuncture Alleviated the Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease including Pain, Depression, and Autonomic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Chifumi; Furuta, Taiga; Suzuki, Masao; Koyama, Shingo; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kaneko, Akiyo; Mitsuma, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    A woman started to feel intractable pain on her lower legs when she was 76. At the age of 78, she was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD). The leg pain was suspected to be a symptom of PD after eliminating other causes. The patient also suffered from nonmotor symptoms, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, and paroxysmal sweating. Though the patient had received pharmacotherapy including levodopa for 5 years, she still suffered from the nonmotor symptoms and was referred to our department. We treated her with acupuncture based on the Chinese traditional medicine and electroacupuncture five times per week. After the 2-week treatment, the assessment for the symptoms was as follows; visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the leg pain was 16 mm (70 mm, before), Hamilton's rating scales for depression (HAM-D) score was 9 (18, before), timed 3 m Up and Go took 20 steps in 30 sec (24 steps in 38 sec, before), and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part 1 score was 13 (21, before). Autonomic symptoms, hot flashes and paroxysmal sweating, were also alleviated. Acupuncture may be a good treatment modality for nonmotor symptoms in PD.

  20. Exercise-Induced Asthma in Asthmatic Children of Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fayezi, Abbas; Amin, Reza; Kashef, Sara; Yasin, Soheila Al; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a common illness, especially among children. Exercise-induced asthma is an important consideration, both as a factor, limiting physical activity of patients, and also as an indicator of poor long term control. We investigated pre-Valence of exercise-induced asthma in a group of asthmatic children living in southern Iran. Methods: We conducted treadmill exercise challenge test in 40 young asthmatic patients aged 6 to 18. After 8 minutes exercise to achieve 80% of maximum ...

  1. Pediatric Treadmill Burns: Assessing the effectiveness of prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Connolly, Siobhan; Meyerowitz-Katz, Daniel; Allan, James; Maitz, Peter K M

    2016-11-01

    Legislative changes in 2008 in Australia mandated that all new treadmills display a warning sticker about the risk of friction burns in children. This was accompanied by a health promotion campaign advising of the risks of treadmills to children. Analyses of pediatric burns data identified all cases of treadmill burns occurring between 2005 and 2014. The incidence of treadmill burns, associations with age and gender, characteristics of the burns and the adequacy of first aid provided immediately after the burn was examined. There were 298 cases of treadmill burns over the 10-year period (3.5% of all pediatric burns). The incidence rose until the introduction of legislation and health promotion in 2008, and then declined over the remaining study period. The majority of treadmill burns in children were inflicted on the upper limbs (91%), and 93% involved the hands. Most burns were full thickness (62%, n=182) and 49% (n=148) required skin grafts. Approximately one-third of treadmill burns (35%, n=105) occurred while someone else was using the treadmill. In the vast majority of treadmill burn injuries (74%, n=223), there was either no first aid or inadequate first aid provided immediately after the injury. A significant number of treadmill burns occur in children, and these often result in serious injuries that are not treated with appropriate first aid. A reduction in the incidence of these burns was associated with the introduction of legislation and health promotion targeted at child safety around treadmills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Myburgh, K H; Schall, R

    1990-01-01

    Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance in races of 10-90 km. Race time at 10 or 21.1 km was the best predictor of performance at 42.2 km in specialist marathon runners and at 42.2 and 90 km in specialist ultra-marathon runners (r = 0.91-0.97). Peak treadmill running velocity was the best laboratory-measured predictor of performance (r = -0.88(-)-0.94) at all distances in ultra-marathon specialists and at all distances except 42.2 km in marathon specialists. Other predictive variables were running velocity at the lactate turnpoint (r = -0.80(-)-0.92); % VO2max at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.76-0.90) and VO2max (r = 0.55(-)-0.86). Peak blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.68-0.71) and VO2 at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.10-0.61) were less good predictors. These data indicate: (i) that in groups of trained long distance runners, the physiological factors that determine success in races of 10-90 km are the same; thus there may not be variables that predict success uniquely in either 10 km, marathon or ultra-marathon runners, and (ii) that peak treadmill running velocity is at least as good a predictor of running performance as is the lactate turnpoint. Factors that determine the peak treadmill running velocity are not known but are not likely to be related to maximum rates of muscle oxygen utilization.

  3. Physiological and perceptual responses to incremental exercise testing in healthy men: effect of exercise test modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Kristina M; Kotrach, Houssam G; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    In a randomized cross-over study of 15 healthy men aged 20-30 years, we compared physiological and perceptual responses during treadmill and cycle exercise test protocols matched for increments in work rate - the source of increased locomotor muscle metabolic and contractile demands. The rates of O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p ≤ 0.05). Nevertheless, work rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fR), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal esophageal (Pes,tidal) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (Pdi,tidal), peak expiratory gastric pressures (Pga,peak), the root mean square of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi,rms) expressed as a percentage of maximum EMGdi,rms (EMGdi,rms%max), and dyspnea ratings were similar at the peak of treadmill versus cycle testing (p > 0.05). Ratings of leg discomfort were higher at the peak of cycle versus treadmill exercise (p ≤ 0.05), even though peak O2 consumption was lower during cycling. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, minute ventilation, fR, Pes,tidal, Pdi,tidal and Pga,peak were higher (p ≤ 0.05), while VT, IC, IRV, EMGdi,rms%max, and ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort were similar (p > 0.05) at all or most submaximal work rates during treadmill versus cycle exercise. Our findings highlight important differences (and similarities) in physiological and perceptual responses at maximal and submaximal work rates during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise testing protocols. The lack of effect of exercise test modality on peak work rate advocates for the use of this readily available parameter to optimize training intensity determination, regardless of exercise training mode.

  4. The effects of acute exercise bouts on hepcidin in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newlin, M.K.; Williams, S.; McNamara, T.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Haymes, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute exercise on serum hepcidin and iron (sFe) in active women. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, ferritin, and sFe in response to 2 different exercise durations were compared. METHODS: Twelve women age 19-32 yr performed 2 treadmill runs (60 and 120

  5. The effects of acute exercise bouts on hepcidin in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newlin, M.K.; Williams, S.; McNamara, T.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Haymes, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute exercise on serum hepcidin and iron (sFe) in active women. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, ferritin, and sFe in response to 2 different exercise durations were compared. METHODS: Twelve women age 19-32 yr performed 2 treadmill runs (60 and 120

  6. A home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fornieles González

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to determine the effect of home-based treadmill training on epicardial and abdominal adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS. A secondary objective was to identify significant correlations between imaging and conventional anthropometric parameters. Material and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women with MS volunteered for the current trial. Thirty were randomly assigned to perform a supervised home-based 16-week treadmill training program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of a warm-up, 30-40 min treadmill exercise (increasing 5-minutes each 4-weeks at a work intensity of 60-75% of peak heart rate (increasing 5% each 4-weeks and cooling-down. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT was assessed by echocardiography. Abdominal fat mass in the lumbar regions L1-L4 and L4-L5 was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Epicardial fat thickness and abdominal fat percentages were significantly improved after the completion of the training program. Another striking feature of the current study was the moderate correlation that was found between EFT and waist circumference (WC. Conclusion: Home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with MS. A secondary finding was that a moderate correlation was found between EFT and WC. While current investigations are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  7. COMPARISON OF TRUNK AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE ACTIVITY AMONG FOUR STATIONARY EQUIPMENT DEVICES: UPRIGHT BIKE, RECUMBENT BIKE, TREADMILL, AND ELLIPTIGO®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Lucinda; Baker, Ryan; Gibson, Chris; Kearney, Andrew; Busemeyer, Tommy

    2016-04-01

    Stationary equipment devices are often used to improve fitness. The ElliptiGO® was recently developed that blends the elements of an elliptical trainer and bicycle, allowing reciprocal lower limb pedaling in an upright position. However, it is unknown whether the muscle activity used for the ElliptiGO® is similar to walking or cycling. To date, there is no information comparing muscle activity for exercise on the treadmill, stationary upright and recumbent bikes, and the ElliptiGO®. The purpose of this study was to assess trunk and lower extremity muscle activity among treadmill walking, cycling (recumbent and upright) and the ElliptiGO® cycling. It was hypothesized that the ElliptiGO® and treadmill would elicit similar electromyographic muscle activity responses compared to the stationary bike and recumbent bike during an exercise session. Cohort, repeated measures. Twelve recreationally active volunteers participated in the study and were assigned a random order of exercise for each of the four devices (ElliptiGO®, stationary upright cycle ergometer, recumbent ergometer, and a treadmill). Two-dimensional video was used to monitor the start and stop of exercise and surface electromyography (SEMG) were used to assess muscle activity during two minutes of cycling or treadmill walking at 40-50% heart rate reserve (HRR). Eight muscles on the dominant limb were used for analysis: gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), biceps femoris (BF), lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF). Two trunk muscles were assessed on the same side; lumbar erector spinae at L3-4 level (LES) and rectus abdominus (RA). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were determined for each muscle and SEMG data were expressed as %MVIC in order to normalize outputs. The %MVIC for RF during ElliptiGO® cycling was higher than recumbent cycling. The LG muscle activity was highest during upright cycling. The TA was higher during walking

  8. Response of the arterial blood pressure of quadriplegic patients to treadmill gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho D.C.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure pattern was analyzed in 12 complete quadriplegics with chronic lesions after three months of treadmill gait training. Before training, blood pressure values were obtained at rest, during treadmill walking and during the recovery phase. Gait training was performed for 20 min twice a week for three months. Treadmill gait was achieved using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, assisted by partial body weight relief (30-50%. After training, blood pressure was evaluated at rest, during gait and during recovery phase. Before and after training, mean systolic blood pressures and heart rates increased significantly during gait compared to rest (94.16 ± 5.15 to 105 ± 5.22 mmHg and 74.27 ± 10.09 to 106.23 ± 17.31 bpm, respectively, and blood pressure decreased significantly in the recovery phase (86.66 ± 9.84 and 57.5 ± 8.66 mmHg, respectively. After three months of training, systolic blood pressure became higher at rest (94.16 ± 5.15 mmHg before training and 100 ± 8.52 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 and during gait exercise (105 ± 5.22 mmHg before and 110 ± 7.38 mmHg after training; P < 0.05 when compared to the initial values, with no changes in heart rate. No changes occurred in blood pressure during the recovery phase, with the lower values being maintained. A drop in systolic pressure from 105 ± 5.22 to 86.66 ± 9.84 mmHg before training and from 110 ± 7.38 to 90 ± 7.38 mmHg after training was noticed immediately after exercise, thus resulting in hypotensive symptoms when chronic quadriplegics reach the sitting position from the upright position.

  9. POSTURAL CONTROL AFTER A PROLONGED TREADMILL RUN AT INDIVIDUAL VENTILATORY AND ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to verify whether young males' balance was affected by 30min prolonged treadmill running (TR at individual ventilatory (IVT and anaerobic (IAT thresholds in recovery time. The VO2max, IAT and IVT during an incremental TR were determined. Mean displacement amplitude (Acp and velocity (Vcp of center of pressure were recorded before (pre and after (0min post; 5min post; and 10min post prolonged TR at IAT and IVT, through posturographic trials performed with eyes open (EO and closed (EC. Significant differences between IVT and IAT for Vcp, between EO and EC for Acp and Vcp, were observed. The IAT induced higher destabilizing effect when postural trials were performed with EC. The IVT intensity produced also a destabilizing effect on postural control immediately after exercise. An impairment of postural control after prolonged treadmill running exercise at IVT and IAT intensity was showed. However, destabilizing effect on postural control disappeared within 10min after IAT intensity and within 5min after IVT intensity

  10. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Haruki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Koike, Akira; Makita, Shigeru; Omiya, Kazuto; Kato, Yuko; Adachi, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Harada, Naomi; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure to the ramp exercise test are not known and the current understanding of peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) values in the normal Japanese population is insufficient. A total of 749 healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-78 years underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a cycle ergometer or treadmill ergometer with ramp protocols. HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen uptake VO2 at rest, at AT, and at peak exercise were determined. HR and SBP at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer and treadmill ergometer test decreased with age. Work rate at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer increased with body weight and decreased with age. VO2 at AT and at peak exercise were higher in treadmill ergometer testing than in cycle ergometer testing, and were not affected by exercise protocol. Both of these decreased with age. The normal responses of HR and SBP to ramp exercise testing are reported for the first time. AT, peak VO2, and VO2 at each stage are shown for a healthy population. Some of these parameters were influenced by weight, gender, and age, as well as mode of exercise and the protocol used. These results provide useful reference values for interpreting the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Willems

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1 that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2 that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other.

  13. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... editorial staff Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Why Exercise? Why Exercise? Share Print Why Exercise? Exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise prevents health problems, builds strength, boosts energy, ...

  14. Non-motor symptoms in healthy Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Alcalay, Roy N.; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Yasinovsky, Kira; Thaler, Avner; Gurevich, Tanya; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Raymond, Deborah; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Bar-Shira, Anat; Ozelius, Laurie; Clark, Lorraine; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen; Giladi, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Background The Asymptomatic carriers of the Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S mutation represent a population at risk for developing PD. The aim of this study was to assess differences in non-motor symptoms between non-manifesting carriers and non-carriers of the G2019S mutation. Methods 253 subjects participated in this observational cross sectional multi-center study. Standard questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, cognition, smell, non-motor symptoms and REM sleep behavior were administered. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, family relations, education and site. Results 134 carriers were identified. carriers had higher non-motor symptoms score on the NMS questionnaire (p=0.02). These findings were amplified in carriers over the age of 50 with higher non-motor symptoms scores and trait anxiety scores (p<0.03). Conclusions In this cross section study, carriers of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation endorsed subtle non-motor symptoms. Whether these are early features of PD will require a longitudinal study. PMID:25809001

  15. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eNordmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a systematic literature review (April 2014 of 29 studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies, the cerebellum (8 studies, or the temporal cortex (3 studies. One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus. Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls into question the practice of re-adjusting the stimulation intensity according to the motor threshold over the course of the

  16. Experimental heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

    2013-01-01

    The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated.

  17. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls

  18. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls

  19. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs of Parkinson’s disease (PD are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia.

  20. Non-motor signs in Parkinson’s disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade the view of Parkinson’s disease (PD as a motor disorder has changed significantly and currently it is recognized as a multisystem process with diverse non-motor signs (NMS. In addition to been extremely common, these NMS play a major role in undermining functionality and quality of life. On the other hand, NMS are under recognized by physicians and neglected by patients. Here, we review the most common NMS in PD, including cognitive, psychiatric, sleep, metabolic, and sensory disturbances, discuss the current knowledge from biological, epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic standpoints, highlighting the need for early recognition and management.

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of motor fluctuations and non-motor predominance with cerebrospinal τ and Aβ as well as dementia-risk in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreanu, Raluca; Cerquera, Sonia Catalina; Martí, María José; Ríos, José; Sánchez-Gómez, Almudena; Cámara, Ana; Fernández, Manel; Compta, Yaroslau

    2017-02-15

    Experimental, neuropathological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies support τ and amyloid-β (Aβ) relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia. Lesser motor fluctuations (MFs) and non-motor features have also been related to PD-dementia. Yet, little is known about the association of MFs and non-motor symptoms with CSF τ and Aβ in PD. We hypothesized that lesser MFs and non-motor predominance are related to these CSF markers and dementia-risk in PD. We studied 58 PD patients (dementia at baseline, n=21; dementia at 18-months, n=35) in whom CSF Aβ and τ had been determined with ELISA techniques. MFs and a number of non-motor symptoms (apathy, anxiety, irritability, depression, visual hallucinations, spatial disorientation, memory complaints) over disease course were dichotomized as absent-mild vs. moderate-severe by retrospective clinical chart review blind to CSF findings. Non-motor predominance was defined as ≥3 non-motor symptoms (after the cohort-median of non-motor symptoms per patient) with ≥2 being moderate-severe and ≥1 having been present from onset, with all these being more disabling overall than motor features. Cross-sectionally, CSF biomarkers were non-parametrically compared according to dichotomized MFs and non-motor predominance. Longitudinally, dementia was the outcome (dependent variable), CSF markers, MFs and non-motor predominance were the predictors (independent variables), and potential modifiers as age, sex, and memory complaints were the covariates in binary regression models. Absent-mild MFs were associated with higher CSF τ markers and shorter time-to-dementia, while non-motor predominance and decreasing CSF Aβ independently increased longitudinal dementia-risk. In summary, absent-mild MFs, non-motor predominance and CSF τ and Aβ might define endophenotypes related to the timing or risk of dementia in PD.

  2. A model for nonexercising hindlimb muscles in exercising animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, A; Blewett, C; McDermott, J C; Elder, G C

    1990-07-01

    Nonexercising muscles appear to be metabolically active during exercise. Animal models for this purpose have not been established. However, we have been able to teach animals to run on their forelimbs while their hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill with no visible limb movement. To document that indeed this mode of exercise does not provoke additional muscle activity, we have compared the levels of neural activation of the soleus and plantaris muscles using a computer analysis of the electromyographic interference pattern, recorded from bipolar fine wire electrodes implanted across each muscle. Via computer analyses of the electromyographic interference patterns the frequencies and amplitudes of motor unit action potentials were obtained. The data were sampled during 20 s of every minute of observation. Comparisons were made in four conditions: (i) resting on the treadmill while bearing weight on the hindlimbs (normal rest), (ii) running on the treadmill (15 m/min, 8% grade) on all four limbs (normal exercise), (iii) resting while the hindlimbs were suspended in a harness above the treadmill (suspended rest), and (iv) exercising with the forelimbs (15 m/min, 8% grade) while the hindlimbs were suspended above the treadmill (suspended exercise). All four experimental conditions were carried out for 90 min each and were performed by each animal. The results clearly show that muscle activities (frequencies and amplitudes), when the hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill, at rest or during exercise, are lower than the activities in these same muscles when the animals are at rest, supporting only their body weight. Activities in the same muscles during exercise were from 300 to 2000% greater than during hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, T P; Fitzgerald, K

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  4. The Therapeutic Potential of Exercise to Improve Mood, Cognition, and Sleep in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gretchen O; Otto, Michael W; Ellis, Terry D; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a variety of nonmotor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life, even in the early stages of the disease. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatments for these symptoms, which include mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disruption. We focus here on exercise interventions, which have been used to improve mood, cognition, and sleep in healthy older adults and clinical populations, but to date have primarily targeted motor symptoms in PD. We synthesize the existing literature on the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training on mood, sleep, and cognition as demonstrated in healthy older adults and adults with PD, and suggest that these types of exercise offer a feasible and promising adjunct treatment for mood, cognition, and sleep difficulties in PD. Across stages of the disease, exercise interventions represent a treatment strategy with the unique ability to improve a range of nonmotor symptoms while also alleviating the classic motor symptoms of the disease. Future research in PD should include nonmotor outcomes in exercise trials with the goal of developing evidence-based exercise interventions as a safe, broad-spectrum treatment approach to improve mood, cognition, and sleep for individuals with PD.

  5. 30 min of treadmill walking at self-selected speed does not increase gait variability in independent elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Kunzler, Marcos R; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-09-04

    Walking is one of the preferred exercises among elderly, but could a prolonged walking increase gait variability, a risk factor for a fall in the elderly? Here we determine whether 30 min of treadmill walking increases coefficient of variation of gait in elderly. Because gait responses to exercise depend on fitness level, we included 15 sedentary and 15 active elderly. Sedentary participants preferred a lower gait speed and made smaller steps than the actives. Step length coefficient of variation decreased ~16.9% by the end of the exercise in both the groups. Stride length coefficient of variation decreased ~9% after 10 minutes of walking, and sedentary elderly showed a slightly larger step width coefficient of variation (~2%) at 10 min than active elderly. Active elderly showed higher walk ratio (step length/cadence) than sedentary in all times of walking, but the times did not differ in both the groups. In conclusion, treadmill gait kinematics differ between sedentary and active elderly, but changes over time are similar in sedentary and active elderly. As a practical implication, 30 min of walking might be a good strategy of exercise for elderly, independently of the fitness level, because it did not increase variability in step and stride kinematics, which is considered a risk of fall in this population.

  6. State adaptation reserves cardiorespiratory system first-year students with varying degrees of physical fitness in terms of treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the state of the cardiorespiratory system in terms of the stress test in first-year students with different levels of fitness. Material : the study involved 43 students, of which 18 boys and 25devushek basic medical group. The study used a treadmill, a pulse oximeter, spirometer. Results : more adjustment disorders were detected in students that are not involved in physical education at school. Decreased ability of the cardiorespiratory system to maintain proper oxygen supply of the organism in the stress test. This is not observed in students who were attending school in addition sports clubs. Found that students with low tolerance to physical exercise need a separate program of physical training, the dynamic control of the teachers and the need for additional medical examination. Conclusions : the treadmill test is an ideal way of revealing hidden maladjustment cardiorespiratory system in adolescence.

  7. Design of BLDCM Driving and Control System for Motorized Treadmill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhang; Hui Li; Li-Bin Wang

    2007-01-01

    To satisfy the requirement of developing a new generation of motorized treadmill for a famous domestic manufacturer, a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driving and control system for motorized treadmill is developed. High integration and reliability of this system are ensured under the condition that intelligent power module (TPM) is used and the protection module is included. Periodic current control method is applied to reduce the average current flowing through the armature winding of the motor when the treadmill is required to start with low speed while large load is added. Piecewise proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) control algorithm is applied to solve the problem of speed fluctuation when impulse load is added. The motorized treadmill of a new generation with the driving and control system has the advantages of high reliability, good speed stability, wide timing scope, low cost, and long life-span. And it is very promising for practical applications.

  8. Pre-ischemic treadmill training alleviates brain damage via GLT-1-mediated signal pathway after ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Zhang, M; Yang, S-D; Li, W-B; Ren, S-Q; Zhang, J; Zhang, F

    2014-08-22

    Physical exercise could play a neuroprotective role in both human and animals. However, the involved signal pathways underlying the neuroprotective effect are still not well established. This study was to investigate the possible signal pathways involved in the neuroprotection of pre-ischemic treadmill training after ischemic stroke. Seventy-two SD rats were randomly assigned into three groups (n=24/group): sham surgery group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group and MCAO with exercise group. Following three weeks of treadmill training exercise, ischemic stroke was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in rat for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after MCAO/reperfusion, 12 rats in each group were evaluated for neurological deficit scores and then sacrificed to measure the infarct volume (n=6) and cerebral edema (n=6). Six rats in each group were sacrificed to measure the expression level of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), Akt, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) (n=6). Two hundred and eighty minutes (4.67 h) after occlusion, six rats in each group were decapitated to detect the mRNA expression level of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit type 2B (NR2B) (n=6).The results demonstrated that pre-ischemic treadmill training exercise reduced brain infarct volume, cerebral edema and neurological deficits, also decreased the over expression of PKC-α and increased the expression level of GLT-1, Akt and PI3K after ischemic stroke (pdamage after ischemic stroke, which might be involved in two signal pathways: PKC-α-GLT-1-Glutamate and PI3K/Akt-GLT-1-Glutamate.

  9. Treadmill running and swimming imposes distinct cardiovascular physiological adaptations in the rat: focus on serotonergic and sympathetic nervous systems modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, S; Piloto, N; Reis, F; Teixeira-de-Lemos, E; Garrido, A P; Dias, A; Lourenço, M; Palmeiro, A; Ferrer-Antunes, C; Teixeira, F

    2008-12-01

    Physical exercise may improve the metabolic and haemodynamic responses, but the beneficial effects seem to depend on intensity, duration and muscular mass recruitment, which may vary between different types of protocols. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of two distinct moderate/long-term aerobic training protocols in the normal Wistar rat, the treadmill running and the swimming, on several important parameters related to cardiovascular (CV) physiological adaptations, namely: lipid profile, haemorheological measures, lipid peroxidation, peripheral serotonergic system (SS) modulation and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. In both groups under training an HDL-c increment versus the sedentary control was demonstrated. There was a noticeable increase in ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the exercised rats, together with higher PDW and MPV values. The RBC patterns were altered in both groups under training; in the swimming one, however, significantly higher RBC and HCT and lower MCH and MCHC values were found, suggesting renovation of the RBCs. Plasma and platelet SS measures were generally higher in both groups under training, being noticeably relevant the 5-HT and 5-HIAA increment in the treadmill. In opposition, concerning the plasma and platelet NE and E concentrations, the rise was remarkably higher in the rats under a swimming protocol. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, despite the similar beneficial effects on lipid profile, different aerobic exercise protocols may produce distinct CV physiological adaptations. Therefore, treadmill running was more influent than swimming concerning peripheral SS modulation while swimming was more important on SNS activation, thus recommending a judicious choice of the protocol to be tested in works which make use of rat models of exercise to study physiological or pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Sprint running performance: comparison between treadmill and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Sève, Pierrick

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the differences in performance between 100-m sprints performed on a sprint treadmill recently validated versus on a standard track. To date, studies comparing overground and treadmill running have mainly focused on constant and not maximal "free" running speed, and compared running kinetics and kinematics over a limited number of steps, but not overall sprint performance. Eleven male physical education students including two sprinters performed one 100-m on the treadmill and one on a standard athletics track in a randomized order, separated by 30 min. Performance data were derived in both cases from speed-time relationships measured with a radar and with the instrumented sprint treadmill, which allowed subjects to run and produce speed "freely", i.e. with no predetermined belt speed imposed. Field and treadmill typical speed-distance curves and data of maximal and mean speed, 100-m time and acceleration/deceleration time constants were compared using t tests and field-treadmill correlations were tested. All the performance parameters but time to reach top speed and deceleration time constant differed significantly, by about 20% on average, between field and treadmill (e.g. top speed of 8.84 ± 0.51 vs. 6.90 ± 0.39 m s(-1)). However, significant correlations were found (r > 0.63; P 100-m sprint performances are different, despite the fact that subjects could freely accelerate the belt. However, the significant correlations found make it possible to investigate and interpret inter-individual differences in field performance from treadmill measurements.

  11. Nonmotor Symptoms and Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Joon Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS is an established treatment for the motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition to improvements in motor symptoms, many studies have reported changes in various nonmotor symptoms (NMSs after STN DBS in patients with PD. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, apathy, anxiety, and impulsivity, can worsen or improve depending on the electrical stimulation parameters, the locations of the stimulating contacts within the STN, and changes in medications after surgery. Global cognitive function is not affected by STN DBS, and there is no increase in the incidence of dementia after STN DBS compared to that after medical treatment, although clinically insignificant declines in verbal fluency have been consistently reported. Pain, especially PD-related pain, improves with STN DBS. Evidence regarding the effects of STN DBS on autonomic symptoms and sleep-related problems is limited and remains conflicting. Many symptoms of nonmotor fluctuations, which are occasionally more troublesome than motor fluctuations, improve with STN DBS. Although it is clear that NMSs are not target symptoms for STN DBS, NMSs have a strong influence on the quality of life of patients with PD, and clinicians should thus be aware of these NMSs when deciding whether to perform surgery and should pay attention to changes in these symptoms after STN DBS to ensure the optimal care for patients.

  12. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Parkinson's Nonmotor Symptoms following Unilateral DBS: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hwynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD management has traditionally focused largely on motor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN and globus pallidus internus (GPi are effective treatments for motor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs may also profoundly affect the quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate NMS changes pre- and post-DBS utilizing two recently developed questionnaires. Methods. NMS-Q (questionnaire and NMS-S (scale were administered to PD patients before/after unilateral DBS (STN/GPi targets. Results. Ten PD patients (9 STN implants, 1 GPi implant were included. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified utilizing NMS-Q in pre-surgical patients were gastrointestinal (100%, sleep (100%, and urinary (90%. NMS sleep subscore significantly decreased (−1.6 points ± 1.8, =0.03. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified in pre-surgical patients using NMS-S were gastrointestinal (90%, mood (80%, and cardiovascular (80%. The largest mean decrease of NMS scores was seen in miscellaneous symptoms (pain, anosmia, weight change, and sweating (−7 points ± 8.7, and cardiovascular/falls (−1.9, =0.02. Conclusion. Non-motor symptoms improved on two separate questionnaires following unilateral DBS for PD. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine their clinical significance as well as to examine the strengths/weaknesses of each questionnaire/scale.

  13. Health-related quality of life in early Parkinson's disease: the impact of nonmotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; O'Brien, John T; Coleman, Shirley Y; Brooks, David J; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J

    2014-02-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with established Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a major impact upon quality of life. We investigated the significance of NMS in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with newly diagnosed PD. Patients and healthy controls were recruited as part of the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study. Prevalence of NMS was determined with the Non-Motor Symptom Questionnaire. HRQoL was recorded with the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Further assessments included measures of motor disability, depression, sleep, and cognition. One hundred and fifty-eight patients with newly diagnosed PD and 99 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Patients reported greater numbers of NMS than controls (mean 8.3 ± 4.3 versus 2.8 ± 2.5 symptoms; P disease. Depression (P quality of life. Cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and sleep disturbances are particularly associated with reduced well-being. Screening and management of these symptoms should be prioritized at the time of diagnosis.

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... activity, and ignore irrelevant information. For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  18. Comparing interventions and exploring neural mechanisms of exercise in Parkinson disease: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Earhart, Gammon M; Duncan, Ryan P; Huang, John L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Pickett, Kristen A

    2015-01-01

    .... Among the exercise approaches known to improve walking, tango and treadmill training have recently emerged as two promising therapies for improving gait, disease severity and quality of life, yet...

  19. See hear: psychological effects of music and music-video during treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jasmin C; Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton

    2015-04-01

    There is a paucity of work addressing the distractive, affect-enhancing, and motivational influences of music and video in combination during exercise. We examined the effects of music and music-and-video on a range of psychological and psychophysical variables during treadmill running at intensities above and below ventilatory threshold (VT). Participants (N = 24) exercised at 10 % of maximal capacity below VT and 10 % above under music-only, music-and-video, and control conditions. There was a condition × intensity × time interaction for perceived activation and state motivation, and an intensity × time interaction for state attention, perceived exertion (RPE), and affective valence. The music-and-video condition elicited the highest levels of dissociation, lowest RPE, and most positive affective responses regardless of exercise intensity. Attentional manipulations influence psychological and psychophysical variables at exercise intensities above and below VT, and this effect is enhanced by the combined presentation of auditory and visual stimuli.

  20. Metabolic responses to submaximal treadmill walking and cycle ergometer pedalling in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Lazzer, S; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Mazzilli, G; Sartorio, A

    2010-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management because of the impact of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (Fox) rate on a daily balance, but the specific physiological effects of different exercise modalities are scarcely known in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare the metabolic responses to treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE) exercise in obese adolescents. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) concentration, EE and Fox were determined at different intensity levels (up to about 85% of maximal oxygen uptake) during TM and CE in 14 pubertal (Tanner stage: >3) obese (BMI SDS: 2.15-3.86) male adolescents (age: 13-18 years). At comparable HR, oxygen uptake, EE and Fox were higher, and LA lower, during TM than CE (Pcycling imposes a metabolic involvement at the level of the single active muscles greater than walking. Therefore, due to different physiological responses to TM and CE, walking was more convenient than cycling in obese adolescents, permitting to attain the same EE at lower HR, with lower blood LA concentration and with greater Fox. These conclusions seem clinically relevant when using exercise as a part of multidisciplinary treatment for juvenile obesity and amelioration of related metabolic disturbances.

  1. Effectiveness of Treadmill Training on Balance Control in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Pirouzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise would improve postural stability, which is an essential factor in preventing accidental fall among the elderly population. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of treadmill walking on balance improvement among the elderly people. A total of 30 community dwelling older adults with a Berg Balance Scale score of 36-48 and the ability to walk without aid were considered and divided into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. Individuals in the experimental group participated in 30 minutes of forward and backward treadmill training based on three times a week interval for a period of four weeks. Individuals in the control group were instructed to continue with their daily routine activity. Before and after training, gait speed was measured by six-minute walk test and balance ability was evaluated by Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS and Berg Balance Scale (BBS tests. Postural sway items such as the Center of Pressure (COP, average displacement and velocity were evaluated by using a force platform system. Data were collected in quiet standing, tandem position and standing on foam pads before and after intervention. After intervention, balance variables in the experimental group indicated a significant improvement in quiet standing on firm and foam surfaces, but no considerable improvement was shown in tandem position. A between-group comparison showed a significant reduction in COP velocity in the sagittal plane (P=0.030 during quiet standing and in the frontal plane (P=0.001 during standing on foam, whereas no significant reduction in COP parameters during tandem position was found. It is recommended that twelve sessions of forward and backward treadmill walk are effective in balance improvement in elderly people. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201209199440N2

  2. Effectiveness of treadmill training on balance control in elderly people: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzi, Soraya; Motealleh, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Fatemeh; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin

    2014-11-01

    Physical exercise would improve postural stability, which is an essential factor in preventing accidental fall among the elderly population. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of treadmill walking on balance improvement among the elderly people. A total of 30 community dwelling older adults with a Berg Balance Scale score of 36-48 and the ability to walk without aid were considered and divided into control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. Individuals in the experimental group participated in 30 minutes of forward and backward treadmill training based on three times a week interval for a period of four weeks. Individuals in the control group were instructed to continue with their daily routine activity. Before and after training, gait speed was measured by six-minute walk test and balance ability was evaluated by Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) tests. Postural sway items such as the Center of Pressure (COP), average displacement and velocity were evaluated by using a force platform system. Data were collected in quiet standing, tandem position and standing on foam pads before and after intervention. After intervention, balance variables in the experimental group indicated a significant improvement in quiet standing on firm and foam surfaces, but no considerable improvement was shown in tandem position. A between-group comparison showed a significant reduction in COP velocity in the sagittal plane (P=0.030) during quiet standing and in the frontal plane (P=0.001) during standing on foam, whereas no significant reduction in COP parameters during tandem position was found. It is recommended that twelve sessions of forward and backward treadmill walk are effective in balance improvement in elderly people. IRCT201209199440N2.

  3. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  4. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  5. Tango for treatment of motor and non-motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Romenets, Silvia; Anang, Julius; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Pelletier, Amelie; Postuma, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    To determine effects of Argentine tango on motor and non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Randomized control trial. Forty patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Movement disorder clinic and dance studio. Two randomized groups: group (N=18) with 24 partnered tango classes, and control self-directed exercise group (N=15). The primary outcome was overall motor severity. Secondary outcomes included other motor measures, balance, cognition, fatigue, apathy, depression and quality of life. On the primary intention-to-treat analysis there was no difference in motor severity between groups MDS-UPDRS-3 (1.6 vs.1.2-point reduction, p=0.85). Patient-rated clinical global impression of change did not differ (p=0.33), however examiner rating improved in favor of tango (p=0.02). Mini-BESTest improved in the tango group compared to controls (0.7±2.2 vs. -2.7±5.9, p=0.032). Among individual items, tango improved in both simple TUG time (-1.3±1.6s vs. 0.1±2.3, p=0.042) and TUG Dual Task score (0.4±0.9 vs. -0.2±0.4, p=0.012), with borderline improvement in walk with pivot turns (0.2±0.5 vs. -0.1±0.5, p=0.066). MoCa (0.4±1.6 vs. -0.6±1.5, p=0.080) and FSS (-3.6±10.5 vs. 2.5±6.2, p=0.057) showed a non-significant trend toward improvement in the tango group. Tango participants found the activity more enjoyable (p<0.001) and felt more "overall" treatment satisfaction (p<0.001). We found no significant differences in other outcomes or adverse events. Argentine tango can improve balance, and functional mobility, and may have modest benefits upon cognition and fatigue in Parkinson's disease. These findings must be confirmed in longer-term trials explicitly powered for cognition and fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased lactate threshold after five weeks of treadmill aerobic training in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WH. Brito Vieira

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse the lactate threshold (LT changes in rats submitted to an aerobic treadmill-training programme. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group (CG, and a trained group (TG submitted to an aerobic training during 5 weeks. All the animals were submitted to an incremental treadmill exercise test in order to determine LT. There was an increase in the maximum running speed in the TG (from 32.25 ± 1.27 to 47.75 ± 3.13 m.min–1 – p = 0.001, and running speed at LT (from 26.21 ± 1.15 to 35.30 ± 2.24 m.min–1 – p = 0.004, a part from the reduction in blood lactate at LT. LT can be determined in rats, and aerobic training induced positive oxidative physiological adaptations in the animals.

  7. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  9. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  10. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panouillères, Muriel T N; Tofaris, George K; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the

  11. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  12. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, I; Di Battista, M E; Vanacore, N; Papi, C P; Alampi, G; Rubino, A; Valente, M; Meco, G; Contri, P; Di Pucchio, A; Lacorte, E; Priori, A; Mariani, C; Pomati, S

    2017-04-01

    Although non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are very common also in early stages of the disease, they are still under-recognized. Screening tools for non-motor symptoms, such as non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQuest), help clinicians to recognize NMS and to evaluate if patients could require further assessment or specific treatments. To validate an adapted Italian version of NMSQuest and study its psychometric properties, Italian PD patients self-completed Italian NMSQuest, and then underwent a standard clinical evaluation including motor assessment (by Hoehn and Yahr staging, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III) and non-motor assessment (by Montreal cognitive assessment, Beck depression inventory, neuropsychiatric inventory, Epworth sleepiness scale, scale for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic and movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part I). Somatic comorbidities were quantified using the modified cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS). Seventy-one subjects were assessed (mean age years 69.8 ± 9.6 SD; 31% women; mean duration of disease 6.3 ± 4.6 years; H&Y median 2). Italian NMSQuest showed adequate satisfactory clinimetrics in terms of data quality, precision, acceptability, internal consistency and reliability. A significant correlation was found between NMSQuest and most of non-motor assessment scales, while no significant correlation appeared with motor severity as well as with age of patients, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose, L-DOPA/dopamine agonists assumption and CIRS total score. The Italian version of the NMSQuest resulted as a reliable instrument for screening NMS in Italian PD patients.

  13. The enigmatic linguistic cerebellum: clinical relevance and unanswered questions on nonmotor speech and language deficits in cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Beaton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Clinical case descriptions and experimental evidence dating back to the early part of the 19th century from time to time documented a range of nonmotor cognitive and affective impairments following cerebellar pathology. However, a causal relationship between disruption of nonmotor cognitive and affective skills and cerebellar disease was dismissed for several decades and the classical view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of autonomic and somatic sensorimotor function prevailed for more than two centuries in behavioural neuroscience. The ignorance of early clinical evidence suggesting a much richer and complex role for the cerebellum than a pure sensorimotor one is remarkable given that in addition: 1) the cerebellum contains more neurons than the rest of the combined cerebral cortex and 2) no other structure has as many connections with other parts of the brain as the cerebellum. During the past decades, the long-standing view of the cerebellum as pure coordinator of sensorimotor function has been substantially modified. From the late 1970s onwards, major advances were made in elucidating the many functional neuroanatomical connections of the cerebellum with the supratentorial association cortices that subserve nonmotor language, cognition and affect. Combined with evidence derived from experimental functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects and neurophysiological and neuropsychological research in patients, the role of the cerebellum has been substantially extended to include that of a crucial modulator of cognitive and affective processes. In addition to its long-established role in coordinating motor aspects of speech production, clinical and experimental studies with patients suffering from etiologically different cerebellar disorders have identified involvement of the cerebellum in a variety of nonmotor language functions, including motor speech planning, language dynamics and verbal fluency, phonological and semantic word retrieval

  14. Non-motor dopamine withdrawal syndrome after surgery for Parkinson's disease: predictors and underlying mesolimbic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobois, Stéphane; Ardouin, Claire; Lhommée, Eugénie; Klinger, Hélène; Lagrange, Christelle; Xie, Jing; Fraix, Valérie; Coelho Braga, Maria Clara; Hassani, Rachid; Kistner, Andrea; Juphard, Alexandra; Seigneuret, Eric; Chabardes, Stephan; Mertens, Patrick; Polo, Gustavo; Reilhac, Anthonin; Costes, Nicolas; LeBars, Didier; Savasta, Marc; Tremblay, Léon; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Pollak, Pierre; Krack, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Apathy has been reported to occur after subthalamic nucleus stimulation, a treatment of motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease. We carried out a prospective study of the occurrence of apathy and associated symptoms, predictors and mechanisms in the year following subthalamic stimulation. Dopamine agonist drugs were discontinued immediately after surgery and levodopa was markedly reduced within 2 weeks. Apathy and depression were assessed monthly, using the Starkstein apathy scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Dopamine agonists were re-introduced if patients developed apathy or depression. Preoperative non-motor fluctuations were evaluated using the Ardouin Scale. Depression, apathy and anxiety were evaluated both on and off levodopa. Analysis of predictors of apathy was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Twelve patients who developed apathy and a control group of 13 patients who did not underwent [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scanning before and after oral intake of methylphenidate. In 63 patients with Parkinson's disease treated with subthalamic stimulation, dopaminergic treatment was decreased by 82% after surgery. Apathy occurred after a mean of 4.7 (3.3-8.2) months in 34 patients and was reversible in half of these by the 12-month follow-up. Seventeen patients developed transient depression after 5.7 (4.7-9.3) months and these fell into the apathy group with one single exception. At baseline, fluctuations in depression, apathy and anxiety scores were greater in the group with apathy. Fluctuations in apathy, depression and anxiety ratings during a baseline levodopa challenge were also significant predictors of postoperative apathy in univariate analysis, but not motor and cognitive states or the level of reduction of dopaminergic medication. The multivariate model identified non-motor fluctuations in everyday life and anxiety score during the baseline levodopa challenge as two independent significant predictors of

  15. Comparison of pelvic complex kinematics during treadmill and overground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Chatterley, Faye; Healy, Aoife C; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Branthwaite, Helen R

    2012-12-01

    To determine if there are changes in temporal gait parameters with a focus on pelvis when comparing overground and treadmill ambulation, and to assess the effect of sex. An observational study employing motion analysis techniques to evaluate pelvic movement during gait. University biomechanics laboratory. Men (n=8; 22.5±3.0 y) and women (n=6; 23.8±4.1 y). Not applicable. Cadence, stride time, stance phase percent, and pelvic tilt, obliquity, and rotation parameters throughout the gait cycle were assessed during overground and treadmill walking. Kinematic data were recorded using a passive full body marker based motion analysis system. While an independent sample t test was used to determine if differences in walking speed were evident between sexes, a 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effect of walking mode and sex on each dependent variable. Significant differences (Pwalking for the temporal parameters analyzed were evident for both sexes. A lower pelvic obliquity motion for treadmill walking when compared with overground walking was evident for both sexes, and the pelvic rotation movement pattern showed the greatest difference between walking modes. The majority of the significant differences between sexes were of a magnitude greater than the differences between overground and treadmill walking. The differences in temporal and angular kinematics identified in the present study should be considered when treadmills are used in a rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of different beverage intake on blood components during exercise under high-temperature environment

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Soon Gi

    2013-01-01

    High temperature environment causes detrimental effects on health. In the present study, the effects of intake of several kinds of beverage on blood components during exercise under the high temperature environment were evaluated. The 10 subjects were student of the H University. Exercise intensity was 50–60% O2maxx and treadmill exercise was continued for 1 h. The kinds of beverage were water, ion beverage, cucumber drink. Blood sampling was performed before the exercise, immediately finishi...

  17. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues w...

  18. GBA Variants Influence Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús, Silvia; Huertas, Ismael; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas-González, Laura; Gómez-Llamas, Myriam; Carrillo, Fátima; Calderón, Enrique; Carballo, Manuel; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Mir, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene is a known factor increasing the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations carriers have earlier disease onset and are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric symptoms than other sporadic PD cases. These symptoms have primarily been observed in Parkinson’s patients carrying the most common pathogenic mutations L444P and N370S. However, recent findings suggest that other variants across the gene may have a different impact on the phenotype as well as on the disease progression. We aimed to explore the influence of variants across GBA gene on the clinical features and treatment related complications in PD. In this study, we screened the GBA gene in a cohort of 532 well-characterised PD patients and 542 controls from southern Spain. The potential pathogeniticy of the identified variants was assessed using in-silico analysis and subsequently classified as benign or deleterious. As a result, we observed a higher frequency of GBA variants in PD patients (12.2% vs. 7.9% in controls, p = 0.021), earlier mean age at disease onset in GBA variant carriers (50.6 vs. 56.6 years; p = 0.013), as well as more prevalent motor and non-motor symptoms in patients carrying deleterious variants. In addition, we found that dopaminergic motor complications are influenced by both benign and deleterious variants. Our results highlight the fact that the impact on the phenotype highly depends on the potential pathogenicity of the carried variants. Therefore, the course of motor and non-motor symptoms as well as treatment-related motor complications could be influenced by GBA variants. PMID:28030538

  19. Roles of Cbln1 in Non-Motor Functions of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Shintaro; Konno, Kohtarou; Abe, Manabu; Motohashi, Junko; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Sakimura, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2016-11-16

    The cerebellum is thought to be involved in cognitive functions in addition to its well established role in motor coordination and motor learning in humans. Cerebellin 1 (Cbln1) is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Although genes encoding Cbln1 and its postsynaptic receptor, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluD2), are suggested to be associated with autistic-like traits and many psychiatric disorders, whether such cognitive impairments are caused by cerebellar dysfunction remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether and how Cbln1 signaling is involved in non-motor functions in adult mice. We show that acquisition and retention/retrieval of cued and contextual fear memory were impaired in Cbln1-null mice. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that Cbln1 is expressed in various extracerebellar regions, including the retrosplenial granular cortex and the hippocampus. In the hippocampus, Cbln1 immunoreactivity was present at the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum lacunosum-moleculare without overt mRNA expression, suggesting that Cbln1 is provided by perforant path fibers. Retention/retrieval, but not acquisition, of cued and contextual fear memory was impaired in forebrain-predominant Cbln1-null mice. Spatial learning in the radial arm water maze was also abrogated. In contrast, acquisition of fear memory was affected in cerebellum-predominant Cbln1-null mice. These results indicate that Cbln1 in the forebrain and cerebellum mediates specific aspects of fear conditioning and spatial memory differentially and that Cbln1 signaling likely regulates motor and non-motor functions in multiple brain regions.

  20. Effects Of treadmill training on hindlimb muscles of spinal cord–injured mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistuzzo, Camila R.; Rank, Michelle M.; Flynn, Jamie R.; Morgan, David L.; Callister, Robin; Callister, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Treadmill training is known to prevent muscle atrophy after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the training duration required to optimize recovery has not been investigated. Methods: Hemisected mice were randomized to 3, 6, or 9 weeks of training or no training. Muscle fiber type composition and fiber cross‐sectional area (CSA) of medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed using ATPase histochemistry. Results: Muscle fiber type composition of SCI animals did not change with training. However, 9 weeks of training increased the CSA of type IIB and IIX fibers in TA and MG muscles. Conclusions: Nine weeks of training after incomplete SCI was effective in preventing atrophy of fast‐twitch muscles, but there were limited effects on slow‐twitch muscles and muscle fiber type composition. These data provide important evidence of the benefits of exercising paralyzed limbs after SCI. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 55: 232–242, 2017 PMID:27273462