WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmotorized transportation

  1. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  2. Developing a Rubric and Best Practices for Conducting Counts of Non-Motorized Transportation Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five years non-motorized modes of transportation have become ever more prevalent on Utahs roadways. Historically, these modes have not been included in traffic counts nor are they accurately represented in the long range planning mod...

  3. Nonmotorized transportation pilot program : continued progress in developing walking and bicycling networks - May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, the United States Congress directed the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to develop the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program (NTPP). The program provided over $25 million in contract authority to four pilot communities (Columbia, M...

  4. Developing a regional approach to transportation demand management and nonmotorized transportation : best practice case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report is being forwarded to Congress pursuant to Section 6054 (c) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The first Implementation Report, transmitted to Congress in June 1994, described the achievements of DOT ...

  5. Report to the U.S. Congress on the Outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Section 1807 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users : (SAFETEA-LU) P.L. 109-59 established the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program (NTPP) in : August 2005. Over the span of 4 years, the NTPP p...

  6. Nonmotor Features in Atypical Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kailash P; Stamelou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Atypical parkinsonism (AP) comprises mainly multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), which are distinct pathological entities, presenting with a wide phenotypic spectrum. The classic syndromes are now called MSA-parkinsonism (MSA-P), MSA-cerebellar type (MSA-C), Richardson's syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Nonmotor features in AP have been recognized almost since the initial description of these disorders; however, research has been limited. Autonomic dysfunction is the most prominent nonmotor feature of MSA, but also gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep dysfunction, and pain, can be a feature. In PSP and CBD, the most prominent nonmotor symptoms comprise those deriving from the cognitive/neuropsychiatric domain. Apart from assisting the clinician in the differential diagnosis with Parkinson's disease, nonmotor features in AP have a big impact on quality of life and prognosis of AP and their treatment poses a major challenge for clinicians. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternatives for providing a safe passage for non-motorized traffic across an existing highway bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Non-motorized transportation increases mobility choices, relieves congestion, promotes local economy, reduces greenhouse gas emission, promotes a healthy lifestyle, and improves quality of life. Recently, there is an emphasis on developing integrated...

  8. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  9. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and

  10. Striatal Dopamine Depletion Patterns and Early Non-Motor Burden in Parkinsons Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Chung

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Parkinson patients with more non-motor symptoms have a different pattern of striatal dopamine depletion, particularly in areas other than the sensorimotor striatum, compared to those with fewer non-motor symptoms.We conducted a prospective survey of the degree of non-motor symptoms (using the Korean version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale; K-NMSS in 151 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease who had undergone a dopamine transporter PET scan as an initial diagnostic procedure. We classified the patients into two groups; high non-motor patients (HNM-PD; K-NMSS score ≥ 41 and low non-motor patients (LNM-PD.Patients in the HNM-PD group (n = 71 were older, had longer symptom duration, exhibited more severe motor deficits, and had been prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those in the LNM-PD group. However, dopamine transporter binding to the striatal sub-regions and inter-sub-regional binding ratios were comparable between the two groups. A general linear model showed that the HNM-PD group had significantly more severe motor deficits than the LNM-PD group after controlling for age, gender, symptom duration, and dopamine transporter binding to the sensorimotor striatum.This study demonstrated that the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion does not contribute to early non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that LNM-PD patients may have a more benign course of motor symptom progression than HNM-PD patients.

  11. Research on the Method of Setting Waiting Area for Non-motor Vehicle at Signal Control Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yun Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric bicycle has become an indispensable important component of the transportation system. The fact is that traffic organization and channelizing design of signal control intersection is not intensive, which cannot adapt to the current traffic demand of non-motor vehicle, such as unclear traffic rules and poor visibility, thus the traffic safety of non-motor vehicle is not optimistic. Therefore, it is necessary to study on traffic organization method based on the demand of non-motor vehicle, which can provide certain theoretical basis for traffic administrative department to make policy and traffic design. This article focuses on the method of setting waiting area for non-motor vehicle at signal control intersection, including the advantages, disadvantages and the applicable conditions.

  12. Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease revealed in an animal model with reduced monoamine storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Caudle, W Michael; Shepherd, Kennie R; Noorian, AliReza; Jackson, Chad R; Iuvone, P Michael; Weinshenker, David; Greene, James G; Miller, Gary W

    2009-06-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, culminating in severe motor symptoms, including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. In addition to motor deficits, there are a variety of nonmotor symptoms associated with PD. These symptoms generally precede the onset of motor symptoms, sometimes by years, and include anosmia, problems with gastrointestinal motility, sleep disturbances, sympathetic denervation, anxiety, and depression. Previously, we have shown that mice with a 95% genetic reduction in vesicular monoamine transporter expression (VMAT2-deficient, VMAT2 LO) display progressive loss of striatal dopamine, L-DOPA-responsive motor deficits, alpha-synuclein accumulation, and nigral dopaminergic cell loss. We hypothesized that since these animals exhibit deficits in other monoamine systems (norepinephrine and serotonin), which are known to regulate some of these behaviors, the VMAT2-deficient mice may display some of the nonmotor symptoms associated with PD. Here we report that the VMAT2-deficient mice demonstrate progressive deficits in olfactory discrimination, delayed gastric emptying, altered sleep latency, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent depressive behavior. These results suggest that the VMAT2-deficient mice may be a useful model of the nonmotor symptoms of PD. Furthermore, monoamine dysfunction may contribute to many of the nonmotor symptoms of PD, and interventions aimed at restoring monoamine function may be beneficial in treating the disease.

  13. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson’s Disease Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of <21/30. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms was determined using the NMSQuest. The severity of nonmotor symptoms and the quality of life were assessed using validated disease-specific questionnaires (PDQ-39 and NMSS. Results. A total of 113 patients consisting of 60 males and 53 females were recruited. The median duration of illness was 5.0 (2.0–8.0 years. The prevalence rate of nonmotor symptoms in our cohort was 97.3%. The most common reported nonmotor symptom in our cohort was gastrointestinal (76.1%. We found that the severity of the nonmotor symptoms was associated with poorer quality of life scores (rs: 0.727, P<0.001. Conclusions. Nonmotor symptoms were highly prevalent in our patients with Parkinson’s disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  14. Nonmotor symptoms in a malaysian Parkinson's disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Shahrul; Khairul Anuar, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Hui Jan; Nafisah, Wan Yahya; Raymond, Azman Ali; Hanita, Othman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  15. Nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-mei; Yu, Shu-yang; Guo, Peng; Du, Yang; Hu, Yang; Piao, Ying-shan; Zuo, Li-jun; Lian, Teng-hong; Wang, Rui-dan; Yu, Qiu-jin; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is usually accompanied by numerous nonmotor symptoms (NMS), such as neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and sensory disturbances. However, it is not clear that the factors influencing the occurrence of NMS and its sequence with motor symptoms (MS). We conducted comprehensive assessments of NMS by using 13 scales in 1119 PD patients. A total of 70.8% PD patients present NMS. Olfactory dysfunction tends to occur in PD patients with older age, more severe depression, sleep problems, and autonomic dysfunctions. Older patients are more likely to have olfactory dysfunction before MS than younger patients. Rapid eye movement behavior disorder is more prone to happen in patients with older age, older onset age, more severe depression, sleep problems, and autonomic dysfunctions. Patients with rapid eye movement behavior disorder before MS are older in onset age than after group. Olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behavior disorder, and depression, as early warning NMSs of PD, connected to each other. There is a clinical heterogeneity that older patients are more likely to have NMS before MS, while younger patients are opposite. PMID:27977578

  16. Nonmotor fluctuations: phenotypes, pathophysiology, management, and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Joseph; Koschel, Jiri; Oehlwein, Christian; Seppi, Klaus; Urban, Peter; Winkler, Christian; Wüllner, Ullrich; Storch, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative multisystem disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, tremor and muscle rigidity. Over the course of the disease, numerous non-motor symptoms, sometimes preceding the onset of motor symptoms, significantly impair patients' quality of life. The significance of non-motor symptoms may outweigh the burden through progressive motor incapacity, especially in later stages of the disease. The advanced stage of the disease is characterized by motor complications such as fluctuations and dyskinesias induced by the long-term application of levodopa therapy. In recent years, it became evident that various non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric symptoms, fatigue and pain also show fluctuations after chronic levodopa therapy (named non-motor fluctuations or NMFs). Although NMFs have moved into the focus of interest, current national guidelines on the treatment of PD may refer to non-motor symptoms and their management, but do not mention NMF, and do not contain recommendations on their management. The present article summarizes major issues related to NMF including clinical phenomenology and pathophysiology, and outlines a number of open issues and topics for future research.

  17. Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are a key determinant of health, quality of life (QoL) and societal cost of PD. They are often less appreciated than motor symptoms but are important sources of disability for manyPDpatients. Literature search was performed using the reference databases Medline, ...

  18. Non-Motor Features in Parkinson's Disease Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not limited to motor symptoms (tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, gait problems and imbalance). A variety of non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as psychiatric, gastrointestinal, cognitive, sudomotor, autonomic, sleep and sensory disorders which occur commonly are ...

  19. Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are a key ... Papers discovered by this search were. reviewed, as were references cited therein.

  20. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients.

  1. Parkinson's Disease Subtypes Identified from Cluster Analysis of Motor and Non-motor Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jesse; Chaudhuri, Kallol R; Bielza, Concha; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Larrañaga, Pedro; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is now considered a complex, multi-peptide, central, and peripheral nervous system disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. Non-motor symptoms play a key role in the trajectory of Parkinson's disease, from prodromal premotor to end stages. To understand the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease, this study used cluster analysis to search for subtypes from a large, multi-center, international, and well-characterized cohort of Parkinson's disease patients across all motor stages, using a combination of cardinal motor features (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, axial signs) and, for the first time, specific validated rater-based non-motor symptom scales. Two independent international cohort studies were used: (a) the validation study of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale ( n = 411) and (b) baseline data from the global Non-Motor International Longitudinal Study ( n = 540). k -means cluster analyses were performed on the non-motor and motor domains (domains clustering) and the 30 individual non-motor symptoms alone (symptoms clustering), and hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed to group symptoms together. Four clusters are identified from the domains clustering supporting previous studies: mild, non-motor dominant, motor-dominant, and severe. In addition, six new smaller clusters are identified from the symptoms clustering, each characterized by clinically-relevant non-motor symptoms. The clusters identified in this study present statistical confirmation of the increasingly important role of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease heterogeneity and take steps toward subtype-specific treatment packages.

  2. Impact of Nonmotor Symptoms on Disability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have nonmotor symptoms (NMS) that, although poorly considered, have an impact on their quality of life. In contrast, the effect on disability is not systematically evaluated. Adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule.…

  3. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor vehicle...

  4. Are we missing non-motor seizures in Parkinson's disease? Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Andre Y; Cucca, Alberto; Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Anli; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Biagioni, Milton C

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is predominantly recognized for its motor symptoms, but patients struggle from a morbid and heterogeneous collection of non-motor symptoms (NMS-PD) that can affect their quality of life even more. NMS-PD is a rather generalized term and the heterogeneity and non-specific nature of many symptoms poses a clinical challenge when a PD patient presents with non-motor complaints that may not be NMS-PD. We report two patients with idiopathic PD who presented with acute episodes of cognitive changes. Structural brain images, cardiovascular and laboratory assessment were unremarkable. Both patients experienced a considerable delay before receiving an epilepsy-evaluation, at which point electroencephalogram abnormalities supported the diagnosis of focal non-motor seizures with alteration of awareness. Antiepileptic therapy was implemented and was effective in both cases. Diagnosing non-motor seizures can be challenging. However, PD patients pose an even greater challenge given their eclectic non-motor clinical manifestations and other disease-related complications that could confound and mislead adequate clinical interpretation. Our two cases provide examples of non-motor seizures that may mimic non-motor symptoms of PD. Treating physicians should always consider other possible causes of non-motor symptoms that may coexist in PD patients. Epilepsy work-up should be contemplated in the differential of acute changes in cognition, behavior, or alertness.

  5. MDS-UPDRS to assess non-motor symptoms after STN DBS for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Nickey; Pahwa, Rajesh; Nazzaro, Jules M; Arnold, Paul M; Lyons, Kelly E

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the non-motor sections of the Movement Disorder Society's (MDS) version of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) could supplement the original UPDRS as a patient completed assessment of changes in non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Thirty PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS were assessed using the total UPDRS and the non-motor sections of the MDS-UPDRS prior to surgery and one year following surgery. This study focuses on non-motor symptoms as assessed by Part I of the UPDRS and Part 1A and 1B of the MDS-UPDRS. One year following surgery, no individual non-motor symptoms or the total mentation score of the UPDRS were significantly changed. In comparison, the MDS-UPDRS showed significant improvements in sleep and urinary problems and a trend towards improvement in anxiety, constipation, daytime sleepiness, fatigue and pain. This study provides evidence that the MDS-UPDRS non-motor sections, when completed by the patients, can supplement the original version of the UPDRS as an effective method of measuring changes in non-motor symptoms after DBS. It also reinforces the benefits of bilateral STN DBS on non-motor symptoms of PD.

  6. Premotor and non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Postuma, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review highlights recent advances in premotor and non-motor features in Parkinson’s disease, focusing on these issues in the context of prodromal and early stage Parkinson’s disease. Recent findings While Parkinson’s disease patients experience a wide range of non-motor symptoms throughout the disease course, studies demonstrate that non-motor features are not solely a late manifestation. Indeed, disturbances of smell, sleep, mood, and gastrointestinal function may herald Parkinson’s disease or related synucleinopathies and precede these neurodegenerative conditions by 5 or more years. In addition, other non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment are now recognized in incident or de novo Parkinson’s disease cohorts. Many of these non-motor features reflect disturbances in non-dopaminergic systems and early involvement of peripheral and central nervous systems including olfactory, enteric, and brainstem neurons as in Braak’s proposed pathological staging of Parkinson’s disease. Current research focuses on identifying potential biomarkers that may detect persons at risk for Parkinson’s disease and permit early intervention with neuroprotective or disease-modifying therapeutics. Summary Recent studies provide new insights on the frequency, pathophysiology, and importance of non-motor features in Parkinson’s disease as well as the recognition that these non-motor symptoms occur in premotor, early, and later phases of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24978368

  7. Characteristics of Nonmotor Symptoms in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwei Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To explore the clinical correlates of nonmotor symptoms (NMS in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and their differences from healthy controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-seven PSP patients, 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC, and 27 age- and gender-matched PD patients were included for this case-control study. NMS were assessed using the Nonmotor Symptoms Scale (NMSS, including 9 domains. Results. All PSP patients reported NMS. The frequency and severity of “sleep/fatigue,” “mood/apathy,” “attention/memory,” “gastrointestinal,” “sexual dysfunction,” and “miscellaneous” domains in PSP group were significantly higher than those in HC group (P<0.05. The frequency of “mood/apathy,” “attention/memory,” and “sexual dysfunction” domains and the severity of “attention/memory” and “gastrointestinal” domains in PSP group were significantly higher than those in PD group (P<0.05. The “attention/memory” domain in PSP had a significant but weak-to-moderate correlation with age (R=0.387, P=0.046 and onset age (R=0.406, P=0.036. Conclusions. NMS are common in PSP patients. Patients with PSP seem to be subjected to more frequent and severe specific NMS compared to healthy aging subjects and PD patients. Older PSP patients and late-onset patients are likely to be subjected to cognitive decline.

  8. Nonmotor symptoms in patients suffering from motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Günther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The various nonmotor symptoms (NMS in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. Recent evidence, however, suggests disease spreading into nonmotor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND.Methods: We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric and sleep complaints (NMSQuest which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls.Results: In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points in comparison to controls (median: 4 points. Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression.Conclusions: NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression which would fit with the recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis. The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  9. Clinical Significance of REM Sleep Behavior Disorders and Other Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinsonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Jin-Ru Zhang; Yun Shen; Chun-Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of parkinsonism,and it may serve as a prodromal marker of neurodegenerative disease.The mechanism underlying RBD is unclear.Several prospective studies have reported that specific non-motor symptoms predict a conversion risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease,including olfactory dysfunction,abnormal color vision,autonomic dysfunction,excessive daytime sleepiness,depression,and cognitive impairment.Parkinson's disease (PD) with RBD exhibits clinical heterogeneity with respect to motor and non-motor symptoms compared with PD without RBD.In this review,we describe the main clinical and pathogenic features of RBD,focusing on its association with other non-motor symptoms of parkinsonism.

  10. Assessment of Early Stage Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’sDisease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gümüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, our purpose is, in the early stage of PD, examining the frequency of occurrence of non-motor symptoms and discussing the effects of morbidity of disease. METHODS: Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Neurology outpatient clinic in the study, which is followed by the United Kingdom Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease diagnosis and clinical staging according to Hoehn Yahr stages 1 and 2 of the 80 patients were studied. RESULTS: Cases, an increase in UPDRS scores were significantly higher non-motor symptoms. CONCLUSION: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease can often go unnoticed. Symptomatic treatment is an important part of the success. Therefore, PH and the non-motor symptoms, early detection is important to treat them in accordance with

  11. Bike-Ped Portal : development of an online nonmotorized traffic count archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Robust bicycle and pedestrian data on a national scale would serve numerous purposes. Access to a centralized nonmotorized traffic count : archive can open the door for innovation through research, design and planning; provide safety researchers with...

  12. TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION IN NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The cardinal clinical features of PD are motor and include bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor with an asymmetric pattern. Apart from these, various nonmotor symptoms (NMS also occur in PD and constitute a major clinical symptoms. NMS can present at any stage of the disease including early and pre-motor phase of PD. Management of PD requires recognition of both motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as an understanding of the relationship between these symptoms and how they can be affected by treatments for PD. Therapy should be individualized for each patient, as treatments for the motor symptoms of PD can improve some nonmotor symptoms while they can worsen others. Some non-motor symptoms, including depression, constipation, pain, genitourinary problems, and sleep disorders, can be improved with antiparkinsonian drugs . Other non-motor symptoms can be more refractory and need the introduction of novel non-dopaminergic drugs in association with rehabilitation programs . In the future, development of treatments that can slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease and its multicentric neurodegeneration are the best hope of ameliorating non-motor symptoms

  13. Neuropathology and Neurochemistry of Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ferrer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is no longer considered a complex motor disorder characterized by Parkinsonism but rather a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms. Many of these alterations appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a close relation between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs and neurites filled with abnormal -synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of -synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. Involvement of the cerebral cortex that may lead to altered behaviour and cognition are related to several convergent factors such as (a abnormal -synuclein and other proteins at the synapses, rather than LBs and neurites, (b impaired dopaminergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic cortical innervation, and (c altered neuronal function resulting from reduced energy production and increased energy demands. These alterations appear at early stages of the disease and may precede by years the appearance of cell loss and cortical atrophy.

  14. Nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: classification and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erro R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Erro,1,2 Gabriella Santangelo,3,4 Paolo Barone,5 Carmine Vitale4,6 1Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e del Movimento, Università di Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy; 4IDC Hermitage – Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; 5University of Salerno, Center for Neurodegenerative diseases – CEMAND, Salerno, Italy; 6University of Naples "Parthenope," Department of Motor Sciences, Naples, Italy Abstract: Despite the emphasis on the motor phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD, it has been increasingly recognized that PD patients experience several nonmotor symptoms (NMS, which have even greater significance when assessed by quality-of-life measures and institutionalization rates. The burden of NMS tends to increase with age and disease severity and, in the very advanced stage of disease, NMS such as urinary problems, drooling, somnolence, psychosis, and dementia dominate the clinical phenotype. Moreover, the dopaminergic treatment used for the motor symptoms of PD can arise or worsen a number of NMS, including orthostatic hypotension, nausea, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, or impulsive compulsive behaviors. Here we review the most common NMS of PD with a focus on their pharmacological management. Keywords: disease management, PD, NMS

  15. Management of non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ken-ichi

    2009-08-01

    This paper summarizes the methods we devised for the treatment of psychosis, orthostatic hypotension, and mood disorders among the various non-motor complications of Parkinson's disease. Psychosis may not manifest when a patient believes in his/her delusions. If left untreated over a prolonged period, however, the delusions progress to paranoia that is very difficult to cure. Accordingly, enquiries should be made during routine examinations to detect the presence of psychosis and facilitate early discovery. Atypical antipsychotics are used when psychosis does not improve after reducing the doses of antiparkinson drugs. We achieved favorable results by using mianserin hydrochloride prior to this step, with efficacy being observed for hallucinations and mild delusions that often manifested at night. This drug does not act as a dopamine receptor blocker, so it has the advantage of not aggravating motor symptoms. With this therapy, it is also possible to improve motor symptoms without inducing psychosis by reducing the doses of antiparkinson drugs and locally stimulating the motor loop by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We previously introduced leg-holding exercises for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension, through which blood pooled in the veins is returned to the systemic circulation by holding the knees. This can be done easily and is free of adverse reactions. Mood disorders are difficult to cope with in patients with Parkinson's disease, but may be treated by selecting an appropriate dopamine agonist while giving consideration to affinity for the dopamine D3 receptor. However, treatment becomes complicated when the dopamine receptor is overstimulated. Here we report on cases of successfully treated pathological gambling and dopamine dysregulation syndrome, which are considered difficult to manage. The solution may differ depending on a patient's environment, and it is not easy to prescribe therapy based on evidence-based medicine. The best

  16. Benefit on motor and non-motor behavior in a specialized unit for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Öhm, Gabi; Eilert, Kathrin; Möhr, Katharina; Rotter, Stephanie; Haas, Thomas; Küchler, Matthias; Lütge, Sven; Marg, Marion; Rothe, Hartmut

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease in specialized units is quite common in Germany. Data on the benefit of this hospitalization of patients with Parkinson's disease on motor and non-motor symptoms in conjunction with standardized tests are rare. Objective was to determine the efficacy of this therapeutic setting. We scored disease severity and performed clinical tests, respectively, instrumental procedures under standardized conditions in consecutively referred in-patients initially and at the end of their hospital stay. There was a decrease of motor and non-motor symptoms. The extent of improvement of non-motor and motor symptoms correlated to each other. Performance of complex movement sequences became better, whereas execution of simple movement series did not ameliorate. The interval for the timed up and go test went down. We demonstrate the effectiveness of an in-patient stay in a specialized unit for Parkinson's disease. Objective standardized testing supplements subjective clinical scoring with established rating scales.

  17. Effects of sleep disorders on the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neikrug, Ariel B; Maglione, Jeanne E; Liu, Lianqi; Natarajan, Loki; Avanzino, Julie A; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Palmer, Barton W; Loredo, Jose S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of sleep disorders on non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with PD were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Cognition was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and patients completed self-reported questionnaires assessing non-motor symptoms including depressive symptoms, fatigue, sleep complaints, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. Sleep laboratory. 86 patients with PD (mean age = 67.4 ± 8.8 years; range: 47-89; 29 women). N/A. Having sleep disorders was a predictor of overall non-motor symptoms in PD (R(2) = 0.33, p sleep disorder significantly predicted sleep complaints (ΔR(2) = 0.13, p = 0.006), depressive symptoms (ΔR(2) = 0.01, p = 0.03), fatigue (ΔR(2) = 0.12, p = 0.007), poor quality of life (ΔR(2) = 0.13, p = 0.002), and cognitive decline (ΔR(2) = 0.09, p = 0.036). Additionally, increasing number of sleep disorders (0, 1, or ≥ 2 sleep disorders) was a significant contributor to non-motor symptom impairment (R(2) = 0.28, p sleep disorders predicted more non-motor symptoms including increased sleep complaints, more depressive symptoms, lower quality of life, poorer cognition, and more fatigue. RBD and RLS were factors of overall increased non-motor symptoms, but OSA was not.

  18. Non-motor and motor features in LRRK2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Bichler

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models.Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms.We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction, and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls.LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

  19. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit

  20. Tai Chi Exercise to Improve Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joe R; Amano, Shinichi; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hass, Chris J

    2013-08-20

    A substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease exhibit debilitating non-motor symptoms that decrease quality of life. To date, few treatment options exist for the non-motor symptomatology related to Parkinson's disease. The goal of this pilot investigation was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise on the non-motor symptomology in Parkinson's disease. Twenty-one individuals with Parkinson's disease were enrolled in a Tai Chi intervention (n=15) or a noncontact control group (n=6). Participants assigned to Tai Chi participated in 60-minute Tai Chi sessions three times per week, for 16 weeks. Pre and post measures included indices of cognitive-executive function including visuomotor tracking and attention, selective attention, working memory, inhibition, processing speed and task switching. Additionally, all participants were evaluated on the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 and Tinetti's Falls Efficacy Scale. Results indicated that the Tai Chi training group had significantly better scores following the intervention than the control group on the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 total score as well as the emotional well-being sub score. Trends for improvement were noted for the Tai Chi group on Digits Backwards, Tinetti's Falls Efficacy Scale, and the activities of daily living and communication sub scores of the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39. This research provides initial data that supports future studies to definitively establish efficacy of Tai Chi to improve non-motor features of Parkinson's disease.

  1. 36 CFR 292.45 - Use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practicable, conflicts between motorized and non-motorized rivercraft users and between both types of...-motorized rivercraft may be permitted subject to restrictions on size, type of craft, numbers, duration... Service where such activity may be permitted subject to restrictions on size, type of craft, numbers...

  2. Study of an integrated non-motor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; XIAO Zhi-ying; LI Jia-zhen; YUAN Jing; LIU Yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the validity of non-motor symptoms screening questionnaire (NMSQuest) for Parkinson's disease has been verified in several recent researches, the specificity of the questionnaire is still in doubt. This study aimed to compare the non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with a medically ill control group.Methods In this study, the first comprehensive clinic-based NMS screening questionnaire for PD developed by the Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Group (PDNMG) was used. Data from 90 PD patients and 270 sex-and age-matched control subjects, including stroke (n=90), heart disease (n=90) and diabetes (n=90) were analyzed.Results Compared with control group, NMS was more common in PD; on an average, most PD patients reported more than 12 non-motor items. There was a correlation of total NMS score in PD patients with Hoehn & Yahr Staging, but not with age, sex distribution, disease duration, or age at disease onset. Additionally, depression, constipation and impaired olfaction which occurred prior to the motor symptoms of PD were reported in this study.Conclusions NMS are more common in PD patients. There are some NMS that occurred at the preclinical stage of PD and might predict the onset of motor symptoms of PD patients.

  3. Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease - correlations with inflammatory cytokines in serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Motor symptoms are the focus of pharmacotherapy, yet non-motor features of the disease (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbances, sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety are both common and disabling for the patient. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the non-motor symptoms in PD are yet to be untangled. The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between pro-inflammatory substances and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in blood samples from PD patients (n=86 and healthy controls (n=40. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleeping difficulties were assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, and the Scales for Outcome in PD-Sleep Scale respectively. RESULTS: IL-6 was significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients displayed significantly higher mean scores on HAD and lower scores on FACIT, thus indicating more severe symptoms as measured with these scales. Within the PD sample, high levels of both sIL-2R and TNF-α were significantly associated with more severe symptoms assessed by means of FACIT and HAD (depression and anxiety subscales. SIL-2-R levels were able to significantly predict FACIT and HAD scores after the effects of age, gender, anti-parkinsonian medications, and severity of motor symptoms were controlled for. DISCUSSION: We suggest that non-motor symptoms in PD patients, such as fatigue and depressive symptoms, might be generated via inflammatory mechanisms. This knowledge might contribute to the development of novel treatment options in PD, specifically targeting non-motor symptoms.

  4. Motor and non-motor symptoms in old-age onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Lampreia, Tania; Miguel, Rita; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel; Bugalho, Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). With population ageing it is expected that the total number of patients with PD onset at oldage increases. Information on the motor but particularly on non-motor phenotype of this late-onset population is lacking. We recruited 24 patients with PD onset at or over 75 years. Each patient was matched with 1 control patient with PD onset between the ages of 40 and 65 and matched for disease duration. Both groups were assessed with the UPDRS, the Non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and other scales to assess non-motor symptoms. Groups were compared with conditional logistic regression analysis. Old-age onset PD was, on average, 80 years at the time of PD onset while middle-age onset were 59. Disease duration was approximately 5 years in both groups. While no difference was observed in the total UPDRS-III scores, old-age onset PD was associated with higher axial symptoms (7.42 vs. 4.63, p = 0.011) and a higher frequency of dementia (7/24 vs. 0/24, p = 0.009). While no difference in the total number of non-motor symptoms was observed (6.79 vs. 6.22, p = 0.310), old-age onset patients had a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (20/24 vs. 12/24, p = 0.037). For the same disease duration, older age onset is associated with worse axial motor dysfunction and dementia in PD patients. Beside gastrointestinal symptoms, non-motor symptoms are not associated with age.

  5. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  6. MUSIC CUED EXERCISES FOR MOTOR AND NON-MOTOR SIGNS IN PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA: PROTOCOL FOR A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmine S Gomaa; Salah A Sawan; Joanne E Wittwer; Meg E Morris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Movement disorders and non-motor problems such as cognitive decline, anxiety, depression and behavioural problems, are common in people with dementia and can progress over time. Exercise coupled with music is a promising form of therapy designed to improve both the motor and non-motor manifestations of this debilitating neurological condition. Objectives: To present a protocol for a systematic review and critical analysis of the literature to answer the following questions: ...

  7. Non-motor Symptoms In Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Caused By Spg4 Mutations.

    OpenAIRE

    Servelhere, K R; Faber, I; Saute, J A M; Moscovich, M; D'Abreu, A; Jardim, L B; Teive, H A G; Lopes-Cendes, I; Franca, M C

    2016-01-01

    Non-motor manifestations are frequently overlooked in degenerative disorders and little is known about their frequency and clinical relevance in SPG4 hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP). Thirty patients with SPG4-HSP and 30 healthy controls answered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Brief Pain Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Student's t test was used to compare groups and linear regression was used to assess correlations. Patients had higher fatigue sc...

  8. The Non-motor Features of Essential Tremor: A Primary Disease Feature or Just a Secondary Phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Jhunjhunwala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential tremor (ET is a pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with both motor and increasingly recognized non-motor features. It is debated whether the non-motor manifestations in ET result from widespread neurodegeneration or are merely secondary to impaired motor functions and decreased quality of life due to tremor. It is important to review these features to determine how to best treat the non-motor symptoms of patients and to understand the basic pathophysiology of the disease and develop appropriate pharmacotherapies. In this review, retrospective and prospective clinical studies were critically analyzed to identify possible correlations between the severities of non-motor features and tremor. We speculated that if such a correlation existed, the non-motor features were likely to be secondary to tremor. According to the current literature, the deficits in executive function, attention, concentration, and memory often observed in ET are likely to be a primary manifestation of the disease. It has also been documented that patients with ET often exhibit characteristic personality traits. However, it remains to be determined whether the other non-motor features often seen in ET, such as anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances are primary or secondary to motor manifestations of ET and subsequent poor quality of life. Finally, there is evidence that patients with ET can also have impaired color vision, disturbances of olfaction, and hearing impairments, though there are few studies in these areas. Further investigations of large cohorts of patients with ET are required to understand the prevalence, nature, and true significance of the non-motor features in ET.

  9. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of motor fluctuations and non-motor predominance with cerebrospinal τ and Aβ as well as dementia-risk in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreanu, Raluca; Cerquera, Sonia Catalina; Martí, María José; Ríos, José; Sánchez-Gómez, Almudena; Cámara, Ana; Fernández, Manel; Compta, Yaroslau

    2017-02-15

    Experimental, neuropathological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies support τ and amyloid-β (Aβ) relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia. Lesser motor fluctuations (MFs) and non-motor features have also been related to PD-dementia. Yet, little is known about the association of MFs and non-motor symptoms with CSF τ and Aβ in PD. We hypothesized that lesser MFs and non-motor predominance are related to these CSF markers and dementia-risk in PD. We studied 58 PD patients (dementia at baseline, n=21; dementia at 18-months, n=35) in whom CSF Aβ and τ had been determined with ELISA techniques. MFs and a number of non-motor symptoms (apathy, anxiety, irritability, depression, visual hallucinations, spatial disorientation, memory complaints) over disease course were dichotomized as absent-mild vs. moderate-severe by retrospective clinical chart review blind to CSF findings. Non-motor predominance was defined as ≥3 non-motor symptoms (after the cohort-median of non-motor symptoms per patient) with ≥2 being moderate-severe and ≥1 having been present from onset, with all these being more disabling overall than motor features. Cross-sectionally, CSF biomarkers were non-parametrically compared according to dichotomized MFs and non-motor predominance. Longitudinally, dementia was the outcome (dependent variable), CSF markers, MFs and non-motor predominance were the predictors (independent variables), and potential modifiers as age, sex, and memory complaints were the covariates in binary regression models. Absent-mild MFs were associated with higher CSF τ markers and shorter time-to-dementia, while non-motor predominance and decreasing CSF Aβ independently increased longitudinal dementia-risk. In summary, absent-mild MFs, non-motor predominance and CSF τ and Aβ might define endophenotypes related to the timing or risk of dementia in PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-motor signs in Parkinson’s disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade the view of Parkinson’s disease (PD as a motor disorder has changed significantly and currently it is recognized as a multisystem process with diverse non-motor signs (NMS. In addition to been extremely common, these NMS play a major role in undermining functionality and quality of life. On the other hand, NMS are under recognized by physicians and neglected by patients. Here, we review the most common NMS in PD, including cognitive, psychiatric, sleep, metabolic, and sensory disturbances, discuss the current knowledge from biological, epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic standpoints, highlighting the need for early recognition and management.

  11. Baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution of non-motor symptoms in early Parkinson's disease: the PPMI cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuni, Tanya; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher S; Weintraub, Daniel; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lasch, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M; Jennings, Danna; Kieburtz, Karl; Chahine, Lana M; Marek, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    To examine the baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution in non-motor symptoms (NMS) in a prospective cohort of, at baseline, patients with de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) compared with healthy controls (HC). Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is a longitudinal, ongoing, controlled study of de novo PD participants and HC. NMS were rated using the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part I score and other validated NMS scales at baseline and after 2 years. Biological variables included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers and dopamine transporter imaging. 423 PD subjects and 196 HC were enrolled and followed for 2 years. MDS-UPDRS Part I total mean (SD) scores increased from baseline 5.6 (4.1) to 7.7 (5.0) at year 2 in PD subjects (pbaseline NMS score was associated with female sex (p=0.008), higher baseline MDS-UPDRS Part II scores (pbaseline. There was no association with the dose or class of dopaminergic therapy. This study of NMS in early PD identified clinical and biological variables associated with both baseline burden and predictors of progression. The association of a greater longitudinal increase in NMS with lower baseline Aβ1-42 level is an important finding that will have to be replicated in other cohorts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141023. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Non-motor symptoms and the quality of life in multiple system atrophy with different subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LingYu; Cao, Bei; Ou, RuWei; Wei, Qian-Qian; Zhao, Bi; Yang, Jing; Wu, Ying; Shang, HuiFang

    2017-02-01

    The differences in non-motor symptoms (NMS) and quality of life (QOL) between MSA patients with different subtypes remain unknown, so do the determinants of poor QOL in both subtypes. A total of 172 MSA patients were enrolled in the study. NMS of patients with MSA were assessed using the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 item version (PDQ-39) was used to evaluate the QOL of patients with MSA. The most prevalent NMS domain was urinary (91.3%) in both subtypes. The mood/apathy domain was more severe in MSA-P than MSA-C patients (P sleep/fatigue symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms were determinants of poor QOL in MSA-P patients. While in MSA-C patients, longer disease duration, disease severity and mood/apathy symptoms were determinants of poor QOL. NMS are more severe and prevalent in MSA-P patients, especially for mood/apathy and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is a close relationship between NMS and QOL in both MSA subtypes. Disease severity, longer disease duration and severe NMS are determinants of poor QOL in MSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Parkinson's Nonmotor Symptoms following Unilateral DBS: A Pilot Study

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    Nelson Hwynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD management has traditionally focused largely on motor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN and globus pallidus internus (GPi are effective treatments for motor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs may also profoundly affect the quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate NMS changes pre- and post-DBS utilizing two recently developed questionnaires. Methods. NMS-Q (questionnaire and NMS-S (scale were administered to PD patients before/after unilateral DBS (STN/GPi targets. Results. Ten PD patients (9 STN implants, 1 GPi implant were included. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified utilizing NMS-Q in pre-surgical patients were gastrointestinal (100%, sleep (100%, and urinary (90%. NMS sleep subscore significantly decreased (−1.6 points ± 1.8, =0.03. The three most frequent NMS symptoms identified in pre-surgical patients using NMS-S were gastrointestinal (90%, mood (80%, and cardiovascular (80%. The largest mean decrease of NMS scores was seen in miscellaneous symptoms (pain, anosmia, weight change, and sweating (−7 points ± 8.7, and cardiovascular/falls (−1.9, =0.02. Conclusion. Non-motor symptoms improved on two separate questionnaires following unilateral DBS for PD. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine their clinical significance as well as to examine the strengths/weaknesses of each questionnaire/scale.

  14. Drosophila PINK1 and parkin loss-of-function mutants display a range of non-motor Parkinson's disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julienne, Hannah; Buhl, Edgar; Leslie, David S; Hodge, James J L

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is more commonly associated with its motor symptoms and the related degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that PD patients also display a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including memory deficits and disruptions of their sleep-wake cycles. These have a large impact on their quality of life, and often precede the onset of motor symptoms, but their etiology is poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila has already been successfully used to model PD, and has been used extensively to study relevant non-motor behaviours in other contexts, but little attention has yet been paid to modelling non-motor symptoms of PD in this genetically tractable organism. We examined memory performance and circadian rhythms in flies with loss-of-function mutations in two PD genes: PINK1 and parkin. We found learning and memory abnormalities in both mutant genotypes, as well as a weakening of circadian rhythms that is underpinned by electrophysiological changes in clock neurons. Our study paves the way for further work that may help us understand the mechanisms underlying these neglected aspects of PD, thus identifying new targets for treatments to address these non-motor problems specifically and perhaps even to halt disease progression in its prodromal phase. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  16. Motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 G2019S carriers versus matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzler, Steven A; Riley, David E; Chen, Shu G; Tatsuoka, Curtis M; Johnson, William M; Mieyal, John J; Walter, Ellen M; Whitney, Christina M; Feng, I Jung; Owusu-Dapaah, Harry; Mittal, Shivam O; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L

    2018-05-15

    LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been generally indistinguishable from those with idiopathic PD, with the exception of variable differences in some motor and non-motor domains, including cognition, gait, and balance. LRRK2 G2019S is amongst the most common genetic etiologies for PD, particularly in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) populations. This cross-sectional data collection study sought to clarify the phenotype of LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with PD. Primary endpoints were the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Other motor and non-motor data were also assessed. The Mann-Whitney U Test was utilized to compare LRRK2 G2019S carriers with PD (LRRK2+) with non-carrier PD controls who were matched for age, gender, education, and PD duration. Survival analyses and log rank tests were utilized to compare interval from onset of PD to development of motor and non-motor complications. We screened 251 subjects and 231 completed the study, of whom 9 were LRRK2+, including 7 AJ subjects. 22.73% of AJ subjects with a family history of PD (FH) and 12.96% of AJ subjects without a FH were LRRK2+. There were no significant differences between the 9 LRRK2+ subjects and 19 matched PD controls in MDS-UPDRS, MoCA, or other motor and non-motor endpoints. Prevalence of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in AJ and non-AJ subjects in our study population in Cleveland, Ohio was comparable to other clinical studies. There were no significant motor or non-motor differences between LRRK2+ PD and matched PD controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, I; Di Battista, M E; Vanacore, N; Papi, C P; Alampi, G; Rubino, A; Valente, M; Meco, G; Contri, P; Di Pucchio, A; Lacorte, E; Priori, A; Mariani, C; Pomati, S

    2017-04-01

    Although non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are very common also in early stages of the disease, they are still under-recognized. Screening tools for non-motor symptoms, such as non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQuest), help clinicians to recognize NMS and to evaluate if patients could require further assessment or specific treatments. To validate an adapted Italian version of NMSQuest and study its psychometric properties, Italian PD patients self-completed Italian NMSQuest, and then underwent a standard clinical evaluation including motor assessment (by Hoehn and Yahr staging, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III) and non-motor assessment (by Montreal cognitive assessment, Beck depression inventory, neuropsychiatric inventory, Epworth sleepiness scale, scale for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Autonomic and movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part I). Somatic comorbidities were quantified using the modified cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS). Seventy-one subjects were assessed (mean age years 69.8 ± 9.6 SD; 31% women; mean duration of disease 6.3 ± 4.6 years; H&Y median 2). Italian NMSQuest showed adequate satisfactory clinimetrics in terms of data quality, precision, acceptability, internal consistency and reliability. A significant correlation was found between NMSQuest and most of non-motor assessment scales, while no significant correlation appeared with motor severity as well as with age of patients, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose, L-DOPA/dopamine agonists assumption and CIRS total score. The Italian version of the NMSQuest resulted as a reliable instrument for screening NMS in Italian PD patients.

  18. Non-Motor Symptoms in Patients Suffering from Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, René; Richter, Nicole; Sauerbier, Anna; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The recently postulated "disease spreading hypothesis" has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson's disease (PD). The various non-motor symptoms (NMS) in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND) is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. However, recent evidence suggests disease spreading into non-motor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND. We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric, and sleep complaints [NMS questionnaire (NMSQuest)], which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls. In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points) in comparison to controls (median: 4 points). Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling, and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly, excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression. NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression, which would fit with the recently postulated "disease spreading hypothesis." The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  19. GBA Variants Influence Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús, Silvia; Huertas, Ismael; Bernal-Bernal, Inmaculada; Bonilla-Toribio, Marta; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas-González, Laura; Gómez-Llamas, Myriam; Carrillo, Fátima; Calderón, Enrique; Carballo, Manuel; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Mir, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene is a known factor increasing the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations carriers have earlier disease onset and are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric symptoms than other sporadic PD cases. These symptoms have primarily been observed in Parkinson's patients carrying the most common pathogenic mutations L444P and N370S. However, recent findings suggest that other variants across the gene may have a different impact on the phenotype as well as on the disease progression. We aimed to explore the influence of variants across GBA gene on the clinical features and treatment related complications in PD. In this study, we screened the GBA gene in a cohort of 532 well-characterised PD patients and 542 controls from southern Spain. The potential pathogeniticy of the identified variants was assessed using in-silico analysis and subsequently classified as benign or deleterious. As a result, we observed a higher frequency of GBA variants in PD patients (12.2% vs. 7.9% in controls, p = 0.021), earlier mean age at disease onset in GBA variant carriers (50.6 vs. 56.6 years; p = 0.013), as well as more prevalent motor and non-motor symptoms in patients carrying deleterious variants. In addition, we found that dopaminergic motor complications are influenced by both benign and deleterious variants. Our results highlight the fact that the impact on the phenotype highly depends on the potential pathogenicity of the carried variants. Therefore, the course of motor and non-motor symptoms as well as treatment-related motor complications could be influenced by GBA variants.

  20. Life-space mobility in Parkinson's disease: Associations with motor and non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Slaug, Björn; Nilsson, Maria H

    2018-04-10

    To describe life-space mobility and explore associations of motor and non-motor symptoms with life-space mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). 164 community-dwelling persons with PD (mean age 71.6 years, 64.6% men) received a postal survey and a subsequent home visit. Motor assessments included perceived walking difficulties (Walk-12G), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) and freezing of gait (item 3, FOG-Qsa). Non-motor symptoms included depressive symptoms (GDS-15), pain, fatigue (NHP-EN) and global cognition (MoCA). Life-space mobility was assessed with the life-space assessment (LSA). Calculations included composite score (range 0-120; higher indicating better life-space mobility), independent life-space (range 0-5), assisted life-space (range 0-5), and maximal life-space (range 0-5). Associations were analyzed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and PD severity (Hoehn and Yahr). Mean life-space mobility score was 72.3 (SD 28.8). Almost all participants (90 %) reached the highest life-space level (beyond town). Half of these reached this level independently, while one-third were unable to move outside their bedroom without assistive devices or personal help. When adjusted for confounders, depressive symptoms, pain, and perceived walking difficulties was negatively associated with life-space mobility. In the multivariable model, only perceived walking difficulties was associated with life-space mobility. Our findings indicate that perceived walking difficulties should be targeted to maintain or improve life-space mobility in people with PD. Depressive symptoms and pain may also merit consideration. More research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental and personal factors for life-space mobility in PD.

  1. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. GBA Variants Influence Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús, Silvia; Huertas, Ismael; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas-González, Laura; Gómez-Llamas, Myriam; Carrillo, Fátima; Calderón, Enrique; Carballo, Manuel; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Mir, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene is a known factor increasing the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations carriers have earlier disease onset and are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric symptoms than other sporadic PD cases. These symptoms have primarily been observed in Parkinson’s patients carrying the most common pathogenic mutations L444P and N370S. However, recent findings suggest that other variants across the gene may have a different impact on the phenotype as well as on the disease progression. We aimed to explore the influence of variants across GBA gene on the clinical features and treatment related complications in PD. In this study, we screened the GBA gene in a cohort of 532 well-characterised PD patients and 542 controls from southern Spain. The potential pathogeniticy of the identified variants was assessed using in-silico analysis and subsequently classified as benign or deleterious. As a result, we observed a higher frequency of GBA variants in PD patients (12.2% vs. 7.9% in controls, p = 0.021), earlier mean age at disease onset in GBA variant carriers (50.6 vs. 56.6 years; p = 0.013), as well as more prevalent motor and non-motor symptoms in patients carrying deleterious variants. In addition, we found that dopaminergic motor complications are influenced by both benign and deleterious variants. Our results highlight the fact that the impact on the phenotype highly depends on the potential pathogenicity of the carried variants. Therefore, the course of motor and non-motor symptoms as well as treatment-related motor complications could be influenced by GBA variants. PMID:28030538

  3. Differentiating non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease from controls and hemifacial spasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-motor symptoms (NMS are important manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD that reduce patients' health-related quality of life. Some NMS may also be caused by age-related changes, or manifested as a psychological reaction to a chronic neurological condition. This case-control study compared the NMS burden among PD patients, healthy controls and hemifacial spasm (HFS patients. In addition, we determined the NMS that discriminated between PD and non-PD subjects. METHODS: 425 subjects were recruited from a tertiary hospital in Singapore (200 PD patients, 150 healthy controls and 75 HFS patients. NMS burden in subjects was measured using the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS. RESULTS: NMSS total score was significantly higher in PD patients (37.9±2.6 compared to healthy controls (11.2±0.9 (p<0.0001 and HFS patients (18.0±2.1 (p<0.0001. In addition, NMSS total score was significantly higher in HFS patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.003. PD patients experienced a higher NMS burden than healthy controls in all domains, and a higher NMS burden than HFS patients in all but attention/memory and urinary domains. NMS burden for HFS and healthy controls differed only in the sleep/fatigue and urinary domains. Using stepwise logistic regression, problems of 'constipation', 'restless legs', 'dribbling saliva', 'altered interest in sex' and 'change in taste or smell' were found to have significant discriminative power in differentiating between PD patients and healthy controls and between PD patients and HFS patients. CONCLUSION: PD patients experienced a greater overall NMS burden compared to both healthy controls and HFS patients. HFS patients demonstrated a higher NMS burden than controls, and some NMS may be common to chronic neurological conditions while others are more specific to PD. Differentiating patients using NMS domains may help refine the clinical management of NMS in PD patients.

  4. Injuries and helmet use related to non-motorized wheeled activities among pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, H; Brussoni, M

    2014-07-01

    Patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for injuries resulting from recreational activities represent a unique source of information on important directions for injury prevention efforts. We describe the epidemiology of non-motorized wheeled activity-related injury in pediatric patients presenting to Canadian EDs as well as patients' helmet use. Data for the years 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national ED injury surveillance program in fifteen hospitals. Most of the 28 618 children aged 1 to 16 years injured during non-motorized wheeled activities were injured while cycling, followed by skateboarding. Most injuries occurred among boys. Children injured on scooters tended to be younger whereas skateboarders were the oldest. On average, the number of all injuries decreased by 6% over the time period. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury; 8.3% of patients had head injuries, which were seen more often among cyclists than other wheeled-activity users. Helmet use was greatest among cyclists (62.2%) and lowest among skateboarders (32.9%). Injured patients presenting to EDs in jurisdictions with legislation mandating helmet use had 2.12 greater odds of helmet use and 0.86 lesser odds of head injury compared with those presenting in jurisdictions without helmet laws. These results provide further evidence that legislation mandating helmet use may be an effective way of reducing injury among all wheeled-activity users. The small number of patients who presented with helmet use and protective gear (59.4% overall) suggests that this remains an area for intervention.

  5. GBA Variants Influence Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Jesús

    Full Text Available The presence of mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA gene is a known factor increasing the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD. Mutations carriers have earlier disease onset and are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric symptoms than other sporadic PD cases. These symptoms have primarily been observed in Parkinson's patients carrying the most common pathogenic mutations L444P and N370S. However, recent findings suggest that other variants across the gene may have a different impact on the phenotype as well as on the disease progression. We aimed to explore the influence of variants across GBA gene on the clinical features and treatment related complications in PD. In this study, we screened the GBA gene in a cohort of 532 well-characterised PD patients and 542 controls from southern Spain. The potential pathogeniticy of the identified variants was assessed using in-silico analysis and subsequently classified as benign or deleterious. As a result, we observed a higher frequency of GBA variants in PD patients (12.2% vs. 7.9% in controls, p = 0.021, earlier mean age at disease onset in GBA variant carriers (50.6 vs. 56.6 years; p = 0.013, as well as more prevalent motor and non-motor symptoms in patients carrying deleterious variants. In addition, we found that dopaminergic motor complications are influenced by both benign and deleterious variants. Our results highlight the fact that the impact on the phenotype highly depends on the potential pathogenicity of the carried variants. Therefore, the course of motor and non-motor symptoms as well as treatment-related motor complications could be influenced by GBA variants.

  6. Active transportation among elementary-aged students: walking or biking to and from school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney Knollenberg; Pavlina Latkova; Christine Vogt; Ariel Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    Heightened attention is being drawn to the health conditions linked to physical inactivity, particularly in children. Encouraging students to walk and bike to school encourages them to develop healthier lifestyles and to choose nonmotorized transportation at other times. The Safe Routes to School program, administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation National...

  7. The effects of transdermal rotigotine on non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: a multicentre, observational, retrospective, post-marketing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldeoriola, Francesc; Salvador, Antonio; Gómez-Arguelles, José Maria; Marey, José; Moya, Miguel; Ayuga, Ángel; Ramírez, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ≥6 months of transdermal rotigotine on non-motor and motor symptoms of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. The study was conducted in Spain between September 2011 and December 2012 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01504529). The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in non-motor symptoms, as assessed by changes in Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire total scores at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included the assessment of motor symptoms by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III scores. Data from 378 patients (mean age: 70.2 years; 56.9% male) with Parkinson's disease receiving rotigotine from were collected. Mean disease duration was 6.1 years, and mean rotigotine treatment duration was 45.6 months. Rotigotine reduced non-motor symptoms by 14.6% (mean change from baseline in Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire: -1.5 ± 3.4; p < 0.0001). The majority of patients (58.2%) had improved non-motor symptoms at 6 months. Comparing the baseline versus study end, fewer patients experienced events in the urinary (78.6% vs. 73.3%; p = 0.0066), sleep (82.8% vs. 72.8%; p < 0.0001) and mood/cognition (77.3% vs. 66.4%; p < 0.0001) domains of the Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire. Mean motor symptoms were reduced from baseline by 8.0% (mean change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III: -2.6 ± 8.0; p < 0.0001). In clinical practice in Spain, rotigotine may be an effective treatment to reduce the non-motor and motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease: New and Emerging Targets for Refractory Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms

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    Dustin Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability (PI, in addition to numerous nonmotor manifestations. Many pharmacological therapies now exist to successfully treat PD motor symptoms; however, as the disease progresses, it often becomes challenging to treat with medications alone. Deep brain stimulation (DBS has become a crucial player in PD treatment, particularly for patients who have disabling motor complications from medical treatment. Well-established DBS targets include the subthalamic nucleus (STN, the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi, and to a lesser degree the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM of the thalamus. Studies of alternative DBS targets for PD are ongoing, the majority of which have shown some clinical benefit; however, more carefully designed and controlled studies are needed. In the present review, we discuss the role of these new and emerging DBS targets in treating refractory axial motor symptoms and other motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS.

  9. Non-Motor Correlates of Smoking Habits in de Novo Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Palladino, Raffaele; Barone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects are less likely to ever smoke and are more prone to quit smoking, as compared to controls. Therefore, smoking habits can be considered part of the non-motor phenotype, preceding the onset of motor PD by several years. To explore non-motor symptom (NMS) correlates of smoking habits in de novo PD. This cross-sectional study included 281 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD subjects, recruited in Naples (Italy) and in Kassel (Germany). All subjects completed the NMS Questionnaire (NMSQ), and were investigated for smoking status (never, current and former smokers) and intensity (pack-years). 140 PD subjects never smoked, 20 currently smoked, and 121 had quit smoking before PD diagnosis. NMSQ total score did not associate with smoking status, but with smoking intensity (p = 0.028; coefficient = 0.088). A multinomial logistic regression stepwise model presenting never smoking as reference, selected as NMSQ correlates of current smoking: sex difficulties (p = 0.002; OR = 5.254), daytime sleepiness (p = 0.046; OR = 0.085), insomnia (p = 0.025; OR = 0.135), and vivid dreams (p = 0.040; OR = 3.110); and of former smoking: swallowing (p = 0.013; OR = 0.311), nausea (p = 0.027; OR = 7.157), unexplained pains (p = 0.002; OR = 3.409), forgetfulness (p = 0.005; OR = 2.592), sex interest (p = 0.007; OR = 0.221), sex difficulties (p = 0.038; OR = 4.215), and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.05; OR = 0.372). An ordinal logistic regression stepwise model selected as NMSQ correlates of smoking intensity: nocturnal restlessness (p = 0.027; coefficient = 0.974), and leg swelling (p = 0.004; coefficient = 1.305). Certain NMSs are associated with different smoking status and intensity, suggesting a variety of adaptive mechanisms to cigarette smoking.

  10. The impact of physical activity on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Elizabeth Cusso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms. The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment, however non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognised in the management of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th to 22th of June 2016 from Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss and Scopus using the MeSH search terms ‘Parkinson’s’, ‘Parkinson’ and ‘Parkinsonism’ in conjunction with ‘exercise’, ‘physical activity’, ‘physiotherapy’, ‘occupational therapy’, ‘physical therapy’, ‘rehabilitation’, ‘dance’ and ‘martial arts’. Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having ten or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods however was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease

  11. Amelioration of non-motor dysfunctions after transplantation of human dopamine neurons in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelos, M J; Morgan, R J; Kelly, C M; Torres, E M; Rosser, A E; Dunnett, S B

    2016-04-01

    Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) display cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, especially with disease progression. Although these impairments have been reported to impact more heavily upon a patient's quality of life than any motor dysfunctions, there are currently no interventions capable of adequately targeting these non-motor deficits. Utilizing a rodent model of PD, we investigated whether cell replacement therapy, using intrastriatal transplants of human-derived ventral mesencephalic (hVM) grafts, could alleviate cognitive and neuropsychiatric, as well as motor, dysfunctions. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions to the medial forebrain bundle were tested on a complex operant task that dissociates motivational, visuospatial and motor impairments sensitive to the loss of dopamine. A subset of lesioned rats received intrastriatal hVM grafts of ~9 weeks gestation. Post-graft, rats underwent repeated drug-induced rotation tests and were tested on two versions of the complex operant task, before post-mortem analysis of the hVM tissue grafts. Post-graft behavioural testing revealed that hVM grafts improved non-motor aspects of task performance, specifically visuospatial function and motivational processing, as well as alleviating motor dysfunctions. We report the first evidence of human VM cell grafts alleviating both non-motor and motor dysfunctions in an animal model of PD. This intervention, therefore, is the first to improve cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms long-term in a model of PD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

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    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  13. The Frequency of Nonmotor Symptoms among Advanced Parkinson Patients May Depend on Instrument Used for Assessment

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    Nelson Hwynn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS of Parkinson's disease (PD may be more debilitating than motor symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and corecognition of NMS among our advanced PD cohort (patients considered for deep brain stimulation (DBS and caregivers. Methods. NMS-Questionnaire (NMS-Q, a self-administered screening questionnaire, and NMS Assessment-Scale (NMS-S, a clinician-administered scale, were administered to PD patients and caregivers. Results. We enrolled 33 PD patients (23 males, 10 females and caregivers. The most frequent NMS among patients using NMS-Q were gastrointestinal (87.9%, sleep (84.9%, and urinary (72.7%, while the most frequent symptoms using NMS-S were sleep (90.9%, gastrointestinal (75.8%, and mood (75.8%. Patient/caregiver scoring correlations for NMS-Q and NMS-S were 0.670 (<0.0001 and 0.527 (=0.0016, respectively. Conclusion The frequency of NMS among advanced PD patients and correlation between patients and caregivers varied with the instrument used. The overall correlation between patient and caregiver was greater with NMS-Q than NMS-S.

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Exercise in Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Indu

    2017-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) for Parkinson disease (PD) is growing worldwide. Well-performed, systematic evidence-based research is largely lacking in this area and many studies include various forms of CAM with small patient numbers and a lack of standardization of the approaches studied. Taichi, Qigong, dance, yoga, mindfulness, acupuncture, and other CAM therapies are reviewed and there is some evidence for the following: Taichi in sleep and PDQ39; dance in cognition, apathy, and a mild trend to improved fatigue; yoga in PDQ39; and acupuncture in depression, PDQ39, and sleep. Exercise including occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) has been studied in motor symptoms of PD and balance but only with small studies with a mounting evidence base for use of exercise in NMS of PD including PDQ39, sleep, fatigue, depression, and some subsets of cognition. Studies of OT and PT largely show some benefit to depression, apathy, and anxiety. Sustainability of an improvement has not been shown given short duration of follow up. Finding optimal control groups and blind for these interventions is also an issue. This is a very important area of study since patients want to be self-empowered and they want guidance on which form of exercise is the best. Additionally, evidence for PT and OT in NMS would give added weight to get these interventions covered through medical insurance. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-motor symptoms in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by SPG4 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servelhere, K R; Faber, I; Saute, J A M; Moscovich, M; D'Abreu, A; Jardim, L B; Teive, H A G; Lopes-Cendes, I; Franca, M C

    2016-02-01

    Non-motor manifestations are frequently overlooked in degenerative disorders and little is known about their frequency and clinical relevance in SPG4 hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP). Thirty patients with SPG4-HSP and 30 healthy controls answered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Brief Pain Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Student's t test was used to compare groups and linear regression was used to assess correlations. Patients had higher fatigue scores than controls (31.0 ± 16.5 vs. 14.5 ± 16.0, P = 0.002) as well as pain (3.4 ± 2.7 vs. 1.0 ± 1.6, P = 0.001) and depression (12.7 ± 8.9 vs. 4.4 ± 3.8, P depression and possibly with disease severity (P = 0.008 and 0.07, respectively). Fatigue, pain and depression are frequent and often severe manifestations in patients with SPG4-HSP. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Nonmotor Symptoms Groups in Parkinson's Disease Patients: Results of a Pilot, Exploratory Study

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    Santiago Perez Lloret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMS like neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbances or autonomic symptoms are a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD. To explore the existence of groups of NMS and to relate them to PD characteristics, 71 idiopathic non-demented PD out-patients were recruited. Sleep was evaluated by the PD Sleep Scale (PDSS. Several neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal and urogenital symptoms were obtained from the NMSQuest. Sialorrhea or dysphagia severity was obtained from the Unified PD Rating Scale activities of daily living section. MADRS depression scale was also administered. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the presence of 5 factors, explaining 70% of variance. The first factor included PDSS measurement of sleep quality, nocturnal restlessness, off-related problems and daytime somnolence; the second factor included nocturia (PDSS and nocturnal activity; the third one included gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms; the forth one included nocturnal psychosis (PDSS, sialorrhea and dysphagia (UPDRS; and the last one included the MADRS score as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sleep disorders correlated with presence of wearing-off, nocturia with age >69 years, and nocturnal psychosis with levodopa equivalent dose or UPDRS II score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms correlated with UPDRS II+III score and non-tricyclic antidepressants. These results support the occurrence of significant NMS grouping in PD patients.

  17. Correlations between abnormal iron metabolism and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Zhi, Yan; Yuan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Bingfeng; Shen, Yuting; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Kezhong; Xu, Yun

    2018-07-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence suggests that abnormal iron metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies explored its role in non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal iron metabolism and NMS of PD. Seventy PD patients and 64 healthy controls were consecutively recruited to compare serum iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and transferrin levels. We evaluated five classic NMS, including depression, anxiety, pain, sleep disorder, and autonomic dysfunction in PD patients using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the correlations between abnormal iron metabolism and NMS. No differences in serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin levels were examined between PD patients and healthy controls, but we observed significantly decreased serum iron levels and increased serum transferrin levels in PD patients in comparison with healthy controls. After eliminating confounding factors, HAMD scores and HAMA scores were both negatively correlated with serum iron levels and positively correlated with serum transferrin levels. In summary, abnormal iron metabolism might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety in PD. Serums levels of iron and transferrin could be peripheral markers for depression and anxiety in PD.

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Drugs on Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: a Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Dong; Cui, Jing-Jun; Song, Jia; Qi, Ce; Ma, Pei-Feng; Wang, Ya-Rong; Bai, Jing

    2018-01-01

    A network meta-analysis is used to compare the efficacy of ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, apomorphine, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil and levodopa, with placebo as a control, for non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from their establishment dates up to January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of the above ten drugs on the non-motor symptoms of PD. A network meta-analysis combined the evidence from direct comparisons and indirect comparisons and evaluated the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) values and surfaces under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA). The network meta-analysis included 21 RCTs. The analysis results indicated that, using the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III, the efficacies of placebo, ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole and levodopa in treating PD were lower than that of apomorphine (WMD = -10.90, 95% CI = -16.12∼-5.48; WMD = -11.85, 95% CI = -17.31∼-6.16; WMD = -11.15, 95% CI = -16.64∼-5.04; WMD = -11.70, 95% CI = -16.98∼-5.60; WMD = -11.04, 95% CI = -16.97∼-5.34; WMD = -13.27, 95% CI = -19.22∼-7.40; WMD = -10.25, 95% CI = -15.66∼-4.32; and WMD = -11.60, 95% CI = -17.89∼-5.57, respectively). Treatment with ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil or levodopa, with placebo as a control, on PD exhibited no significant differences on PD symptoms when the UPDRS II was used for evaluation. Moreover, using the UPDRS III, the SUCRA values indicated that a pomorphine had the best efficacy on the non-motor symptoms of PD (99.0%). Using the UPDRS II, the SUCRA values for ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil and levodopa treatments, with placebo as a control, indicated that bromocriptine showed the best efficacy on the non-motor

  19. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  20. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  1. Physiologic Responses to Motorized and Non-Motorized Locomotion Utilizing the International Space Station Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassie; Lee, Stuart MC; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Norcross, Jason; DeWitt, John; Hagan, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion is used onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a countermeasure to the effects of prolonged weightlessness. The treadmill operates in two modes: motorized (T-M) and non-motorized (T-NM). Little is known about the potential physiologic differences between modes which may affect countermeasure exercise prescription. PURPOSE: To quantify heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) during T-M and T-NM locomotion at 2 and 4 mph in normal ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 men, 10 women; 31+/-5 yr, 172+/-10 cm, 68+/-13 kg, mean SD) with a treadmill peakVO2 of 45.5+/-5.4 ml/kg/min (mean+/-SD) exercised on the ground-based ISS treadmill. Following a familiarization session in each mode, subjects completed two data collection sessions, T-M and T-NM in random order, at 2 and 4 mph. Subjects attempted to complete 5 min of exercise at each speed; if they could not maintain the speed, the trial was discontinued. At least 5 minutes of rest separated each speed trial, and at least 48 hrs separated each session. VO2 was measured continuously (metabolic gas analysis), while HR (HR monitor) and RPE (Borg Chart, 6-20 scale) were recorded each min. Not all subjects completed 5 min during each condition, therefore the mean of the min 3 and 4 was taken as representative of steady-state. BLa was measured (finger stick) within 2 min post-exercise. Paired t-tests were used to test for differences (p<0.05) between treadmill modes within the same speed. RESULTS: All twenty subjects completed at least 4 min of exercise during all conditions, except T-NM 4 mph when only 11 subjects completed the minimum exercise duration. VO2, HR, RPE and BLa were significantly higher during T-NM locomotion at both speeds.

  2. Nonmotor symptoms and Parkinson disease in United States farmers and spouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Shrestha

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the presence of multiple nonmotor symptoms (NMS in relation to Parkinson disease (PD. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations between individual and multiple NMS and PD in the Agricultural Health Study.20,473 male farmers and 16,259 female spouses provided information on six NMS (reduced sense of smell, dream-enacting behavior, daytime sleepiness, infrequent bowel movement, depression, and anxiety in the cohort's 2013-2015 follow-up survey. 191 men and 68 women reported physician-diagnosed PD. We estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using multivariable logistic regression models separately by sex.NMS were each associated with PD, with the strongest association for reduced sense of smell in men and dream-enacting behavior in women. The number of NMS showed a strong dose-response relationship with PD, particularly in men. ORs were 5.5 (95% CI 3.4-8.8 for one, 17 (95% CI 10.4-28.0 for two, and 53.4 (95% CI 33.2-86.1 for three or more NMS in men; the corresponding ORs were 4.6 (95% CI 2.3-9.5, 6.7 (95% CI 2.9-15.6, and 23.6 (95% CI 10.7-52.4 in women (PNMS-interaction-with-sex = 0.07.The number of NMS was associated with PD in a dose-response manner and the association appeared stronger in men than in women. These findings should be further investigated in population-based prospective studies.

  3. Parkinson Disease: The Relationship Between Non-motor Symptoms and Motor Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Fang; Obaid, Mona; Wieler, Marguerite; Camicioli, Richard; Martin, W R Wayne

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) presents with motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The NMS often precede the onset of motor symptoms, but may progress throughout the disease course. Tremor dominant, postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD), and indeterminate phenotypes can be distinguished using Unified PD Rating scales (UPDRS-III). We hypothesized that the PIGD phenotype would be more likely to develop NMS, and that the non-dopamine-responsive axial signs would correlate with NMS severity. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional chart review to assess the relationship between NMS and PD motor phenotypes. PD patients were administered the NMS Questionnaire, the UPDRS-III, and the Mini-Mental State Examination score. The relationship between NMS burden and PD subtypes was examined using linear regression models. The prevalence of each NMS among difference PD motor subtypes was analyzed using chi-square test. PD patients with more advanced disease based on their UPDRS-III had higher NMS Questionnaire scores. The axial component of UPDRS-III correlated with higher NMS. There was no correlation between NMS and tremor scores. There was a significant correlation between PIGD score and higher NMS burden. PIGD group had higher prevalence in most NMS domains when compared with tremor dominant and indeterminate groups independent of disease duration and severity. NMS profile and severity vary according to motor phenotype. We conclude that in the PD population, patients with a PIGD phenotype who have more axial involvement, associated with advanced disease and poor motor response, have a higher risk for a higher NMS burden.

  4. Relationship between pain and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, G; Antonini, A; Tinazzi, M; Gigante, A F; Pietracupa, S; Pellicciari, R; Bloise, M; Bacchin, R; Marcante, A; Fabbrini, G; Berardelli, A

    2017-07-01

    Although female gender, depressive symptoms and medical conditions predisposing to pain are more common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with pain, no study has yet explored the relationship between pain and other non-motor symptoms (NMS). A total of 321 consecutive patients with PD [190 men/131 women aged 68.3 (SD 9.2) years] attending four Italian movement disorder clinics were studied. Demographic/clinical data were obtained by a standardized interview and the NMS scale. The association of pain with motor and NMS was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. At the time of the study, 180 patients with PD (56%) reported chronic pain that, in most cases, was described as being muscular or arthralgic pain. Pain preceded the onset of motor signs in 36/180 patients. In the main-effect model, factors independently associated with pain were female sex [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; P = 0.01], medical conditions predisposing to pain (OR, 2.9; P motor complications (OR, 4.7; P = 0.04) and NMS belonging to the sleep/fatigue (OR, 1.6; P = 0.04) and mood/cognition (OR, 1.6; P = 0.03) domains. Most explanatory variables in the multivariable analysis were similarly distributed in patients in whom pain may have been related to PD or to a cause other than PD. We confirm that pain in PD is more frequent in women and in subjects with medical conditions predisposing to painful symptoms. Moreover, this strengthens the association between pain and motor severity measures and NMS domains, particularly sleep and mood disturbances. © 2017 EAN.

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  6. Brain infusion of α-synuclein oligomers induces motor and non-motor Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Juliana T S; Gralle, Matthias; Beckman, Danielle; Neves, Fernanda S; Diniz, Luan P; Frost, Paula S; Barros-Aragão, Fernanda; Santos, Luís E; Gonçalves, Rafaella A; Romão, Luciana; Zamberlan, Daniele C; Soares, Felix A A; Braga, Carolina; Foguel, Debora; Gomes, Flávia C A; De Felice, Fernanda G; Ferreira, Sergio T; Clarke, Julia R; Figueiredo, Cláudia P

    2017-08-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction, which is preceded by a number of non-motor symptoms including olfactory deficits. Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) gives rise to Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons and is thought to play a central role in PD pathology. However, whether amyloid fibrils or soluble oligomers of α-syn are the main neurotoxic species in PD remains controversial. Here, we performed a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of α-syn oligomers (α-SYOs) in mice and evaluated motor and non-motor symptoms. Familiar bedding and vanillin essence discrimination tasks showed that α-SYOs impaired olfactory performance of mice, and decreased TH and dopamine levels in the olfactory bulb early after infusion. The olfactory deficit persisted until 45days post-infusion (dpi). α- SYO-infused mice behaved normally in the object recognition and forced swim tests, but showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze tests 20 dpi. Finally, administration of α-SYOs induced late motor impairment in the pole test and rotarod paradigms, along with reduced TH and dopamine content in the caudate putamen, 45 dpi. Reduced number of TH-positive cells was also seen in the substantia nigra of α-SYO-injected mice compared to control. In conclusion, i.c.v. infusion of α-SYOs recapitulated some of PD-associated non-motor symptoms, such as increased anxiety and olfactory dysfunction, but failed to recapitulate memory impairment and depressive-like behavior typical of the disease. Moreover, α-SYOs i.c.v. administration induced motor deficits and loss of TH and dopamine levels, key features of PD. Results point to α-syn oligomers as the proximal neurotoxins responsible for early non-motor and motor deficits in PD and suggest that the i.c.v. infusion model characterized here may comprise a useful tool for identification of PD novel therapeutic targets and drug screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. In patient's with Parkinson disease, autonomic symptoms are frequent and associated with other non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnao, Valentina; Cinturino, Antonio; Valentino, Francesca; Perini, Valentina; Mastrilli, Sergio; Bellavia, Gabriele; Savettieri, Giovanni; Realmuto, Sabrina; D'Amelio, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Autonomic symptoms and sleep disorders are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), which are correlated with poor quality of life for patients. To assess the frequency of autonomic symptoms in a consecutive series of PD patients and to correlate them with other motor and non-motor symptoms. All consecutive non-demented PD patients who underwent an extensive evaluation including Hoehn and Yahr staging, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, PDQ-39 Scale, the Parkinson's diseases Sleep Scale, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and SCOPA-AUT scale were enrolled. Comorbidity has been also considered. Supine to standing position blood pressure and cardiac frequency changes were also measured. 135 PD patients were included (mean age at interview 67.7; mean disease duration: 5.3 years). Patients were stratified according to mean SCOPA-AUT scale score (13.1). Those with higher SCOPA-AUT scale score were significantly older, had longer disease duration, worse disease stage, worse quality of sleep, were more severely affected, and were also taking a higher dosage of levodopa. At multivariate analysis, older age, longer disease duration, and worse quality of sleep were independently associated with higher SCOPA-AUT scale scores. Our results remark the role of autonomic symptoms in PD. In our patient population, characterized by mild to moderate disease severity, most of the patients complained of autonomic nervous system involvement (84%). A significant association between autonomic symptoms and sleep disorders was also observed.

  8. Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

    2015-01-01

    Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  10. Motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and their impact on quality of life and on different clinical subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganzo, K; Tijero, B; González-Eizaguirre, A; Somme, J; Lezcano, E; Gabilondo, I; Fernandez, M; Zarranz, J J; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the influence that motor and non-motor symptoms have on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to study the relationship between the two types of symptoms. This cross-sectional study included 103 patients with PD (55 men and 48 women). Quality of life was measured on the PDQ-39 scale. The UPDRS scale (I-IV) was also used, and different items were grouped to analyse the presence of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. The non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) was administered to assess non-motor symptoms. We performed correlation analyses between different scales to analyse the influence of motor and non-motor symptoms on QoL. Correlations were observed between the PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ39_SI) and the NMSS (correlation coefficient [cc], 0.56; pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Practice Parameter: treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Sullivan, K L; Arnulf, I; Chaudhuri, K R; Morgan, J C; Gronseth, G S; Miyasaki, J; Iverson, D J; Weiner, W J

    2010-03-16

    Nonmotor symptoms (sleep dysfunction, sensory symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive abnormalities) in Parkinson disease (PD) are a major cause of morbidity, yet are often underrecognized. This evidence-based practice parameter evaluates treatment options for the nonmotor symptoms of PD. Articles pertaining to cognitive and mood dysfunction in PD, as well as treatment of sialorrhea with botulinum toxin, were previously reviewed as part of American Academy of Neurology practice parameters and were not included here. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index was performed to identify clinical trials in patients with nonmotor symptoms of PD published between 1966 and August 2008. Articles were classified according to a 4-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) may be considered to treat erectile dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) (Level C). Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) may be considered to treat constipation in patients with PD (Level C). The use of levodopa/carbidopa probably decreases the frequency of spontaneous nighttime leg movements, and should be considered to treat periodic limb movements of sleep in patients with PD (Level B). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific treatments for urinary incontinence, orthostatic hypotension, and anxiety (Level U). Future research should include concerted and interdisciplinary efforts toward finding treatments for nonmotor symptoms of PD.

  12. Relationship between the non-motor items of the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Han, Vladimir; Groothoff, Johan W.; Valkovic, Peter; Gdovinova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2015-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a newly developed comprehensive tool to assess Parkinson's disease (PD), which covers a wider range of non-motor PD manifestations than the original UPDRS scale. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship

  13. Relationship between the non-motor items of the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Han, Vladimir; Groothoff, Johan W; Valkovic, Peter; Gdovinova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2015-01-01

    The Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is a newly developed comprehensive tool to assess Parkinson's disease (PD), which covers a wider range of non-motor PD manifestations than the original UPDRS scale. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the MDS-UPDRS and Quality of Life (QoL) and to analyze the relationship between individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items and QoL. A total of 291 PD patients were examined in a multicenter Slovak study. Patients were assessed by the MDS-UPDRS, HY scale and PDQ39. Data were analyzed using the multiple regression analyses. The mean participant age was 68.0 ± 9.0 years, 53.5% were men, mean disease duration was 8.3 ± 5.3 years and mean HY was 2.7 ± 1.0. In a multiple regression analysis model the PDQ39 summary index was related to MDS-UPDRS parts II, I and IV respectively, but not to part III. Individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items related to the PDQ39 summary index in the summary group and in the non-fluctuating patients subgroup were pain, fatigue and features of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). In the fluctuating PD patient subgroup, PDQ39 was related to pain and Depressed mood items. Other MDS-UPDRS non-motor items e.g. Anxious mood, Apathy, Cognitive impairment, Hallucinations and psychosis, Sleep problems, Daytime sleepiness and Urinary problems were related to some PDQ39 domains. The overall burden of NMS in PD is more important in terms of QoL than motor symptoms. Individual MDS-UPDRS non-motor items related to worse QoL are especially pain and other sensations, fatigue and features of DDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of high intensity physical training on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Bo M; Jensen, Joakim; Bode, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Several studies have investigated various physical interventions on PD. The effects of a high intensity exercise program with focus on resistance; cardio; equilibrium......; and flexibility training have not been evaluated previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a complex, high intensity physical training program, with a long duration, on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHOD: 24 patients with PD Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 were...... non-randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 12). The intervention group underwent 32 weeks of high intensity personalized physical training twice a week, with an optional extra training session once a week. The control group received general recommendations...

  15. Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Weiß, Luisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Reddy, Prashanth; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Evans, Julian; Reker, Paul; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Samuel, Michael; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-02-24

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome. We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 88 patients, we collected the following scales preoperatively and on follow-up 6 months postoperatively: PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -complications, and -activities of daily living, levodopa equivalent daily dose. We dichotomized patients into "QoL responders"/"non-responders" and screened for factors associated with QoL improvement with (1) Spearman-correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions using aforementioned "responders/non-responders" as dependent variable. All outcomes improved significantly on follow-up. However, approximately 44% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Spearman-correlations, linear and logistic regression analyses were significant for NMSS and NMSQ but not for SCOPA-motor examination. Post-hoc, we identified specific NMS (flat moods, difficulties experiencing pleasure, pain, bladder voiding) as significant contributors to QoL outcome. Our results provide evidence that QoL improvement after STN-DBS depends on preoperative NMS characteristics. These findings are important in the advising and selection of individuals for DBS therapy. Future studies investigating motor and non-motor PD clusters may enable stratifying QoL outcomes and help predict patients' individual prospects of benefiting from DBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  16. Association of coffee consumption and non-motor symptoms in drug-naïve, early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Byeong C

    2018-02-09

    Coffee consumption has an inverse association with the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) in patients with PD. In this cross-sectional study, we included 196 early-stage, treatment-naïve PD patients. Coffee consumption history was obtained via semi-structured interviews. NMSs were assessed using the Non-Motor Symptom assessment scale (NMSS). Of the 196 patients with PD, 136 (69.3%) were categorized as coffee drinkers and 60 (30.6%) were non-drinkers. Coffee drinkers were younger, predominantly male, were younger in age at symptom onset, had lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor and Beck Depression Inventory scores, and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores than non-coffee drinkers. After adjustment, coffee drinking was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of lack of motivation, anhedonia, and lack of pleasure, which were less frequent in coffee drinkers. Total NMSS scores were lower in coffee drinkers than in non-drinkers (p = 0.047). In particular, coffee drinking was significantly associated with a reduced severity of the mood/cognition domain of NMSS (p = 0.003). After correcting for multiple testing, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of NMSs, but there were significant differences in the severity of NMSs between coffee drinkers and non-drinkers. There is a negative association between coffee consumption and the severity of the mood/cognition domain of NMSS in patients with PD. Clinicians should consider the history of coffee consumption in the assessment of NMSs in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead intoxication induces noradrenaline depletion, motor nonmotor disabilities, and changes in the firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbar, M; Delaville, C; De Deurwaerdère, P; Benazzouz, A; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N

    2012-05-17

    Lead intoxication has been suggested as a high risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease. However, its impact on motor and nonmotor functions and the mechanism by which it can be involved in the disease are still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of lead intoxication on the following: (1) locomotor activity using an open field actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod test, (2) anxiety behavior using the elevated plus maze, (3) "depression-like" behavior using sucrose preference test, and (4) subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity using extracellular single unit recordings. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a day with lead acetate or sodium acetate (20 mg/kg/d i.p.) during 3 weeks. The tissue content of monoamines was used to determine alteration of these systems at the end of experiments. Results show that lead significantly reduced exploratory activity, locomotor activity and the time spent on the rotarod bar. Furthermore, lead induced anxiety but not "depressive-like" behavior. The electrophysiological results show that lead altered the discharge pattern of STN neurons with an increase in the number of bursting and irregular cells without affecting the firing rate. Moreover, lead intoxication resulted in a decrease of tissue noradrenaline content without any change in the levels of dopamine and serotonin. Together, these results show for the first time that lead intoxication resulted in motor and nonmotor behavioral changes paralleled by noradrenaline depletion and changes in the firing activity of STN neurons, providing evidence consistent with the induction of atypical parkinsonian-like deficits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  19. Combined rasagiline and antidepressant use in Parkinson disease in the ADAGIO study: effects on nonmotor symptoms and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara M; Eyal, Eli; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Depression, cognitive impairment, and other nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) are common early in Parkinson disease (PD) and may be in part due to disease-related dopamine deficiency. Many patients with PD are treated with antidepressants for NMSs, and the effect of the combination of PD medications that enhance dopamine neurotransmission and antidepressants on NMSs has not been studied. We report the effects of the addition of a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline, to antidepressant treatment in PD. To evaluate the effect of rasagiline on depression, cognition, and other PD NMSs in patients taking an antidepressant in the Attenuation of Disease Progression With Azilect Given Once Daily (ADAGIO) study. The ADAGIO study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, delayed-start trial of rasagiline in de novo PD. In this exploratory post hoc analysis, we analyzed patients taking an antidepressant during the 36-week phase 1 period, in which patients were randomized to rasagiline (1 or 2 mg/d) or placebo. We evaluated the change in NMSs in patients taking an antidepressant and rasagiline compared with those taking placebo. The NMSs were assessed by Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Nonmotor Experiences of Daily Living, the original Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and the Parkinson Fatigue Scale. A total of 191 of the 1174 patients (16.3%) were treated with antidepressants during phase 1 and provided efficacy data. Depression and cognition scores revealed significantly less worsening in the rasagiline group compared with the placebo group (differences in Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale item-adjusted means [SEs], -0.19 [0.10], P = .048, and -0.20 [0.05], P rasagiline group compared with placebo. There was a nonsignificant trend toward less worsening in apathy and no significant between-group differences in anxiety or sleep. The effect on

  20. Nonmotorized recreation and motorized recreation in shrub-steppe habitats affects behavior and reproduction of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaul, Robert J; Heath, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e.g., trails or campsites) predicted golden eagle territory occupancy, egg-laying, or the probability a breeding attempt resulted in ≥1 offspring (nest survival). We monitored egg-laying, hatching and fledging success, eagle behavior, and recreation activity within 23 eagle territories near Boise, Idaho, USA. Territories with more off-road vehicle (ORV) use were less likely to be occupied than territories with less ORV use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -2.8 to -0.8). At occupied territories, early season pedestrian use (β = -1.6, 85% CI: -3.8 to -0.2) and other nonmotorized use (β = -3.6, 85% CI: -10.7 to -0.3) reduced the probability of egg-laying. At territories where eagles laid eggs, short, interval-specific peaks in ORV use were associated with decreased nest survival (β = -0.5, 85% CI: -0.8 to -0.2). Pedestrians, who often arrived near eagle nests via motorized vehicles, were associated with reduced nest attendance (β = -11.9, 85% CI: -19.2 to -4.5), an important predictor of nest survival. Multiple forms of recreation may have cumulative effects on local populations by reducing occupancy at otherwise suitable territories, decreasing breeding attempts, and causing nesting failure. Seasonal no-stopping zones for motorized vehicles may be an alternative to trail closures for managing disturbance. This study demonstrates the importance of considering human disturbance across different parts of the annual cycle, particularly where

  1. The Impact of Carsharing on Public Transit and Non-Motorized Travel: An Exploration of North American Carsharing Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shaheen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available By July 2011, North American carsharing had grown to an industry of nearly 640,000 members since its inception on the continent more than 15 years ago. Carsharing engenders changes in member travel patterns both towards and away from public transit and non-motorized modes. This study, which builds on the work of two previous studies, evaluates this shift in travel based on a 6281 respondent survey completed in late-2008 by members of major North American carsharing organizations. Across the entire sample, the results showed an overall decline in public transit use that was statistically significant, as 589 carsharing members reduced rail use and 828 reduced bus use, while 494 increased rail use and 732 increased bus use. Thus for every five members that use rail less, four members use rail more, and for every 10 members that ride a bus less, almost nine members ride the bus more. The people increasing and decreasing their transit use are fundamentally different in terms of how carsharing impacts their travel environment. This reduction, however, is also not uniform across all organizations; it is primarily driven by a minority (three of eleven of participating organizations. At the same time, members exhibited a statistically significant increase in travel by walking, bicycling, and carpooling. Across the sample, 756 members increased walking versus a 568 decrease, 628 increased bicycling versus a 235 decrease, and 289 increased carpooling versus a decrease of 99  study participants. The authors found that 970 members reduced their auto commuting to work, while 234 increased it. Interestingly, when these shifts are combined across modes, more people increased their overall public transit and non-motorized modal use after joining carsharing than decreased it. Data collected on the commute distance of respondents found that carsharing members tend to have shorter commutes than most people living in the same zip code. The analysis also evaluates

  2. Motor and Nonmotor Circuitry Activation Induced by Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: Intraoperative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Felmlee, Joel P; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M; Clayton, Daniel A; Klassen, Bryan T; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease would affect the activity of motor and nonmotor networks, we applied intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to patients receiving DBS. Ten patients receiving STN DBS for Parkinson disease underwent intraoperative 1.5-T fMRI during high-frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. We observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes (false discovery rate <0.001) in the motor circuitry (including the primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices; thalamus; pedunculopontine nucleus; and cerebellum) and in the limbic circuitry (including the cingulate and insular cortices). Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (P<.001) to the data set, suggesting that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared with those occurring in the nonmotor network. These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and nonmotor networks and suggest complex mechanisms as the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that across patients, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent than those in the nonmotor network. With further studies combining the use of real-time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809613. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor and non-motor circuitry activation induced by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson’s disease patients: Intraoperative fMRI for DBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily J.; Testini, Paola; Min, Hoon-Ki; Gibson, William S.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Favazza, Christopher P.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Kim, Inyong; Welker, Kirk M.; Clayton, Daniel A.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Chang, Su-youne; Lee, Kendall H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with PD would affect the activity of both motor and non-motor networks, we applied intraoperative fMRI to patients receiving DBS. Patients and Methods Ten patients receiving STN DBS for PD underwent intraoperative 1.5T fMRI during high frequency stimulation delivered via an external pulse generator. The study was conducted between the dates of January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Results We observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes (FDR<.001) in the motor circuitry, including primary motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, thalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and cerebellum, as well as in the limbic circuitry, including cingulate and insular cortices. Activation of the motor network was observed also after applying a Bonferroni correction (p<.001) to our dataset, suggesting that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. Conclusions These findings support the modulatory role of STN DBS on the activity of motor and non-motor networks, and suggest complex mechanisms at the basis of the efficacy of this treatment modality. Furthermore, these results suggest that, across subjects, BOLD changes in the motor circuitry are more consistent compared to those occurring in the non-motor network. With further studies combining the use of real time intraoperative fMRI with clinical outcomes in patients treated with DBS, functional imaging techniques have the potential not only to elucidate the mechanisms of DBS functioning, but also to guide and assist in the surgical treatment of patients affected by movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26046412

  4. Research Progress of Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease%帕金森病非运动症状研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包华; 郑晓明; 王瑾

    2013-01-01

    目前对帕金森病(PD)的研究多集中在运动症状,对非运动症状的诊断及治疗尚处于较低水平.非运动症状种类繁多,包括睡眠障碍、神经精神症状、自主神经系统症状、消化道症状、感觉障碍等.这些症状可与PD的运动症状并行,也可先于或者晚于运动症状;可随运动症状波动,也可与之无关.今后的PD研究应集中在阐明非运动症状的病理生理机制和探索治疗策略上.%At present, studies of Parkinson disease are mostly focused on motor symptoms,while the diagnosis and treatment of non-motor symptoms is still at a relatively low level. The various non-motor symptoms include sleep disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms, autonomic nervous system symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sensory disturbance etc. . These symptoms may occur before, during or after the motor symptoms, which may fluctuate together with or be irrelevant to the motor symptoms. Future PD studies should be focused on the pathophysiological mechanisms of non-motor symptoms and exploration of the therapies.

  5. Influence of Deep Breathing on Heart Rate Variability in Parkinson's Disease: Co-relation with Severity of Disease and Non-Motor Symptom Scale Score.

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    Bidikar, Mukta Pritam; Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T

    2014-07-01

    Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (psymptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients.

  6. Non-Motor Symptom Burdens Are Not Associated with Iron Accumulation in Early Parkinson's Disease: a Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study.

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    Shin, Chaewon; Lee, Seon; Lee, Jee Young; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Park, Sun Won

    2018-03-26

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been used to measure iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined the relationship between non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. The QSM data were acquired from 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 patients with early PD and 19 normal controls. The Korean version of the NMS scale (K-NMSS) was used for evaluation of NMSs in patients. The patients were divided into high NMS and low NMS groups. The region-of-interest analyses were performed in the following deep nuclei: red nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars reticulata, dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and head of the caudate nucleus. Thirteen patients had high NMS scores (total K-NMSS score, mean = 32.1), and 16 had low NMS scores (10.6). The QSM values in the deep were not different among the patients with high NMS scores, low NMS scores, and controls. The QSM values were not correlated linearly with K-NMSS total score after adjusting the age at acquisition of brain MRI. The study demonstrated that the NMS burdens are not associated with iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. These results suggest that future neuroimaging studies on the pathology of NMSs in PD should use more specific and detailed clinical tools and recruit PD patients with severe NMSs. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. The impact of non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease on partners: understanding and application of chronic sorrow theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Christine J

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause many emotions, including grief and a sense of isolation for both the person with PD (referred to as Parkinsonian) and their partner. Such ongoing grief and emotional turmoil can be termed chronic sorrow. The aim of this research is to present accounts of partners' perspectives, analysed in the context of chronic sorrow theory, to offer health professionals an insight into the impact of non-motor PD symptoms on partners. A group of partners of Parkinsonians provided the data through individual stories. These stories were subjected to thematic analysis, using a seven-step process leading to the establishment of themes. Caregiver burden and chronic sorrow is not related to providing physical care, but the emotional care of attempting to minimise the effect of PD, coping with disturbance to sleep, and helping the Parkinsonian to maintain as much independence as possible. Contributors to this article found chronic sorrow theory provided a framework for understanding their emotions. Sharing their experiences with others provided an opportunity to be heard, and enabled them to make sense of individual situations. Chronic sorrow theory provides a useful framework for both partners of Parkinsonians in understanding their emotional responses, and for health professionals in considering the challenges partners face in coping with living with a person with PD.

  8. Melatoninergic System in Parkinson’s Disease: From Neuroprotection to the Management of Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiel Mileno Mack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is synthesized by several tissues besides the pineal gland, and beyond its regulatory effects in light-dark cycle, melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Melatonin acts as a free-radical scavenger, reducing reactive species and improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of neurotrophins that are involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and reduces α-synuclein aggregation, thus protecting the dopaminergic system against damage. The unbalance of pineal melatonin synthesis can predispose the organism to inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. The aim of this review is to summarize the knowledge about the potential role of the melatoninergic system in the pathogenesis and treatment of PD. The literature reviewed here indicates that PD is associated with impaired brain expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2. Exogenous melatonin treatment presented an outstanding neuroprotective effect in animal models of PD induced by different toxins, such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, rotenone, paraquat, and maneb. Despite the neuroprotective effects and the improvement of motor impairments, melatonin also presents the potential to improve nonmotor symptoms commonly experienced by PD patients such as sleep and anxiety disorders, depression, and memory dysfunction.

  9. Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Itay; Treves, Therese A; Roditi, Yaniv; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented. However, clinical trials in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Twenty-two patients with PD attending the motor disorder clinic of a tertiary medical center in 2011 to 2012 were evaluated at baseline and 30 minutes after smoking cannabis using the following battery: Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, visual analog scale, present pain intensity scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, as well as Medical Cannabis Survey National Drug and Alcohol Research Center Questionnaire. Mean (SD) total score on the motor Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score improved significantly from 33.1 (13.8) at baseline to 23.2 (10.5) after cannabis consumption (t = 5.9; P effects of the drug were observed. The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD. Larger, controlled studies are needed to verify the results.

  10. An Analysis of US Emergency Department Visits From Falls From Skiing, Snowboarding, Skateboarding, Roller-Skating, and Using Nonmotorized Scooters.

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    Nathanson, Brian H; Ribeiro, Kara; Henneman, Philip L

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the US incidence of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for falls from skiing, snowboarding, skateboarding, roller-skating, and nonmotorized scooters in 2011. The outcome was hospital admission from the ED. The primary analysis compared pediatric patients aged 1 to 17 years to adults aged 18 to 44 years. The analysis used ICD-9 E-codes E885.0 to E885.4 using discharge data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Approximately 214 000 ED visits met study criteria. Skiing injuries had the highest percentage of hospitalizations (3.30% in pediatric patients and 6.65% in adults 18-44 years old). Skateboard and snowboard injuries were more likely to require hospitalization than roller skating injuries in pediatric patients (odds ratio = 2.42; 95% CI = 2.14-2.75 and odds ratio = 1.83; 95% CI =1.55-2.15, respectively). In contrast, skateboard and snowboard injuries were less severe than roller-skating injuries in adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Parkinson’s Disease Severity at 3 Years Can Be Predicted from Non-Motor Symptoms at Baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ayala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to present a predictive model of Parkinson’s disease (PD global severity, measured with the Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson’s Disease (CISI-PD.MethodsThis is an observational, longitudinal study with annual follow-up assessments over 3 years (four time points. A multilevel analysis and multiple imputation techniques were performed to generate a predictive model that estimates changes in the CISI-PD at 1, 2, and 3 years.ResultsThe clinical state of patients (CISI-PD significantly worsened in the 3-year follow-up. However, this change was of small magnitude (effect size: 0.44. The following baseline variables were significant predictors of the global severity change: baseline global severity of disease, levodopa equivalent dose, depression and anxiety symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and cognitive state. The goodness-of-fit of the model was adequate, and the sensitive analysis showed that the data imputation method applied was suitable.ConclusionDisease progression depends more on the individual’s baseline characteristics than on the 3-year time period. Results may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of PD including the non-motor manifestations of the disease.

  12. Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Drugs on Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease: a Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Dong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A network meta-analysis is used to compare the efficacy of ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, apomorphine, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil and levodopa, with placebo as a control, for non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from their establishment dates up to January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs investigating the efficacy of the above ten drugs on the non-motor symptoms of PD. A network meta-analysis combined the evidence from direct comparisons and indirect comparisons and evaluated the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD values and surfaces under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA. The network meta-analysis included 21 RCTs. Results: The analysis results indicated that, using the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III, the efficacies of placebo, ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole and levodopa in treating PD were lower than that of apomorphine (WMD = -10.90, 95% CI = -16.12∼-5.48; WMD = -11.85, 95% CI = -17.31∼-6.16; WMD = -11.15, 95% CI = -16.64∼-5.04; WMD = -11.70, 95% CI = -16.98∼-5.60; WMD = -11.04, 95% CI = -16.97∼-5.34; WMD = -13.27, 95% CI = -19.22∼-7.40; WMD = -10.25, 95% CI = -15.66∼-4.32; and WMD = -11.60, 95% CI = -17.89∼-5.57, respectively. Treatment with ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil or levodopa, with placebo as a control, on PD exhibited no significant differences on PD symptoms when the UPDRS II was used for evaluation. Moreover, using the UPDRS III, the SUCRA values indicated that a pomorphine had the best efficacy on the non-motor symptoms of PD (99.0%. Using the UPDRS II, the SUCRA values for ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil and levodopa treatments, with placebo as a control, indicated that

  13. Target Selection Recommendations Based on Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries on Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson′s Disease

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    Xiao-Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review examines the evidence that deep brain stimulation (DBS has extensive impact on nonmotor symptoms (NMSs of patients with Parkinson′s disease (PD. Data Sources: We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to September, 2015, using various search terms and their combinations including PD, NMSs, DBS, globus pallidus internus (GPi, subthalamic nucleus (STN, and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Study Selection: We included data from peer-reviewed journals on impacts of DBS on neuropsychological profiles, sensory function, autonomic symptoms, weight changes, and sleep disturbances. For psychological symptoms and cognitive impairment, we tried to use more reliable proofs: Random, control, multicenter, large sample sizes, and long period follow-up clinical studies. We categorized the NMSs into four groups: those that would improve definitively following DBS; those that are not significantly affected by DBS; those that remain controversial on their surgical benefit; and those that can be worsened by DBS. Results: In general, it seems to be an overall beneficial effect of DBS on NMSs, such as sensory, sleep, gastrointestinal, sweating, cardiovascular, odor, urological symptoms, and sexual dysfunction, GPi-DBS may produce similar results; Both STN and Gpi-DBS are safe with regard to cognition and psychology over long-term follow-up, though verbal fluency decline is related to DBS; The impact of DBS on behavioral addictions and dysphagia is still uncertain. Conclusions: As the motor effects of STN-DBS and GPi-DBS are similar, NMSs may determine the target choice in surgery of future patients.

  14. Non-motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, characteristics and management in a large cohort of parkinsonian outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucile; Lefaucheur, Romain; Fetter, Damien; Derrey, Stéphane; Borden, Alaina; Wallon, David; Bourre, Bertrand; Maltête, David

    2014-12-01

    To describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a group of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with non-motor fluctuations (NMF) and to evaluate the management of medications proposed to treat NMF. Three hundred and three PD patients (mean age, 66 ± 10.3 years; mean disease duration, 10.1 ± 6.5 years) were enrolled. Each patient was interviewed in a non-directed fashion about the main NMF manifestations, i.e. dysautonomic, mental, and sensory symptoms. Both groups of patients with and without NMF were compared. Dysautonomia, motor fluctuations, age, disease duration, and LEDD were included in a multiple regression to determine which were predictive of NMF. NMF were found in 57 (19%) patients, mean age 65 ± 10.1 years, mean age at onset of PD 53.7 ± 10.9 years, mean disease duration 12.5 ± 6.9 years. NMF occurred on average 9.8 ± 7.7 years after the onset of PD. Fifty patients (86%) with NMF had also MF and 10 (21%) had PDD. Twenty-five (44%) patients suffered from sensory, 28 (49%) from autonomic and 25 (44%) from neuropsychiatric symptoms. Both disease and L-Dopa treatment durations, and LEDD were significantly higher in NMF patient's group. Motor fluctuations (p = 0.0016) and presence of dysautonomia (p = 0.007) were found to be two independent predictors of NMF. The development of new instruments to assess NMF is crucial for optimized management of advanced PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  16. The influence of age and gender on motor and non-motor features of early Parkinson's disease: initial findings from the Oxford Parkinson Disease Center (OPDC) discovery cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Tomlinson, Paul; Nithi, Kannan; Wade-Martins, Richard; Talbot, Kevin; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hu, Michele T M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing phenotypic heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease is crucial for understanding variability in disease severity and progression. Age and gender are two most basic epidemiological characteristics, yet their effect on expression of PD symptoms is not fully defined. We aimed to delineate effects of age and gender on the phenotype in an incident cohort of PD patients and healthy controls from the Oxford Parkinson Disease Centre (OPDC). Clinical features, including demographic and medical characteristics and non-motor and motor symptoms, were analyzed in a group of PD patients within 3 years of diagnosis and a group of healthy controls from the OPDC cohort. Disease features were stratified according to age and compared between genders, controlling for effects of common covariates. 490 PD patients and 176 healthy controls were analyzed. Stratification by age showed increased disease severity with age on motor scales. Some non-motor features showed similar trend, including cognition and autonomic features. Comparison across genders highlighted a pattern of increased severity and greater symptom symmetricality in the face, neck and arms in men with women having more postural problems. Amongst the non-motor symptoms, men had more cognitive impairment, greater rate of REM behavior disorder (RBD), more orthostatic hypotension and sexual dysfunction. Age in PD is a strong factor contributing to disease severity even after controlling for the effect of disease duration. Gender-related motor phenotype can be defined by a vertical split into more symmetrical upper-body disease in men and disease dominated by postural symptoms in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  18. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  19. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  20. Clinical Study on Acupuncture Treatment for Parkinson's Non-motor Symptoms%针灸治疗帕金森病非运动症状的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新新; 张世正; 宋成城; 林菲菲; 黄建平

    2018-01-01

    帕金森病(Parkinson Disease,PD)是一种由α-突触核蛋白病变导致的神经退化疾病,全球约八百万的患者深受影响,表现为一系列进行性的运动与非运动症状.现随着对PD的认知逐步加深,静止性震颤为主的运动症状并不是PD唯一表现,许多非运动症状如自主神经症状、精神症状、感觉异常等也是PD重要的临床表现.并且可以早于非运动症状出现,非运动症状对患者生活的影响往往不亚于运动症状,其复杂多变的临床症候群远比运动症状要复杂得多,其临床治疗也更加棘手,而传统的抗PD药物如左旋多巴等往往收效甚微.目前临床研究中,针灸治疗PD非运动症状上有一定的效果,这对于扩展治疗PD的途径有很大的帮助.%Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from alpha-synuclein lesions, which affects about eight million patients over the world. PD is manifested in progressive motor and non-motor symptoms. With understanding of PD gradually deepened, motor symptoms mainly manifested in resting tremor are not the only manifestations of PD. Clinically many non-motor symptoms such as autonomic nervous symptoms, mental symptoms and paresthesia are also the important manifestations of PD and can appear earlier than motor symptoms. The effect of the non-motor symptoms on the patients' life is often not less than that of the motor symptoms. Clinically the changeable non-motor symptoms are far more complex and more difficult to treat than the motor symptoms. Conventional anti-PD drugs such as levodopa have little effect on the non-motor symptoms. Present clinical studies have showed that acupuncture has a certain therapeutic effect on the non-motor symptoms of PD. This provides important help for expanding the way to treat PD.

  1. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  2. Reduced NAA in motor and non-motor brain regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, R R; Suhy, J; Schuff, N; Gelinas, D F; Miller, R G; Weiner, M W

    2004-09-01

    After replication of previous findings we aimed to: 1) determine if previously reported (1)H MRSI differences between ALS patients and control subjects are limited to the motor cortex; and 2) determine the longitudinal metabolic changes corresponding to varying levels of diagnostic certainty. Twenty-one patients with possible/suspected ALS, 24 patients with probable/definite ALS and 17 control subjects underwent multislice (1)H MRSI co-registered with tissue-segmented MRI to obtain concentrations of the brain metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline in the left and right motor cortex and in gray matter and white matter of non-motor regions in the brain. In the more affected hemisphere, reductions in the ratios, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cre+Cho were observed both within (12.6% and 9.5% respectively) and outside (9.2% and 7.3% respectively) the motor cortex in probable/definite ALS. However, these reductions were significantly greater within the motor cortex (PNAA/Cho and PNAA/Cre+Cho). Longitudinal changes in NAA were observed at three months within the motor cortex of both possible/suspected ALS patients (PNAA ratios are reduced in the motor cortex and outside the motor cortex in ALS, suggesting widespread neuronal injury. Longitudinal changes of NAA are not reliable, suggesting that NAA may not be a useful surrogate marker for treatment trials.

  3. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.

  4. Final Report for Phase II Study: Prototyping the Sketch Planning Visualization Tool for Non-Motorized Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Taylor, Rob D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    To further examine how factors such as those identified from the Phase I NMT study, and the modeling framework developed under that effort could be applied to local/regional level planning activities, FHWA decided to pursue a Phase II study. It was determined that a small geographic area with more detailed local data would be necessary. Although Washington D.C. was not one of the 2009 NHTS add-ons, it did conduct a household travel survey of 11,000 households in 2007-2008. The National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board at the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (MWCOG) conducted the household travel survey. The data coverage under the MWCOG survey is much higher than that of the NHTS. As a part of the Phase II study, a prototype of a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based sketch planning visualization tool was also to be developed. The intent was to use a neighborhood in the Washington D.C. region as a case study for this prototype application.

  5. Among Early Appearing Non-Motor Signs of Parkinson’s Disease, Alteration of Olfaction but Not Electroencephalographic Spectrum Correlates with Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii V. Cozac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory decline is a frequent and early non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which is increasingly used for diagnostic purposes. Another early appearing sign of PD consists in electroencephalographic (EEG alterations. The combination of olfactory and EEG assessment may improve the identification of patients with early stages of PD. We hypothesized that olfactory capacity would be correlated with EEG alterations and motor and cognitive impairment in PD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the mutual influence of both markers of PD—olfactory decrease and EEG changes—was not studied before. We assessed the function of odor identification using olfactory “Screening 12 Test” (“Sniffin’ Sticks®”, between two samples: patients with PD and healthy controls (HC. We analyzed correlations between the olfactory function and demographical parameters, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III, cognitive task performance, and spectral alpha/theta ratio (α/θ. In addition, we used receiver operating characteristic-curve analysis to check the classification capacity (PD vs HC of olfactory function, α/θ, and a combined marker (olfaction and α/θ. Olfactory capacity was significantly decreased in PD patients, and correlated with age, disease duration, UPDRS-III, and with items of UPDRS-III related to gait and axial rigidity. In HC, olfaction correlated with age only. No correlation with α/θ was identified in both samples. Combined marker showed the largest area under the curve. In addition to EEG, the assessment of olfactory function may be a useful tool in the early characterization and follow-up of PD.

  6. Do cognition and other non-motor symptoms decline similarly among patients with Parkinson's disease motor subtypes? Findings from a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, L; Herman, Talia; Shema-Shiratzky, S; Giladi, N; Hausdorff, J M

    2017-10-01

    Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. PD is often divided into tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) motor subtypes. We evaluated the effect of disease duration and aimed to characterize whether there are differences in the deterioration of cognitive function and other NMS between the PIGD and TD subtypes. Sixty-three subjects were re-evaluated at the follow-up visit about 5 years after baseline examination. Cognitive function and other NMS were assessed. At follow-up, the PIGD and TD groups were similar with respect to medications, comorbidities and disease-related symptoms. There was a significant time effect for all measures, indicating deterioration and worsening in both groups. However, cognitive scores, particularly those related to executive function, became significantly worse in the PIGD with a more moderate decrease in the TD group. For example, the computerized global cognitive score declined in the PIGD group from 94.21 ± 11.88 to 83.91 ± 13.76, p motor-cognitive catch game (p = 0.008). In contrast, several NMS including depression, health-related quality of life and fear of falling deteriorated in parallel in both subtypes, with no interaction effect. The present findings highlight the difference in the natural history of the disease between the two PD "motor" subtypes. While the PIGD group demonstrated a significant cognitive decline, especially in executive functions, a more favorable course was observed in the TD subtype. This behavior was not seen in regards to the other NMS.

  7. Motor and Non-motor Features: Differences between Patients with Isolated Essential Tremor and Patients with Both Essential Tremor and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolia Ghika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with essential tremor (ET who develop Parkinson’s disease (ET->PD may differ with respect to motor features (MFs and non-motor features (NMFs from patients with isolated ET. Few studies have assessed this issue. Methods: In this retrospective chart review, we analyzed data on MFs and NMFs of 175 patients, including 54 ET->PD and 121 ET, actively followed in the Athens University 1st Neurology Department. Results: Significantly more ET->PD than ET patients reported asymmetric tremor at ET onset (68.5% vs. 14.9%, p<0.001.  Significantly more ET than ET->PD patients had head tremor (43.5% vs. 13.2%, p<0.001 and cerebellar signs (41.3% vs. 9.3%, p<0.001. More ET than ET->PD patients reported hearing impairment (65.3% vs. 28.3%, p<0.001 and restless legs syndrome (34.8% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001. Conversely, a larger proportion of ET->PD than ET patients reported rapid eye movement behavior disorder (51.9% vs. 10.0%, p<0.001, constipation (67.9% vs. 36.4%, p<0.001, and olfactory dysfunction (83.3% vs. 36.4%, p<0.001. Discussion: The subset of ET->PD patients may have distinct MFs and NMFs that should be assessed further for the possible predictive value for the emergence of PD.  

  8. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. 帕金森氏病相关非运动症状的研究进展%Progression of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单煜恒; 路美

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of common neurological degenerative diseases.Traditional research focused more on the syndromes of movement disorder in PD,such as static tremor,muscular rigidity,movement retardation and postural balance abnormality.Nowadays,highlights have shifted to non-motor symptoms (NMS),including psychosis,cognitive impairment,sleep behavior disorder,olfactory dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction.These NMSs are of high incidence,therapy-resistance and lower quality of life.A large number of basic and clinical studies about NMS at home and abroad have increased dramatically over the last decade.However,the diagnosis or treatment principles of this disease are relatively deficient.It is our aim to review these articles,bring them into focus,expand the knowledge of NMS and consequently develop therapeutic strategies for PD patients.%帕金森氏病是常见的神经系统变性疾病之一.传统研究更多关注于此病的运动症状,诸如静止性震颤、肌肉强直、运动迟缓及姿势平衡异常.近年来,关注的焦点转移至非运动症状.帕金森氏病相关的非运动症状包括有精神疾病、认知功能障碍、睡眠障碍、嗅觉障碍及自主神经功能障碍等等.这些非运动症状具有发生率高、控制效果差、降低患者生活质量等诸多特点.尽管国内外针对这一系列症状已开展大量基础及临床研究,但是此病无论是诊断标准还是治疗原则都相对欠缺.本文检索并综述近几年帕金森氏病相关的非运动症状的相关文献,旨在加深对这一疾病认识并探索今后研究方向.

  10. Pure visual imagery as a potential approach to achieve three classes of control for implementation of BCI in non-motor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Teresa; Amaral, Carlos; Andrade, João; Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano J.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    imagery with potential for the implementation of multiclass (3) BCIs. Our results are consistent with the notion that frontal alpha synchronization is related with high internal processing demands, changing with the number of alternation levels during imagery. Together, these findings suggest the feasibility of pure visual motion imagery tasks as a strategy to achieve multiclass control systems with potential for BCI and in particular, neurofeedback applications in non-motor (attentional) disorders.

  11. Weight Change Is a Characteristic Non-Motor Symptom in Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease Patients with Non-Tremor Dominant Subtype: A Nation-Wide Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kyu Mun

    Full Text Available Despite the clinical impact of non-motor symptoms (NMS in Parkinson's disease (PD, the characteristic NMS in relation to the motor subtypes of PD is not well elucidated. In this study, we enrolled drug-naïve PD patients and compared NMS between PD subtypes. We enrolled 136 drug-naïve, early PD patients and 50 normal controls. All the enrolled PD patients were divided into tremor dominant (TD and non-tremor dominant (NTD subtypes. The Non-Motor Symptom Scale and scales for each NMS were completed. We compared NMS and the relationship of NMS with quality of life between normal controls and PD patients, and between the PD subtypes. Comparing with normal controls, PD patients complained of more NMS, especially mood/cognitive symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, unexplained pain, weight change, and change in taste or smell. Between the PD subtypes, the NTD subtype showed higher total NMS scale score and sub-score about weight change. Weight change was the characteristic NMS related to NTD subtype even after controlled other variables with logistic regression analysis. Even from the early stage, PD patients suffer from various NMS regardless of dopaminergic medication. Among the various NMS, weight change is the characteristic NMS associated with NTD subtype in PD patients.

  12. Weight Change Is a Characteristic Non-Motor Symptom in Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease Patients with Non-Tremor Dominant Subtype: A Nation-Wide Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jun Kyu; Youn, Jinyoung; Cho, Jin Whan; Oh, Eung-Seok; Kim, Ji Sun; Park, Suyeon; Jang, Wooyoung; Park, Jin Se; Koh, Seong-Beom; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Park, Hee Kyung; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Shin, Hae-Won; Choi, Sun-Ah; Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Seong-Min; Park, Ji-Yun; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Ahn, Tae-Beom; Kim, Won Chan; Kim, Hyun Sook; Cheon, Sang Myung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Hee-Tae; Lee, Jee-Young; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Kwang Soo; Kim, Joong-Seok; Kim, Min-Jeong; Baik, Jong Sam; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Mee Young; Kang, Ji Hoon; Song, Sook Kun; Kim, Yong Duk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Ho-Won; Song, In-Uk; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Phil Hyu; Park, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Hyung Geun; Park, Kun Woo; Kwon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical impact of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), the characteristic NMS in relation to the motor subtypes of PD is not well elucidated. In this study, we enrolled drug-naïve PD patients and compared NMS between PD subtypes. We enrolled 136 drug-naïve, early PD patients and 50 normal controls. All the enrolled PD patients were divided into tremor dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) subtypes. The Non-Motor Symptom Scale and scales for each NMS were completed. We compared NMS and the relationship of NMS with quality of life between normal controls and PD patients, and between the PD subtypes. Comparing with normal controls, PD patients complained of more NMS, especially mood/cognitive symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, unexplained pain, weight change, and change in taste or smell. Between the PD subtypes, the NTD subtype showed higher total NMS scale score and sub-score about weight change. Weight change was the characteristic NMS related to NTD subtype even after controlled other variables with logistic regression analysis. Even from the early stage, PD patients suffer from various NMS regardless of dopaminergic medication. Among the various NMS, weight change is the characteristic NMS associated with NTD subtype in PD patients.

  13. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  14. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  15. Technology priorities for transport in Asia: assessment of economy-wide CO2 emissions reduction for Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Marpaung, Charles O. P.

    2015-01-01

    mitigations actions (NAMA) given their strong contribution for development and therefore a methodology based on in-put out-put decomposition analysis is proposed for analysing economy wide CO2 emissions reductions. The methodology has been applied for the transport sector of Lebanon where alternative fuels...... of technologies and availability of technology characteristics. Non-motorized transport, mass transit and technologies that improve vehicle energy efficiency emerged as the three most preferred technology choices for the countries. These technology choices can be appropriate candidates for nationally appropriate......,improvement to cars (private and taxis) and buses for public transport were prioritized by stakeholders. The economy-wide CO2 emission reduce by 2,269 thousand tons by 2020 if the prioritized technologies are implemented in Lebanon. Fuel mix effect and structural effect would reduce CO2 emission by 2,611 thousand...

  16. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of 'transport-land uses' policies in Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The current trends of urban dynamics in the Third World are alarming with regard to climate change, because they are giving an increasingly important role to cars-to the detriment of public and non-motorized transportation. Yet this is the type of energy consumption that is expected to grow the fastest, in business-as-usual scenarios. How can these market-based urban trends be influenced? What level of emissions reduction can be achieved? This article shows that first, there is a relevant and urgent need to tackle the urban dynamics of cities in developing countries focusing on the 'transport-land uses' couple, and second, that existing transport technologies and decision-helping tools are already available to take up the climate change challenge. Through the application of an integrated 'transport-land uses' model, TRANUS, this study demonstrates that transit technologies affordable to an emerging city like Bangalore can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. Furthermore, this study establishes that there are tools which are available to facilitate the necessary policy-making processes. These tools allow stakeholders to discuss different political alternatives integrating energy issues, based on quantitative assessments

  17. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  18. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  19. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  20. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  1. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  2. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences of the Non-Motor Symptoms Studied by the Traditional Chinese Version of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society- Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rwei-Ling; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Chan, Anne Y Y; Mok, Vincent; Wu, Yih-Ru; Tilley, Barbara C; Luo, Sheng; Wang, Lu; LaPelle, Nancy R; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of ethnic differences in the evaluation of various aspects of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we present the formal procedure for completing the traditional Chinese translation of the International and Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society/UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) and highlight the discrepancy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) between patients in Eastern and Western countries. A total of 350 native Chinese-speaking PD patients were recruited from multiple hospitals in Eastern countries; they completed the MDS-UPDRS. The translation process was executed and factor analysis was performed to determine the structure of the scale. Chi-squared and t tests were used to compare frequency and severity of PD symptoms between the Chinese-speaking and English-speaking groups (n = 876). NMS and motor symptoms were more severe in the Western population (Part I: t (1205) = 5.36, P < 0.0001; and Part III: t (1205) = 7.64, P < 0.0001); however, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and impairments in activities of daily living were more frequent in the Eastern patients. The comparative fit index was 0.93 or greater, and the exploratory factor analysis revealed compatible results between the translated scale and the original version. The traditional Chinese version of the MDS-UPDRS can be designated as an official translation of the original scale, and it is now available for use. Moreover, NMS in PD constitute a major issue worldwide, and the pattern of NMS among the Chinese population is more marked in terms of cognition-based symptoms and activities of daily living.

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  5. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  6. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  7. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  8. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  9. A Computer Clone of Human Expert for Mobility Management Scheme (E-MMS): Step toward Green Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resdiansyah; O. K Rahmat, R. A.; Ismail, A.

    2018-03-01

    Green transportation refers to a sustainable transport that gives the least impact in terms of social and environmental but at the same time is able to supply energy sources globally that includes non-motorized transport strategies deployment to promote healthy lifestyles, also known as Mobility Management Scheme (MMS). As construction of road infrastructure cannot help solve the problem of congestion, past research has shown that MMS is an effective measure to mitigate congestion and to achieve green transportation. MMS consists of different strategies and policies that subdivided into categories according to how they are able to influence travel behaviour. Appropriate selection of mobility strategies will ensure its effectiveness in mitigating congestion problems. Nevertheless, determining appropriate strategies requires human expert and depends on a number of success factors. This research has successfully developed a computer clone system based on human expert, called E-MMS. The process of knowledge acquisition for MMS strategies and the next following process to selection of strategy has been encode in a knowledge-based system using a shell expert system. The newly developed computer cloning system was successfully verified, validated and evaluated (VV&E) by comparing the result output with the real transportation expert recommendation in which the findings suggested Introduction

  10. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities Transporte y salud: una mirada a tres ciudades latinoamericanas Transporte e saúde: um olhar sobre três cidades latino-americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Dujon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia, Curitiba (Brazil, and Santiago (Chile, and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.El transporte está asociado con problemas ambientales, pérdidas económicas, salud poblacional e inequidades sociales. En ciudades de Europa y Estados Unidos hay iniciativas para promover el transporte multimodal. En Latinoamérica hay proyectos en curso para cambiar los sistemas de transporte y estimular el transporte no motorizado (caminar y montar bicicleta. Basada en una revisión de artículos publicados en revistas académicas, se identifica de qué forma los cambios en el transporte en Bogotá (Colombia, Curitiba (Brasil y Santiago (Chile han contribuido a promover el transporte activo. A pesar que en estas tres ciudades se están implementando iniciativas para promover el transporte activo (sistema de autobuses articulados, ciclovías, ciclorutas, y restricciones para el uso del coche particular, pocos estudios han sido desarrollados sobre

  11. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  12. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  13. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  14. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  15. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  16. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  17. Land use impacts on transport : how land use factors affect travel behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2005-11-16

    The relationship between land use patterns and travel behaviour was examined with reference to the ability of land use management strategies to achieve transportation planning objectives. The study examined how land use factors such as density, regional accessibility, roadway connectivity affect per capita motor vehicle ownership and use; mode split; non-motorized travel; and accessibility by people who are physically or economically disadvantaged. The social, economic and environmental impacts that result from higher travel were discussed with reference to the degree to which conventional planning accounts for this increased travel. Alternatives for improving mobility in urban and suburban areas were presented. It was concluded that travel behaviour can change by promoting more efficient use of existing roadway capacity, by improving travel options and providing incentives to use alternative transport modes. It was suggested that strategies such as Smart Growth and New Urbanism can be applied in a variety of land use scenarios, including urban, suburban and rural areas to help achieve transportation planning objectives. 122 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  18. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The thesis “Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease” is part of the PROPARK study, a longitudinal cohort study of approximately 400 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who are profiled on genotype, phenotype, disability, and global outcomes of health, using valid and reliable assessment

  19. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhuri, K. Ray

    2009-01-01

    ... dysfunction of Parkinson's disease 95 Daisy L. Whitehead and Richard. G. Brown 9 Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson's disease 107 David A. Gallagher and Anette Schrag 10 Dementia in Pa...

  20. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  1. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  2. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  3. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  5. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  6. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  7. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  8. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  10. From Rail-Oriented to Automobile-Oriented Urban Development and Back. 100 Years of Paradigm Change and Transport Policy in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann Kunst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport and its side effects are major problems in rapidly growing cities. Car traffic dominates these cities and pollutes the environment without being able to sufficiently secure the mobility of the urban population and goods. A paradigm shift in urban and transport policy will be necessary to change this situation. In spite of its different development dynamics, Berlin is an interesting example to discuss development strategies for rapidly growing cities because in the course of more than 100 years, a twofold paradigm shift has occurred in the city both conceptually and practically:  Berlin has shifted from a city dominated by rail traffic  to an automobile-oriented city,  and has then gradually transformed back into a city in which  an intertwined system of public and non-motorized individual means of transport secures the mobility of the urban population. The interdependencies on the conceptual level between urban planning and transport policies as well as on a practical level between urban structures and transport systems can be studied using the example of Berlin. Experiences with the implementation of automobile-oriented planning and the special conditions in the first decade after reunification led to protests, reflection, and a revision of the transport policy. A strategically designed process of integrated planning has brought about a trend reversal, and steered the development of transport in the direction of clearly formulated sustainability-oriented objectives. In this process, the reintegration of transport and spatial planning and a reorganization of institutional structures at the administrative level was of particular importance. Compact, rail-oriented settlement structures like in the metropolitan region of Berlin make it easier to dispense with automobiles than sprawled structures. The residual role that qualitatively improved automobiles will take in the cities of the future will have to be determined by research and

  11. Beyond emission targets: how to decarbonize the passenger transport sector? Results from the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project for Transport (DDPP-T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    Reaching the ambitious climate objective of the Paris Agreement requires decreasing significantly sectoral emissions from the transport sector. However, the ambition pledged for the transport sector under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) remains very limited. The DDPP-T analyzes Paris-compatible sectoral strategies for the passenger transport that can serve to inform the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue and the preparation of future, more ambitious, NDCs by 2020. In a context of an expected steep increase in global mobility demand, deep decarbonization will require a mix of different 'well-known' options: the rapid diffusion of low-carbon vehicles and low-carbon fuels and the modal shift towards low-carbon modes like public transport and non-motorized transport (cycling and walking). However, while crucial, these options are not 'silver bullets' that on their own meet the decarbonization challenge, given their intrinsic individual limitations. The project adopts an integrated approach of sectoral deep decarbonization strategies articulating the diffusion of low-carbon technologies with the future of mobility and all its drivers, such as the demographic and economic situation, the localization of population centers, the transport and urban planning, the lifestyles and the features of mobility services. The strategies are context-specific in order to capture different country circumstances, and consider a long-term horizon to inform the short-term conditions enabling structural changes of the transport system. Building on four country analyses (France, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom), this Issue Brief derives five cross-cutting messages for a deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector. Key messages: - Deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector requires strong actions on four pillars of transformation. Only a consistent articulation of these synergistic pillars allows an effective deep decarbonization. - Deep

  12. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  13. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  14. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  16. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  17. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  18. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  19. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  20. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  1. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  2. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  3. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  4. Monoamine transporter availability in Parkinson's disease patients with or without depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Swen; Meyer, Philipp M.; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama; Strecker, Karl; Wegner, Florian; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Schwarz, Johannes; Oehlwein, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common symptom in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and markedly reduces their quality of life. As post-mortem studies have shown, its presence may reflect extensive cell loss in the midbrain and brainstem with imbalances in monoaminergic neurotransmitters. However, in vivo evidence of specific monoaminergic deficits in depressed PD patients is still sparse. Therefore, we studied PD patients with depression (PD+D) and without depression (PD-D) using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the monoamine transporter marker [ 123 I]FP-CIT. A magnetic resonance imaging-based region-of-interest analysis was applied to quantify the specific-to-nondisplaceable [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding coefficient V 3 '' in the striatum, thalamus and midbrain/brainstem regions. PD+D patients had significantly lower V 3 '' compared with PD-D patients in the striatum (p 3 '' than controls (p 3 '' nor midbrain/brainstem V 3 '' differed from those in PD-D patients (p=0.168, p=0.201) or controls (p=0.384, p=0.318). Our data indicate that depression in PD is associated with a more pronounced loss of striatal dopamine transporter availability that is most likely secondary to increased dopaminergic degeneration. In addition, depressed PD patients have a lower availability of midbrain/brainstem monoamine transporters than nondepressed PD patients. These findings provide in vivo evidence in support of the known post-mortem data demonstrating more extensive nerve cell loss in PD with depression and indicate that SPECT imaging can help to identify pathophysiological changes underlying nonmotor symptoms in this common movement disorder. (orig.)

  5. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  6. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  7. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  8. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  9. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  10. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  11. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  12. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  13. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  14. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  15. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  16. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  17. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  18. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  19. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  20. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  1. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  2. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  4. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  5. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  6. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  7. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  8. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  9. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  10. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  11. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  12. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  13. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  14. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  15. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  16. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  17. Towards Hybrid Urban Mobility: Kick Scooter as a Means of Individual Transport in the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The characteristic feature of a contemporary city is its inconvenience and oppressiveness caused by the hitherto dominant paradigm of urban planning based on car mobility. As a result, the inhabitants have to cope with air pollution, noise, spatial barriers, sedentary lifestyle and other factors which worsen their health and quality of life. Ecological and physically activating urban mobility thus plays an increasingly important role in the process of creating a friendly and healthy city. For many years, a steadily increasing share of bicycles in urban traffic has been observed. There are also other trending forms of non-motorized transport, such as in-line skates, skateboards, kick scooters, etc. Riding each of them can be regarded as a form of recreation or sport, but also as an ecological, physically activating means of urban mobility. The paper discusses the different forms of recreational mobility in the context of the possibility of combining it with city public transport, with particular emphasis on kick scooters. Kick scooters are becoming more and more popular, not only among children and youth, but also among adults, who use it mainly as a means of the non-motorised urban transport. Numerous publications from different parts of the world show a dynamic growth of this phenomenon. The aim of the article is also to answer the question in what extent the design of public space takes into consideration the use of these new forms of transport and recreation and, consequently, what aspects and requirements should be taken into account in the planning and design process. The paper presents the conclusions of a field study carried out with a group of students in Szczecin and Berlin. The aim of the research was to evaluate the possibilities of using kick scooters in big cities as a means of hybrid mobility combined with public transport by exploring the spectrum of public spaces (streets, squares, traffic nodes and hubs, public buildings, etc.) and testing the

  18. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  19. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  20. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  1. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  2. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  3. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  4. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  5. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  6. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  7. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  8. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  9. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  10. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  11. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  12. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  13. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  15. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  16. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  17. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  18. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  19. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  20. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  1. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  4. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  5. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  6. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  7. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  8. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  10. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  11. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  12. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  13. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  14. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  15. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  16. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  17. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  18. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  19. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  20. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  1. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  2. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  3. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  4. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  5. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  6. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  7. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  8. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  9. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  10. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  11. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  12. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  13. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  14. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  15. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  16. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  17. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  18. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  19. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  20. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  1. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  2. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  4. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  5. Monoamine transporter availability in Parkinson's disease patients with or without depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Meyer, Philipp M.; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Strecker, Karl; Wegner, Florian; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Schwarz, Johannes [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Oehlwein, Christian [Specialized Parkinson' s Disease Outpatient Centre, Gera (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Depression is a common symptom in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and markedly reduces their quality of life. As post-mortem studies have shown, its presence may reflect extensive cell loss in the midbrain and brainstem with imbalances in monoaminergic neurotransmitters. However, in vivo evidence of specific monoaminergic deficits in depressed PD patients is still sparse. Therefore, we studied PD patients with depression (PD+D) and without depression (PD-D) using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the monoamine transporter marker [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. A magnetic resonance imaging-based region-of-interest analysis was applied to quantify the specific-to-nondisplaceable [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding coefficient V{sub 3}'' in the striatum, thalamus and midbrain/brainstem regions. PD+D patients had significantly lower V{sub 3}'' compared with PD-D patients in the striatum (p<0.001), thalamus (p=0.002), and midbrain/brainstem (p=0.025). Only PD+D patients without selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment showed lower thalamic and midbrain V{sub 3}'' than controls (p<0.001, p=0.029). In a small sub-group of SSRI-treated PD+D patients neither thalamic V{sub 3}'' nor midbrain/brainstem V{sub 3}'' differed from those in PD-D patients (p=0.168, p=0.201) or controls (p=0.384, p=0.318). Our data indicate that depression in PD is associated with a more pronounced loss of striatal dopamine transporter availability that is most likely secondary to increased dopaminergic degeneration. In addition, depressed PD patients have a lower availability of midbrain/brainstem monoamine transporters than nondepressed PD patients. These findings provide in vivo evidence in support of the known post-mortem data demonstrating more extensive nerve cell loss in PD with depression and indicate that SPECT imaging can help to identify pathophysiological changes underlying nonmotor

  6. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  7. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  8. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  9. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  10. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  11. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  12. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  13. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  14. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  15. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  16. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  19. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  20. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  1. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  2. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  3. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  4. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  5. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  6. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  7. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  8. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  9. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  10. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  11. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  13. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  14. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  15. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  18. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  19. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  20. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  1. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  2. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  3. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  4. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  5. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  6. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  7. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  8. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  10. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  11. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  12. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  13. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  14. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  15. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  16. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  17. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  18. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  19. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  20. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  1. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  2. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  3. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  4. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  5. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  6. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  7. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  8. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  9. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  10. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  11. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  12. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  13. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  14. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  15. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  16. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  17. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  18. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  19. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  20. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  1. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  3. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  4. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  5. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  7. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  8. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport....... For these reasons, in this chapter we will just concentrate on issues related with modelling the demand for travel in the relatively short term. In particular, we will refer to modelling discrete short-term choices, such as mode, route and/or trip timing; although in our analysis we will pay attention to research...

  9. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  10. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  13. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  14. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  15. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  16. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  17. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  18. Transportable hyperpolarized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Bornet, Aurélien; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Gajan, David; Rossini, Aaron J.; Emsley, Lyndon; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-labelled metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can enhance the NMR signals of metabolites by several orders of magnitude, which has enabled in vivo metabolic imaging by MRI. However, because of the short lifetime of the hyperpolarized magnetization (typically <1 min), the polarization process must be carried out close to the point of use. Here we introduce a concept that markedly extends hyperpolarization lifetimes and enables the transportation of hyperpolarized metabolites. The hyperpolarized sample can thus be removed from the polarizer and stored or transported for use at remote MRI or NMR sites. We show that hyperpolarization in alanine and glycine survives 16 h storage and transport, maintaining overall polarization enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude. PMID:28072398

  19. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  20. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  1. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads

    2009-01-01

    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  2. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  3. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  4. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  5. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  6. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  7. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  8. Transporte de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Diego

    2012-01-01

    El transporte de caballos es una actividad muy frecuente que se realiza por distintos motivos: competencias de equitación, cría, subastas, tratamientos, etc. En todos los casos, una de las principales preocupaciones de los propietarios es procurar un traslado seguro y confortable. Esto sucede porque si el medio de transporte no es el adecuado puede provocar en los equinos un importante distrés, que se manifiesta en patologías de origen respiratorio, así como traumatismos en los miembros, lo q...

  9. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  10. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  11. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  12. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION PLANNERS

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICO DOS SANTOS LIPORACE

    2005-01-01

    Oleodutos têm um papel importante no transporte de petróleo e de seus derivados, pois são a maneira mais eficaz de transportar grandes volumes por longas distâncias. A motivação deste trabalho é que uma parte não negligenciável do preço final de um derivado de petróleo é influenciada pelo custo de transporte. Apesar disso, até onde sabemos, apenas alguns autores trabalharam neste problema específico, a maioria utilizando técnicas de programação inteira. Este tr...

  13. Transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During november and december 2001, 2 events concerning nuclear transport were reported and classified on the first grade (grade 1) of the INES scale. The first event concerns a hole in a transport cask of contaminated tools. The hole seems to have been made by the fork of a handling equipment. The second event concerns the loss of a parcel containing a technetium generator, this generator represented an activity of about 141 G Becquerel of 99 Mo the day it left the premises of CIS-bio in Saclay. (A.C.)

  14. Introduction to radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This lecture will present time-dependent radiation transport where the radiation is coupled to a static medium, i.e., the material is not in motion. In reality, radiation exerts a pressure on the materials it propagates through and will accelerate the material in the direction of the radiation flow. This fully coupled problem with radiation transport and materials in motion is referred to as radiation-hydrodynamics (or in a shorthand notation: rad-hydro) and is beyond the scope of this lecture

  15. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  16. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    by a given supply of transport. In contrast with conventional methods, this method operates with real measures, i.e. real location (instead of traffic zones), real time (instead of average travel time), and real costs (instead of proxy-costs). The purpose is to produce relevant and easily understandable......This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...

  17. Transport research: Quo Vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available the national R&D programme in transport became fragmented and consequently very little R&D has been done in the 2000s. This paper analyses the lessons learnt from six historic research programmes in both the public and private sector and in several project...

  18. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  19. Urban Transportation Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Kurt A.; Foster, Patrick N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that involves planning a community and then altering the transportation system to meet new specifications. Includes the rationale for the activity, how it fits into the technology education curriculum, and how it was implemented to fit a variety of age and grade levels. (JOW)

  20. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  1. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  2. Transport near slippery interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander

    2016-01-01

    Some surfaces exhibit wall slip, meaning that a owing uid has a velocity relative to that surface. This leads to increased advection in the direct vicinity of the wall. As this directly a ects the rate of transport at larger scales, slippery surfaces have a potentially important application in

  3. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the neoclassical transport theory. Ch. 8 deals with toroidal magnetic confinement. Ch. 9 studies the motion of an individual particle in a toroidal field. Ch.'s 10 and 11 are devoted to the study of the kinetic equation appropriate to the situation that prevails in the neoclassical theory. Ch. 12 is devoted to the general study of the macroscopic moment equations in toroidal geometry. In ch. 13 the first new transport equations are derived. They include the strange Pfirsch-Schlueter effect. In ch. 14 the method of solution of the kinetic equation in the long free path regime is developed. In ch. 15 the typical long mean free path neoclassical transport equations are obtained and discussed; their very pecular differences with the classicial ones are emphasized. Ch. 16 introduces a mean free path regime as well as a method of interpolation of the results over the whole range of collisionalities. Ch. 17 provides the connection of the transport theory with non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a regime (long mean free path) where the applicability of the latter seems, at first sight, questionable. Nevertheless a complete and consistent thermodynamic theory can be set up, even in this regime. Finally, ch. 18 goes back to the hydrodynamical equations and treats the problem of their closure (in toroidal geometry)

  4. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  5. Helium transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Chan, A.

    1986-09-01

    Initial measurements of the 15 MeV protons produced in TFTR by the d( 3 He, p)α fusion reaction have been used to determine the time evolution of the central 3 He density. The signals following short 3 He gas puffs indicate inward transport times of about 100 msec

  6. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Solute transport in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with

  8. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  9. What can Transport Deliver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Fulton, Lewis; Figueroa, Maria J.

    We compare detailed projections of transport energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to the year 2050 and review representative pathways towards the specific mitigation targets outlined in the Fifth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5), contrasting sectora...

  10. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  11. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Phloem transport in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Shinichi. Asao

    2014-01-01

    Phloem is like an enigmatic central banker: we know how important phloem is to plant function, but very little about how phloem functions as part of a whole-plant economy. Phloem transports carbohydrates, produced by photosynthesis and hydrolysis of reserve compounds, to sink tissues for growth, respiration and storage. At photosynthetic tissues, carbohydrates are...

  13. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  14. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  15. Atomic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  16. Radioactive materials transport experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhaar, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the kinds of packaging suitable for different types of waste, the roles of highway and rail transport, restrictions imposed by political entities and carriers, and safety. The U. S. accident record is described, with some statistics given

  17. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.

    1989-07-01

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined [fr

  19. Bystruktur og transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2003-01-01

    Paperet præsenterer hovedkonklusionerne fra et PhD-studie af sammenhængene mellem bystruktur (særligt boliglokalisering) og transport i Aalborg. Det konkluderes at boliglokaliseringen har væsentlig betydning for transporten i det daglige. Det gælder især lokaliseringen i forhold til det samlede...

  20. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  2. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  3. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  4. Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data | Transportation Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on

  5. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  6. Transportation programs : challenges facing the department of transportation and congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A safe, efficient, and convenient : transportation system is integral to : the health of our economy and : quality of life. Our nations vast : transportation system of airways, : railways, roads, transit systems, : and waterways has served this : ...

  7. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  8. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  10. On the relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated through the flux-force relationship in the neoclassical theory that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved, the damping rate of the radial electric field of the zonal flow is reduced. This, in turn, leads to improved turbulent transport fluxes. Thus, two seemingly unrelated transport fluxes are intimately connected through the momentum equation, and the neoclassical flux-force relation. This also implies a method to improve turbulent transport by improving neoclassical fluxes

  11. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  12. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  13. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  14. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  15. Anomalous transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of what is known about anomalous transport in tokamaks. It is generally thought that this anomalous transport is the result of fluctuations in various plasma parameters. In the plasma edge detailed measurements of the quantities required to directly determine the fluctuation driven fluxes are available. The total flux of particles is well explained by the measured electrostatic fluctuation driven flux. However, a satisfactory model to explain the origin of the fluctuations has not been identified. The processes responsible for determining the edge energy flux are less clear, but electrostatic convection plays an important part. In the confinement region experimental observations are presently restricted to measurements of density and potential fluctuations and their correlations. The characteristics of the measured fluctuations are discussed and compared with the predictions of various models. Comparisons between measured particle, electron heat and ion heat fluxes, and those fluxes predicted to result from the measured fluctuations, are made. Magnetic fluctuations is discussed

  16. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  17. Near field transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1991-01-01

    In repositories for nuclear waste there are many processes which will be instrumental in corroding the canisters and releasing the nuclides. Based on experiences from studies on the performance of repositories and on an actual design the major mechanisms influencing the integrity and performance of a repository are described and discussed. The paper addresses only conditions in crystalline rock repositories. The low water flow rate in fractures and channels plays a dominant role in limiting the interaction between water and waste. Molecular diffusion in the backfill and rock matrix as well as in the mobile water is an important transport process but actually limits the exchange rate because diffusive transport is slow. Solubility limits of both waste matrix and of individual nuclides are also important. Complicating processes include gas generation by iron corrosion and alpha-radiolysis. (au) (19 refs., 2 figs.)

  18. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  19. Shielded Canister Transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidem, G.G. Jr.; Fages, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will produce canisters filled with high-level radioactive waste immobilized in borosilicate glass. This report discusses a Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) which will provide the means for safe transportation and handling of the canisters from the Vitrification Building to the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The stainless steel canisters are 0.61 meters in diameter, 3.0 meters tall, and weigh approximately 2,135 kilograms, with a maximum exterior surface dose rate of 90,000 R/hr. The canisters are placed into storage tubes to a maximum of three tall (two for overpack canisters) with an impact limiter placed at the tube bottom and between each canister. A floor plug seals the top of the storage tube at the operating floor level of the CSB

  20. GERENCIAMENTO DE TRANSPORTE COLETIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bodmer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da primeira produção acadêmica voltada para as necessidades do setor de transporte de passageiros. O trabalho, destinado não só aos executivos das empresas, como também aos técnicos, aos pesquisadores e consultores da área de transporte de passageiros, traz no seu bojo a preocupação de aproximar as contribuições teóricas ao estado da prática nas empresas operadoras. O livro, através dos seus oito capítulos, abre as portas para os tópicos que devem ser considerados essenciais para as possibilidades de aperfeiçoamento e modernização gerencial.

  1. retardo de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Niño-Suárez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la obtención del modelo exacto en tiempo discreto de un robot móvil tipo (2,0, bajo la consideración de la existencia de retardos de transporte en la señal de control, producidos por la propagación de las señales entre los sensores y actuadores del robot y el control remoto. El modelo obtenido es evaluado mediante simulación, comparando su desempeño con un modelo discreto aproximado que incluye también retardos de transporte y con el modelo en tiempo continuo del mismo sistema.

  2. Axisymmetric tokamak scapeoff transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Langer, W.D.

    1982-08-01

    We present the first self-consistent estimate of the magnitude of each term in a fluid treatment of plasma transport for a plasma lying in regions of open field lines in an axisymmetric tokamak. The fluid consists of a pure hydrogen plasma with sources which arise from its interaction with neutral hydrogen atoms. The analysis and results are limited to the high collisionality regime, which is optimal for a gaseous neutralizer divertor, or to a cold plasma mantle in a tokamak reactor. In this regime, both classical and neoclassical transport processes are important, and loss of particles and energy by diamagnetic flow are also significant. The prospect of extending the analysis to the lower collisionality regimes encountered in many existing experiments is discussed

  3. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  4. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  5. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  6. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  7. Urban Transport and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irandu, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development

  8. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  9. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  10. Energy use in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R. R.

    1977-10-15

    Brief data and information on consumption of oil-based fuels in New Zealand transport are presented. Then the role of the private car, conservation attitudes and behavior, social impacts of energy conservation are discussed. Apart from the methanol and LP-gas options which do not conserve energy, but only substitute energy sources by local supplies, noticeable fuel savings without sacrificing mobility and changing living patterns can be achieved only by concerted implementation of a package of measures.

  11. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  12. Polaronic transport in polysilanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Nožár, Juraj; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I. I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures /16./. Montpellier, 24.08.2009-28.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polaronic transport * polysilanes * charge carrier mobility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  14. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  15. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  16. Thermalhydraulics and activity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.; Wren, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potential consequences of a reactor accident, in terms of its impact on public safety, rest on the source term of radioactive fission products. The source term, as, as defined by an international group of experts, is the quantity of radioactive material which might be released in a nuclear accident: its physical and chemical form and the other quantities needed to completely specify its dispersion in the environment (e.g., energy in the plume, height of release, duration of release etc.). Although there are a large number of physical and chemical factors that will contribute to the determination of the source term for a given accident scenario, those factors having a direct impact on the rate of transport are of obvious importance. The thermalhydraulic conditions controlling the rate of mass transport, among other things, are probably the most important factors influencing the source term. This paper is an overview of the areas in which thermalhydraulics most strongly influences activity transport during a severe accident in a water-cooled reactor. It also includes some discussion of the areas where coupling between the physics used in separate computer models of the two phenomena must be considered in any mechanistic best-estimate calculations of the source term

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  18. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  19. Energy transport in dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supritz, C. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: christoph.supritz@uni-ulm.de; Engelmann, A. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Reineker, P. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core.

  20. The transport safety programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The transport safety programme is one of the smaller technical sub-programmes in the Radiation Safety Section of the Division of Nuclear Safety, in terms of both regular budget and professional staff allocations. The overall aim of the programme is to promote the safe movement of radioactive material worldwide. The specific objectives are the development, review and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No 6, and its supporting documents Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80 and the assistance to Member States and International Organizations in the proper implementation of the Regulations. One of the important issues that emerged during an ongoing Review/Revision process is the transport of Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). Many of the radioactive waste materials fall in one of these categories. The subject has gained substance because it is expected that in the next decade radioactive waste could become available in so far unprecedented quantities and volumes due to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  1. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  2. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  3. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  4. Transportation Statistics Annual Report, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report describes the Nations transportation system, the systems performance, its contributions to the economy, and its effects on people and the environment. This 22nd edition of the report is based on infor...

  5. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  6. Globalisation, transport and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  7. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  8. North American Transportation Statistics Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains tables of data for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Data tables are divided up into 12 categories, including a country overview, transportation flows,...

  9. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  10. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  11. Transportation statistics annual report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 20th edition of the report is : base...

  12. Transportation statistics annual report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 18th edition of the report is : base...

  13. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  14. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  15. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  16. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  17. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  18. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  19. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A critique is presented of current methods of transporting spent nuclear fuel and the inadequacies of the associated contingency plans, with particular reference to the transportation of irradiated fuel through London. Anti-nuclear and pro-nuclear arguments are presented on a number of factors, including tests on flasks, levels of radiation exposure, routine transport arrangements and contingency arrangements. (U.K.)

  20. NWMO transportation technical work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  1. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  2. Lectures on neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1986-02-01

    This note is divided in two parts. In the first one the basis of transport theory, that is, the principal forms of the transport equation and the resulting theorems, are presented. The second part is particularly devoted to the applications of integral transport theory to reactor lattice problems [fr

  3. Transport, chaos and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, S.; Doveil, F.; Elskens, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop made it possible to gather for the first time plasma physicists, dynamical systems physicists and mathematicians, around a general theme focusing on the characterisation of chaotic transport. The participations have been divided into 4 topics: - dynamical systems and microscopic models of chaotic transport, - magnetic fluctuations and transport in tokamaks, - drift wave turbulence, self-organisation and intermittency, and - Wave-particle interactions

  4. Transport studies for ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, A.; Schultz, G.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a predictive study of plasma energy confinement in IGNITOR, performed with a 1 1/2-D transport code and the Tang an Redi transport model, are reported. For comparison, performance predictions for NET adopting similar assumptions on plasma transport are also presented. (author) 16 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  5. NWMO transportation technical work program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  6. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  9. The transportation institutional plan: Cooperative planning for NWPA transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Transportation Institutional Plan, published in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), defines a process for effective interaction among those who may be affected by transportation activities conducted under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The Plan describes formal mechanisms for identifying, addressing, and resolving specific transportation issues. An appendix to the Plan includes detailed discussion of the following transportation issues: (1) the transportation of defense waste; (2) prenotification; (3) physical and rail shipments; (4) highway routing; (5) rail routing; (6) inspection and enforcement for highway and rail shipments; (7) emergency response; (8) liability coverage for transportation to NWPA facilities; (9) cask design and testing; (10) overweight truck shipments; (11) rail service analysis; (12) mixture of transportation modes; (13) transportation infrastructure improvements; (14) OCRWM training standards; (15) transportation operational procedures; and (16) State, Tribal, and local regulation of transportation. The OCRWM's intent is to provide an open accounting of planning, to identify opportunities for public involvement in program activities, and to foster communication and negotiation in the cooperative development of a safe, efficient, and cost-effective NWPA transportation program

  10. The transport forecast - an important stage of transport management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Vasile; Dinu, Oana; Oprea, Cristina; Alina Roman, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    The transport system is a powerful system with varying loads in operation coming from changes in freight and passenger traffic in different time periods. The variations are due to the specific conditions of organization and development of socio-economic activities. The causes of varying loads can be included in three groups: economic, technical and organizational. The assessing of transport demand variability leads to proper forecast and development of the transport system, knowing that the market price is determined on equilibrium between supply and demand. The reduction of transport demand variability through different technical solutions, organizational, administrative, legislative leads to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport. The paper presents a new way of assessing the future needs of transport through dynamic series. Both researchers and practitioners in transport planning can benefit from the research results. This paper aims to analyze in an original approach how a good transport forecast can lead to a better management in transport, with significant effects on transport demand full meeting in quality terms. The case study shows how dynamic series of statistics can be used to identify the size of future demand addressed to the transport system.

  11. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  12. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  13. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  14. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  15. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  18. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  19. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  20. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.