WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonmineral dietary supplements

  1. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  2. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  3. Prevalence of nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement usage among students in a Turkish university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Osman

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been multiple studies carried out in many countries with regard to the use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements. These studies have shown that the use of NVNM supplements is on the increase throughout the world, particularly in western countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of NVNM supplement use among Turkish university students. Methods The survey was conducted between September and December 2004 at Osmangazi University, a public university located in the west of Turkey. Responses were analysed, using the chi-square (x2 test, t test and percent (% ratios, according to gender and consumers. Differences were considered significant for p ≤ 0.05. Results Of 2253 students attending the university, 1871 participated in the survey (909 men and 962 women. Overall, the prevalence of NVNM supplement use was 16.5% (16.6% in men and 16.3% in women, p The three most commonly given reasons for use were 'improvement of energy and vitality (78.6%', 'promotion of weight loss (71.1%', followed by 'enhancement of athletic performance (64.3%'. Twenty-six of the 308 reported NVNM users (26/308, 8.4% reported having experienced an adverse reaction. Television (76.3%, magazines/newspapers (41.5% and internet websites (37.3% were the most frequently used sources for obtaining information about NVNM supplements. The three most frequently used NVNM supplements were echinacea, ginseng, and gingko biloba (38.6%, 36.4%, and 32.8%, respectively. Nutritional scores were higher in NVNM supplement users than in non-users (66.510.8 vs. 62.712.7 (p Conclusion The results indicate that the prevalence of NVNM supplement use is relatively modest among Turkish university students and more information is needed on why people use particular NVNM supplements.

  4. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  5. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  6. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  7. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  8. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  9. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident.

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes....

  11. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  12. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  13. Dietary supplements in sport nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    BOČAN, David

    2015-01-01

    Thesis deals with dietary supplements and their use by amateurs and professionals.The theoretical part is in the 1st part devoted to supplements and their legislation,forms and division.To the 2nd part was selected substances used by athletes and further discussed in terms of their function and effects on the organism.Within the general information was drafted in the 3rd part risks related to the use of dietary supplements due to wrong dosage or concentration and the issue of doping. Research...

  14. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  15. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  16. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  17. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  18. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  19. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  20. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  1. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is... nutrition labeling a proprietary blend of dietary ingredients. (d) The source ingredient that supplies a...

  2. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  3. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.Estrogen. Can decrease estrogen levels in the body, ...

  4. Effects of dietary turmeric supplementation on plasma lipoproteins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary turmeric supplementation on plasma lipoproteins, meat quality and fatty acid composition in broilers. ... dietary supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, and the ... Article Metrics.

  5. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  6. The use of dietary supplements by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Depiesse, Frederic; Geyer, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements as part of their regular training or competition routine, including about 85% of elite track and field athletes. Supplements commonly used include vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various "ergogenic" compounds. These supplements are often used without a full understanding or evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, and without consultation with a sports nutrition professional. A few supplements may be helpful to athletes in specific circumstances, especially where food intake or food choice is restricted. Vitamin and mineral supplements should be used only when a food-based solution is not available. Sports drinks, energy bars, and protein-carbohydrate shakes may all be useful and convenient at specific times. There are well-documented roles for creatine, caffeine, and alkalinizing agents in enhancing performance in high-intensity exercise, although much of the evidence does not relate to specific athletic events. There are potential costs associated with all dietary supplements, including the risk of a positive doping result as a consequence of the presence of prohibited substances that are not declared on the label.

  7. Dietary supplement use among health care professionals enrolled in an online curriculum on herbs and dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Charles

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many health care professionals (HCPs in the United States have been educated about and recommend dietary supplements, little is known about their personal use of dietary supplements and factors associated with their use. Methods We surveyed HCPs at the point of their enrollment in an on-line course about dietary supplements between September, 2004 and May, 2005. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze demographic and practice factors associated with use of dietary supplements. Results Of the 1249 health care professionals surveyed, 81 % reported having used a vitamin, mineral, or other non-herbal dietary supplements in the last week. Use varied by profession with highest rates among nurses (88%, physician assistants or nurse practitioners (84 % and the lowest rates among pharmacists (66% and trainees (72%. The most frequently used supplements were multivitamins (60%, calcium (40%, vitamin B (31%, vitamin C (30%, and fish oil (24%. Factors associated with higher supplement use were older age, female, high knowledge of dietary supplements, and discussing dietary supplements with patients. In our adjusted model, nurses were more likely than other professionals to use a multivitamin and students were more likely to use calcium. Conclusion Among HCPs enrolled in an on-line course about dietary supplements, women, older clinicians, those with higher knowledge and those who talk with patients about dietary supplements had higher use of dietary supplements. Additional research is necessary to understand the impact of professionals' personal use of dietary supplements on communication with patients about them.

  8. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  9. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  10. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  11. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  12. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of olive leaves on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Λευτέρης

    α-tocopheryl acetate as dietary supplements on the performance and some egg quality characteristics of ... oil in poultry nutrition, especially to replace antibiotics as growth promoters (Ciftci et ..... Dietary marine algae maintains egg consumer.

  14. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  15. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  16. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association, also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. Methods As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies, 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Results Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%, overall health and wellness (53%, and to fill nutrient gaps (42%. When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%, to fill nutrient gaps (67%, and overall health and wellness (49%. Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%, managing stress (92%, visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%, exercising regularly (83%, maintaining a healthy weight (80%, and getting a good

  17. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  18. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  19. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  20. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  1. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  2. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals...

  3. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  4. Vasoprotection by Dietary Supplements and Exercise: Role of TNFα Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanrui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplements, including fish oil, dietary fibers, and various natural products, and exercise training exert vasoprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective benefits of dietary supplements and physical activity demand extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of macrovascular and microvascular function. TNFα induces vascular inflammation, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, vascular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherogenic response and participates in the regulation of thrombosis and coagulation through multiple signaling pathways involving NFκB, Sp1, activator protein 1, JNK, p38, STAT3, and so forth. Dietary supplements and exercise training decrease TNFα production and ameliorate TNFα-mediated pathological changes in vasculature. Thus, the inhibitory effects of dietary supplements and physical exercise on TNFα production and TNFα signaling may contribute to their vasoprotective properties.

  5. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  6. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  7. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  8. Can a Dietary Supplement Treat a Concussion? No!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Can a Dietary Supplement Treat a Concussion? No! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... practice for football, soccer and other sports. It’s a time when parents may be thinking about sport ...

  9. Hydrogen nanobubbles in a water solution of dietary supplement

    CERN Document Server

    Safonov, Vladimir L

    2013-01-01

    Using gas chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and qualitative experiments, we demonstrate that a water solution of dissolved dietary supplement, creating negative redox potential, contains invisible hydrogen nano-bubbles, which remain in the solution for several hours.

  10. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov; Аlbina V. Stepanova; P.P. Vasilyev; K.N. Naumova; A. Sh. Smagulova; Vera V. Anshakova

    2017-01-01

    ...’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1...

  11. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson Annette; Bonci Leslie; Boyon Nicolas; Franco Julio C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health profe...

  12. Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Sarah; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential health benefits of dietary flavonoids. Fruits and vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of these foods is likely to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiology of this benefit is not yet clearly defined. Furthermore, in some acute interventions, a positive effect of tea and cocoa on vascular function has been reported. An alternative source of flavonoids is dietary supplements, which have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In this context, it needs to be critically evaluated whether vascular health-promoting and other positive properties of flavonoid-rich diets can be replaced by purified flavonoids as dietary supplements. Plant sources of flavonoids contain a complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites and not only flavonoids per se. This complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites cannot be simply exchanged by single purified compounds as dietary supplements. If flavonoids are given as dietary supplements, toxicity issues as well as nutrient drug interactions need to be taken into account. Purified flavonoids given in high doses as dietary supplements may affect trace element, folate, and vitamin C status. Furthermore, they may exhibit antithyroid and goitrogenic activities. In this review article, the available literature on the safety issues surrounding high dose supplemental flavonoid consumption has been summarized.

  13. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%, amino acids (16.8%, multivitamins (16.8%, creatine (11.5%, and omega 3 (11.5%. The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%, increase health (44.2%, and improve performance (41.5%. Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  15. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rao A Venket; Logan Alan C; Berardi John M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH...

  16. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components not adequately identified on their package labels. .... data to support this theory. Although stimulants have been widely ... supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance –. Part 22. Br J Sports ...

  17. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes.

  18. Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    release of the report on June 10th. A sponsor briefing was held on June 3rd at the Samueli Institute headquarters in Alexandria, V A. The...of Health) and Dr. Joan Walter (The Samueli Institute) presented a description of their respective institutions, their work related to dietary

  19. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  20. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aloysius; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-09-14

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  2. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation wit

  3. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  4. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at high

  5. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-09-14

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  6. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...

  7. [Acceptability of dietary supplements of the national Mexican program "Oportunidades"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, Angel; Mora, Gerardo; Pelcastre, Blanca; Flores, Mario; Bronfman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    To identify cultural beliefs and practices to evaluate the acceptability of dietary supplements of Oportunidades Program. Ethnographic study with in-depth interviews (n=43)--mothers of children less than five years of age and pregnant and breasfeeding women (PBW)--, key informants (n=9); focus groups (n=8) and direct observation, in four communities from North, Central, South and Southwest of Mexico. The supplement was prepared in several different ways. The liquid preparation was best accepted; generally the supplement was mixed with milk. Initially, the supplement caused nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these symptoms disappeared with continued consumption. Acceptance was highest among PBW. The supplement tends to replace milk as a food product in the daily diet. There is a necessity to develop culturally specific evaluations in regions with different food intake practices. The study results should be interpreted in the context of other program components, such as health care and education.

  8. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  9. Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Keith R Martin, Christy L AppelNutrition Program, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and neurodegeneration. Pro-oxidant-induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases and, as such, dietary antioxidants can quench and/or retard such processes. Dietary polyphenols, ie, phenolic acids and flavonoids, are a primary source of antioxidants for humans and are derived from plants including fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs. Based on compelling evidence regarding the health effects of polyphenol-rich foods, new dietary supplements and polyphenol-rich foods are being developed for public use. Consumption of such products can increase dietary polyphenol intake and subsequently plasma concentrations beyond expected levels associated with dietary consumption and potentially confer additional health benefits. Furthermore, bioavailability can be modified to further increase absorption and ultimately plasma concentrations of polyphenols. However, the upper limit for plasma concentrations of polyphenols before the elaboration of adverse effects is unknown for many polyphenols. Moreover, a considerable amount of evidence is accumulating which supports the hypothesis that high-dose polyphenols can mechanistically cause adverse effects through pro-oxidative action. Thus, polyphenol-rich dietary supplements can potentially confer additional benefits but high-doses may elicit toxicity thereby establishing a double-edge sword in supplement use.Keywords: antioxidant, bioavailability, flavonoids, polyphenols, supplement

  10. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI.

  11. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  12. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  13. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  14. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA‐conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. © 2016 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26857794

  15. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  16. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  17. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L; Hespel, P

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used at all levels of sport. Changes in patterns of supplement use are taking place against a background of changes in the regulatory framework that governs the manufacture and distribution of supplements in the major markets. Market regulation is complicated by the increasing popularity of Internet sales. The need for quality control of products to ensure they contain the listed ingredients in the stated amount and to ensure the absence of potentially harmful substances is recognized. This latter category includes compounds prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Several certification programmes now provide testing facilities for manufacturers of both raw ingredients and end products to ensure the absence of prohibited substances. Athletes should carry out a cost-benefit analysis for any supplement they propose to use. For most supplements, the evidence is weak, or even completely absent. A few supplements, including caffeine, creatine, and bicarbonate, are supported by a strong research base. Difficulties arise when new evidence appears to support novel supplements: in recent years, β-alanine has become popular, and the use of nitrate and arginine is growing. Athletes seldom wait until there is convincing evidence of efficacy or of safety, but caution is necessary to minimize risk.

  18. Dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L

    2013-11-29

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.

  19. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  20. Dietary supplementation of some antioxidants against hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanaa Ahmed Ali; Hanan Farouk Aly; Lilla Mohammed Faddah; Zeenat F Zaidi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to clarifythe protective effect of supplementation with some antioxidants,such as idebenone (200 mg/kg,ip),melatonin (10 mg/kg,ip) and arginine (200 mg/kg,ip) and their combination,on liver function (T.protein,albumin,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase),energetic parameters (adenosine triphosphate,adenosine diphosphate,adenosine monophosphate,inorganic phosphate,total adenylate,adenylate energy charge and potential phosphate).The effect on glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes (glucose,glycogen,glycogen phosphorylase,pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase against hypoxia) was also studied.The drugs were administered 24 and 1 h prior sodium nitrite intoxication.All biochemical parameters were estimated 1 h after sodium nitrite injection.Injection of sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg,sc) produced a significant disturbance in all biochemical parameters of liver function,energetic parameters and glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes.Hepatic damage was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver as compared to controls.The marked changes in hepatic cells induced by sodium nitrite were completely abolished by pretreatment with the drug combination,suggesting potential protection against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia.It could be concluded that a combination of both idebenone and melatonin or idebenone and arginine provides potential protection against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia by improving biochemical parameters and preserving liver histology.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  2. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

  3. Factors associated with dietary supplementation among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcêz Nabuco

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors can influence an athlete to consume dietary supplements, such as age, sex and sports, among others. Few studies regarding the prevalence and associated factors are available for athletes, especially in developing countries. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the factors associated with the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 182 athletes of both sexes. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports information, current consumption of supplements, consumption of pharmacological substances and information on body image disorder (Body Shape Questionnaire and muscle dysmorphia (Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale. Analyses were performed using Pearson's Chi-squared test, the crude prevalence ratio (PR and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: In the bivariate analysis, the male gender, age between 25-29 years, engaging in a remunerated activity, consumption of pharmacological substances, body image disorder, risk of muscle dysmorphia, power modality athletes and lack of medical care were factors associated with supplement intake. After the regression analysis, the consumption of supplements was associated with the male gender (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.01; 2.78; p = 0.044, use of pharmacological substances (PR: 1.77; 95 %: 1.37; 2.27; p < 0.001 and the risk of muscle dysmorphia (PR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.37; 2.23; p < 0.001. Conclusions: The results of this research clearly demonstrate the importance of professionals working closely with athletes to continuously monitor their use of supplements, since it was an alimentary behavior associated with other risk behavior (pharmacological use as well as image disorders (muscle dysmorphia.

  4. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L. [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Fastner, J. [Federal Environmental Agency, Section II 3.3—Drinking-water resources and treatment, Berlin (Germany); Dietrich, D.R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  5. Physicians and nurses use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyon Nicolas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous surveys show that dietary supplements are used by a large proportion of the general public, but there have been relatively few surveys on the prevalence of dietary supplement use among health professionals, including physicians and nurses. Even less information is available regarding the extent to which physicians and nurses recommend dietary supplements to their patients. Methods An online survey was administered in October 2007 to 900 physicians and 277 nurses by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN, a trade association representing the dietary supplement industry. The health professionals were asked whether they used dietary supplements and their reasons for doing so, and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their patients. Results The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals Impact Study (HCP Impact Study found that 72% of physicians and 89% of nurses in this sample used dietary supplements regularly, occasionally, or seasonally. Regular use of dietary supplements was reported by 51% of physicians and 59% of nurses. The most common reason given for using dietary supplements was for overall health and wellness (40% of physicians and 48% of nurses, but more than two-thirds cited more than one reason for using the products. When asked whether they "ever recommend dietary supplements" to their patients, 79% of physicians and 82% of nurses said they did. Conclusion Physicians and nurses are as likely as members of the general public to use dietary supplements, as shown by comparing the results of this survey with data from national health and nutrition surveys. Also, most physicians and nurses recommend supplements to their patients, whether or not the clinicians use dietary supplements themselves.

  6. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  7. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skeie, G.; Braaten, T.; Hjartaker, A.; Lentjes, M.; Amiano, P.; Jakszyn, P.; Pala, V.; Palanca, A.; Niekerk, E. M.; Verhagen, H.; Avloniti, K.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Nimptsch, K.; Haubrock, J.; Walker, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Roswall, N.; Olsen, A.; Wallstrom, P.; Nilsson, S.; Casagrande, C.; Deharveng, G.; Hellstrom, V.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Joensen, A. M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Martinez, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Frasca, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Linseisen, J.; Schienkiewitz, A.; Welch, A. A.; Manjer, J.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the

  8. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements are used by more than one-half of the adult US population. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements may be sold in the United States with little regulation other than listing of ingredients and the potential health benefits. By contrast, herbal products in Germany are carefully regulated by the same standards as drugs, and efforts are under way to standardize their regulation in the entire European Union. Most herbal users do not inform their physicians that they are taking these supplements, and most physicians do not inquire. Although some herbal products have clinically proven benefits, it is increasingly apparent that many contain potentially toxic substances, particularly in relation to interactions with drugs. Hence, it is essential that practicing physicians develop a working knowledge of herbals-specifically, about claims for their usage and potential or proven efficacies and toxicities-and that they incorporate such knowledge into the evaluation and management of their patients. By contrast, functional foods-integral components of the diet that are understood to contribute added health benefits-are the subject of intense and widespread research in food and nutritional science. Examples include many polyphenolic substances, carotenoids, soy isoflavones, fish oils, and components of nuts that possess antioxidant and other properties that decrease the risk of vascular diseases and cancer. Practicing physicians are advised to stay abreast of these emerging findings in order to best advise their patients on the value of health-promoting diets in disease prevention.

  9. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  10. Nutritional requirements in pregnancy and use of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Claire; Wyness, Laura

    2013-08-01

    A new British Nutrition Foundation (BNF) Task Force report has been published, which looks in detail at the impact of early life nutrition on health and the risk of diseases in later life, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone health, allergic disease and cognitive function. One of the aspects that the report covers in detail is the health and nutrition of pregnant women and where improvements in the maternal diet could be made. This article focuses on the report's findings with regard to the essential nutrients folic acid and vitamin D, including current intakes and status, uptake of supplements and vulnerable groups that are falling short of dietary guidelines.

  11. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports...

  12. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks.

  14. Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Charles

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS. We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals.

  15. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  16. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, A H; Mazija, L; Fastner, J; Dietrich, D R

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC-MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g(-1) dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureton, Kirk J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Singhal, Arpit; Pasley, Jeffrey D; Bigelman, Kevin A; Lambourne, Kathleen; Trilk, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Arnaud, Maurice J; Zhao, Qun

    2009-10-01

    Quercetin supplementation increases muscle oxidative capacity and endurance in mice, but its ergogenic effect in humans has not been established. Our study investigates the effects of short-duration chronic quercetin supplementation on muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, perceptual, and neuromuscular determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; and cycling performance in untrained men. Using a double-blind, pretest-posttest control group design, 30 recreationally active, but not endurance-trained, young men were randomly assigned to quercetin and placebo groups. A noninvasive measure of muscle oxidative capacity (phosphocreatine recovery rate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy), peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)), metabolic and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise, work performed on a 10-min maximal-effort cycling test following the submaximal cycling, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss following cycling were measured before and after 7-16 days of supplementation with 1 g/day of quercetin in a sports hydration beverage or a placebo beverage. Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in phosphocreatine recovery time constant, Vo(2peak,) substrate utilization, and perception of effort during submaximal exercise, total work done during the 10-min maximal effort cycling trial, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the quercetin and placebo groups. Short duration, chronic dietary quercetin supplementation in untrained men does not improve muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, neuromuscular and perceptual determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; or cycling performance. The null findings indicate that metabolic and physical performance consequences of quercetin supplementation observed in mice should not be generalized to humans.

  18. Socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors associated with dietary supplement use during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Pouchieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on dietary supplement (DS use during pregnancy is largely lacking. Besides, little is known about the share of DS use as self-medication versus such use following a physician's advice/prescription. Our aim was to evaluate DS use and its socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary correlates among pregnant women participating in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. METHOD: Data were collected by self-administered web-based questionnaires. Food intake was assessed by repeated 24 h dietary records. 903 pregnant women provided data on their DS use (both "regular" DS and medication containing mainly vitamins/minerals. Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: DS use-in general and as regards folic acid in particular-was positively correlated with age, being primiparous, having higher income and belonging to a higher socioprofessional category. DS users had significantly higher dietary intakes of most vitamins and minerals. The proportion of DS users (e.g., those reporting use at least three days a week increased significantly with the trimester of pregnancy (58.0%, 62.2% and 74.5%, respectively. 50.2% of women in their 1st trimester used folic acid. The proportion of iron users tripled from the 1st to the 3rd trimester (18.5 to 63.9%. DS use was prescribed or recommended by a physician in 86.7% of the cases. CONCLUSION: This study provided new and detailed information on DS use and its correlates during pregnancy. Even in this relatively well-educated population, folic acid supplementation at the beginning of pregnancy was inadequate and was associated with socioeconomic and demographic disparities.

  19. Socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors associated with dietary supplement use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchieu, Camille; Lévy, Rachel; Faure, Céline; Andreeva, Valentina A; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Information on dietary supplement (DS) use during pregnancy is largely lacking. Besides, little is known about the share of DS use as self-medication versus such use following a physician's advice/prescription. Our aim was to evaluate DS use and its socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary correlates among pregnant women participating in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Data were collected by self-administered web-based questionnaires. Food intake was assessed by repeated 24 h dietary records. 903 pregnant women provided data on their DS use (both "regular" DS and medication containing mainly vitamins/minerals). Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. DS use-in general and as regards folic acid in particular-was positively correlated with age, being primiparous, having higher income and belonging to a higher socioprofessional category. DS users had significantly higher dietary intakes of most vitamins and minerals. The proportion of DS users (e.g., those reporting use at least three days a week) increased significantly with the trimester of pregnancy (58.0%, 62.2% and 74.5%, respectively). 50.2% of women in their 1st trimester used folic acid. The proportion of iron users tripled from the 1st to the 3rd trimester (18.5 to 63.9%). DS use was prescribed or recommended by a physician in 86.7% of the cases. This study provided new and detailed information on DS use and its correlates during pregnancy. Even in this relatively well-educated population, folic acid supplementation at the beginning of pregnancy was inadequate and was associated with socioeconomic and demographic disparities.

  20. Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyon Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements are regularly used by a majority of the American population, and usage by health professionals is also common. There is considerable interest in usage patterns within the population and in the reasons for using dietary supplements. The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals 2008 Impact Study (HCP Impact Study surveyed usage of dietary supplements by physicians in three specialties: cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Methods The HCP Impact Study was conducted online by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN, a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. Respondents were 900 physicians, including 300 each from three specialties - cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Results Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists. Conclusions Reported dietary supplement use was relatively common in this sample of physicians, and when they recommended dietary supplements to patients, they tended to do so for reasons related to their specialty.

  1. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  2. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan ACTION: Notice of availability of the ODS Strategic Plan for 2010-2014. SUMMARY: The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has completed a strategic planning...

  4. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  5. MECHANISM OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY CALCIUM ON CYTOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FECAL WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPRE, JA; DEVRIES, HT; TERMONT, DSML; KLEIBEUKER, JH; DEVRIES, EGE; VANDERMEER, R

    1993-01-01

    Dietary calcium supplementation inhibits hyperproliferation of rectal epithelium, possibly by precipitating luminal surfactants and thus preventing their cell-damaging effects. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplemental dietary calcium (35.5 mmol/day) on composition and cytolytic activity of

  6. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples... Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold reserve samples of dietary supplements in a manner that protects against contamination...

  7. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  8. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  9. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry dietary supplements and food products (total n = 74 were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples or were adulterated with anthocyanins from unlabeled sources (three samples. Five of 41 food products contained no detectable anthocyanins. In mg per serving, the dietary supplements tested contained 0.02–86.27 (average 10.00, and food products contained 0.48–39.66 (average 7.76. Anthocyanin levels between the dietary supplements and food products were not significantly different in mg per serving. Individual anthocyanin profiles can be used to evaluate quality of Rosaceae food products and dietary supplements. These findings show that increasing anthocyanin content and reducing adulteration could improve the quality of Rosaceae products available in the marketplace.

  10. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, G; Hoving-Bolink, A H; Kluitman, I; Houben, J H; Klont, R E

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E upon colour, waterholding capacity, bacterial growth and lipid oxidation of beef longissimus thoracis (LT) and psoas major (PM) muscle were examined during aerobic display of fresh muscle and after aging in vacuum for 26 days. Forty crossbred beef bulls received a whole crop corn silage, supplemented with concentrate. Twenty bulls were each supplemented with 2025 mg vit E per day (added to the concentrate) for 136 day prior to slaughter and compared with non-supplemented control animals (n=20). In fresh LT muscle drip loss did not differ between treatment groups, while in PM muscle drip loss was significantly higher for the supplemented group. The treatment did not affect bacterial growth in fresh and aged muscles. Lipid oxidation during 12 day storage of fresh muscle was significantly lower for the supplemented group, as indicated by the lower TBA-values. No effect of the vitamin E treatment was observed on a (∗)-values of both fresh and aged LT muscle during display for 8 and 5 days, respectively. In PM muscle, supplemented beef had lower a (∗)-values in fresh (at day 1) and aged (at days 1 and 2) muscle, due to a lower oxygenation. The reason for this lower oxygenation is unclear. After aging, colour stability was decreased and more variable than in fresh muscle. Similar results were obtained when the difference in reflection values at 630 and 580 nm (R630-580), instead of the a (∗) value, was used as a parameter for colour stability. The absence of an effect of vit. E on the rate of discoloration, might possibly be explained from the observation that α-tocopherol levels in control muscle were relatively high (LT: 2.1 and PM: 3.2 μg/g muscle), compared with data from literature. Analysis of the feed for vit. E suggests that this was due to a relatively high natural vit. E uptake from the feed, which was calculated to be approx. 330 mg vit. E per animal per day for the control group.

  11. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to dietary weight-loss supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Bercovici, Silvia; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Paul, Nisha; Hemavathy, Bhakthavatsalam

    2011-05-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss and in treatment of obesity are growing in popularity and acceptance in the United States. Most of these supplements can be obtained over the counter and can have serious adverse effects associated with their consumption. We describe 2 patients who developed thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2-3 weeks after consuming thyroxine-containing weight-loss supplements. This is the first known case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to dietary supplements. It is important that patients and physicians are aware of the severe adverse reactions associated with dietary supplements. Physicians should as a routine inquire about herbal and dietary supplement consumption during all patient encounters.

  12. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  13. Evidence of clinically relevant efficacy for dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Borghi, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    Beyond the well-known effects on blood pressure (BP) of the DASH and the Mediterranean diets, a large number of studies have investigated the possible a BP-lowering effect from different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, mostly antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular, a relatively large body of evidence support the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, and aged garlic extract. However there is a need for data about the long-term safety of a large part of these products. Moreover, further clinical research is advisable to identify between the available active nutraceuticals and those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for widespread use in a general population with low added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension.

  14. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunsford, Keri E.; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of...

  15. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis.

  16. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? 111.525 Section 111.525 Food and Drugs... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned...

  17. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  18. Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

    2014-06-01

    With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management.

  19. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  20. Dietary supplementation is more prevalent among adults with arthritis in the United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis. Participants reported dietary supplementation over the past 30days. Approximately 62.5% of adults with arthritis reported taking at least one dietary supplement, which was greater than the 49.0% among individuals without arthritis (PArthritis was not independently associated with higher odds of supplement use (odds ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.88-1.42) in a multivariate logistic regression model. Among individuals with arthritis, supplement use was more prevalent in older adults (≥50 years), non-Hispanic whites, those with greater education, and those with health insurance. Among 721 participants with arthritis that were taking at least one supplement, 15.1% (95% CI=12.8-17.8%) indicated at least one of their supplements was 'for healthy joints, arthritis', compared to only 7.7% (95% CI=6.4-9.3%) of participants without arthritis (Parthritis. Given that roughly three out of five individuals with arthritis regularly use dietary supplements, health practitioners should be prepared to discuss potential benefits and risks of supplementation for the management of pain and function in arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary interventions, lifestyle changes, and dietary supplements in preventing gestational diabetes mellitus: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Dante, Giulia; Petrella, Elisabetta; Neri, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased rates of fetal morbidity and mortality, both during the pregnancy and in the postnatal life. Current treatment of GDM includes diet with or without medications, but this management is expensive and poorly cost-effective for the health care systems. Strategies to prevent such condition would be preferable with respect to its treatment. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate studies reporting the efficacy of the most used approaches to prevent GDM as well as evidences of efficacy and safety of dietary supplementations. Systematic literature searches were performed in electronic databases, covering the period January 1983 to April 2014. Randomized controlled clinical trials were included. Quality of the articles was evaluated with the Jadad scale. We did not evaluate those articles that were already entered in the most recent systematic reviews, and we completed the research with the trials published thereafter. Of 55 articles identified, 15 randomized controlled trials were eligible. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies cannot allow firm conclusions. Anyway, trials in which only intake or expenditure has been targeted mostly reported negative results. On the contrary, combined lifestyle programs including diet control (orienting food intake, restricting energy intake) associated with moderate but continuous physical activity exhibit better efficacy in reducing GDM prevalence. The results from dietary supplements with myoinositol or probiotics are promising. The actual evidences provide enough arguments for implementing large-scale, high-quality randomized controlled trials looking at the possible benefits of these new approaches for preventing GDM.

  2. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  3. Predictors of dietary supplement usage among medical interns of Tehran university of medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudeh, Gity; Kabiri, Sanaz; Yeganeh, Haleh Sadrzadeh; Koohdani, Fariba; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement-use and its relationship with demographics and lifestyle of medical interns. The study sample comprised 356 interns aged 23 to 25 years. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary supplement-use during the month preceding the study, information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle was also obtained. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were employed to assess the correlates of dietary supplement-use. The prevalence of dietary supplement-use was about 33% (males 20.4% and females 43.2%, pnutritional status (39.3%) and reducing hair loss (23.4%). The decision to use dietary supplement was mostly driven by the interns themselves (56% in males, 61% in females). In the univariable analysis, men who exercised once or twice a week were less likely to use supplements compared to those who reported doing exercise more than twice weekly (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98). Females who reported their health status to be 'excellent' were more likely to use supplements compared to those who described their health status as 'moderate/poor/very poor' (OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.15-5.56) as were women who mentioned their breakfast consumption status as 'always' (OR=2.69, 95% CI 1.47-4.92). In the multivariable analysis, only breakfast consumption was significantly related with dietary supplement-use in females (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.38). In conclusion, dietary supplement-use among medical interns, especially among females, was relatively very common. Dietary supplement-use was related to a healthier lifestyle.

  4. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a term that reflects a heterogeneous group of natural food sources, processed grains, and commercial supplements. Several forms of dietary fiber have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of dietary fiber in the metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of dietary fiber on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of dietary fiber but also quite variable. This report focuses on the role, mechanism of action, and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk and explores the effects of dietary fiber on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of dietary fiber.

  5. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco Antonino; Mammina Caterina; Paoli Antonio; Bellafiore Marianna; Battaglia Giuseppe; Caramazza Giovanni; Palma Antonio; Jemni Monèm

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. D...

  6. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behaviour and practice in Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Paoli, Antonino; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Guiseppe; Caramazza, Giovani; Palma, Antonio; Jemni, Monem

    2011-01-01

    Background: \\ud It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US.\\ud \\ud Objective: \\ud The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, ...

  7. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2017-03-01

    The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994. Recent amendments to the FD&C Act require that serious dietary-supplement-related adverse events be reported to the FDA and provide the agency with mandatory recall authority. We discuss the presence of naturally occurring (e.g. Ephedra, Citrus aurantium, Acacia) and synthetic (e.g. β-methylphenethylamines, methylsynephrine, α-ethyl-phenethylamine) biologically active phenethylamines (PEAs) in dietary supplements and of PEA drugs (e.g. clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, lorcaserin) in weight-loss products. Regulatory actions against manufacturers of products labelled as dietary supplements that contain the aliphatic amines 1,3-dimethylamine and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, and PEAs such as β-methylphenethylamine, aegeline, and Dendrobium illustrate the FDA's use of its authority under the FD&C Act to promote dietary supplement safety. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimer, Kathy L

    2003-06-01

    Survey data from three nationally representative surveys--the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Health Interview Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals--indicate that, in general, women are greater consumers of dietary supplements than men in terms of overall prevalence of use and number of supplements taken. However, monitoring dietary supplement use over time and aggregation or comparison of findings over different surveys is hampered by a lack of comparability between survey data collection and analysis. Differences exist in the types of dietary supplements queried, use of a referent time frame, specificity regarding the supplement taken and level of detail collected relating to personal usage. Some comparability in supplement data collection may be possible but some inconsistencies may persist because of differences in survey goals or collection procedures. Collection of data on dietary supplement use is challenging and collection of very detailed and precise data are time consuming and expensive. Consequently, the level of detail and precision necessary for monitoring, research, and policy uses is an issue that should be addressed in view of the high monetary and time costs of detailed dietary supplement data collection, as well as increased demands on survey respondent time.

  9. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren García-Cortés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements (DS are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™ while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang. Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  10. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-04-09

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  11. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersen, Colleen E

    2003-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant constituents that possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. Although their activities are weak as compared with human endogenous estrogens, the consumption of phytoestrogens may have clinically significant consequences. A number of botanicals, or the compounds contained therein, have been identified as putative estrogenic agents, but consensus in the biomedical community has been hampered by conflicting data from various in vitro and in vivo models of estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens may serve as chemopreventive agents while at the same time being capable of promoting growth in estrogen receptor positive cancer cell lines. Furthermore, they may exert their estrogenic influence through receptor-dependent and/or receptor-independent mechanisms. These findings have led to speculation that phytoestrogen intake might be ill advised for patients at an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers, cancer patients, or cancer survivors. This article will attempt to sort out discrepancies between various experimental models and establish whether certain herbs possess estrogenic activity. The review will focus on 5 popular botanical dietary supplements: Trifolium pratense (red clover), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus (hops), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It will address their mechanisms of action, clinical evidence bases, and implications for use in cancer.

  12. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood Kaylene L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others. Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed. Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals.

  13. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-12-07

    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  14. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato...

  15. Intake of dietary supplements and malnutrition in patients in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU.

  16. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims.

  17. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  18. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross...... in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total...... nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age...

  19. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Proven or Suspected Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26–42% of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18–43% reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7–21% used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16–64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39–95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients’ supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  20. DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increa...

  1. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20-60 year...

  2. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  3. A systematic review of community pharmacist therapeutic knowledge of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Freya; Naunton, Mark; Kyle, Greg; Thomas, Jackson; Cooper, Gabrielle; Waddington, Ainsley

    2015-06-01

    Internationally, the use of dietary supplements has been growing rapidly. Patient support for pharmacist sales of nutritional and dietary supplements is also strong. The increase in demand for nutritional and dietary supplements and subsequent advice about these products, however, makes it necessary that pharmacists maintain a contemporary knowledge of the area. This systematic review was conducted to examine the current evidence regarding the level of the nutritional and dietary supplement knowledge of community pharmacists and their understanding of their therapeutic effects. Electronic databases including Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL, Scifinder and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Studies assessing nutritional knowledge of pharmacists in community pharmacies were eligible for inclusion. All languages and study designs were considered. Study results were analysed and pharmacist knowledge scores were given out of 100 %. Results From 5594 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. Each study tested pharmacist knowledge with predetermined questions calculating results as the number of questions answered correctly. These knowledge scores were converted to a percentage score for the purpose of this paper. The median knowledge score across all papers was 64 %. A lack of studies assessing community pharmacists' knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals was observed. Global community pharmacist knowledge of dietary supplements appears to be poor. Community pharmacists have an professional responsibility to provide accurate health information about dietary supplements as they do for any other therapies they provide to patients. Further research including that which assesses pharmacists' therapeutic knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals is suggested.

  4. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  5. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on inflammatory response and innate immunity of broilers. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatment; 6 birds/cage) with 3 dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.4...

  6. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Christine M. Mermier

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredi...

  7. Time To Talk About Dietary Supplements: 5 Things Consumers Need To Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by being an informed consumer . The standards for marketing supplements are very different from the standards for ... a dietary supplement and whether it works. The resources below can help you. “Natural” does not necessarily mean ... Department of Health & Human Services , National Institutes of Health , USA.gov National ...

  8. Dietary 135-fold cholecalciferol supplementation severely disturbs the endochondral ossification in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Holl, M.S.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Buurman, C.J.; Deluca, H.F.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of excessive non-toxic dietary Vitamin D3 supplementation on Ca homeostasis with specific effects on endochondral ossification and skeletal remodeling were investigated in a group of growing Great Dane dogs supplemented with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3; HVitD) versus a control group (CVi

  9. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  10. Why consumers need more protection against claims for dietary supplements and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Federal agencies have never had enough resources to cope with the enormous amount of deception in the supplement and health-food marketplace. Passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has worsened the situation by encouraging dubious claims and weakening the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s ability to ban dangerous products.

  11. Dietary supplementation with curcumin enhances metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin (the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in female C57/BL6 mice. Mice were fed the AIN93G control diet or that diet supplemented with 2...

  12. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  13. Clays as dietary supplements for swine: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mohana Devi; Kim, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Clays are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate molecules composed of alkali and alkaline earth cations along with small amounts of various other elements. The best-known are montmorillonite, smectite, illite, kaolinite, biotite and clinoptilolite. The molecules in these clays are arranged in three-dimensional structures creating internal voids and channels capable of trapping a wide variety of molecules. As a result of this structure, clay minerals are regarded as a simple and effective tool for the prevention of the negative effects of many toxic compounds. Dietary supplementation with clays has been shown to improve weight gain and feed conversion in pigs. Where improvements in performance have been noted, one of the most likely explanations for the improvement is the fact clays increase nutrient digestibility. Clays reduce the speed of passage of feed along the digestive tract which allows more time for digestion. Feeding clays also causes morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa such as an increase in villus height and an increase in the villus height to crypt depth ratio. These changes increase the surface area of the gastrointestinal tract thus increasing nutrient digestibility. Several studies have indicated that feeding clay reduces the incidence, severity and duration of diarrhea in pigs. The mechanism for the reduction in diarrhea is likely due to increases in the numbers of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus and decreases in Clostridia and E. coli in the small intestine of pigs fed clays. In addition, the numbers of pigs born alive and weaned, birth weight and weaning weight have been shown to be higher for sows fed clays. Several studies have indicated that clays can help mitigate the effects of mycotoxins. The aim of the present review is to focus on the various clays which have been given attention in recent research and to discuss their potential to improve pig performance.

  14. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  15. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  16. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p swimmers were still more likely (p swimmers were significantly more likely (p creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  17. Research on Dietary Nutrition Supplement of Taekwondo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqun Qu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To comprehend the characteristics of Taekwondo and the problems lying in the nutrient and dietary structure of Taekwondo players through this study and then formulate a scientific and reasonable structure in nutrient and dietary for Taekwondo players, in order to improve their athletic ability in the meantime of improving their physical quality. To comprehend energy consumption characteristics of Taekwondo and current situation of nutrient and dietary structure of Taekwondo players through methods of literature collection and comparative research and then come up with a scientific and reasonable structure in nutrient and dietary. A reasonable nutrient and dietary structure can not only improve physical function and guarantee a normal internal metabolism of Taekwondo players, but also can effectively improve their athletic ability and improve their performance in competition.

  18. Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey; Gaster, Barak

    2007-01-01

    With the recent growth in the use of dietary supplements, it is increasingly important for clinicians to be familiar with the evidence for and against their efficacy. We set out to systematically review the dietary supplements available for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. Between May 2004 and May 2006, we searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Pro-Quest using the MeSH terms hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, dietary supplements, and herb-drug interactions. The MeSH terms of individual supplements identified were then added to the search. Reference lists of pertinent papers were also searched to find appropriate papers for inclusion. We included randomized controlled trials published in English of at least 1 week's duration that studied the efficacy of supplements in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, or hypertension, or in the prevention of cardiac events. Qualifying papers were identified and assigned a Jadad quality score. In areas of uncertainty, a second investigator independently scored the trial. Fifteen (15) supplements were identified. Of these, most had little data available and most of the data were of poor quality. The supplements with the most supporting data were policosanol and garlic, both for hyperlipidemia. A growing body of literature exists for numerous supplements in the prevention of coronary artery disease, but much of these data are inconclusive. Clinicians should become familiar with the extent and limitations of this literature so that they may counsel their patients better.

  19. Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α, an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR. Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP or Cellucore HD (CHD induced PGC-1α leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.

  20. Primary constituents of blue cohosh: quantification in dietary supplements and potential for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Jeanne I; Pawar, Rahul S

    2013-05-01

    Dietary supplements containing dried roots or extracts of the roots and/or rhizomes of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) are widely available. This botanical has a long history of use by Native Americans and its use continues to the present day. The primary constituents of blue cohosh are its alkaloids and saponins. The structures of the alkaloids magnoflorine, baptifoline, anagyrine, and N-methylcytisine have been known for many years. The last 10 years have seen a great increase in isolation and identification of the large number of saponins present in blue cohosh. Important developments in nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have contributed substantially to the increase in elucidation of the structures of the complex saponins. Several authors have described quantitative methods for both the alkaloids and saponins in blue cohosh. Such methods have made it possible to quantify these constituents in dietary supplements containing this botanical ingredient. Concentrations of both alkaloids and saponins vary substantially in dietary supplements of blue cohosh. The nicotinic alkaloid, N-methylcytisine, a potent toxicant, has been found in all dietary supplements of blue cohosh analyzed. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine has been found in some but not all dietary supplements.

  1. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  2. Dietary supplements in the Department of Defense: possible solutions to optimizing force readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Stephen; Stavinoha, Trisha; Hite, Linda; Costa, Janelle; Dilly, George; Deuster, Patricia A

    2012-12-01

    Dietary supplement use is common among military service members; approximately 17 to 20% report using high-risk weight-loss, performance-enhancing, and bodybuilding supplements. To date, no overarching policy or program has been approved or implemented to inform service members or educate health care providers on the potential adverse consequences of using multiple combinations of supplements or the pros and cons of supplements per se. A review of regulations, concerns, and possible solutions is provided. Importantly, the role of third-party certification and education is emphasized.

  3. Diets, dietary supplements, and nutritional therapies in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C J; Panush, R S

    1999-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and many other systemic rheumatic diseases remain illnesses of unknown cause for which current therapy is often inadequate. This leads patients to seek questionable remedies, prominent among which are dietary manipulations. Is there a role for dietary modifications in the routine therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases? This article discusses the relationships between diets, fasting, elemental nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and foods for rheumatic diseases. Known scientific-based evidence for the use, safety, and efficacy of diets and dietary-related practices subscribed by patients with rheumatic diseases are presented. Studies that link diet with arthritis offer the possibility of identifying new therapeutic approaches for selected patients and of developing new insights to disease pathogenesis. Dietary therapy for arthritis, however, is still being investigated.

  4. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-08

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements.

  5. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: vitor.ito@outlook.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  6. Trends in vitamin, mineral and dietary supplement use in Switzerland. The CoLaus study

    OpenAIRE

    Marques-Vidal, P; Vollenweider, P.; Waeber, G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin/mineral (VMS) and dietary supplements (DS) use is common in Switzerland, but nothing is known regarding the factors associated with their initiation, discontinuation or continuation of intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective study conducted between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 in Lausanne, Switzerland among 4676 participants (2525 women, age range 35-75 years). VMS were defined as single or multivitamin/multimineral preparations; DS were defined as any dietary suppl...

  7. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT “The Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare: The Metabolically Optimized Brain ( MOB ) Study targets a...Operations and Healthcare: The Metabolically Optimized Brain ( MOB ) Study targets a more specific aspect of dietary nutrition, feeding policy and...psychological consequences of brain injury from high intensity training, and combat operations exposures. The MOB Study has 3 specific aims: 1. Convene a

  8. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis and renal failure secondary to anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prashant V; Feng, Zhen-Zhou; Gordon, Stuart C

    2009-08-01

    The illegal enrichment of anabolic androgenic steroids in over-the-counter dietary supplements is well documented, but the health consequences have not been widely recognized. Three recent reports document cholestatic jaundice and nephropathy due to these compounds. We present 3 additional cases of anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity and 1 case of renal failure, and we review the literature and the relevant features of this growing health concern. Recognition of this entity could obviate the need for invasive diagnostic testing and hospitalization and facilitate diagnosis and appropriate counseling.

  9. [Prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements: more than just an illusion?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, W

    2014-11-01

    Prophylaxis of tumors of the prostate gland is theoretically simple but what makes it difficult is that no appropriate test methods are available. The topic of prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements remains difficult as there are still no really certain data. The psychological aspect of wanting and being able to actively contribute to success of a therapy oneself, is absolutely not an aspect to be ignored to accept such dietary supplements. There are also studies which show that a certain helpful effect seems to be present. From these considerations the question arises whether cancer prophylaxis could be developed from this. This article presents the state of the art in early 2014.

  10. Response of growing goslings to dietary supplementation with methionine and betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Zhao, F Z; Kong, L L

    2016-12-01

    An experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design with two concentrations of dietary betaine (0 and 600 mg/kg) and three dietary concentrations of methionine (0, 600 and 1200 mg/kg) was conducted using goslings to estimate growth, nutrient utilisation and digestibility of amino acids from 21 to 70 d of age. Three hundred geese were randomised at 18 d of age into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. Increasing dietary concentrations of methionine gave a linear increase in body weight and average daily gain. The coefficient of crude fat retention increased as dietary methionine increased and there was a significant non-linear response to increasing dietary methionine. Similarly, increasing supplemental methionine gave linear increases in the digestibility of methionine and cysteine. The results of this study indicated that optimal dietary supplementation of methionine could increase growth performance and methionine and cysteine utilisation in growing goslings. Betaine supplementation had no apparent sparing effect on methionine needs for growth performance, but did improve the apparent cysteine digestibility.

  11. Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAP-04

    Brooder lamps provided supplemental heat in each pen and house temperature was set at .... conditions of stress, possibly the presence of unfavourable organisms, ... growth performance, carcass weight and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

  12. Leukoencephalopathic changes on magnetic resonance imaging associated with a thermogenic dietary supplement (Thermatrim).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Chacon, Cristina I; Treviño-Garcia, Manuel; Chua-Tuan, John James; Rodriguez-Cordero, Jose M; Gil-Valadez, Alfonso H; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E; Ramos-Duran, Luis R

    2015-07-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be caused by exposure to many compounds. Reversibility has been described in some cases with prompt recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent. Its association with a thermogenic supplement has never been reported. We describe two such cases in young women taking a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement who presented with acute neurologic deficits and a common magnetic resonance imaging pattern.

  13. Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra—combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra supplements from the US and Canadian markets. Ephedra-free products, however, quickly filled this void. Ephedra-free supplements typically contain multiple caffeine sources in conjunction with other botanical extracts whose purposes can often be puzzling and their pharmacologic properties difficult to predict. Ingestion of these products in the form of tablets, capsules, or other solid dosage forms as weight loss aids, exercise performance enhancers, or energy boosters have once again brought their tolerability and efficacy into question. In addition to Ephedra-free solid dosage forms, caffeine-containing energy drinks have gained a foothold in the world market along with concerns about their tolerability. This review addresses some of the pharmacologic and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish caffeine-containing dietary supplement formulations from traditional caffeine-containing beverages. Such distinctions may account for the increasing tolerability concerns affiliated with these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical and anthropometric effects of a weight loss dietary supplement in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Canale, Robert E; Alleman, Rick J; Reed, Jacob P; Bloomer, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7) or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5) every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention). No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures (P > 0.05). However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness (P 0.05), with the exception of an increase in HDL-C (P 0.05), with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted (P = 0.04). These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The supplement does not result in any adverse effects pertaining to resting blood pressure or bloodborne markers of safety; however a small increase in resting heart rate is observed.

  15. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  16. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  17. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  18. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  19. Athlete Information Sources About Dietary Supplements: A Review of Extant Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) classified dietary supplements as a subcategory of food, exempting manufacturers from providing premarket evidence of product safety and efficacy. Under DSHEA, agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cannot inspect supplements until after the products have entered the marketplace. Recognizing that both limited resources and DSHEA prevent the FDA from conducting broad-based inspections on a regular basis, disreputable manufacturers have spiked products with drugs such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines. With contaminated supplements now causing athletes to fail drug tests and, in some instances, threatening public health, it becomes important to examine sources of supplement information. This article reviews 53 studies that have addressed athlete information sources about dietary supplements. It finds that athletes, in general, rely heavily on coaches and trainers as well as friends and family for information. Relative to U.S. athletes, those competing internationally appear more likely to seek information from a physician or nutritionist. The article offers recommendations for individuals and organizations based on the most frequent information sources identified by athletes.

  20. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl N. D’Souza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness ( P < 0.001 and chewiness ( P < 0.01 values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased ( P < 0.05 the linoleic acid and reduced ( P < 0.05 the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol ( P < 0.05 at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs.

  1. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  2. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  3. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  4. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  5. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation improves pregnancy outcome in mice infected with type-2 porcine circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Luo, Wei; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yu, Xinglong; Fang, Jun; Li, Teijun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes reproductive failure in swine. As glutamine can enhance immune function in animals, this study was conducted with mice to test the hypothesis that dietary glutamine supplementation will improve pregnancy outcome in PCV2-infected dams. Beginning on day 0 of gestation, mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). All mice were infected with PCV2 (2000 TCID50) on day 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, six mice from each group were euthanized to obtain maternal tissues and fetuses for hematology and histopathology tests. The remaining mice continued to receive their respective diets supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine through lactation. The PCV2 virus was present in maternal samples (serum and lung) of most mice in the control group but was not detected in the glutamine-supplemented mice. Dietary glutamine supplementation reduced abortion, decreased fetal deaths, and enhanced neonatal survival. The glutamine treatment also reduced concentrations of interleukin-6, while increasing concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, in the maternal serum of mice. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation attenuated microscopic lesions in maternal tissues (lung, spleen, and liver). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary glutamine supplementation is beneficial for ameliorating reproductive failure in virus-infected mice. The findings support the notion that gestating dams require adequate amounts of dietary glutamine for the optimal survival and growth of embryos, fetuses, and neonates, and have important implications for nutritional support of mammals (including swine and humans) during gestation and lactation.

  6. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women t...

  7. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chunyan; Fu, Chunyan; Li, Fuchang

    2016-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32) were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control) or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin). The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05). However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (prabbits.

  8. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bears one of the statements listed in section 403(r)(6) or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the..., Labeling and Dietary Supplements (HFS-810), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug... bears a statement that is provided for by section 403(r)(6) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  9. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  10. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  11. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  12. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling Brian K; Hammond Kelley G; Fisher-Wellman Kelsey H; Bloomer Richard J; Weber Adrianna A; Cole Bradford J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Correction to Richard J Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Kelley G Hammond, Brian K Schilling, Adrianna A Weber and Bradford J Cole: Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6: 4

  13. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Richard J Bloomer, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Kelley G Hammond, Brian K Schilling, Adrianna A Weber and Bradford J Cole: Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009, 6: 4

  14. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  15. Dietary Supplementation at Home Improves the Regain of Lean Body Mass After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hessov, Ib

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about nutritional intake after discharge though it takes months to regain preoperative weight after gastrointestinal surgery. We studied whether a 4-mo intervention with dietary advice and protein-rich supplements would increase nutritional intake and gain in lean body mass (LBM...

  16. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  17. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  18. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims.

  19. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on the performance of lactating primiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized block design was utilized to determine the effects of dietary arginine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation on the lactation performance of 38 first-parity sows. At 30 d of gestation, pregnant gilts were allotted based on BW to...

  20. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  1. [DIETARY SUPPLEMENT REKECEN IMPROVES SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF CHRONIC PROSTATITIS ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V F; Davidov, M I; Sokolov, A P; Kuznetsov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This randomized comparative study was carried out to estimate efficacy and safety of the natural complex of fermented food fibers and short chain fatty acids (dietary supplement rekicen-RD®) in antibacterial therapy of 64 patients with chronic infectious prostatitis. 32 patients of the treatment group received 8 week standard antibacterial therapy for chronic prostatitis in combination with dietary supplement rekicen-RD® and 32 patients of the control group were treated only with antibacterial therapy. Short-term and long-term results were estimated after 8 weeks and 6 months follow-up, respectively. It was found, that addition of dietary supplement rekicen- RD® to antibacterial therapy resulted in statistically significant improvement of the treatment efficacy. Compared to patients of the control group, patients of the treatment group had more pronounced positive changes of all indicators of treatment efficacy (NIH-CPSI total score, quality of life, echo-structure of prostate, the number of leukocytes in prostatic secretions). Long-term (after 6 months) clinical efficacy of the combination of antibacterial therapy with dietary supplement rekicen-RD® was 96,9%, bacteriological efficacy after 8 weeks - 87,5%, after 6 months - 81%. Notably, there was 4,5-fold reduction in the rate of antibiotics adverse side effects in the treatment group patients without a single gastro-intestinal side effect.

  2. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2014-06-01

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n = 19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powders), were purchased and analyzed for their anthocyanin composition and concentration. Seven of the 19 samples contained no anthocyanins from black raspberry fruit, while three of those seven (without black raspberry fruit) had no anthocyanins of any kind. There was a wide range of anthocyanin concentration within the remaining products (18.1-2,904.8 mg/100 g; n = 12). When expressed as per capsule or per ∼1 teaspoon, concentration ranged from 0.1 to 145.2 mg (average 28 mg; n = 12). Until US dietary supplement labeling comes under regulatory oversight similar to food guidelines, foods are a more dependable source for dietary phenolics than supplements.

  3. Fatty Acid Dietary Supplements in Treatment of Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil and evening primrose oil (in a ratio of 80% to 20% compared to placebo were assessed in a randomized, controlled trial in 117 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, aged 5-12 years, at the University of Oxford, UK.

  4. Research on the Relationship between Student Physical Activity and Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Dong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are extremely concerned by the state, society and families and their health affects the majority of people's hearts. Therefore, the constitution of teenagers becomes the focus of people. Promoting the healthy growth of young people not only needs a reasonable amount of sports, but also needs the attention to the dietary supplement. This study uses large amounts of data literature and questionnaires of young people and their parents to analyze the logical relationship between student physical activities and their dietary supplements. This study introduces the importance of dietary supplements on the students' sports activities mainly from the following levels. First, the study clarifies the status of nutritious meals at this stage of students at school sports activities; then, the impact of reasonable die on student sports; finally, summarizes the main contents and basic methods of reasonable diet nutrition. Through the above analysis, the study shows that the dietary supplement and sports activities are essential for the healthy growth of young students.

  5. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic species are considered more toxic to humans than organic arsenic and total arsenic. Analysis of total arsenic in metallic form, organic and inorganic arsenic species from seaweeds and dietary supplements using LC-ICP-MS was developed. Solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extr...

  6. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

  7. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBM) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response ...

  8. Dietary and Supplemental Vitamin C and D on Symptom Severity and Physical Function in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Gu, Yushan; Crum, Anthony B; Tang, Philip

    2017-05-30

    Vitamins C and D have been associated with decreasing pain and increasing function but these associations are not definitive. This cross-sectional study explores what relationships supplemental and dietary intake of vitamins C and D have on pain severity and physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we performed regression analyses to examine relationships between vitamins C and D, pain, and function. Dietary vitamin D and dietary vitamin C were divided into >90th, 50th-90th, and D was divided into >85th percentile, whereas the high percentile group for supplemental vitamin C was divided into >90th percentile. We found the 90th/85th percentile levels of dietary and supplemental vitamin D to be positively associated with pain (β = 0.180; p = 0.028) and inversely related to physical function (β = -0.150, p = 0.028), respectively. Daily intake of vitamin C showed no statistical significance. We found that supplementary vitamin D was strongly associated with lessened disability for knee OA patients. The unexpected finding that associated dietary vitamin D with greater knee pain merits further study.

  9. Prevalent use of dietary supplements among people who exercise at a commercial gym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Laura J; Gizis, Frances; Shorter, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Supplement use was surveyed in a convenience sample of persons who exercised regularly at a Long Island, NY gym. Participants, age at least 18 y, completed anonymous questionnaires. A majority (84.7 %) took supplements. Many consumed multivitamin/minerals (MVM; 45 %), protein shakes/bars (PRO; 42.3 %), vitamin C (34.7 %), and vitamin E (VE; 23.4 %) at least 5 times per wk. Other dietary supplements were used less frequently or by fewer participants. Ephedra was consumed by 28 % at least once per wk. Choices and reasons for dietary supplement use varied with age of the participant. More of the oldest consumed MVM or VE, while those 45 y or younger chose PRO. Those younger than 30 consumed creatine more frequently. The oldest participants took supplements to prevent future illness, while others took supplements to build muscle. The reason for committing to an exercise program influenced supplement use. Bodybuilders more frequently consumed PRO, creatine, and ephedra compared to those exercising for health reasons.

  10. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  11. Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Keith R Martin, Christy L AppelNutrition Program, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and neurodegeneration. Pro-oxidant-induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases and, as such, dietary antioxidants can...

  12. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Aloysius; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplemen...

  13. The effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies suggest that dietary phytase enhance the growth rate of pigs fed P-adequate diets. This may be due to an increased N digestibility and/or improved protein gain. The aim was to study the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on the N-balance of growing pigs upon protein limiting condition. A total of 24 hybrid individually kept barrows (25kg BW were assigned into 4 treatments. Diet in AP0 (AP: adequate protein contained 190g/kg crude protein and no phytase supplementation, diets in RP0, RP500 and RP1000 (RP: reduced protein contained 160g/kg crude protein and 0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation, respectively. The balance trial consisted of 7 days adaptation and 5 days collection, during which the feces and urine were collected quantitatively. Additional phytase to low protein diets increased the N-retention of the pigs (P0.05. Dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of protein, however, 500 FTU/kg phytase supplementation increased the efficiency of N-retention. Our results show that the protein content of the feed for pigs of 20-30kg can be reduced from 190 to 160 g/kg if the diet is supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase without weakening the N-balance of pigs.

  14. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  15. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Elizabeth X; Navarro, Victor J

    2015-06-28

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury.

  16. Share of dietary supplements in nutrition of coeliac disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the intake of vitamins and minerals from the food ration and levels recorded after synthetic supplementation in patients following a gluten-free diet. Material and methods. The study included a cohort of 25 individuals aged 20-54. Nutrient intakes were assessed based on a 24-hour diet recall interview and an original questionnaire prepared by the authors specifically for this study. Anthropometric measurements were recorded in order to assess the nutritional status of the patients. Results and discussion. A low energy intake and an excessive share of fat were observed in daily food rations of coeliac disease patients. Uptake of most minerals with the diet was too low, while that of vitamins too high. Most participants declared the administration of supplements, which greatly contributed to the coverage of requirements for these nutrients. Conclusions. It was observed that the administered supplementation was frequently unjustifi ed, which led to the allowances being considerably exceeded for many vitamins and minerals.

  17. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Salmaan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s with the drug(s alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist.

  18. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Granulosa cells were aspirated from the ovary, and their proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunocytochemistry. To assess secretory activity and its response to gonadotropin, ovarian fragments of treated and control ewes were cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 IU/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones into the culture medium was evaluated. Finally, to examine the direct action of yucca on the ovary, ovarian fragments from control ewes were cultured with and without yucca extract (1, 10, or 100 μg/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones was measured. Yucca supplementation significantly decreased the size of small antral follicles (2 to yucca supplementation did not affect the size of larger follicles and number of follicles, volume and weight of ovaries, length and weight of oviducts, caspase 3 accumulation, cell proliferation, testosterone (T) or IGF-I serum levels, or T or E2 release by cultured ovarian fragments and their response to FSH. Yucca addition to culture medium inhibited P4 and IGF-I, but not T or E2 release at the lowest (1 μg/mL) dose, and stimulated P4, but not T, E2, or IGF-I release at the highest (100 μg/mL) dose. These data suggest that yucca supplementation can reduce small antral ovarian follicle development possibly via the stimulation of apoptosis of their granulosa cells, suppression of ovarian P4 and E2 release, and

  19. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoako, Prince O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Uden, Peter C., E-mail: pcuden@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Tyson, Julian F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  20. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Simitzis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the dose effects of hesperidin dietary supplementation on fattening rabbits’ growth performance, as well as carcass and meat quality characteristics. Forty-eight Hyla hybrid male weaned (35 d old rabbits were purchased and randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups of 16 rabbits each and fed diets supplemented with the antioxidant hesperidin at 0, 1 and 2 g/kg feed. At 80 d of age, the rabbits were slaughtered and samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle were used to estimate meat quality traits. No significant differences were observed in body weight at the age of 80 d, feed conversion rate (35 to 80 d, or organ weights among the 3 groups. The pH, colour, percentage of released water, shear force values and intramuscular fat content of LL muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Hesperidin dietary supplementation at both levels reduced the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly arachidonic (C20:4n-6, docosapentaenoic (C22:5n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3 (only at 2 g/kg, and PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01. Based on the malondialdehyde (MDA values, hesperidin inclusion did not influence meat antioxidant status during the 9-d refrigerated storage at 4°C. Thus, we may conclude that dietary supplementation with hesperidin at the selected concentration levels did not generally influence growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality or antioxidant capacity in fattening rabbits, although meat values for PUFAs appeared to be decreased.

  1. Tolerability and safety of commonly used dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Ferroni, Alienor; Ertek, Sibel

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the highest causes of death and disability in industrialized countries, whereas a large portion of patients in primary prevention have cardiovascular disease risk factors that remain uncontrolled. Lifestyle interventions, including dietary supplementation with natural compounds possessing known lipid-lowering effects, are strongly supported by the international guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention. This review provides insights on issues concerning the safety of the most commonly used dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with demonstrated lipid-lowering actions. Soluble fibers, phytosterols, soy proteins, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, monakolines, policosanols, berberine and garlic extracts are all discussed and a specific focus has been placed on their pharmacological interactions. A relatively large amount of preclinical, epidemiological and clinical evidence has demonstrated the tolerability and safety of the most commonly used dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with demonstrated lipid-lowering action. However, for most supplements and nutraceuticals, no evidence is currently available from long-term trials on morbidity and mortality. Detailed knowledge of specific health risks and pharmacological interactions for each individual compound is needed for the management of frail patients, such as children, the elderly, patients with liver or renal failure, high-risk patients, and patients consuming numerous drugs.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  3. Selective dietary supplementation in early postpartum is associated with high resilience against depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Segal, Zindel V; Stewart, Donna E; Steiner, Meir; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2017-03-28

    Medical research is moving toward prevention strategies during prodromal states. Postpartum blues (PPB) is often a prodromal state for postpartum depression (PPD), with severe PPB strongly associated with an elevated risk for PPD. The most common complication of childbearing, PPD has a prevalence of 13%, but there are no widespread prevention strategies, and no nutraceutical interventions have been developed. To counter the effects of the 40% increase in monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels that occurs during PPB, a dietary supplement kit consisting of monoamine precursor amino acids and dietary antioxidants was created. Key ingredients (tryptophan and tyrosine) were shown not to affect their total concentration in breast milk. The aim of this open-label study was to assess whether this dietary supplement reduces vulnerability to depressed mood at postpartum day 5, the typical peak of PPB. Forty-one healthy women completed all study procedures. One group (n = 21) received the dietary supplement, composed of 2 g of tryptophan, 10 g of tyrosine, and blueberry juice with blueberry extract. The control group (n = 20) did not receive any supplement. PPB severity was quantitated by the elevation in depressed mood on a visual analog scale following the sad mood induction procedure (MIP). Following the MIP, there was a robust induction of depressed mood in the control group, but no effect in the supplement group [43.85 ± 18.98 mm vs. 0.05 ± 9.57 mm shift; effect size: 2.9; F(1,39) = 88.33, P PPB.

  4. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  5. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p supplemental CuP and Car+CuP. Supplemental CuP caused an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (p carnitine and copper combination may prevent the possible adverse effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  6. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland Wj; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne Hm; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2016-09-06

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling. Of the athletes 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counselling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counselling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counselling seemed to result in better informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  7. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  8. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  9. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  10. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation on improvement of growth and immune function of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Liancheng; Zeng Wei; Li Yu; Wang Yongqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement (MirigenTM),a fungal cell wall derivative product,as a new generation alternative to antibiotics,on the growth and the innate and adaptive immune functions in broilers from birth to 45 d of age. Newborn chicken were randomly assigned to one of three groups:G1 (n=150) controls no supplement fed;G2 (n=150) is fed with dietary supplement at a designed regular dose (0.5%,weight of additive to food);G3 (n=150) is fed with dietary supplement at double doses (1%). All three groups were housed in the same conditions. Body weight and blood were taken on day 1,14,28 and 45. Medications used and costs/treatment were recorded for each group. The whole blood was used to purify heterophils for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and E coli killing abilities examination assays,and the serum samples were preserved in freezer for enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to determine concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β(MIP-1β),CD4/CD8,interferon-γ(IFN-γ), and titers of antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Group differences were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) algorithm (S-Plus). There was no significant birth weight difference in three groups. Af-ter 45 d growth,the dietary supplement treated groups had significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) with lower mortality rate if compared to the untreated control group (P<0.05). Their BWG and mortality rate were 2.23 kg and 10%in G1 (control group),2.89 kg and 2%in G2 (experimental group,0.5%dose),and 2.77 kg and 1%in G3 (experimental group,1%dose),respectively. Heterophil ROS generation in treated groups were markedly improved through the addition of dietary supplement in both regular and double doses to the diet (P<0.05). The ability of heterophil to kill E coli was also significantly improved in dietary supplement treated groups (P<0.01). Comparing to control group,there was significantly higher serum

  12. Dietary supplements and their future in health care: commentary on draft guidelines proposed by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhau, John C; Garg, Keva; Woodward, Albert M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act of 1994 gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsibility for oversight of the dietary supplement industry. Recent draft guidelines proposed by the FDA to insure the safety of new dietary ingredients would significantly alter the ability of manufacturers to bring new dietary ingredients to market, and may cause many products introduced since 1994 to be discontinued. These changes will have an impact on health care, but with limited research on dietary supplements and how their use affects the health care system, there is no way to predict what their overall effect on health will be. Since the natural raw materials for dietary supplements are often inexpensive and generally cannot be patented, manufactures have little incentive to conduct the research which might otherwise be warranted. Appropriate clinical trials that evaluate the use and efficacy of various supplements may be critical for our health care system. If inexpensive dietary supplements are found to be safe and effective, such research could yield significant cost savings as well as health benefits.

  13. Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.

  14. Factors associated with dietary supplement use by people who exercise at gyms

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Mirian Moura Lacerda; Wellington Roberto Gomes de Carvalho; Elane Viana Hortegal; Nayra Anielly Lima Cabral; Helma Jane Ferreira Veloso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the factors associated with the use of dietary supplements by people who exercise at gyms. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a sample defined by convenience, considering the number of gyms registered in the Conselho Regional de Educação Física (Regional Council of Physical Education) of Sao Luis, MA, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2011 to July 2012. The final sample comprised 723 individuals who exercise at gyms. The dependent variable was supplement use, and the explan...

  15. Dietary supplementation in patients with alcoholic liver disease:a review on current evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeinab Ghorbani; Masoomeh Hajizadeh; Azita Hekmatdoost

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide. Although the patho-genesis of ALD has not yet been well elucidated, the oxidative metabolites of ethanol such as acetaldehyde and reactive oxy-gen species play a pivotal role in the clinical and pathological spectrum of the disease. This review summarizes the existing evidences on dietary supplements considered to have antioxi-dant, and/or anti-inlfammatory properties, and their role in the management of ALD and the proposed mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: The present study reviewed all studies pub-lished in PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus, from 1959 to 2015, indicating the role of different dietary supplementation in attenuation of many pathophysiological processes involved in development and progression of ALD. Full-texts of citations were used except for those that were published in languages other than English. RESULTS: Signiifcant progress has been made to understand the key events and molecular players for the onset and pro-gression of ALD from both experimental and clinical studies;however, there is no successful treatment currently available. The present review discussed the role of a variety of dietary supplements (e.g. vitamin A, carotenoids, vitamins B3, C and E, in addition to antioxidants and anti-inlfammatory agents) in treating ALD. It has been shown that supplementation with some carotenoids, vitamin B3, vitamin C, silymarin, curcumin, probiotics, zinc, S-adenosylmethionine and garlic may have potential beneifcial effects in animal models of ALD; however, the number of clinical studies is very limited. In addition, sup-plementation should be accompanied with alcohol cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Since oxidative stress and inlfammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ALD, dietary supplements that can modulate these pathologies could be useful in the treat-ment of ALD. In addition to alcohol cessation, these supple-ments have shown beneifcial effects on animal

  16. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2000-06-01

    Micronutrient intakes and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements were investigated in 26 vegans, comprising 17 non-supplement users (NSU) and nine supplement users (SU), consuming their habitual diet. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a four-day weighed record and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements was assessed according to the manufacturers' declarations on the packaging. Mean daily intakes from food sources were similar in NSU and SU. Dietary supplements significantly increased intakes of riboflavin (p B12 and selenium (Se) were below the appropriate lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) in 80% and 65% of NSU respectively. After supplements, 33% of SU remained below the LRNI for vitamin B12 and 33% below the LRNI for Se. Some vegans who took supplements were not taking certain micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet the RNIs but were taking a mix of micronutrients, some of which they needed and others which they did not need. Some vegans who did not take supplements had a potential need for the addition of supplements to their diets. Advice on the appropriate usage of dietary supplements for those on a vegan diet is needed.

  17. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446 and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372. Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90. Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements. Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable.

  18. Xanthones from the botanical dietary supplement mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with aromatase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-07-01

    Twelve xanthone constituents of the botanical dietary supplement mangosteen (the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana) were screened using a noncellular, enzyme-based microsomal aromatase inhibition assay. Of these compounds, garcinone D (3), garcinone E (5), alpha-mangostin (8), and gamma-mangostin (9) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity. In a follow-up cell-based assay using SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells that express high levels of aromatase, the most potent of these four xanthones was gamma-mangostin (9). Because xanthones may be consumed in substantial amounts from commercially available mangosteen products, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements require further investigation to determine their possible role in breast cancer chemoprevention.

  19.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  20. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  1. The Role of Omega-3 Dietary Supplementation in Blepharitis and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsai, Marian S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are common sources of complaints from patients. To evaluate the effect on ocular symptoms, ocular findings, and serum and meibomian gland contents, patients with blepharitis and MGD were prospectively evaluated to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Methods In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled masked trial, patients with simple obstructive MGD and blepharitis, who had discontinued all topical medications and tetracyclines, received oral omega-3 dietary supplementation consisting of two 1000-mg capsules 3 times a day. Patients were examined every 3 months for 1 year with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) objective clinical measures, including tear production and stability, ocular surface and meibomian gland health, and biochemical plasma, red blood cell (RBC), and meibum evaluation. Primary outcome measures were change in tear breakup time (TBUT), meibum score, and overall OSDI score at 1 year. Results At 1 year, the omega-3 group had a 36% and 31% reduction in their omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in RBCs and plasma, respectively (P = .3), whereas the placebo group demonstrated no change. At 12 months, the omega-3 group had an improvement in TBUT, OSDI score, and meibum score. Changes in meibum content were observed in the omega-3 group (P = .21); the level of meibum saturated fatty acids decreased. Conclusions This trial demonstrated a decrease in the RBC and plasma ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in patients taking omega-3 dietary supplementation, as compared to controls, and improvements in their overall OSDI score, TBUT, and meibum score. This is the first demonstration of an induced change in the fatty acid saturation content in meibum as a result of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19277245

  2. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Fengrui Zhang; Xiangfang Zeng; Fengjuan Yang; Zhimin Huang; Hong Liu; Xi Ma; Shiyan Qiao

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg...

  3. Disorders of fuel metabolism: medical complications associated with starvation, eating disorders, dietary fads, and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Bryan S; Eisenga, Bernard H

    2005-08-01

    Disorders of fuel metabolism as they relate to abnormal fuel intake,abnormal fuel expenditure, and dietary supplements are the focus of this article. The emergency physician should be aware of the medical complications that can occur as a result of starvation states,eating disorders, fad diets, hypermetabolic states, and ergogenic aids. Knowledge and understanding of the complications associated with these disorders will facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients who present to the emergency department with any of the disorders reviewed.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  5. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-08-26

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  6. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  7. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  8. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders...

  9. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS AND INTERIOR INDICATORS PIGS AT USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS "SELENIUM VITA" AND "TOPINAMBUR"

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov V. H.; Gribtsova T. V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on pure-bred pigs CT and DM-1. An analysis of variance of economically useful signs and interior indicators pigs using dietary supplements "Vita selenium" and "Jerusalem artichoke"

  10. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  11. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Marko; Rozman, Damjana; Komel, Radovan

    2015-10-23

    Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  12. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  14. Effect of Digestarom® dietary supplementation on the reproductive performances of rabbit does: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Celia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of Digestarom® dietary supplementation on the reproductive performances of rabbit does. Pannon Ka (maternal line multiparous does were randomly divided into two dietary groups since insemination and fed ad libitum. In the first group (n=51, rabbit does were fed with a commercial diet (C, whereas in the other group (n=52 they received the same diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg of Digestarom® (D. The experiment lasted for two reproductive cycles (kindling 1=K1; kindling 2=K2. Body weight of does and litter size (kits born total, alive, stillborn were recorded at kindling. Litter size and litter weight were registered at 7, 14, 21 days of age after nursing, and the average individual weight of kits was calculated. Kits’ mortality was recorded daily. At K1, rabbit does performances were unaffected by dietary treatments. During K2, D does were significantly lighter than C ones (P<0.05 and displayed a lower kindling rate (P<0.05. Digestarom® did not improve the reproductive performance of rabbit does. They seemed to dislike the D diet in K1 and such behavior could have led to the negative results in K2. Further studies should focus on feed acceptance, dose-dependent effect, physiological adaptation and in vivo oxidative status of does. Finally, several consecutive reproductive cycles are recommended to test the efficacy of new feed supplements.

  15. The effect of Iron Folic Acid Supplementation and Dietary Iron Intake in High Schools Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Iron deficiency is one of the major public health problems imposing significant effect on the body and mind which has negative impacts on humans’ capability of. Increasing demand of the body, inadequate intake and decrease of absorbency are the major causes of anemia among teenage girls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary iron folic acid supplementation and dietary iron intake in high school girls. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on sixty female high school students at grade one and three in Yasuj, Iran. Biochemical markers of iron status were measured beforehand and afterwards of folic acid supplementation for 16 weeks. Food consumption patterns and iron intake were determined by frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test by means of N4 analysis software. Results: Anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in grade one were 9.7%, 32.3% and 9.9% respectively, in addition to in grade three were 19.4% , 41.9% and 3.2% respectively. After iron folic acid supplementation, these indicators were 9.7%, 16.1% and 3.3% in grade one and in grade three were 9.7%, 22.6%, 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Overall, it appeared that weekly iron folic acid supplementation in duration of 16 weeks per year, with dietary modification, could improve the indices of blood in high school girls. Key words: Anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, iron folic acid supplementation

  16. Dietary Supplementations as Neuroprotective Therapies: Focus on NT-020 Diet Benefits in a Rat Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar V. Borlongan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke remains the number one cause of disability in the adult population. Despite scientific progress in our understanding of stroke pathology, only one treatment (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA is able to afford benefits but to less than 3% of ischemic stroke patients. The development of experimental dietary supplement therapeutics designed to stimulate endogenous mechanisms that confer neuroprotection is likely to open new avenues for exploring stroke therapies. The present review article evaluates the recent literature supporting the benefits of dietary supplementation for the therapy of ischemic stroke. This article focuses on discussing the medical benefits of NT-020 as an adjunct agent for stroke therapy. Based on our preliminary data, a pre-stroke treatment with dietary supplementation promotes neuroprotection by decreasing inflammation and enhancing neurogenesis. However, we recognize that a pre-stroke treatment holds weak clinical relevance. Thus, the main goal of this article is to provide information about recent data that support the assumption of natural compounds as neuroprotective and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a dietary supplement called NT-020 as in a stroke model. We focus on a systematic assessment of practical treatment parameters so that NT-020 and other dietary supplementations can be developed as an adjunct agent for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. We offer rationale for determining the optimal dosage, therapeutic window, and mechanism of action of NT-020 as a dietary supplement to produce neuroprotection when administered immediately after stroke onset. We highlight our long-standing principle in championing both translational and basic science approaches in an effort to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of NT-020 as dietary supplementation in the treatment of stroke. We envision dietary supplementation as an adjunct therapy for stroke at acute, subacute, and even chronic periods.

  17. Prevention of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children with dietary calcium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Isichei, Christian O; Zoakah, Ayuba I; Pettifor, John M

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children usually results from dietary calcium insufficiency. Typical dietary calcium intakes in African children are about 200mg daily (approximately 20-28% of US RDAs for age). We sought to determine if rickets could be prevented with supplemental calcium or with an indigenous food rich in calcium. We enrolled Nigerian children aged 12 to 18months from three urban communities. Two communities were assigned calcium, either as calcium carbonate (400mg) or ground fish (529±109mg) daily, while children in all three communities received vitamin A (2500IU) daily as placebo. Serum markers of mineral homeostasis and forearm bone density (pDEXA) were measured and radiographs were obtained at enrollment and after 18months of supplementation. The overall prevalence of radiographic rickets at baseline was 1.2% and of vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)DRickets developed in 1, 1, and 2 children assigned to the calcium tablet, ground fish, and control groups, respectively (approximate incidence 6.4/1000 children/year between 1 and 3years of age). Children who developed rickets in the calcium-supplemented groups had less than 50% adherence. Compared with the group that received no calcium supplementation, the groups that received calcium had a greater increase in areal bone density of the distal and proximal 1/3 radius and ulna over time (Prickets.

  18. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  19. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  20. The Effect of Dietary Supplements on the Development of Bombyx Mori L. Silkworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We know that the silkworms consume leaves in large quantities. The scope of the research was their reaction to various additives for their food. Mulberry leaves spray-coated in several dietary supplements were administered starting with the 5th day of the 3rd instar. The substances used were flax (linseed oil, hemp oil and 2.5% fat cow’s milk. The research was performed on four different silkworm hybrid strands. Each hybrid was separated in 4 lots, a control group and one for each of the three supplements. The preliminary conclusions of the research were that the best results were obtained with the 2.5% milk supplement, where we observed the highest individual mass and silk quantity compared to the other lots.

  1. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics.......5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Psupplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected...... with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.International Journal of Obesity advance online...

  2. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N A; Greenwood, D C; Simpson, N A B; McArdle, H J; Cade, J E

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. A prospective birth cohort. Leeds, UK. One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18-45 years. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Regular multivitamin-mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries.

  3. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation and Liver Injury in Alcohol-Treated Rats: A Metabolomics Investigation

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    Xiaxia Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that nucleotides were beneficial for liver function, lipid metabolism and so on. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic response of dietary nucleotides supplementation in alcohol-induced liver injury rats. Methods: Five groups of male Wistar rats were used: normal control group (basal diet, equivalent distilled water, alcohol control group (basal diet, 50% alcohol (v/v, dextrose control group (basal diet, isocaloric amount of dextrose, and 0.04% and 0.16% nucleotides groups (basal diet supplemented with 0.4 g and 1.6 g nucleotides kg−1 respectively, 50% alcohol (v/v. The liver injury was measured through traditional liver enzymes, expression of oxidative stress markers and histopathological examination. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was applied to identify liver metabolite profiles. Results: Nucleotides supplementation prevented the progression of hepatocyte steatosis. The levels of total proteins, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol triglyceride, as well as the oxidative stress markers altered by alcohol, were improved by nucleotides supplementation. Elevated levels of liver bile acids (glycocholic acid, chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, as well as lipids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine in alcohol-treated rats were reversed by nucleotides supplementation. In addition, supplementation with nucleotides could increase the levels of amino acids, including valyl-Leucine, l-leucine, alanyl-leucine and l-phenylalanine. Conclusion: These data indicate potential biomarkers and confirm the benefit of dietary nucleotides on alcoholic liver injury.

  4. Dietary Fisetin Supplementation Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-10-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, which were attenuated by fisetin supplementation. The EtOH concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin supplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin supplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and up-regulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. This study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating EtOH clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Uso de suplementos alimentares por adolescentes Dietary supplement use by adolescents

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    Crésio Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar crititcamente o uso, benefícios e efeitos adversos dos principais suplementos alimentares utilizados por adolescentes. FONTES DOS DADOS: A pesquisa bibliográfica, realizada nos últimos 10 anos, utilizou os bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. Foram examinados 377 artigos, sendo selecionados 52. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O consumo de suplementos dietéticos é amplamente difundido entre adolescentes. Tal fato é constatado, com frequência, nos consultórios de pediatria e hebeatria. Na maioria das vezes ele ocorre sem uma necessidade específica, sendo motivado pela busca do corpo ideal. Outros motivos para essa suplementação são: compensar dieta inadequada, aumentar imunidade, prevenir doenças, melhorar o desempenho competitivo e superar os próprios limites. Os suplementos alimentares mais utilizados e discutidos nesse artigo e para os quais existem poucas evidências de um efeito benéfico de sua utilização por adolescentes saudáveis são: proteínas, aminoácidos, betahidroxibetametilbutirato, microelementos, carnitina, creatina, vitaminas, cafeína e bicarbonato. CONCLUSÃO: O uso irrestrito de suplementos dietéticos deve ser desaconselhado, uma vez que expõe o adolescente a vários efeitos adversos, além da falta de evidência de que tal prática levará a melhora no desempenho. Uma nutrição balanceada, com aquisição da energia e dos nutrientes necessários é geralmente suficiente para boa performance nas atividades físicas. A reposição com suplementos dietéticos deve ser reservada para atletas competitivos que não consomem uma dieta balanceada, após a comprovação de alguma deficiência específica.OBJECTIVE: To review the use, benefits and adverse effects of the main dietary supplements consumed by adolescents. SOURCES: The literature review was performed using MEDLINE and LILACS databases (1997-2008. We analyzed 377 articles, and 52 of them were selected as references. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

  6. Determination of the isoflavone composition and estrogenic activity of commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Susanne; Hansen, Ulf; Niemann, Birgit; Palavinskas, Richard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplements high in isolated isoflavones are commercially available for human consumption primarily to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The isoflavone composition, quantity and importantly their estrogenic potency are poorly standardised and can vary considerably between different products. The aim of this study was to analyse the isoflavone composition of 11 dietary supplements based on soy or red clover using the HPLC/MS/MS technique. Furthermore, we investigated the transactivational potential of the supplements on the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, performing luciferase reporter gene assays. As expected, we found that the isoflavone composition varies between different products. The measured total isoflavone contents in various supplements were mostly comparable to those claimed by the manufacturers in their product information. However expressing the isoflavone content as isoflavone aglycone equivalents, soy-based supplements had a clearly lower quantity compared to the manufacturer information. All supplements transactivated more or less ERα and ERβ with a preference for ERβ. The transactivational efficiency exceeded partly the maximal 17β-estradiol induced ER activation. While the different soy-based supplements revealed similar transactivation potential to both ERs, red clover-based supplements differed considerably. We conclude that different commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover vary in their isoflavone composition and quantity. They are estrogenically active, although especially the red clover-based supplements show considerable differences in their estrogenic potential to ERα and ERβ. Thus, different isoflavone-rich products cannot be necessarily compared regarding possible biological effects.

  7. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  8. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) complet

  9. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Toine F.H.; Mol, Hans G.J.; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E.; Heskamp, Henri H.; Bruchem, van Gerard D.; Ginkel, van Leendert A.; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J.P.; Dam, van Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the labe

  10. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  11. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) complet

  12. Assessing the Risk of Probiotic Dietary Supplements in the Context of Antibiotic Resistance

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    Min Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied. These products are consumed with increasing regularity due to their health claims that include the improvement of intestinal health and immune response as well as prevention of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and cancer; but, a comprehensive risk assessment on the spread of resistant genes to human health is lacking. Here, we highlight recent reports of antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria isolated from dietary supplements, and propose complementary strategies that can shed light on the risks of consuming such products in the context of a global widespread of antibiotic resistance. In concomitant with a broader screening of antibiotic resistance in probiotic supplements is the use of computational simulations, live imaging and functional genomics to harvest knowledge on the evolutionary behavior, adaptations and dynamics of probiotics studied in conditions that best represent the human gut including in the presence of antibiotics. The underlying goal is to enable the health benefits of probiotics to be exploited in a responsible manner and with minimal risk to human health.

  13. Trade-offs between anti-aging dietary supplementation and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-10-01

    In otherwise healthy adults, moderate aerobic exercise extends life span and likely health span by 2-6 years. Exercise improves blood sugar regulation, and resistance exercise increases or maintains muscle mass and is associated with improved cognitive function. On the other hand, evidence for anti-oxidant supplements increasing longevity in humans is lacking. On the contrary, transient hormetic increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), for example, associated with exercise, are actually associated with increased mammalian health span and life span. Recent studies in humans suggest that anti-oxidants such as vitamins C, E, resveratrol, and acetyl-N-cysteine blunt the beneficial effects of exercise on glucose sensitivity and blood sugar regulation, likely through direct inhibition of ROS signaling. Alternately, other studies suggest that vitamin C has beneficial effects on exercise-associated dysfunction, inhibiting exercise-induced bronchioconstriction. These data suggest that there are tradeoffs between potential benefits and harm from anti-oxidant dietary supplementation. Specific biomolecular interactions for each antioxidant also will be important. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fattty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory activity that is not mediated through direct ROS inhibition. Although data are limited in humans, n-3 PUFAs do not seem to blunt blood sugar regulatory benefits of aerobic exercise and actually increase anabolic activity in skeletal muscle. However, another kind of tradeoff may exist with PUFAs, at least for men. A recent large clinical trial demonstrates an association of omega-3 fatty acids blood levels with increased incidence of prostate cancer, especially aggressive prostate cancer. Together these results suggest that there are significant tradeoffs in the use of dietary supplementation for prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging. Such tradeoffs may result from underlying intertwined homeostatic mechanisms. For most

  14. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p < 0.05) higher values in fish fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio.

  15. A complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Vadim; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Szechtman, Henry; Khanna, Parul; Matravadia, Sarthak; Rollo, C David

    2013-02-01

    We developed a complex dietary supplement designed to offset five key mechanisms of aging and tested its effectiveness in ameliorating age-related cognitive decline using a visually cued Morris water maze test. All younger mice (1 year) were unable to learn the maze even after 5 days, indicative of strong cognitive decline at older ages. In contrast, no cognitive decline was evident in older supplemented mice, even when ∼2 years old. Supplemented older mice were nearly 50% better at locating the platform than age-matched controls. Brain weights of supplemented mice were significantly greater than controls, even at younger ages. Reversal of cognitive decline in activity of complexes III and IV by supplementation was significantly associated with cognitive improvement, implicating energy supply as one possible mechanism. These results represent proof of principle that complex dietary supplements can provide powerful benefits for cognitive function and brain aging.

  16. Suplementos enterales: ¿complementos o sustitutos de la dieta? Enteral supplements: dietary supplements or substitutes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez Sogues

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la utilización de suplementos nutricionales orales analizando el motivo de su prescripción y su implicación en el aporte calórico-proteico ingerido. Ámbito: Estudio realizado en un hospital universitario de 350 camas, que dispone de especialidades médicas y quirúrgicas. Sujetos, pacientes: La inclusión de pacientes se realizó mediante selección de todas las prescripciones de inicio de suplemento nutricional oral. Los criterios de exclusión fueron ser menor de 18 años, estar ingresado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, presentar problemas cognitivos o de comunicación, seguir tratamiento concomitante con nutrición parenteral o precisar dieta enteral completa, y/o ser portador de sonda nasogástrica para alimentación. También se excluyeron las dietas enterales especiales, que están diseñadas específicamente para algunas patologías. Intervenciones: Estudio longitudinal y prospectivo de la prescripción de suplementos nutricionales por vía oral realizado durante un año. Mediante revisión de la historia clínica y entrevista personalizada, se registraron datos demográficos, parámetros nutricionales, características de la dieta y del suplemento, y aporte calórico-proteico prescrito e ingerido. Los datos fueron introducidos en una base de datos Acces 97 y procesados mediante el programa SPSS para Windows. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas, un análisis de χ2 entre variables cualitativas, un análisis de comparación de medias para datos apareados mediante una t Student y un análisis de la varianza entre variables cuantitativas. El nivel de significación establecido fue p Objective: to assess the use of oral nutritional supplements analyzing the reason for prescription and its implication in caloric-protein intake. Setting: study performed at a university hospital of 350 beds with medical and surgical specialties. Subjects, patients: Patients inclusion was

  17. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  18. [Statistical analysis of the consumption of nutritional and dietary supplements in gyms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Antonio J Sánchez; León, María Teresa Miranda; Hernández, Eduardo Guerra

    2008-09-01

    The abuse of all types of substance to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements in a group of 415 individuals (260 males and 155 females) from 4 gyms in Seville (Spain). The users completed a previously designed questionnaire whose content validity had been tested in a pilot study. Out of the total sample, 56.14% had consumed a supplement at some time. Among these, the objective was improvement of physical appearance in 57.16%, health care in 16.7%, and sports performance enhancement in 13.2%. The profile of the supplement consumer is a young man who has performed activities in gyms for some time, goes to the gym for several hours a week and is on some type of diet. The percentage of nutritional supplement users (56%) is within values reported in other studies. The five supplements most frequently consumed by these individuals were (in decreasing order): proteins (28%), L-carnitine (18.6%), sport drinks (18.3%), creatine (17.1%) and vitamin complex (17.1%).

  19. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Latoya T; Fowler, Lauren A; Barry, Robert J; Watts, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies.

  20. Use of dietary supplements in Denmark is associated with health and former smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V. K.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Haraldsdottir, J.

    2002-01-01

    on Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases, 1997-1998. Subjects: Participants were 3707 women (selected age groups between 18 and 65 years) and 942 men (60-65 years). Participation rate was 50%. Supplement data were collected in a personal interview. Data on education, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity...... and gender, being highest among elderly women (78%). Ex-smokers were more likely to use supplements than subjects who had never smoked (odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.76). Supplement use was more likely among subjects who had many days of illness (OR=1.37,95% CI 1.......12-1.66) and among users of medication (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42). Subjects who perceived their health as poor were more likely to use supplements other than just a multivitamin/mineral tablet (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.31-3.77). Conclusions: Use of dietary supplements was related to age, gender and smoking, but also...

  1. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  2. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (phen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (play, egg weight, and FCR. From economical point of view, egg production was more profitable at 0.5% level of sodium butyrate and 0.5% level of calcium propionate which reduced the feed cost per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass production without affecting the egg quality. PMID:28096625

  3. Dietary glutamine supplementation partly reverses impaired macrophage function resulting from overload training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Dong, Jingmei; Wang, Ru; Luo, Beibei

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload training on the function of peritoneal macrophages in rats, and to test the hypothesis that glutamine in vivo supplementation would partly reverse the eventual functional alterations induced by overload training in these cells. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overload training group (E1), overload training and restore one week group (E2), glutamine-supplementation group (EG1), and glutamine-supplementation and restore 1-week group (EG2). All rats, except those placed on sedentary control were subjected to 11 weeks of overload training protocol. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, and corticosterone of rats were measured. Moreover, the functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokines synthesis, reactive oxygen species generation) of peritoneal macrophages were determined. Data showed that blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, corticosterone and body weight in the overload training group decreased significantly as compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the chemotaxis capacity (decreased by 31%, p = .003), the phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 27%, p = .005), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (decreased by 35%, p = .003) and the cytokines response capability of macrophages were inhibited by overload training. However, the hindering of phagocytosis and the cytokines response capability of macrophages induced by overload training could be ameliorated and reversed respectively, by dietary glutamine supplementation. These results suggest that overload training impairs the function of peritoneal macrophages, which is essential for the microbicidal actions of macrophages. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunodepression induced by overload training. Nonetheless, dietary glutamine supplementation could partly reverse the impaired macrophage function resulting from overload training.

  4. FDA hearing highlights opposition to dietary supplement practices; written comments due August 20. Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-06

    A July 1999 FDA hearing on dietary supplements revealed vehement opposition to the free rein regulations that are given to the dietary supplements industry. Unless abuses in the industry are somehow curbed, congressional action may occur. Industry representatives at an earlier FDA meeting criticized the agency for not cracking down on fraudulent or improper health-food products. It was suggested that the National Institutes of Health research the safety and efficacy of these products, with possible fees assessed from industry. The FDA has requested public feedback on how it should regulate the dietary supplement industry. Such regulation may make some supplements unavailable at any price in the United States, which could potentially harm people with serious illness. The key issue is how to halt unethical marketing while maintaining public access.

  5. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2007-01-01

    Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day....... A high level of dietary P prepartum significantly decreased the plasma Ca concentration before as well as immediately after calving (day 0-3). Conversely, the plasma inorganic phosphate concentration was higher among these cows than among cows receiving no supplemental P. The prepartum dietary Ca level...... significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving...

  6. Safety of dietary supplements: chronotropic and inotropic effects on isolated rat atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoko; Umegaki, Keizo; Tanaka, Naoko; Mizuno, Hideya; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary supplements on atria isolated from male Wistar rats. The examined supplements, which are increasingly used in Japan, those were Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), catechins, isoflavones, sodium iron chlorophyllin and sodium copper chlorophyllin. GBE at 100-1000 microg/ml significantly increased the beat rate and the contractile force. Catechins at 1-100 microg/ml significantly potentiated the contractile force but did not effect the beat rates. However, isoflavones, sodium iron and sodium copper chlorophyllins did not change the contractile force or the beat rates. To identify the active ingredient of GBE, ginkgolide B, quercetin and amentoflavone on the atria were tested. Ginkgolide B weakened the contractile force. Quercetin potentiated the contractile force at only 30 microg/ml. Amentoflavone significantly increased the beat rate. From these findings, amentoflavone and quercetin were considered to be the principal ingredients of GBE producing the positive chronotropic and inotropic actions, respectively. In the case of catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), one of the principal ingredients, produced inotropic actions. These findings suggest that there are some dietary supplements which affect cardiac function, such GBE and catechins.

  7. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P heat-stressed chicks modulated (P heat-stress-induced growth retardation in broiler chicks. Moreover, supplemental CrMet modulated suppressive effects of heat stress on cellular and humoral immune responses.

  8. The effect of dietary supplements on the quality of life of retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Robert; Maddela, Rolando Lorenzo; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2012-11-22

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (pquality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort.

  9. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  10. Effect of novel dietary supplement on metabolism in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro. Human males ingested either a placebo or commercially available supplement (RF in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over fashion. Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood pressure were measured hourly for 3 h post-ingestion. To investigate molecular effects, human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD and mouse myocytes (C2C12 were treated with various doses of RF for various durations. RF enhanced energy expenditure and systolic blood pressure in human males without altering substrate utilization. In myocytes, RF enhanced metabolism, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial content suggesting RF may target common energetic pathways which control mitochondrial biogenesis. RF appears to increase metabolism immediately following ingestion, although it is unclear if RF provides benefits beyond those provided by caffeine alone. Additional research is needed to examine safety and efficacy for human weight loss.

  11. Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Protects Weanling Pigs from Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with l-arginine (Arg on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group, 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% l-arginine (DON + ARG group. After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1, glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2 and y+l-type amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1 were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.

  12. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  13. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm

    2009-01-01

    in an increase in faecal fat of 5.2 (1.6-8.8) g day(-1). In conclusion, dietary calcium has the potential to increase faecal fat excretion to an extent that could be relevant for prevention of weight (re-)gain. Long-term studies are required to establish its potential contribution.......Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...

  14. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed.

  15. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, A.; Mammina, C.; Thomas, E.; Bellafiore, M; G. Battaglia; Moro, T.; Paoli, A.; Palma, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  16. Environmental neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and mercury in shark cartilage dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondo, Kiyo; Broc Glover, W; Murch, Susan J; Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; Davis, David A; Mash, Deborah C

    2014-08-01

    Shark cartilage products are marketed as dietary supplements with claimed health benefits for animal and human use. Shark fin and cartilage products sold as extracts, dry powders and in capsules are marketed based on traditional Chinese medicine claims that it nourishes the blood, enhances appetite, and energizes multiple internal organs. Shark cartilage contains a mixture of chondroitin and glucosamine, a popular nutritional supplement ingested to improve cartilage function. Sharks are long-lived apex predators, that bioaccumulate environmental marine toxins and methylmercury from dietary exposures. We recently reported detection of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in the fins of seven different species of sharks from South Florida coastal waters. Since BMAA has been linked to degenerative brain diseases, the consumption of shark products may pose a human risk for BMAA exposures. In this report, we tested sixteen commercial shark cartilage supplements for BMAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-FD) with fluorescence detection and ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Total mercury (Hg) levels were measured in the same shark cartilage products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). We report here that BMAA was detected in fifteen out of sixteen products with concentrations ranging from 86 to 265μg/g (dry weight). All of the shark fin products contained low concentrations of Hg. While Hg contamination is a known risk, the results of the present study demonstrate that shark cartilage products also may contain the neurotoxin BMAA. Although the neurotoxic potential of dietary exposure to BMAA is currently unknown, the results demonstrate that shark cartilage products may contain two environmental neurotoxins that have synergistic toxicities.

  17. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  18. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustrat Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group or olive oil (placebo group for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95. A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62% and active (65% group (p = 0.52. The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91. Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497

  19. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  20. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-08

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  1. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    One hundred twenty-four cows (92 multiparous and 32 primiparous) were used to evaluate the effect of grain supplements containing high crude protein [(22.8% CP, 5.3% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), dry matter basis], moderate CP (16.6% CP, 6.1% RUP), and moderate CP with supplemental RUP (16.2% CP, 10.8% RUP) on lactation performance of Holstein cows rotationally grazing annual ryegrass-oat pastures. Supplemental protein was provided by solvent extracted soybean meal in the high CP and moderate CP supplements and as a corn gluten meal-blood meal mixture (2.8:1) in the moderate CP, high RUP supplement. Cows were blocked according to previous mature milk equivalent production and calving date (partum group; 0 d in milk or postpartum group; 21 to 65 d in milk) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Grain was individually fed, at approximately a 1:3 grain to milk ratio, before a.m. and p.m milkings. The study was replicated during two grazing seasons that averaged 199 d. Cows had ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay while on pasture (dry matter intake = 1.3 kg/d). Protein supplementation had no effect on study long pasture dry matter (12.7 +/- 1.0 kg/d) or total dry matter (23.9 +/- 1.2 kg/d) consumption. Protein concentration did not affect actual milk yield of either calving group (high CP vs. moderate CP); however, postpartum group cows receiving high CP grain supplements maintained greater milk fat concentrations (3.34 vs. 3.11%), which led to higher fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields than control cows receiving moderate CP grain diets (30.3 vs. 28.9 kg/d). Crude protein concentration in milk of high CP-supplemented, postpartum group cows was also higher than moderate CP cows (3.42 vs. 3.27%). Additional RUP did not increase FCM yield above that generated by moderate CP grain diets for partum (34.3 vs. 32.9 kg/d) or postpartum-group cows (28.9 vs. 28.2 kg/d). Increasing CP concentration of grain supplement did not affect milk yield of Holstein cows grazing

  2. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... makes the product for more information. Report false advertising to the Federal Trade Comission (FTC). www.ftc. ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal with a dietary supplement, Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Edward W; Babu, Kavita M; Macalino, Grace E; Compton, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    We examined the use of Kratom (Mitragyna sp.), a dietary supplement with mu-opioid agonist activity, by members of a cybercommunity who self-treat chronic pain with opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Within one year, an increase in the number of mentions on Drugbuyers.com, a Web site that facilitates the online purchase of opioid analgesics, suggested that members began managing opioid withdrawal with Kratom. This study demonstrates the rapidity with which information on psychoactive substances disseminates through online communities and suggests that online surveillance may be important to the generation of effective opioid analgesic abuse prevention strategies.

  4. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage in Gilthead Seabream Muscle: Glycerol Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeiro, Odete D.

    2012-01-01

    The quality and shelf life of fish meat products depend on the skeletal muscle’s energetic state at slaughter, as meat decomposition processes can be exacerbated by energy depletion. In this study, we tested dietary glycerol as a way of replenishing muscle glycogen reserves of farmed gilthead......, and organoleptic properties (aroma and color). Proteomic analysis showed a low impact of glycerol-supplementation on muscle metabolism, with most changes probably reflecting increased stress coping capacity in glycerol-fed fish. This suggests inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets (particularly...

  5. Dietary supplement intake by recreationally trained men and motives behind these procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kurylas, Anna; Kwiatkowska-Pamuła, Anna; Gniza, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Kurylas Anna, Kwiatkowska-Pamuła Anna, Gniza Dorota. Dietary supplement intake by recreationally trained men and motives behind these procedures. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(1):84-97. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.231322 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4145         The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 754 (09.12.2016). 754 Journal of E...

  6. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  7. Modulation of small intestinal phosphate transporter by dietary supplements of mineral phosphorus and phytase in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Korinna; Zeller, Ellen; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus (P) is known as a main modulator of phosphate (Pi) transporter expression. The effect of supplemented mineral P with or without phytase on protein expression of two sodium-dependent Pi (NaPi) transporters and a calcium channel was studied in the small intestine of broilers. Thirty-six broilers were randomly assigned to six different diets at 15 days of age. Two levels of total P (tP, adjusted by monocalcium phosphate (MCP) supplementation), 0.39% (BD-) and 0.47% (BD+) were fed until day 25; and at each tP level, three levels of phytase were used with 0, 500, and 12,500 FTU/kg of an E. coli phytase. Mucosa samples from jejunum and ileum were taken and apical membranes were isolated by MgCl2 precipitation. Protein expression of NaPi IIb, NaPi type III (PiT1) and the calcium channel TRPV6 were semiquantitatively measured by Western blotting and jejunal mucosal phytase activity by measurement of Pi release. The jejunal NaPi IIb transporter was expressed with two distinct bands, which were modulated differently by diet. NaPi IIb Band1 increased (P phytase supplementation but was not affected by MCP supplementation. This inverse modulation of Band1 and Band2 was significantly related to the amount of net absorbed P with higher expression of Band1 at higher amounts of net absorbed P. In addition, a second Pi transporter, PiT1, was detected in which ileal expression decreased (P phytase supplementation. The expression of the calcium channel TRPV6 was increased in BD+ groups. A trend for an interaction between MCP and phytase supplementation on mucosal phytase activity was observed (P = 0.079) with a decrease in activity when BD+ with 12,500 FTU/kg phytase was fed. Chicken intestinal epithelial cells responded to dietary supplemented phytase and MCP by changing the Pi transporter expression in apical membranes. In conclusion, availability of Pi is most likely the key modulator of transporter protein expression. However, a contribution of lower inositol

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Avigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States (US, the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  9. Identification of a new tadalafil analogue in an adulterated dietary supplement: trans-Bisprehomotadalafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Mandava, Suresh; Hwang, Jungjoong; Park, Hyoung Joon; Cho, Sooyeul; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Jongkook

    2015-11-10

    A new tadalafil analogue was identified along with homotadalafil during routine screening of an adulterated dietary supplement using HPLC-DAD. The UV spectrum of this analogue was almost identical with that of tadalafil. This compound was isolated from the supplement by using semi-preparative HPLC and its structure was subsequently elucidated by performing Q-TOF/MS/MS and NMR spectroscopic experiments. The spectral data indicate that this tadalafil analogue is a dimeric compound that consists of an ethylamino group and two pretadalafil moieties. NOE experiments and comparison with (1)H NMR spectra of tadalafil and trans-tadalafil suggested the trans-relationship between the substituents on piperidine rings in the pretadalafil moieties.

  10. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Lee J; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, Sarah R; Ermιdis, Georgios; Kelly, James; Black, Matthew I; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO₃(-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO₃(-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were assigned in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design to consume 490 mL of concentrated, nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and nitrate-depleted placebo juice (PL) over ~30 h preceding the completion of a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Resting plasma nitrite concentration ([NO₂(-)]) was ~400% greater in BR compared to PL. Plasma [NO₂(-)] declined by 20% in PL (P exercise to end-exercise. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was 4.2% greater (P exercise and may be a useful ergogenic aid for team sports players.

  11. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state.

  12. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories.

  13. [Whether the advertisement of dietary supplements is objective source of data about their impact on health? Analysis of broadcasting advertisements in the terms of the food law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are intensively advertised in the media. Due to their form analogous to drugs many people don't notice differences between them, although it is fundamental. The dietary supplement, as the category of food don't have medicinal properties and suggesting such properties by producers is forbidden. The aim of this study was analysis of advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the media in accordance with the law requirements, especially with the conditions of nutrition and health claims established in 2012. Advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the period of one week (17-23 of September 2014 r.) into 5 radio and television channels. In the analysed period commercials of 27 assortments of the dietary supplement were being transmitted. Advertisements of 23 of them declared improvement the action of organs or concentration of biochemical indicators in the body. The strength of declarations about the benefits of action of dietary supplements was diversified, from expressions such as "support" to "treat" and "prevent". In some advertisements the authority of medical profession was being used. Moreover many advertisements emphasized the unique and comprehensive active ingredients of dietary supplement on the market. Advertisements of dietary supplements promise beneficial effect to the human body. In spite of more and more detailed legal requirements many of them are going beyond conditions established for food. It can cause incorrect opinion about the role of dietary supplements in curing medical disorders.

  14. Symptoms Associated with Dietary Fiber Supplementation over Time in Individuals with Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. Purpose To compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Methods Subjects (N=189, 77% female, 92% white, (age = 58 years, SD = 14) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to placebo or a supplement of 16g total dietary fiber/day from one of three sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and two segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Results Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. Odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2–2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared to baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Subjects with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Conclusions Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated. PMID:21543963

  15. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation modulates microbial community and activates innate immunity in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Jie; Liu, Gang; Cao, Zhong; Xiong, Xia; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with 1 % L-glutamine for 14 days on the abundance of intestinal bacteria and the activation of intestinal innate immunity in mice. The measured variables included (1) the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium in the lumen of the small intestine; (2) the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances secreted by Paneth cells and goblet cells in the jejunum, ileum and colon; and (3) the activation of TLR4-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in the jejunum and ileum. In the jejunum, glutamine supplementation decreased the abundance of Firmicutes, while increased mRNA levels for antibacterial substances in association with the activation of NF-κB and PI3K-Akt pathways. In the ileum, glutamine supplementation induced a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio in favor of Bacteroidetes, and enhanced mRNA levels for Tlr4, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antibacterial substances participating in NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. These results indicate that the effects of glutamine on the intestine vary with its segments and compartments. Collectively, dietary glutamine supplementation of mice beneficially alters intestinal bacterial community and activates the innate immunity in the small intestine through NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways.

  16. Effects of dietary Gracilaria sp. and Alaria sp. supplementation on growth performance, metabolic rates and health in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to pathogen infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria João; Salas-Leitón, Emílio; Brito, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Effects of dietary seaweed supplementation on basal physiology and health biomarkers were assessed in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to bacterial infection, using Photobacterium damselae subsp. Piscicida (Phdp) as the etiologic agent. Three test diets were prepared by supplementing a basal...

  17. Effects of a dietary supplement on golf drive distance and functional indices of golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Habowski, Scott M; Lemieux, Robert; Sandrock, Jennifer E; Kedia, A William; Kerksick, Chad M; Lopez, Hector L

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists examining the impact of nutrition on golfing performance. This study's purpose was to determine the impact of daily supplementation with an over-the-counter dietary supplement on golf performance. Healthy men (30.3 ± 6.9 y, 183.1 ± 5.6 cm, 86.7 ± 11.9 kg), with a 5-15 handicap were assigned in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to ingest for 30 days either a placebo (PLA, n = 13) or a dietary supplement containing creatine monohydrate, coffea arabica fruit extract, calcium fructoborate and vitamin D (Strong Drive™, SD, n = 14). Subjects ingested two daily doses for the first two weeks and one daily dose for the remaining two weeks. Participants followed their normal dietary habits and did not change their physical activity patterns. Two identical testing sessions in a pre/post fashion were completed consisting of a fasting blood sample, anthropometric measurements, 1-RM bench press, upper body power and golf swing performance using their driver and 7-iron. Data were analyzed using two-way mixed factorial ANOVAs and ANCOVA when baseline differences were present. Statistical significance was established a priori at p ≤ 0.05. ANCOVA revealed significantly greater (post-test) best drive distance (p = 0.04) for SD (+5.0% [+13.6 yards], ES = 0.75) as well as a tendency (p = 0.07) for average drive distance to increase (+8.4% [+19.6 yards], ES = 0.65), while no such changes were found with PLA (-0.5% [-1.2 yards], ES = 0.04 and +1.3% [+2.8 yards], ES = 0.08, respectively). Both groups experienced significant increases in body mass and 1-RM bench press (p analysis confirmed significant improvements in set 1 average (+8.9%, p = 0.001) and peak velocity (+6.8%, p < =0.01). No changes were noted for reported adverse events, pain inventories, quality of life or any measured blood parameter. SD supplementation for 30 days significantly improved best drive distance more than placebo. Supplementation was well tolerated and did not result in

  18. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  19. European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Immune Status and Disease Resistance Are Impaired by Arginine Dietary Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases and fish feeds management are probably the major expenses in the aquaculture business. Hence, it is a priority to define sustainable strategies which simultaneously avoid therapeutic procedures and reinforce fish immunity. Currently, one preferred approach is the use of immunostimulants which can be supplemented to the fish diets. Arginine is a versatile amino acid with important mechanisms closely related to the immune response. Aiming at finding out how arginine affects the innate immune status or improve disease resistance of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax against vibriosis, fish were fed two arginine-supplemented diets (1% and 2% arginine supplementation. A third diet meeting arginine requirement level for seabass served as control diet. Following 15 or 29 days of feeding, fish were sampled for blood, spleen and gut to assess cell-mediated immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. At the same time, fish from each dietary group were challenged against Vibrio anguillarum and survival was monitored. Cell-mediated immune parameters such as the extracellular superoxide and nitric oxide decreased in fish fed arginine-supplemented diets. Interleukins and immune-cell marker transcripts were down-regulated by the highest supplementation level. Disease resistance data were in accordance with a generally depressed immune status, with increased susceptibility to vibriosis in fish fed arginine supplemented diets. Altogether, these results suggest a general inhibitory effect of arginine on the immune defences and disease resistance of European seabass. Still, further research will certainly clarify arginine immunomodulation pathways thereby allowing the validation of its potential as a prophylactic strategy.

  20. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  1. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  2. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lynne M; Tan, Wen-Hann; Bacino, Carlos A; Peters, Sarika U; Skinner, Steven A; Anselm, Irina; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Bauer-Carlin, Astrid; Gentile, Jennifer K; Glaze, Daniel G; Horowitz, Lucia T; Mohan, K Naga; Nespeca, Mark P; Sahoo, Trilochan; Sarco, Dean; Waisbren, Susan E; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is due to deficient ubiquitin protein ligase 3a, the gene for which (UBE3A) maps to chromosome 15q11-q13 and is imprinted such that only the maternally inherited gene is expressed. The paternally inherited UBE3A gene is silenced, a process mediated by an antisense transcript. We conducted a trial using methylation-promoting dietary supplements (betaine, metafolin, creatine, and vitamin B(12) ) in an attempt to reduce antisense transcript production, increase UBE3A expression, and ameliorate the symptoms of AS. Neuropsychological evaluations, biochemical testing, and assessment of DNA methylation were performed at the beginning and at the end of 1 year of supplementation. The primary outcome measures were changes in the level of developmental function (cognitive, motor, and language) as measured using standardized instruments. The secondary outcomes measures were changes in biochemical parameters and global DNA methylation. These data were compared to those of a control group from a previous randomized double-blind trial using folic acid and betaine. There were no statistically significant changes in the developmental performance of children treated with supplements. There were no unexpected changes in biochemical parameters and no change in site-specific DNA methylation when comparing samples from before and after treatment. There were 10 adverse events that resulted in study withdrawal of 7 participants (worsening of seizures, onset, or worsening of sleep problems, constipation, and anorexia). Supplementation with betaine, metafolin, creatine, and vitamin B(12) appears safe but ineffective in decreasing the severity of AS.

  3. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  5. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement, and medication adherence in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M.; Apolzan, John W.; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a pair of studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility, and acceptability of using video chat technology as a novel method to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e., supplement and medication) adherence. In the first study, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills while performing randomized scripted “cheating” behaviors design to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a crossover design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For the second study, a 22-question online survey was sent to an email listserv with more than 20,000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86% of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person versus 78% of events via video chat monitoring (p=0.12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0.88 vs. 0.85; p=0.62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77% vs. 60%; p=0.08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0.85 vs. 0.69; p=0.21). Survey results from the second study (N=1,076 respondents; at least a 5% response rate) indicated that 86.4% of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73.3% were comfortable using the technology; and 79.8% were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and to outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and highly promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence. PMID:27753427

  6. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement and medication adherence in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.

  7. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...... dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day−1. Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4 % of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw−1 kg−1...... day−1) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels...

  8. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments. PMID:28212288

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Dietary Supplementation Induces Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Dogs

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    John M. Walters

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have anti-inflammatory effects at low concentrations; however increased dietary consumption may conversely increase susceptibility to oxidation by free radicals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PUFAs on selective oxidative injury and inflammatory biomarkers in canine urine and serum. Dogs (n=54 consumed a diet supplemented with 0.5% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter, or 200 mg/kg docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid for 21 days. All dogs exhibited significantly increased plasma PUFA concentrations. All dogs had significant elevations in urinary F2a isoprostane concentration, though dogs consuming a diet containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter had the highest increase (P=.0052. Reduced glutathione concentrations within erythrocytes decreased significantly in all three dietary treatment groups (P=.0108. Treatment with diets containing 1.0% conjugated linoleic acid/dry matter resulted in the greatest increase in oxidant injury. Caution should be exercised when supplementing PUFAs as some types may increase oxidation.

  11. Dietary supplementation and rapid catch-up growth after acute diarrhoea in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, S; Poppitt, S D; Prentice, A M; Weaver, L T

    1996-10-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of short-term growth faltering in children of the developing world. If catch-up weight gain is delayed by inadequate dietary intake, or by further bouts of diarrhoea, progressive growth failure occurs. To test the hypothesis that early refeeding is as effective as later feeding after acute diarrhoea with weight loss, we measured the effects of a timed dietary intervention on weight gain after acute diarrhoea in underweight Gambian children. Thirty-four children aged 4-22 months with weight loss following acute diarrhoea were given a high-energy-protein supplement for 14 d beginning either immediately after rehydration or a fortnight later. With a 50% increase in energy intake and a 100% increase in protein intake there was a rapid and highly significant (P late, but over the full 28 d (of intervention and non-intervention) children who received late supplementation had greater overall weight gain (P foods, in the face of continuing diarrhoea.

  12. Toxins in Botanical Dietary Supplements: Blue Cohosh Components Disrupt Cellular Respiration and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA “Black Box” warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3) exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage. PMID:24328138

  13. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  14. Comparison of methods for analysis of resveratrol in dietary vegetable supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretón-Lamas, E; Lago-Crespo, M; Lage-Yusty, M A; López-Hernández, J

    2017-06-01

    Resveratrol is a stilbene, which is one of a group of polyphenols in many plant foods. Interest in this substance lies in its potential health benefits. This study aimed to compare two different methods, chromatographic and constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry, an alternative technique to determine the amount of resveratrol dietary supplements, as a model for more complex foods. High-performance liquid chromatography-photodyode array detector-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm the results. The results obtained showed that both methods were valid for the determination of resveratrol in dietary supplements. HPLC with fluorescence and variable wavelength detectors offered better linearity and sensitivity, and would be more suitable for the determination of several stilbenes in complex samples. On the other hand, constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry is a sensitive, rapid and inexpensive method that could be used for quick and precise determination when samples are expected to contain only one stilbene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxins in botanical dietary supplements: blue cohosh components disrupt cellular respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B; Khan, Ikhlas A; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-24

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA "black box" warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3), exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage.

  16. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, T K; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    2005-01-01

    Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. We have previously shown that the in vitro culture of Spirulina with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) modulated the production of cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement (Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc., Irvine, CA) on patients with allergic rhinitis by assessing the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2] critical in regulating immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study versus placebo, allergic individuals were fed daily with either placebo or Spirulina, at 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg, for 12 weeks. PBMCs isolated before and after the Spirulina feeding were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) prior to determining the levels of cytokine from cell culture supernatants. Although Spirulina seemed to be ineffective at modulating the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2), we discovered that Spirulina, administered at 2,000 mg/day, significantly reduced IL-4 levels by 32% from PHA-stimulated cells. These results indicate that Spirulina can modulate the Th profile in patients with allergic rhinitis by suppressing the differentiation of Th2 cells mediated, in part, by inhibiting the production of IL-4. To our knowledge, this is the first human feeding study that demonstrates the protective effects of Spirulina towards allergic rhinitis.

  17. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2017-02-15

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  18. VALIDATED HPTLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF CURCUMIN CONTENT IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kekre et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The simple, accurate and precise HPTLC method was developed for quantification of curcumin content in dietary supplement formulation. In this method, individual curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxy curcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin with piperine were resolved using mobile phase n-hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (8: 2: 1: 2-3 drops v/v on a plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 and quantified densitometrically in absorbance mode at 421 nm. The Rf value of curcumin was found to be 0.29. Linearity for curcumin was established between concentration range of 100-180 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The method was further validated as per ICH guidelines. The LOD and LOQ values for curcumin were found to be 27.3 ng and 82.7 ng respectively. The results of percent recovery and repeatability studies with standard deviation (≤2%, concluded that the developed method was accurate and precise and can be used for routine analysis of curcumin in dietary supplement formulations.

  19. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1 have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  20. Melatonin dietary supplement as an anti-aging therapy for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Isabel F; Tamimi, Faleh; Eimar, Hazem; Barralet, Jake E; Prieto, Santiago; Torres, Jesús; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that melatonin, an anti-oxidant molecule secreted from the pineal gland, is a positive regulator of bone mass. However, the potential effects of melatonin on bone mass have never been investigated in an old population. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary melatonin supplementation on mass accrual and biomechanical properties of old rat femora. Twenty 22-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two randomly assigned groups. The first group was treated for 10 weeks with melatonin, whereas the second group was untreated (control). Rat femurs were collected, and their phenotypes and biomechanical properties were investigated by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry, and a three-point-bending test. Statistical analyses were performed by the Student two-tailed unpaired t-test. In all experiments, a value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Rats treated with melatonin had higher bone volume, bone trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness in comparison to the control group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed the increase of bone volume in melatonin-treated rats. In agreement with these findings, melatonin-treated rats showed higher bone stiffness, flexural modulus, and ultimate load compared to controls. These compelling results are the first evidence indicating that dietary melatonin supplementation is able to exert beneficial effects against age-related bone loss in old rats, improving the microstructure and biomechanical properties of aged bones.

  1. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

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    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  2. Evaluation of alcohol content and metal impurities in liquid dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID and GFAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Ana; Sertić, Miranda; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Stipanović, Ksenija; Nigović, Biljana

    2016-11-15

    Despite efforts by many dietary supplements' manufactures to reduce or replace ethanol, many products containing ethanol in concentrations up to 70% are available on market. Furthermore, botanical dietary supplements can vary in metal content as a function of the environment, processing equipment and product containers. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a new rapid and highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ethanol and its impurities in dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID technique. In addition, contamination with metals by GFAAS technique was evaluated. The proposed sHSS-GC-FID method was successfully applied for analysis of 93 samples containing various amounts of ethanol. It should be highlighted that the dramatic variation from manufacture's claims was found in even one third of products. Furthermore, high amounts of ethanol were found in several products especially designed for children and in one product labeled as "alcohol-free". Metal impurities were below the limits established by USP.

  3. The effect of dietary supplementation with spent cider yeast on the Swine distal gut microbiome.

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    Aditya Upadrasta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for alternatives to antibiotics for promoting animal health, given the increasing problems associated with antibiotic resistance. In this regard, we evaluated spent cider yeast as a potential probiotic for modifying the gut microbiota in weanling pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Piglets aged 24-26 days were assigned to one of two study groups; control (n = 12 and treatment (n = 12. The control animals were fed with a basal diet and the treatment animals were fed with basal diet in combination with cider yeast supplement (500 ml cider yeast containing ∼7.6 log CFU/ml for 21 days. Faecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA gene compositional analysis. 16S rRNA compositional sequencing analysis of the faecal samples collected from day 0 and day 21 revealed marked differences in microbial diversity at both the phylum and genus levels between the control and treatment groups. This analysis confirmed that levels of Salmonella and Escherichia were significantly decreased in the treatment group, compared with the control (P<0.001. This data suggest a positive influence of dietary supplementation with live cider yeast on the microbial diversity of the pig distal gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The effect of dietary cider yeast on porcine gut microbial communities was characterized for the first time using 16S rRNA gene compositional sequencing. Dietary cider yeast can potentially alter the gut microbiota, however such changes depend on their endogenous microbiota that causes a divergence in relative response to that given diet.

  4. Dietary nitrite supplementation attenuates cardiac remodeling in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Kunihiro; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Junta; Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Tamada, Hazuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability underlies the development of hypertensive heart disease. We investigated the effects of dietary nitrite on N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an untreated control group, an l-NAME-treated group, and three other l-NAME-treated groups supplemented with 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L of nitrite or 100 mg/L of captopril in drinking water. After the 8-week experimental period, mean arterial blood pressure was measured, followed by sampling of blood and heart tissue for assessment of nitrite/nitrate levels in the plasma and heart, the plasma level of angiotensin II (AT II), and the heart transcriptional levels of AT II type 1 receptor (AT1R), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue proteins such as type 1 collagen and fibronectin. Heart tissue was analyzed by histopathological morphometry, including assessments of ventricular and coronary vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as immunohistochemistry analyses of myocardial expression of AT1R. l-NAME treatment reduced the plasma nitrate level and led to the development of hypertension, with increased plasma levels of AT II and increased heart transcriptional levels of AT1R and TGF-β1-mediated connective tissue proteins, showing myocardial and coronary arteriolar hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, dietary nitrite supplementation inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cardiac remodeling by suppressing AT II and AT1R. These results suggest that dietary nitrite levels achievable via a daily high-vegetable diet could improve hypertensive heart disease by inhibiting AT II-AT1R-mediated cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary NPP level and phytase supplementation on the laying performance over one year period

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    Annamaria Tischler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our trial was aimed to study the effect of different dietary non-phytin phosphorus (NPP levels with and without phytase enzyme supplementation on laying performance and eggshell quality of Tetra SL-LL in the last 25 weeks of the long-term (17 months egg production. A total of 69 Tetra SL-LL layers were allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Two diets with different levels of NPP (2.45 or 2.15 g/kg, HP and LP, respectively were formulated, and 0 or 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme was added to low NPP feed (LP and LP+E, respectively. Dietary Ca was uniformly adjusted (38.2 g/kg to feed in each treatment. In the course of the trial, intensity of egg production (%, egg weight (g/egg, number of the broken eggs and feed intake (g/d/bird were recorded. Every 2 weeks 20 eggs per treatment were broken to determine the shell strength and thickness. Our results show that low NPP diet had detrimental effect on the intensity of egg production (P<0.05 and phytase added to the LP diet resulted the lowest number of broken eggs (P<0.05. In conclusion, NPP content of the layer diet can be reduced from 2.45 to 2.15 g/kg in the last 25 weeks of the elongated laying term (12-17 month of laying, if supplemented with 300 FTU/kg phytase enzyme without compromising the egg production, and in the same time it can improve eggshell quality and reduce the number of broken eggs.

  6. Factors associated with dietary supplement use by people who exercise at gyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Francisca Mirian Moura; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Hortegal, Elane Viana; Cabral, Nayra Anielly Lima; Veloso, Helma Jane Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the factors associated with the use of dietary supplements by people who exercise at gyms.METHODS A cross-sectional study with a sample defined by convenience, considering the number of gyms registered in the Conselho Regional de Educação Física (Regional Council of Physical Education) of Sao Luis, MA, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2011 to July 2012. The final sample comprised 723 individuals who exercise at gyms. The dependent variable was supplement use, and the explanatory variables were length of time and motivation of the physical exercises, duration, goal and self-perception of training, weekly frequency of gym attendance, sex, age, educational attainment, self-perception of body weight, smoking and self-perception of diet. The association between variables was analysed by hierarchical Poisson regression based on a theoretical model.RESULTS Supplement use was reported by 64.7% of the participants. Most of the sample was male (52.6%). The most frequent age group was 20 to 39 years (74.4%). Most participants (46.1%) had been exercising for over a year. The following variables were associated with supplement use: self-perceiving body weight as below ideal (p gym (p = 0.051), and perceiving training as moderate (p = 0.024) or intense (p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS The use of supplements lacks proper professional guidance, being motivated by individuals unsatisfied with their low body weight and who perceive their workout as intense, which raises the need for monitoring this population.

  7. Factors associated with dietary supplement use by people who exercise at gyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mirian Moura Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the factors associated with the use of dietary supplements by people who exercise at gyms.METHODS A cross-sectional study with a sample defined by convenience, considering the number of gyms registered in the Conselho Regional de Educação Física (Regional Council of Physical Education of Sao Luis, MA, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2011 to July 2012. The final sample comprised 723 individuals who exercise at gyms. The dependent variable was supplement use, and the explanatory variables were length of time and motivation of the physical exercises, duration, goal and self-perception of training, weekly frequency of gym attendance, sex, age, educational attainment, self-perception of body weight, smoking and self-perception of diet. The association between variables was analysed by hierarchical Poisson regression based on a theoretical model.RESULTS Supplement use was reported by 64.7% of the participants. Most of the sample was male (52.6%. The most frequent age group was 20 to 39 years (74.4%. Most participants (46.1% had been exercising for over a year. The following variables were associated with supplement use: self-perceiving body weight as below ideal (p < 0.001, smoking (p < 0.001, exercising for 7 to 12 months (p = 0.028 or more than one year (p < 0.001, spending more than two hours at the gym (p = 0.051, and perceiving training as moderate (p = 0.024 or intense (p = 0.001.CONCLUSIONS The use of supplements lacks proper professional guidance, being motivated by individuals unsatisfied with their low body weight and who perceive their workout as intense, which raises the need for monitoring this population.

  8. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Latoya T.; Fowler, Lauren A.; Barry, Robert J.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27570785

  9. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

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    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  10. Dietary supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy: outcome on vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion

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    Vitali Beatrice

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy. Results An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470

  11. Synergies between vaccination and dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation improve the immune response of channel catfish against Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F; Mwangi, Waithaka; Smith, Roger; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-09-01

    Channel catfish was used to investigate the enhancement of vaccine efficacy following dietary supplementation with arginine (ARG, 4% of diet), glutamine (GLN, 2% of diet), or a combination of both. After vaccination against Edwardsiella ictaluri, humoral and cellular immune responses, along with lymphoid organ responses were evaluated. E. ictaluri-specific antibody titers in plasma were higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed the supplemented diets compared to those fed the basal diet as early as 7 d post-vaccination (dpv). B-cell proportion in head-kidney was higher (P < 0.05) at 14 dpv in vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet. The responsiveness of spleen and head-kidney lymphocytes against E. ictaluri was enhanced (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation of ARG or GLN at 14 dpv. Additionally, at 7 dpv, vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet had higher (P < 0.05) head kidney weights relative to the other dietary treatments, and vaccinated fish fed ARG-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.05) protein content in this tissue. Results from this study suggest that dietary supplementation of ARG and GLN may improve specific cellular and humoral mechanisms, enhancing the acquired immunity in vaccinated channel catfish.

  12. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

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    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  13. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

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    Natalia Sevane

    Full Text Available Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  14. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  15. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  16. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

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    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  17. EFFECT OF BEE POLLEN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON MEAT PERFORMANCE OF ROSS 308 BROILER CHICKENS

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    Peter Haščík

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of bee pollen extract on meat performance of Ross 308 broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old Ross chicks were involved in experiment. Chickens were divided into 2 groups, an experimental group (E and a control group (C. No added supplement was given to the control group, while the experimental group was given the feed mixture supplemented with bee pollen in an amount of 400 mg.kg-1, during the whole fattening period. Data of live body weight, carcass weight, giblets weight and carcass yield were determined at 42 days of the age. The supplementation of bee pollen increased final body weight of broilers by 68.5 g. Each of investigated parameters of meat performance in experimental group was higher to that in control group, although the difference among the groups was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The addition of bee pollen at dose 400 mg.kg-1 in the feed mixture indicates the slight effect on meat performance of chickens which can be beneficial for fattening of broiler chickens.

  18. Response to Dietary Supplementation of Glutamine in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Transportation Stress

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    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and blood parameters including Hsp70 and acute phase protein when chicken were subjected to transportation stress. A total of four hundred day-old-male cobb-500 chicks were obtained directly from a local hatchery. The chicks were allotted to two groups as: immediate placement (1 hour after hatching with access to feed and water and placement after 24h transportation without access to feed and water. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of 2 different diets and 2 different time of placement. Chicks from each placement group were fed either basal diet or basal diet + 1% glutamine from 1 to 21 days of age. The results indicated that dietary glutamine improved the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly when chicks were subjected to delayed or immediate placement. In conclusion, supplementing chicken with glutamine in diet can reduce negative effects of delayed access to feed and water during transportation. Moreover, APP concentration and HSP70 level were positively affected when chicks supplemented with glutamine in the diet.

  19. Effects of organic mineral dietary supplementation on production performance and egg quality of white layers

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    JIM Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1, and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2 and 0.500 ppm (R3 of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg, egg weight (g, egg production (%, thin and cracked eggshells (%, specific gravity (g/mL, Haugh Units, total egg solids (%, yolk yield, white and shell yields (%, eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000. Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05 higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.

  20. Dietary Supplementation of Oregano and Sage Dried Leaves on Performances and Meat Quality of Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Rotolo; Francesco Gai; Silvana Nicola; Ivo Zoccarato; Alberto Brugiapaglia; Laura Gasco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the dietary supplementation 1% (w/w) of oregano and sage dried leaves on performances and meat quality of broiler rabbits. A feeding trial, which lasted 48 d, was carried out on 105 male Bianca Italiana rabbits randomly divided in seven groups and fed ad libitum. At the end of the trial ten animals per group were slaughtered and samples of dorsal muscle were taken in order to perform laboratory analysis. Mortality rate did not statistically differ between groups. Growth performances of animals fed diets supplemented with aromatic plants were higher (P<0.05) than those of animals of control group, whereas carcass parameters were not affected by treatments excepting for the slaughter weight that showed the same trend as growth performances. Meat quality traits, oxidative lipid stability and fatty acid proifle were not inlfuenced by aromatic plant supplementation. In conclusion, oregano and sage in form of dried leaves can be used in rabbit without adverse effects on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits.

  1. Elite adolescent athletes' use of dietary supplements: characteristics, opinions, and sources of supply and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Schnell, Alexia; Schneider, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The authors' aim was to examine the prevalence of (daily) dietary-supplement (DS) use among elite adolescent athletes and to differentiate use by different types of DS according to their function. Data were analyzed for associations between users of these DS types, sociodemographic, sport-specific characteristics, and opinion on the need for DS. In addition, sources of supply and information were examined. In the framework of the GOAL Study, 1,138 German elite adolescent athletes (14-18 yr) answered questions about DS. The data were analyzed to identify groups at risk for using DS after a classification by supplemental function. Of the young athletes, 91.1% reported DS use during the previous month. (Daily) DS use was significantly associated with sex, kind of sport, and the weekly duration of sporting activity. Furthermore, some athletes were required to use DS by their sporting organization. DS use was more likely in these athletes than in those whose sporting organizations had no such requirement. Overall, DS with short- and long-term supplemental function were mostly associated with the use of magnesium. However, DS with medium-term muscle-building function played an important role among daily users. The main source of information about DS was coaches; main source of supply was parents. Professional education is urgently needed, as 9 out of 10 athletes used DS, and strong positive opinions toward the use of DS were present, particularly in the DS users.

  2. The effects of dietary supplementation during pregnancy on placental morphology, pathology, and histomorphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, D; Kristal, A; Navarro, C; Chauhan, P; Blanc, W; Naeye, R; Susser, M W

    1984-06-01

    We related the macroscopic and microscopic morphology and the histomorphometry of the placenta to prenatal nutritional supplementation. In the Prenatal Project, a controlled clinical trial, three dietary treatments (supplement, a high-protein beverage; complement, a balanced protein-calorie beverage, or routine vitamin and mineral tablets) were randomly allocated to poor Black pregnant women, and the outcome was assessed. Herein we report the effects on placental morphology and histomorphometry. There were significantly fewer preterm deliveries in the complement group, and this was reflected by an increase in the size of decidual cells, an index associated with placental aging. Several other characteristics of the placentas of the complement group may have been more directly associated with improved perinatal outcome: decreased intervillous fibrin, lower incidence of gross surface infarct, and smaller (and presumably less edematous) cells of the villous stroma, may have mediated increased placental perfusion. There was no evidence of any placental change associated with the increase in very preterm delivery and the highly significant depressed birth weight among preterm deliveries in the supplement group. The significantly lower incidence of meconium staining of Wharton's jelly among controls seems likely to have been a chance finding. While there were several other indices that reflected placental aging, the significantly increased chorioamnionitis, acute funisitis , and acute decidual inflammation among placentas of those who delivered prematurely [the former two associated with very early delivery (less than 35 wk gestation)] were likely to have been involved as causes of premature delivery.

  3. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  4. The Influence of Naringin or Hesperidin Dietary Supplementation on Broiler Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goliomytis

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing broiler feed with hesperidin or naringin, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, breast meat quality and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. One of the groups served as a control (C and was given commercial basal diets, whereas the other five groups were given the same diets further supplemented with naringin at 0.75 g/kg (N1, naringin at 1.5 g/kg (N2, hesperidin at 0.75 g/kg (E1, hesperidin at 1.5 g/kg (E2 and a-tocopheryl acetate at 0.2 g/kg (E. At 42 days of age, 10 chickens per treatment group were slaughtered for meat quality and oxidative stability assessment. No significant differences were observed among groups in final body weight, carcass weight and internal organs weights (P>0.05 apart from liver that decreased linearly with increased levels of naringin (P-linear0.05. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that after hesperidin and naringin dietary supplementation, malondialdehyde values decreased in tissue samples in a dose depended manner (P-linear<0.05. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin, positively influence meat antioxidative properties without negative implications on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in poultry, thus appearing as important additives for both the consumer and the industry.

  5. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  6. Dietary phosphate supplementation delays the onset of iron deficiency anemia and affects iron status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mari; Yamamoto, Hironori; Nakahashi, Otoki; Ikeda, Shoko; Abe, Kotaro; Masuda, Masashi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Iwano, Masayuki; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays critical roles in bone metabolism and is an essential component of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). It has been reported that animals fed a low-iron diet modulate Pi metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary Pi on iron metabolism, particularly in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), is not fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized the presence of a link between Pi and iron metabolism and tested the hypothesis by investigating the effects of dietary Pi on iron status and IDA. Wistar rats aged 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental dietary groups: normal iron content (Con Fe)+0.5% Pi, low-iron (Low Fe)+0.5% Pi, Con Fe+1.5% Pi, and Low Fe+1.5% Pi. Rats fed the 1.5% Pi diet for 14 days, but not for 28 days, maintained their anemia state and plasma erythropoietin concentrations within the reference range, even under conditions of low iron. In addition, plasma concentrations of 2,3-DPG were significantly increased by the 1.5% Pi diets and were positively correlated with plasma Pi concentration (r=0.779; Piron-regulated genes, including divalent metal transporter 1, duodenal cytochrome B, and hepcidin. Furthermore, iron concentration in liver tissues was increased by the 1.5% Pi in Con Fe diet. These results suggest that dietary Pi supplementation delays the onset of IDA and increases plasma 2,3-DPG concentration, followed by modulation of the expression of iron-regulated genes.

  7. Efficacy of supplemental natural zeolite in broiler chickens subjected to dietary calcium deficiency

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    Erol Bintaş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural zeolite, or sodium aluminosilicate, influences calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P utilisation in chicks. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary Ca (recommended and below recommended levels and zeolite (0 and 0.8% on growth, plasma, tibia and faeces in chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Zeolite supplementation did not affect overall body weight (BW gain, feed intake (FI or feed conversion ratio (FCR of broiler chickens (P>0.05. Overall mortality of zeolite-fed chickens was lower than in untreated ones (P<0.01. Reduction of dietary Ca of approximately 10 to 18% decreased (P<0.05 BW at 14 and 42 days of age in association with reduced FI, but overall FCR was unchanged. Serum protein and sodium constituents were reduced in birds fed zeolite (P<0.05. Decreasing dietary Ca level increased (P<0.01 serum, total protein and glucose concentrations, but decreased Ca level. Zeolite decreased bone ash in birds fed a Ca-deficient diet while increased faecal excretion of ash, Ca, P and aluminum. However, zeolite increased tibia weight (P<0.05 and thickness (P<0.01. No significant response (P>0.05 in relative weight and gross lesion scores of liver or footpad lesion scores was found related to changes in dietary regimens. The results of the present study do not corroborate the hypothesis that the effectiveness of zeolite may be improved in Ca-deficient diets in association with its ion exchange capability.

  8. A three-part, mixed-effects model to estimate the habitual total vitamin D intake distribution from food and dietary supplements in Dutch young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Dodd, K.W.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Ocke, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first a

  9. Inorganic elemental compositions of commercial multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements: application of collision/reaction cell inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave digestion followed by analysis using ICP-MS has been shown to be a simple, fast reliable method for the multi-element determination in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements (MVM). A study of 35 popular MVM dietary supplements revealed that composition and levels varied among products, a...

  10. The Caffeine Content of Dietary Supplements Commonly Purchased in the U.S.: Analysis of 53 Products Having Caffeine-containing Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a study initiating the development of an analytically validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) in the United States (U.S.), a selection of dietary supplement products were analyzed for their caffeine content. Products sold as tablets, caplets, or capsules and listing at l...

  11. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  12. Determination of Ephedrine Alkaloids in Botanicals and Dietary Supplements by HPLC-UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Mark C.; Gray, D.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Roscoe, V.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.; Walther, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and methylpseudoephedrine [MP]) alkaloids in selected dietary supplements representative of the commercially available products. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedrine-type alkaloid content in 8 blind replicate samples. Five products contained ephedra ground herb or ephedra extract. These 5 products included ground botanical raw material of Ephedra sinica, a common powdered extract of Ephedra sinica, a finished product containing only Ephedra sinica ground botanical raw material, a complex multicomponent dietary supplement containing Ma Huang, and a high-protein chocolate flavored drink mix containing Ma Huang extract. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with ephedrine alkaloids at high and low levels for recovery studies. Test extracts were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.64–3.0% for EP and 2.0–6.6% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 2.1–6.6% for EP and 9.0–11.4% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Recoveries ranged from 84.7–87.2% for EP and 84.6–98.2% for PS. The data developed for the minor alkaloids are more variable with generally unsatisfactory HORRATS(i.e., >2). However, since these alkaloids generally add little to the total alkaloid content of the products, the method gives satisfactory results in measuring total alkaloid content (RSDr 0.85–3.13%; RSDR 2.03–10.97%, HORRAT 0.69–3

  13. Dietary vitamin A supplementation ameliorates the effects of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Ørnsrud, Robin; Rasinger, Josef; Søfteland, Liv; Lock, Erik-Jan; Kolås, Kjersti; Moren, Mari; Hylland, Ketil; Silva, Joana; Johansen, Johan; Lie, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 2×2 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth.

  14. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    continual monitoring of the diet and nutritional status of children with ASD is required. It is also essential to start adequate dietary management in autistic patients with overweight, obesity or wasting, caused by improper nutrition. Frequently only a dietary therapy is insufficient to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet adapted to the patient's individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients with ASD. A review of nutritional factors, dietary treatments and diet supplementation in patients with ASD is presented.

  15. Hepatotoxicity associated with weight loss or sports dietary supplements, including OxyELITE Pro™ - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Taylor, Ethel; Chang, Arthur; Peterson, Amy; Daniel, Johnni; Martin, Colleen; Deuster, Patricia; Noe, Rebecca; Kieszak, Stephanie; Schier, Josh; Klontz, Karl; Lewis, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    In September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of seven adults who developed acute hepatitis after taking OxyELITE Pro™, a weight loss and sports dietary supplement. CDC assisted HDOH with their investigation, then conducted case-finding outside of Hawaii with FDA and the Department of Defense (DoD). We defined cases as acute hepatitis of unknown etiology that occurred from April 1, 2013, through December 5, 2013, following exposure to a weight loss or muscle-building dietary supplement, such as OxyELITE Pro™. We conducted case-finding through multiple sources, including data from poison centers (National Poison Data System [NPDS]) and FDA MedWatch. We identified 40 case-patients in 23 states and two military bases with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology and exposure to a weight loss or muscle building dietary supplement. Of 35 case-patients who reported their race, 15 (42.9%) reported white and 9 (25.7%) reported Asian. Commonly reported symptoms included jaundice, fatigue, and dark urine. Twenty-five (62.5%) case-patients reported taking OxyELITE Pro™. Of these 25 patients, 17 of 22 (77.3%) with available data were hospitalized and 1 received a liver transplant. NPDS and FDA MedWatch each captured seven (17.5%) case-patients. Improving the ability to search surveillance systems like NPDS and FDA MedWatch for individual and grouped dietary supplements, as well as coordinating case-finding with DoD, may benefit ongoing surveillance efforts and future outbreak responses involving adverse health effects from dietary supplements. This investigation highlights opportunities and challenges in using multiple sources to identify cases of suspected supplement associated adverse events. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  17. Effect of Dietary Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation on Enteric Mucosal Morphological Development and Adherent Mucin Thickness in Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuub A. Ayoola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-nutritional factors in feed ingredients (ANF can challenge gut health and reduce nutrient utilization. Birds typically activate their innate immune system as a protective response against the adverse effects of ANF, which often involves the secretion of mucin. Although dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes are commonly used to alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on apparent nutrient digestibility, little is known about how they affect gut health, particularly in relation to the morphological development and mucin secretion of enteric mucosa. We carried out two trials to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of different types of exogenous enzymes on gut health of by accessing the effect of jejunum morphological development and ileal enteric adherent mucin thickness layer in turkeys. Dietary β-mannanase supplementation reduced ileal adherent mucin thickness layer (804 µg/g vs 823 µg/g; p<0.05, while a commercial blend of Xylanase, Amylase and Protease (XAP reduced ileal adherent mucin layer thickness (589 µg/g vs 740 µg/g; p<0.05; thus reducing the apparent endogenous loss of nutrients. Both enzyme supplements also affected gut morphological characteristics. In comparison to the control treatment, dietary β-mannanase supplementation improved the jejunum tip width (219 vs 161; p<0.05, base width (367 vs 300; p<0.05, surface area (509,870 vs 380, 157; p<0.05 and villi height/crypt depth ratio (7.49 vs 5.70; p<0.05, and XAP improved the crypt depth (p<0.05. In conclusion dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes may help alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on nutrient utilization by directly or indirectly removing the mucosal irritation that stimulates enteric mucin secretion.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Hainanmycin on Protein Degradation and Populations of Ammonia-producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro fermentation was conducted to determine the effects of hainanmycin on protein degradation and populations of ammonia-producing bacteria. The substrates (DM basis for in vitro fermentation consisted of alfalfa hay (31.7%, Chinese wild rye grass hay (28.3%, ground corn grain (24.5%, soybean meal (15.5% with a forage: concentrate of 60:40. Treatments were the control (no additive and hainanmycin supplemented at 0.1 (H0.1, 1 (H1, 10 (H10, and 100 mg/kg (H100 of the substrates. After 24 h of fermentation, the highest addition level of hainanmycin decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. The high addition level of hainanmycin (H1, H10, and H100 reduced (p0.05. After 24 h of fermentation, H10 and H100 increased (p<0.05 concentrations of peptide nitrogen and AA nitrogen and proteinase activity, and decreased (p<0.05 NH3-N concentration and deaminase activity compared with control. Peptidase activitives were not affected by hainanmycin. Hainanmycin supplementation only inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which is one of the species of low deaminative activity. Hainanmycin supplementation also decreased (p<0.05 relative population sizes of hyper-ammonia-producing species, except for H0.1 on Clostridium aminophilum. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with hainanmycin could improve ruminal fermentation and modify protein degradation by changing population size of ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro; and the addition level of 10 mg/kg appeared to achieve the best results.

  19. Household expenditures on dietary supplements sold for weight loss, muscle building, and sexual function: Disproportionate burden by gender and income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements sold for weight loss (WL, muscle building (MB, and sexual function (SF are not medically recommended. They have been shown to be ineffective in many cases and pose serious health risks to consumers due to adulteration with banned substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, and other dangerous chemicals. Yet no prior research has investigated how these products may disproportionately burden individuals and families by gender and socioeconomic position across households. We investigated household (HH cost burden of dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF in a cross-sectional study using data from 60,538 U.S. households (HH in 2012 Nielsen/IRi National Consumer Panel, calculating annual HH expenditures on WL, MB, and SF supplements and expenditures as proportions of total annual HH income. We examined sociodemographic patterns in HH expenditures using Wald tests of mean differences across subgroups. Among HH with any expenditures on WL, MB, or SF supplements, annual HH first and ninth expenditure deciles were, respectively: WL $5.99, $145.36; MB $6.99, $141.93; and SF $4.98, $88.52. Conditional on any purchases of the products, female-male-headed HH spent more on WL supplements and male-headed HH spend more on MB and SF supplements compared to other HH types (p-values < 0.01. High-income ($30,000 < annual income < $100,000, compared to low-income (annual income < $30,000 HH, spent more on all three supplements types (p-values < 0.01; however, proportional to income, low-income HH spent 2–4 times more than high-income HH on WL and MB supplements (p-values < 0.01. Dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF disproportionately burden HH by income and gender.

  20. ROLE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTING PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a chronic, progressive, degenerative eye disease affecting the central retina. It is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of 65 years and older. In the early stage patients have drusen and/or alterations of pigmentation in the macular region. This disease can progress to geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. It has been shown that oxidative stress and hypoxia are important in the pathogenesis of AMD. Patients may gain some visual improvement with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, but complete restoration of visual function is achieved only in small cases. No effective therapies are known for atrophic AMD. Many large observational studies have shown that dietary antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing the progression of AMD from early to late stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS demonstrated that daily oral supplementation with vitamins C (500 mg and E (400 IU, beta carotene (15 mg, zinc (80 mg and copper (2 mg reduced the risk of progression to advanced AMD by 25% at 5 years. In primary analyses AREDS II failed to show further reduce of this risk by addition of lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (2mg, or/and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid (350 mg DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid 650 mg (EPA] to the AREDS formulation. But there was no true placebo group. The simultaneous administration of beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin may suppress tissue level of the both laters because of competitive absorption of carotenoids. Subgroup analyses revealed that dietary supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin and AREDS formulation without beta carotene may reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.The LUNA (Lutein nutrition effects measured by autofluorescence study demonstrated that supplementation with lutein (12 mg, zeaxanthin (1 mg, vitamin C (120 mg, vitamin E (17,6 mg, zinc (10 mg, selenium (40 mg resulted

  1. A complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aksenov, Vadim; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Szechtman, Henry; Khanna, Parul; Matravadia, Sarthak; Rollo, C. David

    2011-01-01

    We developed a complex dietary supplement designed to offset five key mechanisms of aging and tested its effectiveness in ameliorating age-related cognitive decline using a visually cued Morris water maze test. All younger mice (1 year) were unable to learn the maze even after 5 days, indicative of strong cognitive decline at older ages. In contrast, no cognitive decline was evident in older supplemented mice, even when ∼2 years old. Supplemented older mice were nearly 50% better at locating ...

  2. Dietary tools to modulate glycogen storage in gilthead seabream muscle: glycerol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tomé S; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeiro, Odete D; Colen, Rita; Wulff, Tune; Sampaio, Eduardo; Sousa, Vera; Valente, Luisa M P; Gonçalves, Amparo; Silva, Joana M G; Bandarra, Narcisa; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming; Rodrigues, Pedro M

    2012-10-24

    The quality and shelf life of fish meat products depend on the skeletal muscle's energetic state at slaughter, as meat decomposition processes can be exacerbated by energy depletion. In this study, we tested dietary glycerol as a way of replenishing muscle glycogen reserves of farmed gilthead seabream. Two diets were tested in duplicate (n = 42/tank). Results show 5% inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets induces increased muscle glycogen, ATP levels and firmness, with no deleterious effects in terms of growth, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, oxidative state, and organoleptic properties (aroma and color). Proteomic analysis showed a low impact of glycerol-supplementation on muscle metabolism, with most changes probably reflecting increased stress coping capacity in glycerol-fed fish. This suggests inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets (particularly in the finishing phase) seems like a viable strategy to increase glycogen deposition in muscle without negatively impacting fish welfare and quality.

  3. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S...... d adaptation period and a 7 d period with collection of faeces and urine. Benzoic acid was metabolized into hippuric acid which reduced urinary pH by 0.8 pH units (P ... apparent digestibility was not (P = 0.58) affected by BA, but on the 1% Met diets, S excretion into urine was reduced (P = 0.006) by BA. In conclusion, both BA and Met supplementation increased P and Ca apparent digestibility and decreased urinary pH. The increased acid load provided through dietary BA did...

  4. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafizzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004. Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003 and rosemary (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2001. Their use as additives for animal feeding may be a valid alternative to synthetic antioxidants since they show beneficial effects also on animal welfare and other physiological functions (Tedesco, 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether garlic and rosemary dietary supplementation as compared with vitamin E affects lamb meat colour and lipid stability during storage.

  5. Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Although multivitamins, multiminerals, and similar terms (eg, multis or multiples) are commonly used, they have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions. Thus, multivitamins-multiminerals refers to products with widely varied compositions and characteristics. Multivitamin-multimineral composition databases use label values as surrogates for analyzed values. However, actual vitamin and mineral amounts often deviate from label values. Vitamin and mineral bioavailability for dietary supplements also lacks a standard scientific and regulatory definition and validated in vitro and animal models that accurately reflect human bioavailabilities. Systematic information on the bioavailability and bioequivalence of vitamins and minerals in marketed products and on potential drug interactions is scarce. Because of limited information on product characteristics, our ability to directly compare results across studies, estimate changes in usage patterns or intakes over time, and generalize from published results to marketed products is problematic.

  6. Determination of non-opioid analgesics in adulterated food and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to adulterate some foods and dietary supplements. Considering the rapid growth of the dietary supplement market, it is essential to analyse various analgesics used for adulteration over a time period. Acetaminophen and 16 NSAIDs used to adulterate food and dietary supplements were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated by determining the coefficient of determinations, limit of quantification and recovery, and samples were analysed for the determination of analgesics. Consequently, acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen and piroxicam were detected in 53 samples (n = 214). Ibuprofen was the most commonly used adulterant, which was detected in a wide concentration range (1.06-233.40 mg g(-1)) and was present in about one-third of the adulterated samples. Various types of samples, in particular pills and capsules (73.6% of the total positive samples), were found to be adulterated with non-opioid analgesics. Samples containing high concentrations of analgesics can have a deleterious effect on human health, and thus the continued monitoring of adulterated food and dietary supplements is essential to maintain a healthy life.

  7. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  8. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design...... to improve the immune response and to decrease the abdominal fat content of broilers....

  9. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product that you receive for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather... shipment of the received product to ensure that the received product is consistent with your purchase order... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received...

  10. Determination of Yohimbine in Yohimbe Bark and Related Dietary Supplements Using UHPLC-UV/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Bryden, Noella

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation was performed on a practical ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)/tandem MS method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The method can separate corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract, which is critical for accurate quantitation of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements. Accuracy of the method was demonstrated using standard addition methods. Both intraday and interday precisions of the method were good. The method can be used without MS since yohimbine concentration in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements are usually high enough for DAD detection, which can make it an easy and economical method for routine analysis of yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. On the other hand, the method can be used with MS if desired for more challenging work such as biological and/or clinical studies.

  11. Single laboratory validation of the determination of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single laboratory validation has been performed on a practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), diode array detection (DAD), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved u...

  12. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  13. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Cevik, E.; Gerssen, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening,

  14. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  15. Nature's Cholesterol-Lowering Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Lovastatin from Red Yeast Rice-Containing Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Maisarah Mohd; Samat, Farah D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice, produced by fermenting the fungus, "Monascus purpureus", on rice ("Oryza sativa" L. gramineae), is commonly used as a dietary supplement. It contains lovastatin, a member of the statin family of compounds, and is licensed for use as a cholesterol-lowering agent. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of…

  16. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves exercise performance and decreases blood pressure in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J; Justus, Nicholas W; Hauser, Jordan I; Case, Ashlee H; Helms, Christine C; Basu, Swati; Rogers, Zachary; Lewis, Marc T; Miller, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO3(-) ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant work rate exercise time at 75% of the patient's maximal work capacity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included plasma NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), dynamic hyperinflation, dyspnea and leg discomfort. Relative to placebo, beetroot ingestion increased plasma NO3(-) by 938% and NO2(-) by 379%. Median (+interquartile range) exercise time was significantly longer (p = 0.031) following the ingestion of beetroot versus placebo (375.0 + 257.0 vs. 346.2 + 148.0 s, respectively). Compared with placebo, beetroot ingestion significantly reduced iso-time (p = 0.001) and end exercise (p = 0.008) diastolic blood pressures by 6.4 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Resting systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (p = 0.019) by 8.2 mmHg for the beetroot versus the placebo trial. No other variables were significantly different between the beetroot and placebo trials. These results indicate that acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation can elevate plasma NO3(-) and NO2(-) concentrations, improve exercise performance, and reduce blood pressure in COPD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals Effective for Musculoskeletal Health and Cognitive Function? A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, G; Gimigliano, R; Bianco, M; De Sire, A; Moretti, A; Giusti, A; Malavolta, N; Migliaccio, S; Migliore, A; Napoli, N; Piscitelli, P; Resmini, G; Tarantino, U; Gimigliano, F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our scoping review was to summarize the state of the art regarding micronutrients in order to identify which of them might effectively improve health status in the areas typically impaired in older people: bone, skeletal muscle, and cognitive function. Scoping review. The Italian Study Group on Healthy Aging by Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements (HANDS) performed this scoping review, based on the following steps: doing a list of micronutrients related with musculoskeletal or cognitive functions, included in dietary supplements and nutraceuticals commercialized in Italy; planning a research on PubMed, according to an evidence-based approach, in order to the most relevant positive study for each micronutrient into each of the three areas involved (bone, skeletal muscle and cognitive function); identifying the micronutrients effective in maintaining or achieving an adequate health status in older people, specifying the effective and safe daily doses, according to the selected studies. In literature we found 12 relevant positive studies (1 international society guidelines/recommendations, 1 systematic review, 7 randomized controlled trials, and 3 prospective cohort studies). We showed that only 16 micronutrients resulted to have appropriate scientific evidences in terms of improving musculoskeletal health and/or cognitive function in older people: beta-alanine, calcium, creatine, fluorides, leucine, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K2, and zinc. This scoping review showed that selected micronutrients in adequate doses might have an ancillary role in musculoskeletal health and cognitive functions in older people.

  18. Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Decreases Blood Pressure in COPD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Justus, Nicholas W.; Hauser, Jordan I.; Case, Ashlee H.; Helms, Christine C.; Basu, Swati; Rogers, Zachary; Lewis, Marc T.; Miller, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO3− ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant work rate exercise time at 75% of the patient’s maximal work capacity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included plasma NO3− and nitrite (NO2−) levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), dynamic hyperinflation, dyspnea and leg discomfort. Relative to placebo, beetroot ingestion increased plasma NO3− by 938% and NO2− by 379%. Median (+ interquartile range) exercise time was significantly longer (p = 0.031) following the ingestion of beetroot versus placebo (375.0 + 257.0 vs. 346.2 + 148.0 sec., respectively). Compared to placebo, beetroot ingestion significantly reduced iso-time (p = 0.001) and end exercise (p = 0.008) diastolic blood pressures by 6.4 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Resting systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (p = 0.019) by 8.2 mmHg for the beetroot versus the placebo trial. No other variables were significantly different between the beetroot and placebo trials. These results indicate that acute dietary NO3− supplementation can elevate plasma NO3− and NO2− concentrations, improve exercise performance, and reduce blood pressure in COPD patients. PMID:25445634

  19. Effects of the dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tian-xing; SONG Zeng-fu; CAI Li-sheng; DING Xue-yan; YU Qing-sen

    2005-01-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries were investigated. Nine hundred Miichthys miiuy fries were divided into 3 groups, each with triplicates. The basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with carnitine groups were considered as the negative and positive controls respectively.Results showed that the nitrogen concentration in excreted feces decreased significantly in fries fed the diet supplementation with 1000× 10-6 fructooligosaccharides and 200×10-6 carnitine (P<0.05). The ammonic-nitrogen concentration decreased significantly in the carnitine group only (P<0.05), indicating the decreasing tendency caused by the supplementation with fructooligosaccharides. Supplementation with both did not have significant effects on the concentration of phosphorus in feces ofMiichthys miiuy fries.

  20. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  1. The effect of dietary supplementation with spent cider yeast on the Swine distal gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; O'Sullivan, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Sexton, Noel; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need for alternatives to antibiotics for promoting animal health, given the increasing problems associated with antibiotic resistance. In this regard, we evaluated spent cider yeast as a potential probiotic for modifying the gut microbiota in weanling pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. Piglets aged 24-26 days were assigned to one of two study groups; control (n = 12) and treatment (n = 12). The control animals were fed with a basal diet and the treatment animals were fed with basal diet in combination with cider yeast supplement (500 ml cider yeast containing ∼7.6 log CFU/ml) for 21 days. Faecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA gene compositional analysis. 16S rRNA compositional sequencing analysis of the faecal samples collected from day 0 and day 21 revealed marked differences in microbial diversity at both the phylum and genus levels between the control and treatment groups. This analysis confirmed that levels of Salmonella and Escherichia were significantly decreased in the treatment group, compared with the control (Pcider yeast on the microbial diversity of the pig distal gut. The effect of dietary cider yeast on porcine gut microbial communities was characterized for the first time using 16S rRNA gene compositional sequencing. Dietary cider yeast can potentially alter the gut microbiota, however such changes depend on their endogenous microbiota that causes a divergence in relative response to that given diet.

  2. Therapeutic Effectiveness of a Dietary Supplement for Management of Halitosis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Pezzuto, Federica; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-07-06

    Halitosis is a common complaint involving social and communicational problems in humans and also affects the pet-owner relationship. In this randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical evaluation, we assessed the effectiveness of a dedicated dietary supplement to improve chronic halitosis in 32 dogs of different breeds and ages. This protocol describes how to evalute the presence of oral volatile suphur compunds, e.g. methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, by means of a portable gas chromatograph device coupled with a syringe, which was used to collect the breath, and a dedicated software, which allows the operator to monitor each compound concentration during each measurement, in a relatively short time (8 min). A significant modification of halitosis parameters was observed after 30 days since the beginning of treatment (p halitosis in humans and animals. Even though human and animal species present some differences, this innovative and alternative therapy for halitosis management might be extended to human clinical practice as an adjuvant dietary approach.

  3. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (Pamino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (Pamino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  5. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  6. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

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    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  7. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO₂ Algal Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Saeid, Agnieszka

    2017-01-03

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO₂ extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols) which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments) were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests). The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  8. The effects of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite dietary supplementation on broiler chickens meat quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Safaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of broiler chickens dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite supplementations on broiler thigh meat water holding capacity (WHC, lipid oxidation (TBARS, pH, and meat color during frozen storage. A total of 448-dayold sexed broiler cockerels were randomly assigned into 28 experimental units. A cornsoybean meal basal diet with 0, 15 and 30 g/kg kaolin, bentonite and zeolite as feed additive were added to control and 6 dietary treatments. Chickens were slaughtered and the left thighs kept at −20°C and analyzed after 1 and 150 days of storage. Experimental treatments had no effect on meat WHC, pH and color. Freezing at −20°C for 150 days impaired meat quality and caused chicken rancidity; however, lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value was significantly lower in chickens received diets including 15 g/kg bentonite and kaolin comparing to control diet after 150 days of frozen storage (P<0.05. It was concluded that though adding silicate minerals did not significantly influence WHC, pH and color in experimental treatments, they had influenced lipid oxidation and decreased chicken meat rancidity during frozen storage period

  9. Dietary Supplement for Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Where Are We Now and Where Should We Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a class of severe and chronic conditions and core symptoms are deficits in social interaction, language communication impairments, and repetitive/stereotyped behavior. Given the limitations of available treatments and substantially increased prevalence of the disease, additional interventions are needed. Since the use of dietary supplements for ASD is of high prevalence, up-to-date information about those supplements are required for both parents and clinicians. Relevant articles were identified through a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and PsychINFO databases (through May 2017. Current best evidences of 22 randomized controlled trials on 8 different dietary supplements for core symptoms of ASD were reviewed. For each supplement, this report focuses on the definition and potential therapeutic mechanisms, the latest advances, and discussion of study limitations and future directions. Most studies were small and short term, and there is little evidence to support effectiveness of dietary supplements for children with ASD.

  10. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.

  11. Acute Liver Failure Caused by ‘Fat Burners’ and Dietary Supplements: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Radha Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful.

  12. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur.

  13. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  14. Farmers' market shopping and dietary behaviours among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Demarest, Chelsea L; Dixon, Crystal E; Dortche, Ciarra Jm; Bullock, Sally L; McGuirt, Jared; Ward, Rachel; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-09-01

    Because farmers' markets include a variety of fruits and vegetables, shopping at farmers' markets would likely improve diet quality among low-income consumers, as well as promote sustainable direct farm-to-consumer business models. However, not much is known about how to promote farmers' market shopping among low-income consumers. Therefore, the purpose of the present paper was to examine barriers to and facilitators of shopping at farmers' markets and associations between shopping at farmers' markets and self-reported dietary behaviours (fruit and vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption) and BMI. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between farmers' market shopping frequency, awareness of markets, access to markets, dietary behaviours and BMI. Department of Social Services, Pitt County, eastern North Carolina, USA. Between April and July 2013, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (n 205) completed a quantitative survey. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets included does not accept SNAP/electronic benefit transfer, out of the way and lack of transportation. Farmers' market shopping was associated with awareness of farmers' markets (estimate =0·18 (se 0·04), Pshopping (estimate =1·06 (se 0·32), P=0·001). Our study is one of the first to examine SNAP participants' farmers' market shopping, distance to farmers' markets and dietary behaviours. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets and increasing awareness of existing markets should be addressed in future interventions to increase SNAP participants' use of farmers' markets, ultimately improving diet quality in this high-risk group.

  15. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  16. Reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes under dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season

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    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes undergoing dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season, with and without association with management conditions (pre-mating shearing. Thirty-six ewes with an average body weight of 66 kg were used in the experiment. Treatments involved ewes receiving or not receiving concentrate supplementation (flushing, with groups subdivided according to the management condition to which animals were subjected: shearing or lack of it. Thus, ewes were divided into four treatments: flushed and shorn; flushed and unshorn; unflushed and shorn; and unflushed and unshorn. Flushing increased weight gain and body condition score, and when associated with shearing, it promoted anticipation of estrus. Fertility rate (86.05%, calving rate (77.77%, birth rate (113.83%, and type of birth (single: 82.29% and twin: 17.71% were not influenced. Birth weight (3.96 kg and prolificacy (1.25% also were not affected. Despite the lack of changes in reproductive traits, flushing adopted during the breeding season associated with shearing anticipated estrus in ewes.

  17. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  18. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.

  19. Supplemental dietary inulin of variable chain lengths alters intestinal bacterial populations in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits.

  20. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant-derived food products.

  1. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use by U.S. Coast Guard Personnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista G Austin

    Full Text Available Personnel in Armed Forces entities such as the US Coast Guard (USCG engage in strenuous tasks requiring high levels of physiological and psychological fitness. Previous reports have found increased prevalence of dietary supplement (DS use by military personnel to meet the demands of their occupation.This study assessed DS prevalence and patterns of use in USCG personnel and compared these findings to reports from other Armed Forces personnel.Use of DS by USCG personnel (n = 1059 was assessed by survey at USCG installations. Data were weighted by age, sex, and rank to be representative of total USCG demographics.Seventy percent of USCG personnel reported using a DS at least 1 time/wk. Thirty-three percent used 1-2 DS ≤ 1 time/wk, 18% 3-4 DS ≥ 1 time/wk, and almost 19% ≥ 5 DS ≥ 1 time/wk. Average expenditure on DSs by UCSG personnel was $40/mo. More than 47% of USCG personnel used a multivitamin and mineral, 33% consumed protein supplements, 22% used individual vitamins and minerals, 23% reported taking combination products, and 9% consumed herbal supplements. Increased use of DS use was associated with high intensity operational occupations, participating in high volumes of aerobic exercise and strength training. Use of DS was not associated with age, education or body mass index.Occupation is an important determinate of DS use. Prevalence of DS use by USCG personnel is greater than reported for other Armed Forces personnel and reflects high levels of participation in aerobic and strength training activities.

  2. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use by U.S. Coast Guard Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G.; Price, Lori Lyn; McGraw, Susan M.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Personnel in Armed Forces entities such as the US Coast Guard (USCG) engage in strenuous tasks requiring high levels of physiological and psychological fitness. Previous reports have found increased prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use by military personnel to meet the demands of their occupation. Objective This study assessed DS prevalence and patterns of use in USCG personnel and compared these findings to reports from other Armed Forces personnel. Design Use of DS by USCG personnel (n = 1059) was assessed by survey at USCG installations. Data were weighted by age, sex, and rank to be representative of total USCG demographics. Results Seventy percent of USCG personnel reported using a DS at least 1 time/wk. Thirty-three percent used 1–2 DS ≤ 1 time/wk, 18% 3–4 DS ≥ 1 time/wk, and almost 19% ≥ 5 DS ≥ 1 time/wk. Average expenditure on DSs by UCSG personnel was $40/mo. More than 47% of USCG personnel used a multivitamin and mineral, 33% consumed protein supplements, 22% used individual vitamins and minerals, 23% reported taking combination products, and 9% consumed herbal supplements. Increased use of DS use was associated with high intensity operational occupations, participating in high volumes of aerobic exercise and strength training. Use of DS was not associated with age, education or body mass index. Conclusion Occupation is an important determinate of DS use. Prevalence of DS use by USCG personnel is greater than reported for other Armed Forces personnel and reflects high levels of participation in aerobic and strength training activities. PMID:26230407

  3. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use by U.S. Coast Guard Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; Price, Lori Lyn; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2015-01-01

    Personnel in Armed Forces entities such as the US Coast Guard (USCG) engage in strenuous tasks requiring high levels of physiological and psychological fitness. Previous reports have found increased prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use by military personnel to meet the demands of their occupation. This study assessed DS prevalence and patterns of use in USCG personnel and compared these findings to reports from other Armed Forces personnel. Use of DS by USCG personnel (n = 1059) was assessed by survey at USCG installations. Data were weighted by age, sex, and rank to be representative of total USCG demographics. Seventy percent of USCG personnel reported using a DS at least 1 time/wk. Thirty-three percent used 1-2 DS ≤ 1 time/wk, 18% 3-4 DS ≥ 1 time/wk, and almost 19% ≥ 5 DS ≥ 1 time/wk. Average expenditure on DSs by UCSG personnel was $40/mo. More than 47% of USCG personnel used a multivitamin and mineral, 33% consumed protein supplements, 22% used individual vitamins and minerals, 23% reported taking combination products, and 9% consumed herbal supplements. Increased use of DS use was associated with high intensity operational occupations, participating in high volumes of aerobic exercise and strength training. Use of DS was not associated with age, education or body mass index. Occupation is an important determinate of DS use. Prevalence of DS use by USCG personnel is greater than reported for other Armed Forces personnel and reflects high levels of participation in aerobic and strength training activities.

  4. Dietary supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids improves quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis thawed semen

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    Arnaldo Algaranhar Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs in the buffalo diet, on the sperm quality after thawing. In parallel, it was verified the degree of association among techniques to assess plasma membrane integrity (PMI of spermatozoa. Patterns of sperm motility (subjective and computer-assisted analysis, kinetics, morphology and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The hypo-osmotic swelling test, nigrosin-eosin staining (E-N and fluorescent probes propidium iodide/Hoechst 33342 (IP-H342 were adopted to evaluate PMI. The study was planned considering two experimental groups, which were evaluated in repeated measures design. over time. Eleven Murrah buffalo bulls (3.5±1.0 years, and 536.9±73.0 kg were divided in Control Group (CONT, n=5 and Palm Oil Group (PO, n=6. Animals were fed with forage and concentrated in a controlled manner. Animals of PO received dietary supplementation containing palm oil (2% of dry matter. Dietary consumption was daily monitored and the intake level of UFAs in PO was 55.4% higher than CONT. Semen samples were collected and evaluated every 14 days. The experiment lasted 120 days, considering four periods of 30 days each (Periods I, II, III and IV and repeated measures structure was used in statistical analysis. Significance level adopted was 5%. There was no effect of treatment on sperm motility (P>0.05, but palm oil supplementation presented a positive effect on spermatic ability to progress (derived from BCF, STR and LIN in Period IV (P<0.05. High correlation (91% was observed between IP-H342 and E-N techniques (Y = 0.9155 x + 2.9843, R2 = 0.82, P?0.05. Thus, supplementation with UFAs increased the progressivity of spermatozoa after 90 days, and had no effect on other seminal parameters. Eosin-nigrosin stain can be used efficiently as a predictor of the level of PMI when conditions for implementing fluorescent probes not present.

  5. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

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    Concetta De Meo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following aspects related to enhancement were considered: ergogenic effect (EE, time to exhaustion (TTE, muscular endurance (ME, post-exercise recovery (PER and body mass (BM. With respect to meta-analysis, data on level of post Exercise Glucose (GpE [mg/dL] and level of post exercise Lactate (LpE [mmol/L] were considered as  indicators of TTE, PER and EE. Similarly, Change in Body Mass (CBM [kg] was used as indicator of BM.Results: The most investigated dietary supplements were: Creatine, Carbohydrates, Beta-alanine, Proteins. The qualitative analysis evaluating the effect of supplements on sports listed by the International Olympic Committee has achieved interesting results: supplements didn’t show statistically significant effects when compared to placebo in more than 48% of papers.For the quantitative analysis, 15 studies were considered. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant effect of Beta-alanine, Creatine and Carbohydrates on LpE and GpE. Furthermore, a non-significant increase in BM was observed in athletes undergoing Creatine compared to placebo.Conclusion: Considering the increasing attention to this topic, it would be interesting to investigate the existing awareness about effectiveness and possible risks of supplements.

  6. Trans-atlantic data harmonization in the classification of medicines and dietary supplements: a challenge for epidemiologic study and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Susan; Richesson, Rachel; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    As international scientific collaboration increases, there is a growing requirement for research data to be comparable among countries. Despite the importance of medication and dietary supplement data in research, there are no international standards for the collection and storage of these data. In the absence of such standards, we needed to adopt a strategy for classification and coding of medications and dietary supplements to meet demands of our multi-national study. Given the inter-country variations in nomenclature that characterize prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, traditional herbal medicines, and dietary supplements, we adopted RxNorm as a data standard for medication data, and developed an independent system that extends this standard and allows for flexible and scalable data collection for dietary supplements. RxNorm was implemented in May 2005 and as of July 2006, coverage has been 99%, at the level of active ingredients, of all the medications reported in our study. Development of a dietary supplement database began in August 2005, and has thus far coded some 1200 dietary supplements and 650 infant formula products and forms from the four countries in our study. The methods we have used to collect, store, and manage medication and dietary supplement data serve as interim solutions until international standards are developed. It is hoped that such standards will ultimately emerge, and that our strategy and data model will be of value in other research environments in the immediate future.

  7. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

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    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  8. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation increases Pasteurella multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Shuping; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Fengmei; Li, Nengzhang; Yin, Jie; Peng, Yuanyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of graded doses of L-glutamine supplementation on the replication and distribution of Pasteurella multocida, and the expression of its major virulence factors in mouse model. Mice were randomly assigned to the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 % glutamine. Pasteurella multocida burden was detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney after 12 h of P. multocida infection. The expression of major virulence factors, toll-like receptors (TLRs), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and anti-oxidative factors (GPX1 and CuZnSOD) was analyzed in the lung and spleen. Dietary 0.5 % glutamine supplementation has little significant effect on these parameters, compared to those with basal diet. However, results showed that a high dose of glutamine supplementation increased the P. multocida burden (P glutamine supplementation inhibited the proinflammatory responses (P glutamine supplementation on different components in TLR signaling depends on glutamine concentration, and high dose of glutamine supplementation activated the proinflammatory response. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation increased P. multocida burden and the expression of its major virulence factors, while affecting the functions of the lung and spleen.

  9. Altered gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2017-05-01

    Recently we showed that 5% linseed oil (LSO) and 5% safflower oil (SFO) supplementation of cow's diets reduced milk fat yield by 30·38 and 32·42% respectively, accompanied by differential expression of genes and regulation by microRNAs (miRNA). This research communication addresses the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation could be involved in the observed milk fat reduction. Thus, this study investigated the gene expression pattern of major epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with LSO or SFO. Twenty-six Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly assigned to two groups (13/group) and fed a control diet for 28 d (day -28 to -1) (control period- CP) followed by a treatment period (TP) (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO (LSO treatment) or 5% SFO (SFO treatment) of 28 d (day +1 to +28). After treatment, cows in the two groups were returned to the control diet for another 28 d (day +29 to +56) (post treatment period-PTP). Milk samples were collected on day -1 (CP), +7, +28 (TP) and +56 (PTP) for RNA isolation and measurement of the expression of thirteen epigenetic modifying genes including two DNA methytrasferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A), four histone acetylases (HAT1, KAT2A, KAT5 and CREBBP), five histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, SIRT1 and SIRT2) and two histone methytransferases (EHMT2 and PRMT1) by qPCR. Linseed oil supplementation significantly repressed the expression of EHMT2, HDAC2 and HDAC3 on day +7 (P < 0·05) and KAT2A and SIRT2 on day +28 (P < 0·05) as compared with the control period (day -1) while SFO had no effect. When LSO was withdrawn, the expression of some of the genes increased slightly but did not reach control (day -1) levels at the end of the PTP. Our study demonstrated a significant role of LSO in the epigenetic regulation of fatty acid synthesis as compared to SFO. The effect of LSO may be related to its higher degree of unsaturation and might represent a different regulatory mechanism which

  10. Effects of dietary threonine supplementation on immune challenge induced by swine Pseudorabies live vaccine in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiangbing; Lai, Xiang; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Tian, Gang; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether dietary threonine supplementation can improve immunity of weaned pigs challenged by swine Pseudorabies live vaccine (SPLV). Thirty crossbred piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to three groups receiving diets containing true ileal digestible threonine (TIDT) at 0.74, 0.89 and 1.11% for 14 days. On day 8, all pigs were injected intramuscularly with SPLV or sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. SPLV injection enhanced serum IgA, IgM, IgG, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations (p dietary TIDT levels enhanced serum IgG (p dietary TIDT levels and SPLV injection (p dietary TIDT levels attenuated the increase of the serum IFN-γ concentration, and the increase of the relative mRNA abundance of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 in the different tissues (p dietary threonine supplementation could improve the immune status of weaned pigs injected with SPLV by down-regulating the expression of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 in tissues, and thus regulating T-helper cytokine secretion.

  11. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  12. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Effects of Dietary Isoflavone Supplementation on Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability During Storage inLingnanYellow Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shou-qun; JIANG Zong-yong; ZHOU Gui-lian; LIN Ying-cai; ZHENG Chun-tian

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a synthetic isoflavone (SI) on meat qualityand oxidative stability, 1500 43-d-old Lingnan yellow male broilers were randomly assigned to ifve dietary treatments: diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg SI kg-1, fedad libitum for a period of 3 wk. After refrigerated storage, a* value of the meat increased with dietary SI supplementation using 10 and 40 mg kg-1 level (P<0.05), L* value decreased (P<0.05), and 40 mg kg-1 increased the pH (P<0.05). Supplementation with SI, at all levels, increased water holding capacity (P<0.05) and decreased lactic acid content of meat (P<0.05). The concentration of malondialdehyde at 72 h decreased linearly (P=0.005) and quadratically (P=0.004) with increasing levels of SI. Dietary SI at 20 and 40 mg kg-1levels enhanced total superoxide dismutase activity in meat (P<0.05). Meat pH quadratically decreased as the storage time increased (P<0.05), with the highest value at 24 h (P<0.05). Lactic acid and malondialdehyde concentrations of meat increased over time, with value at 96 h being far higher than at earlier times (P<0.05). Supplemental SI linearly and quadratically increased the mRNA abundance ofglutathione peroxidase (GPX) (P=0.001 and P=0.002) andcatalase(CAT) (P=0.003 and P=0.006) in breast muscle. The results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with SI can improve meat quality during refrigerated storage by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing oxidative stability and, for male broilers from 43 to 63 d of age, the optimal level of SI was 40 mg kg-1.

  14. Effects of Barley Cultivar and Dietary Supplemental enzyme on Performance, Egg Quality Traits, and Selected Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

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    Torki M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing two commercial multienzyme to diets included two barley cultivars (Sararood [71.99%] and Valfajr [66.39%] on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens was investigated in an 8-wk (65 to 73 wk of age experiment.  The commercial multienzymes were Grindazym™ (with mainly β-glucanase and xylanase activity and Hemicell® (with mainly β-mannanase activity. Each dietary treatment consisted of five replicates of six hens. Barley cultivar had no significant effect on the measured criteria  and there was no interaction between barley cultivar and enzyme throughout the study. Diet supplementation with enzymes reduced feed intake (P < 0.05. Hens receiving Grindazym-supplemented diets produced more eggs than those receiving diets without enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05. Conversely, egg weight was higher for hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets than for those fed the other diets (P < 0.05. Hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diet showed higher egg mass than those fed the unsupplemented diets (P < 0.05 and egg mass of hens receiving the Hemicell-supplemented diets was intermediate between these two groups. Feed conversion ratio was improved by enzyme supplementation throughout the study (P < 0.05. Serum concentration of triiodothyronine was higher in hens receiving the Grindazym-supplemented diets than that in hens receiving the diets with no enzyme or supplemented with Hemicell (P < 0.05. Overall, the nutritive value of barley could be improved by enzyme supplementation. However, the two enzyme sources had different effects on performance of laying hens probably due to different mechanisms of action.

  15. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation enhances compensatory vasodilation during hypoxic exercise in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Treichler, David P; Ganger, Charles T; Schneider, Aaron C; Ueda, Kenichi

    2015-01-15

    We have previously demonstrated that aging reduces the compensatory vasodilator response during hypoxic exercise due to blunted nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Recent evidence suggests that NO bioavailability can be augmented by dietary nitrate through the nitrate-nitrite pathway. Thus we tested the hypothesis that acute dietary nitrate supplementation increases the compensatory vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise, particularly in older adults. Thirteen young (25 ± 1 yr) and 12 older (64 ± 2 yr) adults performed rhythmic forearm exercise at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during normoxia and hypoxia (∼80% O2 saturation); both before (control) and 3 h after beetroot juice (BR) consumption. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml·min(-1)·100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (ml/min) and blood pressure (mmHg). Compensatory vasodilation was defined as the relative increase in FVC due to hypoxic exercise (i.e., % increase compared with respective normoxic exercise trial). Plasma nitrite was determined from venous blood samples obtained before the control trials and each of the exercise trials (normoxia and hypoxia) after BR. Consumption of BR increased plasma nitrite in both young and older adults (P vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated in older compared with young adults (3.8 ± 1.7% vs. 14.2 ± 1.2%, P vasodilation did not change in young (13.7 ± 3.3%, P = 0.81) adults but was substantially augmented in older adults (11.4 ± 2.1%, P vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise in older but not young adults.

  16. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Spent Cider Yeast on the Swine Distal Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; O’Sullivan, Lisa; O’Sullivan, Orla; Sexton, Noel; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need for alternatives to antibiotics for promoting animal health, given the increasing problems associated with antibiotic resistance. In this regard, we evaluated spent cider yeast as a potential probiotic for modifying the gut microbiota in weanling pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. Methodology and Principal Findings Piglets aged 24–26 days were assigned to one of two study groups; control (n = 12) and treatment (n = 12). The control animals were fed with a basal diet and the treatment animals were fed with basal diet in combination with cider yeast supplement (500 ml cider yeast containing ∼7.6 log CFU/ml) for 21 days. Faecal samples were collected for 16s rRNA gene compositional analysis. 16S rRNA compositional sequencing analysis of the faecal samples collected from day 0 and day 21 revealed marked differences in microbial diversity at both the phylum and genus levels between the control and treatment groups. This analysis confirmed that levels of Salmonella and Escherichia were significantly decreased in the treatment group, compared with the control (Pcider yeast on the microbial diversity of the pig distal gut. Conclusions/Significance The effect of dietary cider yeast on porcine gut microbial communities was characterized for the first time using 16S rRNA gene compositional sequencing. Dietary cider yeast can potentially alter the gut microbiota, however such changes depend on their endogenous microbiota that causes a divergence in relative response to that given diet. PMID:24130736

  17. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrui; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III) E. coli challenge, and (IV) E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV) were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8) CFU/mL), whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II) were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV) was decreased (PE.coli<0.05). However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV). Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV). Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+) percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV) were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05). However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV) compared with E. coli challenge group (III) (P<0.05). No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III) was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  18. Sow and litter response to supplemental dietary fat in lactation diets during high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Cabrera, R; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of supplemental dietary fat on total lactation energy intake and sow and litter performance during high ambient temperatures (27 ± 3°C). Data were collected from 337 mixed-parity sows from July to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based with 7.5% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings and contained 3.24 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal of ME. Animal-vegetable fat blend (A-V) was supplemented at 0, 2, 4, or 6%. Sows were balanced by parity, with 113, 109, and 115 sows representing parity 1, 2, and 3 to 7 (P3+), respectively. Feed disappearance (subset of 190 sows; 4.08, 4.18, 4.44, and 4.34 kg/d, for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P feed (sow and litter BW gain relative to feed intake) was not affected (P = 0.56), but gain:Mcal ME declined linearly with the addition of A-V (0.16, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.14 for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P sows (3.95 kg/d) had less (P feed disappearance than P2 (4.48 kg/d) and P3+ (4.34 kg/d) sows. Body weight change in P1 sows was greater (P sows (-0.32 vs. -0.07 and 0.12 kg/d), whereas backfat loss was less (P sows compared with P1 and P2 sows. Dietary A-V improved litter ADG (P sows. Sows bred within 8 d after weaning (58.3, 72.0, 70.2, and 74.7% for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively); conception rate (78.5, 89.5, 89.2, and 85.7%) and farrowing rate (71.4, 81.4, 85.5, and 78.6%) were improved (P sows were greater (P sows had lower (P sows, and respiration rate was reduced (P sows compared with P2 and P3+ sows. In conclusion, A-V improved feed disappearance and caloric intake, resulting in improved litter weight gain and subsequent reproductive performance of sows; however, feed and caloric efficiency were negatively affected.

  19. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrui Zhang

    Full Text Available N-carbamylglutamate (NCG has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7, including (I sham challenge, (II sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III E. coli challenge, and (IV E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8 CFU/mL, whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV was decreased (PE.coli<0.05. However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV. Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV. Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05. However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV compared with E. coli challenge group (III (P<0.05. No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  20. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/- and LDLr(-/- mice we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area, was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix supplementation in both apoE(-/- (p<0.05, n = 11 and LDLr(-/- mice (p<0.01, n = 10. Principal component analysis was utilized to delineate the influence of multiple plasma and tissue metabolites on the development of atherosclerosis. Group clustering by dietary supplementation was evident, with the t-10, c-12 CLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/- strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (p<0.05, n = 10, triglyceride (p<0.01, n = 10 and cholesterol ester content (p<0.01, n = 10. Furthermore, t-10, c-12 CLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  1. Variations in semen characteristics rams of Ouled Djellal breed have received an important dietary supplement after regular and intensive collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Litim Miloud; Bereksi Reguig Karima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an important dietary supplement on sperm quantity and quality breeding rams of artificial insemination center Belhandjir in region of Naama in Algeria. Methods:Ten breeding rams of the white arab breed, called Ouled Djellal are divided into two groups CR and SR, and subjected to two different diets, the first group CR followed a regime R based of barley and fodder and the second SR group to follow a regime R +a vitamin and mineral dietary supplement for a 15 weeks of regular collections followed by 12 weeks of intensive collections. Analysis of sperm quality and quantity were performed to normal and intensive collection. Results:The quantitative effect is more significant in rams supplemented SR, volume and concentration were higher in rams SR (respectively+40%and±13%), therefore the doses produced differ significantly compared to the group of control rams CR (+70%). Results of qualitative parameters were more mixed, motility showed a significant difference in rams supplemented with against the rate of dead semen and the rate of anomalies did not show significant differences in sperm. Conclusion:supplementation could significantly improve the quantitative semen characteristics in rams breeding Ouled Djellal. Collections of semen on the rams may be daily without sperm quantity is affected.

  2. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patricia L; Karakach, Tobias K; Currie, Deborah L; McLeod, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/-) and LDLr(-/-) mice) we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area), was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix) supplementation in both apoE(-/-) (pCLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/-) strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (pCLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  3. Dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric improves reproductive function in hypertensive male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10: normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day; normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day. The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity with concomitant increase in 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension

  4. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), Pvitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  5. Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements to Improve Quality of Life and Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill or eject blood. It represents a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 23 million worldwide. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five and the most important risk factors identified are ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes. Preventive approaches are based on improvements of lifestyle, associated with pharmacological therapy. Several nutraceuticals have shown interesting clinical results in prevention of HF as well as in the treatment of the early stages of the disease, alone or in association with pharmacological therapy. The aim of this review is to resume the available clinical evidence on phytochemicals effect on HF prevention and/or treatment. A systematic search strategy was developed to identify trials in PubMed (January 1980 to April 2016). The terms 'nutraceuticals', 'dietary supplements', 'herbal drug' and 'heart failure' were incorporated into an electronic search strategy. Clinical trials reported that the intake of some nutraceuticals (hawthorn, coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, Dribose, Carnosine, Vitamin D, Some probiotics, Omega-3 PUFAs, Beet nitrates) is associated with improvements in functional parameters such as ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output in HF patients, with minimal side effects. These findings were sometimes reinforced by subsequent meta-analyses, which further concluded that benefits tended to be greater in earlier stage HF. The main mechanisms involved are antioxidant, antinflammatory, anti-ischemic and antiaggregant effects. Evidence suggests that the supplementation with nutraceuticals may be a useful option for effective management of HF, with the advantage of excellent clinical tolerance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Hagve, Tor-Arne;

    2007-01-01

    Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement and nonsuppl......Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement...

  7. Rapid determination of silver in nanobased liquid dietary supplements using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Mudalige, Thilak K; Lim, Jin-Hee; Linder, Sean W

    2013-07-31

    This paper reports a rapid and straightforward method for the quantitation of total Ag content in nanobased commercially available liquid dietary supplements using a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) analyzer. Figures of merits were evaluated by analyzing a series of AgNO3 standards. This method was shown to have a detection limit of 3 ppm, a quantitation limit of 10 ppm, and a broad linear range from the detection limit to 10000 ppm (1%). Accurate detection and quantitation of Ag content in well-characterized Ag nanoparticle samples and in nanobased liquid dietary supplements were achieved with good correlation (i.e., percentage difference average values under 15%) between the total Ag concentration obtained by the pXRF analyzer and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Furthermore, accurate quantitation of Ag in the presence of high concentrations of potential spectral interferences was also demonstrated.

  8. Effect of Dietary Cysteine Supplementation on Growing Performance, Pelt Quality and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Young Rex Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossou Myrlene Carine B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid supplementation on growth performance, pelt quality and a number of serum biochemical parameters of young Rex Rabbit. One hundred and twenty Rex Rabbits aged 45 days were divided into five dietary treatment groups including one control group and 4 experimental groups. Each group was composed of 24 animals and was fed with different diets for 56 days corresponding to the fattening period. Diet was incorporated with 0% of cysteine (control group and 0,10%, 0,20%, 0,30% and 0,40% respectively for the experimental groups. At the end of the experiment, results showed that cysteine supplementation to the diet affected average daily gain, live weight,skin length, skin area and pelt weight at the late phase of 42 to 56 days (P0.05

  9. Enhanced one-carbon flux towards DNA methylation: Effect of dietary methyl supplements against gamma-radiation-induced epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Vipen; Sridhar, Swathi; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2010-02-12

    Radiation exposure poses a major risk for workers in the nuclear power plants and other radiation related industry. In this context, we demonstrate that gamma-radiation is an efficient DNA demethylating agent and its injurious effect can be minimized by dietary methyl supplements (folate, choline and vitamin B12). To elucidate the possible underlying mechanism(s), male Swiss mice were maintained on normal control diet (NCD) and methyl-supplemented diet (MSD). After 2 weeks of NCD and MSD dietary regimen, we exposed the animals to gamma-radiation (2, 4 and 6Gy) and investigated the profile of downstream metabolites and activity levels of one-carbon (C(1)) flux generating enzymes. In MSD fed and irradiated animals, hepatic folate levels increased (Pmaintenance of genomic DNA methylation under gamma-radiation stress might be a very dynamic, progressive diet dependent process that could involve increased one-carbon flux through various C(1) metabolites.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium on rat hepatic stellate cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hua Shen; Wu-Feng Cheng; Xuan-Hai Li; Jian-Qin Sun; Feng Li; Ling Ma; Liang-Min Xie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in acute liver injury induced by CCl4, and to explore their role in the recovery from hepatic fibrosis phase.METHODS: An acute liver damage model of rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week,then the rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after the first and third injection, respectively. A liver fibrosis model was established by the same injection for 8 wk. Then three rats were killed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after the last injection,respectively. The rats from the intervention group were fed with chow supplemented with vitamin E (250 mg/kg)and selenium (0.2 mg/kg), and the rats in the normal control group and pathological group were given standard chow.Livers were harvested and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sirius red. Activated HSCs were determined by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry staining.Apoptotic HSCs were determined by dual staining with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were also analyzed.RESULTS: In the acute liver damage model, the degree of liver injury was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, while the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the pathological group. In the liver fibrosis model,the degree of liver fibrosis was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, and the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the

  11. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy.

  12. A pilot study of website information regarding aromatase inhibitors: dietary supplement interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Cara L; Hsieh, Angela A; Sweet, Erin S; Tippens, Kimberly M; McCune, Jeannine S

    2011-11-01

    Patients who have hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and who are taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) should understand the benefits and risks of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) use. The International Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) encourages patients to discuss DS use with their health care practitioners. The objective was to conduct a pilot study rating Internet websites from the perspective of health care practitioners for information about AI-DS interactions. Five (5) Internet websites suggested by SIO were evaluated using the DISCERN instrument rating tool. The available AI-DS information on these websites was rated by 4 evaluators: 2 naturopathic doctors, 1 oncology pharmacy resident, and a pharmacy student. The overall rankings ranged from 1.6 to 3.9, with considerable variability in the type of information available from the websites. The interevaluator rankings of the websites ranged from 0.44 to 0.89. The evaluators consistently found the most reliable, unbiased, and comprehensive information on AI-DS interactions at the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center websites. However, more than one database was needed for provision of optimal patient information on AI-DS interactions. In order to effectively advise patients regarding AI-DS interactions, more than one website should be evaluated to assess the potential efficacy and safety of DS in women whose breast cancer is being treated with an AI. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  13. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  14. Pathogenetic justification of dietary supplement TestogenonTM for complex impact on men's reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Liflyandsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable complex preparation TestogenonTM for prevention and treatment of frustration of reproductive system of men including extracts of plants (bark of a pidzheum, a dioskorea, a yokhimba, a ginseng root and biologically active agents (L-arginin, vitamins C and E, B5, B6 and B12 is created pathogenetic. Harmlessness and safety of a preparation are confirmed in pilot studies. Preclinical researches of specific pharmacological activity of dietary supplement to food TestogenonTM, allowed to establish stimulation at experimental animals of production of own testosterone which concentration was authentically above, than at control animals. Besides, at the rats receiving TestogenonTM activation of all indicators of sexual behavior was observed: average frequency a cage on females was 82 % higher, the quantity of intromissiya exceeded that control animals at 12–15 times, the latent period a cage and an interval between sessions authentically decreased. The preparation is recommended for strengthening of a libido, increase in duration of sexual intercourse, elimination of erektilny dysfunction, simplification of age manifestations of a man's climax, and also within complex therapy of a good-quality hyperplasiya of a prostate gland, chronic not bacterial prostatitis, man's infertility, an incontience of urine, testosterone synthesis stimulation. TestogenonTM is contraindicated at the increased nervous excitability, sleeplessness, arterial hypertension, decrease in coagulability of blood, arrhythmia, the expressed dysfunction of a liver and kidneys. 

  15. The role of endorsers, framing, and rewards on the effectiveness of dietary supplement advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Linn, Cho Thwe; Fu, Chen-Su; Sukoco, Badri Munir

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of endorsers, message framing, and rewards on consumers' responses toward dietary supplement advertisements in terms of ad liking and ad believability, attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and behavioral intention. The results of 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design show that viewers respond differently to different types of endorser, message framing, and rewards. Rewards have moderate influences on consumers' ad liking when combined with different framed messages and endorsers. Endorsers, message framing, and rewards are interrelated; it is notable that respondents express more ad liking when celebrity endorser, positive framing, and extrinsic reward are used in combination. The authors found that ad liking and ad believability have an effect on attitude toward the advertisement and the brand. In addition, the authors found that (a) attitude toward the advertisement has relations with attitude toward the brand and behavioral intention and (b) attitude toward the brand has a significant influence on behavioral intention. These results can also be useful for marketers with regard to developing and implementing their marketing activities to specific customer segment.

  16. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-09-30

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].

  17. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  18. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  19. Recent advances in dietary supplementation, in treatingnon-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tannaz Eslamparast; Sareh Eghtesad; Hossein Poustchi; Azita Hekmatdoost

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currentlyknown as the most common liver problem, characterizedby excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes,which may progress to other liver diseases such asnonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic tissue fibrosis, livercirrhosis, and failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. SinceNAFLD is positively associated with the developmentof obesity, insulin resistance, and ultimately type2 diabetes mellitus, it is often regarded as thehepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Nopharmacologic treatment has yet been proven for thisdisease. For most patients with presumed or confirmedNAFLD, the only proven strategy is to offer lifestyleadvice that can lead to sustained weight loss. Sinceinsulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, andnecro-apoptosis are involved in NAFLD pathogenesis,it seems that every potential therapeutic agent shouldtarget one or some of these pathologic events. Thereare many well known anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory,and insulin sensitizer dietary supplements which haveshown beneficial effects on NAFLD improvementin animal and human studies. The purpose of thisreview is to explore the existing evidences on dietarysupplements considered to have hepatoprotectiveproperties, and to present some proposed mechanismsby which they may protect against NAFLD.

  20. Vitamin and mineral supplement users. Do they have healthy or unhealthy dietary behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    It is unknown whether people use vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to compensate for unhealthy diets, or people whom already have a healthy diet use VMS. Therefore, this study aimed to examine correlates of VMS use and whether VMS users can be categorised into specific clusters based on dietary lifestyle variables. The data used came from the Swiss Food Panel questionnaire for 2010. The sample consisted of 6189 respondents, mean age was 54 years and 47.6% were males. Data was analysed with logistic regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results revealed that for VMS use, gender, age, education, chronic illness, health consciousness, benefits of fortification, convenience food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption were of importance. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters (1) healthy diet, (2) unhealthy diet and (3) modest diet. Compared to non-users a higher percentage of VMS users was categorised in the healthy cluster and a lower percentage in the unhealthy cluster. More VMS-users were categorised as having an unhealthy diet (31.4%) than having a healthy diet (20.6%). The results suggest that both hypotheses-VMS are used by people with unhealthy diets and by people who least need them-hold true meaning.

  1. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bengtson Nash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  2. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for assessing antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-10-31

    A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.

  3. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  4. Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6...... as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients....

  5. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, s...

  6. Determination of Mercury in an Assortment of Dietary Supplements Using an Inexpensive Combustion Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Keith E.; Levine, Michael A.; Weber, Frank X.; Hu, Ye; Perlmutter, Jason; Grohse, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a res...

  7. Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Walker, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud There are few studies of the prevalence and patterns of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although many researchers and health professionals worldwide have raised concern about the potential effects of HDS on patients with renal insufficiency. A survey was conducted to determine: the prevalence and patterns of HDS use in Thai patients with CKD; the demographic factors related to HDS use; the reasons why Thai patients with CKD...

  8. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, extract, and related dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-09-05

    Dietary supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African mango, AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the U.S. market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of AM-based dietary supplements (AMDSs) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of AM seeds, AM seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available AMDSs have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry method. Ellagic acid, mono-, di-, and tri-O-methyl-ellagic acids, and their glycosides were found as major components in AM seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of AM extract and related dietary supplements.

  9. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  10. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbric us terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Vattem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v and 0.5% (w/v] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

  11. Determination of mercury in an assortment of dietary supplements using an inexpensive combustion atomic absorption spectrometry technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Keith E; Levine, Michael A; Weber, Frank X; Hu, Ye; Perlmutter, Jason; Grohse, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a result, manufacturers and regulatory agencies concerned with monitoring lot-to-lot product quality may find this approach an attractive alternative to the more classical acid-decomposition, cold vapor atomic absorption methodology. Dietary supplement samples analyzed included astragalus, calcium, chromium picolinate, echinacea, ephedra, fish oil, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, goldenseal, guggul, senna, St John's wort, and yohimbe products. Quality control samples analyzed with the dietary supplements indicated a high level of method accuracy and precision. Ten replicate preparations of a standard reference material (NIST 1573a, tomato leaves) were analyzed, and the average mercury recovery was 109% (2.0% RSD). The method quantitation limit was 0.3 ng, which corresponded to 1.5 ng/g sample. The highest found mercury concentration (123 ng/g) was measured in a concentrated salmon oil sample. When taken as directed by an adult, this product would result in an approximate mercury ingestion of 7 mug per week.

  12. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.

  13. Determination of designer doping agent--2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane--in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Jarek, Anna; Chajewska, Katarzyna; Turek-Lepa, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-11-10

    The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (GC-MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC-MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2-4.2μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1-5.1μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion

  14. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair.

  15. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  16. Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  17. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C R; Albuquerque, E M V; Faria, E C; Oliveira, H C F; Castilho, L N

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80) and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60), after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G) or fructose (F) solutions (500 g/L), 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM) and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM) after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P vs 2.5 mM, P glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  18. Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2013-12-01

    L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats.

  19. Investigation of dietary supplements prevalence as complementary therapy: Comparison between hospitalized psoriasis patients and non-psoriasis patients, correlation with disease severity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Rastin, Maryam; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari

    2017-08-01

    Psoriasis patients are often displeased with traditional medical treatments and they may self-prescribe dietary supplements as an alternative or complementary treatments. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-medication of dietary supplements among psoriasis and non-psoriasis cases and its impact on disease severity and quality of life. This case-control study evaluated 252 records of psoriasis patients and 245 non-psoriasis cases. Dietary supplementation over last 30days and characteristics, including age, age at onset of disease, co-morbidities, smoking and education were recorded. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and dermatology quality of life index (DLQI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant level. This study consisted 138 psoriasis (females; 54) and 138 non-psoriasis cases (females; 50), aged between 21 and 91 years. Among psoriasis patients, 72% reported using at least one of dietary supplements, which was different from non-psoriasis cases (25.36%, P=0.01). Multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVM) were the most frequent used dietary supplements (26.81%) and the most common reasons for the consumption of these supplements were to maintain and improve health. The consumption of folic acid (21.73%), omega-3 fatty acids or fish oil (10.14%), herbs (12.31%) and vitamin E (1.44%) had the most frequencies after MVM. No significant differences in PASI and DLQI were found among patients with consumption of different supplements (P>0.05). There was non-significant and negative correlation between education and use of supplements (P=0.21, r=-0.02). Self-medicating of MVM over last 30days was prevalent among studied psoriasis patients. They took dietary supplements in order to improve and maintain their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of dietary L-glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Fengmei; Ren, Wenkai; Li, Nengzhang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Peng, Yuanyi; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in a vaccine-immunized animal model. Thus, this study determined roles for dietary glutamine supplementation in specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine. The measured variables included: (1) the production of pathogen-specific antibodies; (2) mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptors and anti-oxidative factors; and (3) the distribution of P. multocida in tissues and the expression of its major virulence factors in vivo. Dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had a better protective role than 1 or 2 % glutamine against P. multocida infection in vaccine-immunized mice, at least partly resulting from its effects in modulation of general defense responses. Dietary glutamine supplementation had little effects on the production of P. multocida-specific antibodies. Compared to the non-supplemented group, dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had no effect on bacterial burden in vivo but decreased the expression of major virulence factors in the spleen. Collectively, supplementing 0.5 % glutamine to a conventional diet provides benefits in vaccine-immunized mice by enhancing general defense responses and decreasing expression of specific virulence factors.

  1. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Konwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05 effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb (g/dl after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3 and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3 after 30 days; packed cell volume (%, lymphocyte (%, and eosinophil (% after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (% and neutrophil (% values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH (pg after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.

  2. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wenjie; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Xinguo; Yao, Kang; Gu, Wanting; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen 110-day-old barrows were fed for 60 days a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet supplemented with 1.0% Arg or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). Blood samples, longissimus dorsi muscle and overlying subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 170-day-old pigs for biochemical studies. Serum concentrations of leptin, alanine and glutamine were lower, but those for Arg and proline were higher in Arg-supplemented pigs than in control pigs. The percentage of oleic acid was higher but that of stearic acid and linoleic acid was lower in muscle of Arg-supplemented pigs, compared with control pigs. Dietary Arg supplementation increased mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase in muscle, while decreasing those for lipoprotein lipase, glucose transporter-4, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α in adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA levels for hormone sensitive lipase were higher in adipose tissue of Arg-supplemented pigs compared with control pigs. These results indicate that Arg differentially regulates expression of fat-metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, therefore favoring lipogenesis in muscle but lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our novel findings provide a biochemical basis for explaining the beneficial effect of Arg in improving the metabolic profile in mammals (including obese humans). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation:metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry